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Welded connections.

The calculation is intended for the geometrical design and strength control of statically loaded
welded connections of machine structures manufactured from carbon steels. The program
enables you to design over 50 of the most common types of welded connections stressed by
various combinations of load. The calculation deals with the following tasks:
1. Design of connections with butt welds.
2. Design of connections with fillet welds.

3. Design of connections with plug and slot welds.


4. Design of connections with spot (resistance) welds.
5. Strength control of designed connections.
6. The program includes a table with approx. 700 carbon steels suitable for welding
according to the material standards ANSI, EN, JIS, ISO, DIN, BS, NF, UNI, UNE, SIS, CSA,
NBN, NP, NS, ON and CSN.
7. The program also includes a dimensional table of steel sections S, ST, W, WT, C, L
according to ASTM/AISI/AISC and T, I, U, L sections according to DIN/EN/ISO.
The calculation is based on data, procedures and algorithms from specialized literature and
standards AWS, AISC, ANSI, EN, ISO, DIN and others.
List of standards: prEN 1993-1-8, EN 10024, EN 10034, EN 10055, EN 10056, EN 10279, DS 952,
DIN 15018, DIN 18800, DIN 1024, DIN 1025, DIN 1026, DIN 1028, DIN 1029, CSN 050120
Note: This calculation is not intended for the design and control of some special welded
structures subject to special standards, regulations and provisions (e.g. pressure vessels,
pipelines, cranes, ...).

Control, structure and syntax of calculations.


Information on the syntax and control of the calculation can be found in the document "Control,
structure and syntax of calculations".

Information on the project.


Information on the purpose, use and control of the paragraph "Information on the project" can be
found in the document "Information on the project".

Theory - Fundamentals.
The welded connections are solid, non-detachable connections based on the principle of local
melting of connected parts using heat or pressure. The joining of components proper may be
achieved technically using two methods:
Fusion welding (arc, flame, plasma, laser, thermite, electroslag, ... welding)
The weld is a result of local melting of the material of connected parts, and usually also filler
metal, without pressure.

Pressure welding (resistance, induction, ultrasonic, friction, explosion, ... welding)


After melting in, the components join in the contact spot using mechanical pressure or
impacts.

An optimum result of the welding process should be a weld with mechanical properties similar as
far as possible to the properties of the basic material. According to their function, we can divide
welds into:
Force welds - load-bearing welds used to transfer external load
Tack welds - welds providing only compactness of the whole (with no or negligible
external load)

Caulk welds - welds providing staunchness of connected parts (vessels, pipelines, etc.)

This program is designed for the calculation of statically loaded welded connections of machinery
structures manufactured from carbon steels, for working temperatures ranging from -20 to
150C. The program enables you to perform geometrical design and strength checks of force
connections with the most common types of fusion welds and connections with spot resistance
welds. The calculation does not consider the sudden formation of fragile fractures, change in
material properties due to temperature, impact of own tensions or concentration of stress in the
weld.
An accurate theoretical solution to force and strength conditions is an extremely complicated
problem for welded connections, even for welds with simple shapes. That is why common
technical calculations are based on a range of conventions and simplified premises. In view of the
strength checks, welded parts are usually considered a single compact part with a dangerous
spot (section) in the welded area. On the grounds that there is an even distribution of stress in
the active weld section, only theoretical rated stress in the specified section is specified for the
respective load, regardless of the technological workmanship of the weld or potential internal
tension. For connections with multiple welds, an even load on individual welds is assumed.
The strength checks of the connection are performed by simple comparison of the calculated
rated stress with the permissible stress in the weld. Permissible weld stress "SwA" is usually
specified from the value of the yield strength of the basic material "Re" based on the required
safety.

When selecting the safety coefficient "FS", it is necessary to consider the specific factors of
welded connections in addition to the general principles used to specify the safety coefficients.
The required safety degree should respect all the facts that were not considered in the calculation
of rated stresses (technological workmanship of weld, weld quality, internal tension, weld
homogeneity, shape and finish of weld surface, weld reinforcement, ignites and penetrations,
etc.). Last but not least, the direction of stress and the anisotropic properties of material in the
weld must also be considered. Different weld material properties in the vertical and horizontal
direction result in differing values of the safety coefficient depending on the type, workmanship
and load type of the welded connection.
From the above mentioned, it is obvious that the most complicated task in strength checks of the
welded connection applies to the proper choice of safety coefficient. General procedures for
setting safety coefficients can be found in the document "Coefficients of safety", while specific
recommendations regarding welded connections are given at the end of the chapter. The
procedures to specify the rated stress for individual types of welds are detailed in the following
paragraphs.
Butt welds.
Butt welds originate in the joint gap of connected parts and are usually used as load-bearing,
force welds. In order to achieve perfect workmanship of the welds, it is usually necessary to
perform modification of the contact surfaces of the connected parts. The method of welded
surface treatment is set by the workmanship of the connection, the thickness of the welded
parts, the welding method and the accessibility of the welded spot.
When designing and performing the strength checks of welded connections, the weldment with a
butt weld is considered as a solid component with a dangerous spot in the area of the weld. The
load-bearing weld section will be the basic characteristic of the connection for the assessment of
its load-bearing capacity.

In the calculation of butt welds, the type of welds (method of weld surface treatment) or potential
weld root reweldment are not considered. The load-bearing section of the butt weld is then
specified only by its thickness "a" and length "L".
Note: This program is designed for the calculation of connections with uniform, fully penetrated
butt welds. The recommended procedures for handling special cases of connections (partly
welded welds, intermittent welds, combined welds) can be found at the end of this chapter.
Weld throat thickness:
In order to specify the load-bearing section, the thickness of the thinner of the welded parts is
considered as the butt weld throat thickness "a". Reinforcement of the weld surface and root is
not considered.

Effective weld length:


In a normal type of weld, so-called "end down-slopes" are formed. They result in weakening of the
section at the weld's beginning and end. The effective weld length will then be smaller than the
actual length (reduced by a worse-quality weld beginning and end). For more accurate
calculations, we therefore recommend controlling the load-bearing capacity of welds only for that
part (length) of the weld that has a rated section. The common method of setting the effective
length "L" for common weld execution (fig. a) and specially treated welds (fig. b) is described
schematically in the picture.

Hint: This program is provided with the function of automatic effective weld length calculation -
see the switch on line [2.6].
Strength solution of welds:
When performing strength checks of butt welds, the rated stress in the load-bearing weld section
must be specified first. Depending on the respective load, the individual stress components are
specified in the direction normal to the weld and in the direction parallel to the weld (ll). The
calculated rated stresses must not exceed the values for the permissible stress.

When specifying permissible stresses, the anisotropic properties of the material in the area of the
weld must be considered. Different properties of the material result in differing values of
permissible stress of the weld in the normal and parallel direction.
For connections stressed by combined load, the resulting "equivalent" stress in the weld is
specified from the relation:

which for ll= 0 can be adjusted as:

The following table specifies the relations used in the calculation of rated stresses (for respective
load and workmanship of the connection):
Load Rated stress [MPa, psi]
Tensile/
Press.

Shear

Bend

Bend

Twist

Tensile

Tensile/
Press.

Shear

Bend

Tensile/
Press.
Shear

Bend

Twist

where:
a .... weld throat thickness [mm, in]
Aw ... weld throat area [mm2, in2]
D .... tube diameter [mm, in]
.... weld angle []
F .... acting force [N, lb]
Fn ... normal force [N, lb]
Fs ... shear force [N, lb]
L .... effective weld length [mm, in]
M .... bending moment [N mm, lb in]
... normal stress vertical to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
ll ... normal stress parallel to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
T .... torque [N mm, lb in]
... shear stress vertical to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
ll ... shear stress parallel to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
Zw ... module of weld section [mm3, in3]
Connections with partly welded welds:
Connections with partly welded butt welds are usually handled as fillet welds, with the weld
throat (effective) thickness "a".

The other, less appropriate solution method applies to the use of the normal calculation of butt
welds with the weld throat thickness "2a" and adequately increased safety degree.
Connections with combined welds:
Connections with a combined butt and fillet weld are usually handled as butt welds with the weld
throat (efficient) thickness "a".
Weld throat thickness:

where for:

Connections with intermittent welds:


This program is not primarily modified to handle connections with intermittent weld. Therefore
use the following steps for their calculation:

1) Uncheck the switch on line [2.6]


2) For welds loaded only in one direction (subject to tension or shear), check the connection for
the effective weld length L=L''.
3) For connections stressed by bend, twist or combined load, check the connection for full weld
length L=L', while the required weld safety must be multiplied by the ratio of lengths L'/L''.
Recommendation: We do not recommend the use of intermittent welds for connections with
butt welds.
Fillet welds.
Fillet welds are located along the wedge-shaped edge of connected parts and their basic cross-
section includes an isosceles rectangular triangle. They are usually used for load-bearing, force
welds in T-shape connections, cross-butt connections, angle connections and for lap joints. The
welded parts do not need shape adjustment. For statically loaded connections, usually a flat weld
is used, while a concave weld is more appropriate for dynamically loaded connections, as it has
lower notch effects.
In strength checks of fillet welds, the rectangle lying in the centre plane dividing the weld section
into two identical parts is considered the dangerous (load-bearing) weld section. The dimensions
of the load-bearing section of a fillet weld are specified by its thickness "a" and length "L".

Note: This program is designed for the calculation of welds with uniform fillet welds. The
recommended methods of handling connections with intermittent welds or with combined welds
can be found at the end of this chapter.
Weld throat thickness:
The fillet weld throat thickness "a" is defined as the height of the biggest isosceles triangle
inscribed into a weld section without penetration.

Recommendation: The fillet weld thickness is chosen depending on the used material and
thickness of the welded parts. As the information regarding the recommended weld thickness
given in the literature differs significantly, follow the company procedures in choosing the weld
thickness. In order to specify the approximate minimum thickness of the fillet weld, the following
informative relation can be used for the steel strength Rm370..420 MPa:

with tmin for thickness of the thinner of the connected materials. For steels with higher strength
(Rm520 MPa), the weld thickness should be approx. 1 to 2 mm higher.
Effective weld length:
In a normal type of weld, so-called "end down-slopes" are formed. They result in weakening of the
section at the weld's beginning and end. The effective weld length will then be smaller than the
actual length (reduced by a worse-quality weld beginning and end). For more accurate
calculations, we therefore recommend controlling the load-bearing capacity of welds only for that
part (length) of the weld that has a rated section. A common method of specifying the effective
length "L" depending on the weld workmanship is shown schematically in the picture.
Hint: This program is provided with a function of automatic effective weld length calculation -
see the switch on line [3.12] or [4.12].
Recommendation: The length of the fillet weld should range between 5a< L< 70a. For longer
welds, it is more practical to use an intermittent weld. For very long welds (150a<L<400a)
stressed in the weld direction, it is necessary, for the sake of calculation, to perform correction of
the effective weld length using the coefficient:

Strength solution of welds:


The rated stress specification in the load-bearing section of the fillet weld is an extraordinarily
complicated task due to the combined load and more jagged weld. Therefore, a simplified
method is used in the calculation for handling fillet welds that reclines the load-bearing weld
section into the plane of connection of the parts. Depending on the respective load, the individual
stress components are specified in such reclined section, in the direction normal to the weld
and in the direction parallel to the weld (ll). This convention also includes an assumption
that all components specified like that will actually have a character of the shear stress. The
calculated rated stresses must not exceed the values of permissible material stress in shear.

When specifying permissible stresses, the anisotropic properties of the material in the area of the
weld must be considered. Different properties of the material result in differing values of
permissible stress of the weld in the normal and parallel direction.
A common method of handling welds with fillet welds is further presented in a typical example of
connecting a beam using a double-sided fillet weld.
Depending on the acting load, we can use the following relations to specify the individual
components of stress at point "A" of the weld:
- load with normal force Fz:

- load with bending moment M:

- load with shear force Fx:

- load with shear force Fy:

- load with torque T:

where:
Aw ... weld throat area [mm2, in2]
Iw ... moment of inertia of the weld [mm4, in4]
Jw ... polar moment of inertia of the weld [mm4, in4]
... normal stress vertical to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
ll ... normal stress parallel to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
... shear stress vertical to the weld direction [MPa, psi]
ll ... shear stress parallel to the weld direction [MPa, psi]

For connections stressed by combined load, the resulting "equivalent" stress in the weld is
specified from the relation:

which for ll= 0 can be adjusted as:

The sectional properties for the selected basic shapes of weld groups can be found in the
following table. In order to specify the polar moment of inertia of the weld, you can use the
following relation:

S
ha Aw [mm2, in2] IwX [mm4, in4] IwY [mm4, in4]
pe
Centre of gravity of weld group:

where:
a .... weld throat thickness [mm, in]
B .... width of weld group [mm, in]
D .... weld diameter [mm, in]
H .... height of weld group [mm, in]
L .... weld length [mm, in]
s .... flange thickness [mm, in]
t .... web thickness [mm, in]
Connections with combined welds:
Connections with a combined butt and fillet weld are usually handled as butt welds with the weld
throat (efficient) thickness "a".
Weld throat thickness:

where for:

Connections with intermittent welds:


This program is not primarily modified to handle connections with intermittent weld. Therefore
use the following steps for their calculation:

1) Uncheck the switch on line [3.12, 4.12]


2) For welds loaded only in one direction (subject to tension or shear), check the connection for
the effective weld length L=L''.
3) For connections stressed by bend, twist or combined load, check the connection for full weld
length L=L', while the required weld safety must be multiplied by the ratio of lengths L'/L''.
Plug and slot welds.
Plug and slot welds are usually used for lap joints. They are not suitable for the transfer of high
forces and are especially not suitable for dynamically loaded connections. The connection is
formed by the weld on walls of circular or oval openings and in the contact surface of the
adjoining part. Plugs and slots of small dimensions are usually fully filled with the weld.

These welds are not suitable for the joining of thicker plates and are usually used for thinner
plates up to approx. 15 mm thick. In view of the stress, slot welds are more preferable due to the
better quality of penetration of the weld root. A better quality of the weld, i.e. better strength
characteristic of the joint, can be achieved by sloped walls of openings.
Recommended weld dimensions:
Hole diameter ... d 2s
Slot width ... d 2s
Slot length ... L 2d
Strength solution of welds:
Two types of damage appear in plug and slot welds:
1) shear in the weld base surface
2) tear in the weld circumferential surface
During strength checks, both possible types of damage must be assessed. We can specify the
resulting rated stress from the relation:

Shear stress in the base surface of the weld:

Shear stress in the circumferential surface of the weld:

The sizes of calculated weld surfaces Aw are specified for both weld types in the table:

Plug welds Slot welds

Base area
of weld
[mm2, in2]

Circumfer
ential
area
[mm2, in2]
where:
F .... acting force [N, lb]
d .... plug weld diameter, or slot weld width [mm, in]
i ..... number of welds
L .... slot weld length [mm, in]
s .... plate thickness [mm, in]
Spot (resistance) welds.
Spot resistance welds are usually used to connect thin plates and thin-walled parts. They are
especially very useful in lot production. The connections with spot welds are not very appropriate
for transferring high forces. In view of the type of stress, we distinguish two basic types of
connections with spot welds:
- connections with welds stressed in shear (lap joints)
- connections with welds stressed in tear (by tension)

In technical practice, not more than 3 parts with maximum total thickness up to approx. 15 mm
are allowed to be joined for connections with resistance welds. The thickness ratio for individual
parts should not exceed 1:3. The welds should be positioned towards the external force so that
they are always only stressed in shear. Spot welds stressed in tension have significantly lower
load-bearing capacity, which is why their use is not recommended. Lap welds can be made as
single-shear or double-shear. A minimum of 2 and maximum of 5 spot connections should be
located in the direction of acting force.

Recommended weld dimensions:


Spot weld diameter ... d 5 s0.5
Pitch between adjacent welds ... t1 (2..3) d
Weld distance from edge of plate ... t2 2d
Strength solution of welds:
During strength checks, the following checks are carried out for spot welds:
1) Check of weld against tear in cylindrical area
2) Check of weld against shear (for lap joints)
3) Check of weld against separation (for welds stressed in tension)
The calculation is based on the assumption of evenly distributed force F on all welds. We can
specify the resulting rated stress from the relation:
Shear stress in the cylindrical area of the weld:

Shear stress in the weld throat area:

Normal stress in the weld throat area:

where:
Awa ... area of the spot weld section [mm2, in2]
Awc ... cylindrical area of the weld [mm2, in2]
F .... acting force [N, lb]
d .... spot weld diameter [mm, in]
i ..... number of welds
s .... plate thickness [mm, in]
Safety of welded connections, used calculation methods.
An accurate theoretical solution to force and strength conditions is an extremely complicated
problem for welded connections, even for welds with simple shapes. That is why common
technical calculations are based on a range of conventions and simplified premises. That logically
results in certain disagreement between the solution models commonly used in practice. That is
why the program is provided with an option to select from three different calculation methods.
Although all three specified methods use almost a similar way of theoretical handling of tension
in the examined spot of the weld, they differ in the method of evaluating the total load-bearing
capacity of the designed connection. That is why each calculation method operates with its own
safety rate differing in quality. The choice of an appropriate method will then depend on the
user's specific requirements and experience.
The following paragraphs provide a detailed description of individual calculation methods.
1. Basic calculation method.
This method represents a general method of handling welded connections and is based on the
most frequent calculation methods for welded connections of machinery equipment mentioned in
the literature.
Depending on the respective type, workmanship and load of the welded connection, this method
calculates the respective theoretical rated stress in the load-bearing weld section (normal, shear,
or equivalent) in the first step. The strength checks of the weld are then performed by simple
comparison of the calculated stress to the yield strength of the basic material. With respect to the
type of calculated stress, we can describe the conditions of the load-bearing capacity of the weld
using the following relations:

The required safety of the weld stress is then the ratio between the value of the yield strength of
the basic material and the value of the maximum admissible stress of the specific weld.
This method is disadvantageous due to the rather complicated procedure in specifying the
suitable safety rate minimum value. In addition to the common (qualitative) criteria, specific
factors of the specific welded connection (type, workmanship and the way of connection load)
must be considered when choosing the required safety. The required safety for the yield strength
"FSy" is then defined as the product of two safety coefficients FSy = FS1 * FS2.
Safety coefficient FS1:
Depends on the direction of the acting stress and the anisotropic properties of the material in the
examined weld spot. Its value should also consider the technological weld parameters. With
respect to the type, workmanship and the way of connection load, it is chosen from the range 1
to 2.
Safety coefficient FS2:
It considers qualitative parameters. With respect to the accuracy and value of input information,
connection importance, production quality, operating conditions and calculation accuracy, it is
usually chosen from 1.1 to 2.
Hint 1: You can find the informative values for the choice of safety coefficients FS1 and FS2 in
chapter [1.3] of the Help.
Hint 2: This method is suitable for experienced users who are able to perform a sound design of
the required safety degree depending on the specific type, workmanship and load of the welded
joint.

2. Method of conversion coefficients.


This method expands the basic calculation method and brings certain simplification to the area of
considering the designed joint load-bearing capacity. As in the previous method, the respective
theoretical rated stresses in the load-bearing weld section are calculated first. In the next step,
the resulting comparative stress is defined based on these rated stresses using the predefined
empirically set conversion coefficients. These coefficients consider the anisotropic properties of
weld material in the direction of the acting stresses and their size will therefore depend on the
type, workmanship and the way of load of the welded joint.
Depending on the acting stress, the resulting comparative stress will be specified for the
respective conversion coefficients " " from the following relations:
- in linear state of stress

- in multi-axial stress of butt welds

- in multi-axial stress of fillet welds

The strength checks of the weld are then performed by comparison of the calculated comparative
stress to the yield strength of the basic material. Regardless of the type, workmanship or the way
of load of the welded joint, we can describe the condition of load-bearing capacity using a single
relation:
The required safety against the yields point "FSy" will consider only the qualitative parameters of
the welded connection for this method. With respect to the accuracy and value of input
information, connection importance, production quality, operating conditions and calculation
accuracy, it is usually chosen from 1.1 to 2.
Hint 1: You can find the informative values for the choice of safety coefficient FSy in chapter
[1.5] of the Help. The values of the predefined conversion coefficient may be adjusted in
paragraph [3.1] on the sheet "Options".
Hint 2: This method is especially suitable for less experienced users. Its use may be
advantageous in case of a comparative calculation when several designed solutions with a
different type of weld need to be compared.

3. Method of permissible stresses.


The most complicated task in the strength checks of welded connections usually applies to
defining the correct value of the permissible weld stress. The logical result is therefore the fact
that it is this area of specifying the permissible stresses where the most noticeable differences
between various recommended procedures used in technical practice appear.
The previous calculation methods control the load-bearing capacity of the joint by simple
comparison of calculated stresses to the yield strength of the basic material. They do not provide
for direct handling of the requirement of strength checks for the known values of permissible
weld stress prescribed by the standards or company procedures. This method therefore obliges
users who want to use this program to design the joint and at the same time comply with the
prescribed procedures for the strength checks.
Unlike the previous method, this method uses the comparison of calculated stresses to the value
of permissible stress "SwA" defined directly by the user for strength checks. The condition of load
bearing capacity of the welded connection may then be described using the relation:

As the required safety level is usually already included in the value of the prescribed permissible
stress, the applied safety degree "FS" is used as an auxiliary quantity and only describes a
certain degree of "over-dimensioning" of the designed connection. The safety value "FS" will then
depend on the procedure applied by the user in order to define the permissible stress, and it is
usually FS1.
Hint 1: Some values of permissible stresses that are specified in professional literature are
derived for a different methodology of comparative stresses calculation. That is why this method
enables variable behaviour of the calculation. Set the basic parameters for the calculation of
comparative stresses in paragraph [3.10] on the sheet "Options".
Hint 2: Use this method if you need to check the load-bearing capacity of the welded connection
for known (rated) permissible connection stress.

Process of calculation.
A typical calculation / connection design includes the following steps:
1. Set the required calculation units (SI / Imperial). [1.1]

2. Choose the proper calculation method and set the required safety level [1.2].

3. Choose the material for the connected parts [1.9].


4. Select the chapter with the respective type of welded connection.

5. On the first line of the chapter [X.1] select the required workmanship (shape) of the
connection.

6. In paragraph [X.2] set the dimensions of the connected parts.

7. Check the respective check boxes in the paragraph "Loading of the connection" to
select the appropriate load combination. Specify the size of the selected loads.

8. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection in the paragraph "Strength
checks of the connection".

9. Save the workbook with the satisfactory solution with a new name.

Basic parameters of the calculation, connection material. [1]


Use this paragraph to set the control parameters for the calculation (calculation method and
calculation units) and choose the appropriate material for the connected parts.
1.1 Calculation units.
In the selection list, choose the desired calculation unit system. All values will be recalculated
immediately after switching to other units.
1.2 Used calculation method.
An accurate theoretical solution to force and strength conditions is an extremely complicated
problem for welded connections, even for welds with simple shapes. That is why common
technical calculations are based on a range of conventions and simplified premises. That logically
results in certain disagreement between the solution models commonly used in practice. That is
why the program is provided with an option to select from three different calculation methods.
Although all three specified methods use almost a similar way of theoretical handling of tension
in the examined spot of the weld, they differ in the method of evaluating the total load-bearing
capacity of the designed connection. That is why each calculation method operates with its own
safety rate differing in quality. The choice of an appropriate method will then depend on the
user's specific requirements and experience.
Select the appropriate calculation method using the appropriate switch. Define the required
connection safety for the selected method.
Hint 1: You can find a description of individual calculation methods and recommended safety
values in the respective notes or in the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: General procedures of determination of safety coefficients can be found in the document
"Coefficients of safety".
1.3 Basic calculation method.
This method represents a general method of handling welded connections and is based on the
most frequent calculation methods for welded connections of machinery equipment mentioned in
the literature.
Depending on the respective type, workmanship and load of the welded connection, this method
calculates the respective theoretical rated stress in the load-bearing weld section (normal, shear,
or equivalent) in the first step. The strength checks of the weld are then performed by simple
comparison of the calculated stress to the yield strength of the basic material. The required
safety of the weld stress is then the ratio between the value of the yield strength of the basic
material and the value of the maximum admissible stress of the specific weld.
This method is disadvantageous due to the rather complicated procedure in specifying the
suitable safety rate minimum value. In addition to the common (qualitative) criteria, specific
factors of the specific welded connection (type, workmanship and the way of connection load)
must be considered when choosing the required safety. The required safety for the yield strength
"FSy" is then defined as the product of two safety coefficients FSy = FS1 * FS2.
Safety coefficient FS1:
Depends on the direction of the acting stress and the anisotropic properties of the material in the
examined weld spot. Its value should also consider the technological weld parameters.
Information values for the choice of safety coefficient FS1:
Butt welds
- subject to compression 1
- subject to tension / bending 1 ... 1.2
1.4 ...
- subject to shear
1.5
* higher values - one-sided welded welds, unworked welds,
manual arc or flame welding
* lower values - double-sided welded welds, worked welds and
welds with rewelded root, automatic welding in CO2 or under
welding flux, electroslag welding

Fillet welds
1.2 ...
- end welds
1.5
1.3 ...
- side welds
1.6
* higher values - flat welds, unfinished welds, welds without
penetration, thicker welds, manual welding
* lower values - concave welds, penetrated welds, lower-
thickness welds, automatic welding in CO2 or under welding flux

Plug and slot welds


- subject to shear 1.5 ... 2
* higher values - welds with vertical walls, manual arc welding
* lower values - welds with sloped walls, welding in CO2 or
under welding flux

Spot resistance welds


- subject to shear 1.5
- subject to tear 2

Safety coefficient FS2:


It considers qualitative parameters. With respect to the accuracy and value of input information,
connection importance, production quality, operating conditions and calculation accuracy, it is
usually chosen from 1.1 to 2.
Information values for the choice of safety coefficient FS2:
- very accurate input information
- perfect knowledge of material characteristics
- high quality and exact observance of production
technology
- high-quality welds without internal tensions
1.1 ... 1.3 - welding is performed only by very experienced,
certified welders
- weld quality guaranteed by a detailed output
control (radioscopy, magnetic tests, ultrasonic, ..)
- insignificant connections without serious impacts in
case of damage
1.3 ... 1.6 - less accurate calculation without experimental
verification
- lower accuracy in production technology
- standard-quality welds
- welding performed by qualified welders
- welds with a standard output control
- less important connections
- reduced accuracy of calculations
- approximate specification of material
characteristics
- inaccurate knowledge of actual action of external
load
1.6 ... 2.0
- welds with increased risk of existence of internal
tensions
- welds with unguaranteed quality
- very important connections with danger to life or
high material losses in case of damage
Note: For connections operating in a corrosive environment or at high temperatures, higher
values for safety coefficient FS2 are also used.
Hint 1: A detailed description of the calculation for rated stresses for various types of welded
connections can be found in the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: This method is suitable for experienced users who are able to perform a sound design of
the required safety degree depending on the specific type, workmanship and load of the welded
joint.
1.5 Method of conversion coefficients.
This method expands the basic calculation method and brings certain simplification to the area of
considering the designed joint load-bearing capacity. As in the previous method, the respective
theoretical rated stresses in the load-bearing weld section are calculated first. In the next step,
the resulting comparative stress is defined based on these rated stresses using the predefined
empirically set conversion coefficients. These coefficients consider the anisotropic properties of
weld material in the direction of the acting stresses and their size will therefore depend on the
type, workmanship and the way of load of the welded joint.
The strength checks of the weld are then performed by comparison of the calculated comparative
stress to the yield strength of the basic material. The required safety against the yields point
"FSy" will consider only the qualitative parameters of the welded connection for this method.
With respect to the accuracy and value of input information, connection importance, production
quality, operating conditions and calculation accuracy, it is usually chosen from 1.1 to 2.
nformation values for the choice of safety coefficient FSy:
- very accurate input information
- perfect knowledge of material characteristics
- high quality and exact observance of production
technology
- high-quality welds without internal tensions
1.1 ... 1.3 - welding is performed only by very experienced,
certified welders
- weld quality guaranteed by a detailed output
control (radioscopy, magnetic tests, ultrasonic, ..)
- insignificant connections without serious impacts in
case of damage
1.3 ... 1.6 - less accurate calculation without experimental
verification
- lower accuracy in production technology
- standard-quality welds
- welding performed by qualified welders
- welds with a standard output control
- less important connections
- reduced accuracy of calculations
- approximate specification of material
characteristics
- inaccurate knowledge of actual action of external
load
1.6 ... 2.0
- welds with increased risk of existence of internal
tensions
- welds with unguaranteed quality
- very important connections with danger to life or
high material losses in case of damage
Note: For connections operating in a corrosive environment or at high temperatures, higher
values for safety coefficient FSy are also used.
Hint 1: The values of the predefined conversion coefficient may be adjusted in paragraph [3.1]
on the sheet "Options".
Hint 2: This method is especially suitable for less experienced users. Its use may be
advantageous in case of a comparative calculation when several designed solutions with a
different type of weld need to be compared.
1.7 Method of permissible stresses.
The most complicated task in the strength checks of welded connections usually applies to
defining the correct value of the permissible weld stress. The logical result is therefore the fact
that it is this area of specifying the permissible stresses where the most noticeable differences
between various recommended procedures used in technical practice appear.
The previous calculation methods control the load-bearing capacity of the joint by simple
comparison of calculated stresses to the yield strength of the basic material. They do not provide
for direct handling of the requirement of strength checks for the known values of permissible
weld stress prescribed by the standards or company procedures. This method therefore obliges
users who want to use this program to design the joint and at the same time comply with the
prescribed procedures for the strength checks.
Unlike the previous method, this method uses the comparison of calculated stresses to the value
of permissible stress "SwA" defined directly by the user for strength checks. As the required safety
level is usually already included in the value of the prescribed permissible stress, the applied
safety degree "FS" is used as an auxiliary quantity and only describes a certain degree of "over-
dimensioning" of the designed connection. The safety value "FS" will then depend on the
procedure applied by the user in order to define the permissible stress, and it is usually FS1.
Hint 1: Some values of permissible stresses that are specified in professional literature are
derived for a different methodology of comparative stresses calculation. That is why this method
enables variable behaviour of the calculation. Set the basic parameters for the calculation of
comparative stresses in paragraph [3.10] on the sheet "Options".
Hint 2: Use this method if you need to check the load-bearing capacity of the welded connection
for known (rated) permissible connection stress.
1.9 Material of the connected parts.
This paragraph is used for the selection of suitable material for the connected parts.
The list on line [1.10] is used for selection of the required material standard. Choose the material
for the connected parts proper from the list [1.11]. The first five rows of the list is reserved for
materials defined by the user. Information and settings of proper materials can be found in the
document "Workbook (calculation) modifications". Other rows of the list include a selection of
materials for the actually specified standard [1.10].
Note: In case the checkbox to the right of the selection list is enabled, the necessary parameters
for the chosen material are determined automatically. Otherwise, fill in the material
characteristics manually.
1.10 Material standard.
Select the required national standard from the list to determine the joint material.
Recommendation: Most European countries are currently substituting or have already
substituted the local material standards (DIN, BS, UNI, UNE, ...) with corresponding equivalents of
standards EN. Therefore we recommend using only the appropriate European norms EN.

Butt welds. [2]


This paragraph is intended for the geometrical design and strength checks of connections with
butt welds.

Butt welds originate in the joint gap of connected parts and are usually used as load-bearing,
force welds. In order to achieve perfect workmanship of the welds, it is usually necessary to
perform modification of the contact surfaces of the connected parts. The method of welded
surface treatment is set by the workmanship of the connection, the thickness of the welded
parts, the welding method and the accessibility of the welded spot.
Warning: This program is designed for the calculation of connections with uniform, fully
penetrated butt welds. The recommended procedures for handling special cases of connections
(partly penetrated welds, intermittent welds, combined welds) can be found in the theoretical
part of the Help.
Designing procedure for the connection:
1. On line [2.1] choose the required connection type.

2. In paragraph [2.2] set all required connection dimensions.

3. On line [2.6] select whether the connection is to be controlled only for the effective weld
length.

4. Check the appropriate check boxes in paragraph [2.7] to set the respective load
combination. Specify the values of selected loads.

5. If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used, set the permissible stress
value on line [2.15].

6. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection on line [2.17].

7. If you want to optimize the connection dimensions or the designed connection does not
comply with the strength checks, use the "min" buttons in paragraph [2.2] to find the
suitable connection dimensions.

8. If you want to establish the maximum admissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button in paragraph [2.7].

Hint: Detailed information on the butt weld calculation can be found in the theoretical part of the
Help.
2.1 Connection type.
Check the switch with the respective image to select the required connection type.
2.2 Dimensions of the connection.
Use this paragraph to set all required connection dimensions.
Hint: After any of the "min" buttons located to the right of the input fields are pressed, the
program will find the minimum suitable value of the respective dimension for the respective load,
selected material and required connection safety.
2.6 Effective weld length.
In a normal type of weld, so-called "end down-slopes" are formed. They result in weakening of the
section at the weld's beginning and end. The effective weld length will then be smaller than the
actual length (reduced by a worse-quality weld beginning and end). For more accurate
calculations, we therefore recommend controlling the load-bearing capacity of welds only for that
part (length) of the weld that has a rated section.
Check this switch in order to consider only the effective weld length during the strength checks of
the connection. The program will set the effective length automatically from the specified
dimensions. If the check box is unchecked, the load-bearing capacity of the weld will be
calculated directly for the dimensions of the connection set in paragraph [2.2].
Recommendation: The calculations using the effective length for the weld control err to the
side of safety. Therefore, the switch should preferably be on constantly. Exceptions include cases
when the weld is provided with special treatment (see the figure) or if it is impossible to use the
automatic calculation for the effective length setting (e.g. for intermittent welds).

Note: This parameter is insignificant for connections with circumferential welds.


2.7 Loading of the connection.
Check the appropriate check boxes to the left of this paragraph to set the respective weld load
combination. Specify the size for the selected loads.
Note: For some types of connection [2.1], the program enables the calculation using only one
type of loading.
Hint: If you want to establish the maximum permissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button located to the right of the respective input field.
2.13 Strength checks of the connection.
If "Basic calculation method" or "Method of conversion coefficients" (see [1.3] or [1.5]) is
used, the strength checks of the connection are performed by comparison of the calculated
theoretical stress in the weld [2.16] to the yield strength of the selected material of the
connection [2.14]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety against yield point [2.17]
must be higher than the safety required ([1.4] or [1.6]).
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see [1.7]) is used for calculation, the strength checks of
the connection will be performed by comparison of the calculated theoretical stress [2.16] to the
permissible stress [2.15]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety rate [2.17] must be
higher than the safety required [1.8].
Hint 1: You can find the minimum safety values in the respective notes for paragraph [1.2] or in
the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: If the designed connection does not conform to the strength checks, you can use the
respective "min" button in paragraph [2.2] to find the suitable connection dimension.
2.15 Permissible stress.
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used for the calculation, set the value for
the permissible stress of the connection material on this line. This value is then used for defining
the safety rate [2.17] of the designed connection.
Note: For the remaining two calculation methods (see [1.3], [1.5]), this line is only informative
and the value of the permissible stress is set automatically based on the required safety and the
yield strength of the selected material.

Fillet welds loaded in the connection plane (Lap joints). [3]


Fillet welds are located along the wedge-shaped edge of connected parts and their basic cross-
section includes an isosceles rectangular triangle. They are usually used for load-bearing, force
welds in T-shape connections, cross-butt connections, angle connections and for lap joints. The
welded parts do not need shape adjustment. For statically loaded connections, usually a flat weld
is used, while a concave weld is more appropriate for dynamically loaded connections, as it has
lower notch effects.
This part of the calculation is used for the geometrical design and strength checks of fillet weld
connections loaded in the connection plane. Typical examples of such connections include lap
joints and double-sided connections of short rigid beams.

Warning: This program is designed for the calculation of welds with uniform fillet welds. The
recommended methods of handling connections with intermittent welds or with combined welds
can be found in the theoretical part of the Help.
Designing procedure for the connection:
1. 1. On line [3.1] choose the required connection type (form of weld group).

2. In paragraph [3.2] set all required connection dimensions.

3. In paragraph [3.11] set the respective parameters for the connection and calculation.

4. Check the appropriate check boxes in paragraph [3.15] to set the respective load
combination. Specify the values of selected loads.

5. If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used, set the permissible stress
value on line [3.26].

6. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection on line [3.31].

7. If you want to optimize the connection dimensions or the designed connection does not
comply with the strength checks, use the "min" buttons in paragraph [3.2] to find the
suitable connection dimensions.
8. If you want to establish the maximum admissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button in paragraph [3.15].

Hint: Detailed information on the fillet weld calculation can be found in the theoretical part of the
Help.
3.1 Form of weld group.
Use a switch with the respective picture to choose the required type of connection (form of weld
group).
Note: The switches marked with a blue weld in the picture (connections no. 17, 18 and 36) are
used for the calculation of connections without closer details regarding the form of weld group.
For a connection with a form of weld group that is not axial symmetric (connection no. 18) we
recommend performing the check of stress in the respective weld area (the most distant from the
centre of gravity) gradually in all four quadrants.
3.2 Dimensions of the connection.
Use this paragraph to set all required connection dimensions.
Hint 1: You can find the recommended procedures to choose the appropriate weld dimensions in
the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: After any of the "min" buttons located to the right of the input fields are pressed, the
program will find the minimum suitable value of the respective dimension for the respective load,
selected material and required connection safety.
3.3 Weld throat thickness.
The fillet weld throat thickness is defined as the height of the biggest isosceles triangle inscribed
into a weld section without penetration.

Hint: The minimum fillet weld thickness is usually chosen depending on the used material and
the thickness of the welded parts. You can find the recommended procedures to choose the
appropriate weld thickness in the theoretical part of the Help.
3.8 Standard profiles.
This paragraph is used to enable the setting (automatic completion) of the respective dimensions
of the connection [3.2] for connections with welded on beams with standardized profiles.
When choosing the profile, proceed as follows:
1. Choose the required profile type (standard) from the drop-down menu [3.9].

2. Choose the respective profile dimension from list [3.10].

3. Press the "<" button in the left part of the list to transfer the dimensions of the selected
profile to the input fields of paragraph [3.2].

Note: This paragraph is only functional for the selected forms of weld groups matching the
standardized profiles.
3.12 Effective weld length.
In a normal type of weld, so-called "end down-slopes" are formed. They result in weakening of the
section at the weld's beginning and end. The effective weld length will then be smaller than the
actual length (reduced by a worse-quality weld beginning and end). For more accurate
calculations, we therefore recommend controlling the load-bearing capacity of welds only for that
part (length) of the weld that has a rated section.
Check this switch in order to consider only the effective weld length during the strength checks of
the connection. The program will set the effective length automatically from the specified
dimensions. If the check box is unchecked, the load-bearing capacity of the weld will be
calculated directly for the dimensions of the connection set in paragraph [3.2].
Recommendation: The calculations using the effective length for the weld control err to the
side of safety. Therefore, the switch should preferably be on constantly. Exceptions include cases
when the weld is provided with special treatment (see the figure) or if it is impossible to use the
automatic calculation for the effective length setting (e.g. for intermittent welds).

Note: This parameter is insignificant for connections with circumferential welds.


3.13 Internal weld.
Only check this check box if the connection is formed by the fillet weld made on the inside
circumference of one of the parts connected.
Note: This parameter is only significant for some selected connections with circumferential
welds.
3.14 Joint design.
Choose the required joint design from the drop-down menu.
Single-shear connection:

Double-shear connection:

3.15 Loading of the connection.


Check the appropriate check boxes to the left of this paragraph to set the respective weld load
combination. Specify the size for the selected loads.
Note: For some forms of weld groups [3.1], the program enables the calculation using only one
type of loading.
Hint: If you want to establish the maximum permissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button located to the right of the respective input field.
3.24 Strength checks of the connection.
If "Basic calculation method" or "Method of conversion coefficients" (see [1.3] or [1.5]) is
used, the strength checks of the connection are performed by comparison of the maximum
calculated theoretical stresses [3.27 - 3.30] to the yield strength of the selected material of the
connection [3.25]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety against yield point [3.31]
must be higher than the safety required ([1.4] or [1.6]).
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see [1.7]) is used for calculation, the strength checks of
the connection will be performed by comparison of the maximum calculated theoretical stresses
[3.27 - 3.30] to the permissible stress [3.26]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety
rate [3.31] must be higher than the safety required [1.8].
Hint 1: You can find the minimum safety values in the respective notes for paragraph [1.2] or in
the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: If the designed connection does not conform to the strength checks, you can use the
respective "min" button in paragraph [3.2] to find the suitable connection dimension.
3.26 Permissible stress.
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used for the calculation, set the value for
the permissible stress of the connection material on this line. This value is then used for defining
the safety rate [3.31] of the designed connection.
Note: For the remaining two calculation methods (see [1.3], [1.5]), this line is only informative
and the value of the permissible stress is set automatically based on the required safety and the
yield strength of the selected material.

Fillet welds loaded in the plane perpendicular to the connection


plane (T-joints). [4]
Fillet welds are located along the wedge-shaped edge of connected parts and their basic cross-
section includes an isosceles rectangular triangle. They are usually used for load-bearing, force
welds in T-shape connections, cross-butt connections, angle connections and for lap joints. The
welded parts do not need shape adjustment. For statically loaded connections, usually a flat weld
is used, while a concave weld is more appropriate for dynamically loaded connections, as it has
lower notch effects.
This part of the calculation is used for the geometrical design and strength checks of fillet weld
connections loaded in the plane perpendicular to the connection plane. A typical example of such
connections is the connection of beams to the base plate (T-connection).

Warning: This program is designed for the calculation of welds with uniform fillet welds. The
recommended methods of handling connections with intermittent welds or with combined welds
can be found in the theoretical part of the Help.
Designing procedure for the connection:
1. 1. On line [4.1] choose the required connection type (form of weld group).

2. In paragraph [4.2] set all required connection dimensions.

3. In paragraph [4.11] set the respective parameters for the connection and calculation.

4. Check the appropriate check boxes in paragraph [4.14] to set the respective load
combination. Specify the values of selected loads.

5. If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used, set the permissible stress
value on line [4.26].

6. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection on line [4.29].

7. If you want to optimize the connection dimensions or the designed connection does not
comply with the strength checks, use the "min" buttons in paragraph [4.2] to find the
suitable connection dimensions.

8. If you want to establish the maximum admissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button in paragraph [4.14].

Hint: Detailed information on the fillet weld calculation can be found in the theoretical part of the
Help.
4.1 Form of weld group.
Use a switch with the respective picture to choose the required type of connection (form of weld
group).
Note: The switches marked with a blue weld in the picture (connections no. 25 and 26) are used
for the calculation of connections without closer details regarding the form of weld group.
4.2 Dimensions of the connection.
Use this paragraph to set all required connection dimensions.
Hint 1: You can find the recommended procedures to choose the appropriate weld dimensions in
the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: After any of the "min" buttons located to the right of the input fields are pressed, the
program will find the minimum suitable value of the respective dimension for the respective load,
selected material and required connection safety.
4.3 Weld throat thickness.
The fillet weld throat thickness is defined as the height of the biggest isosceles triangle inscribed
into a weld section without penetration.

Hint: The minimum fillet weld thickness is usually chosen depending on the used material and
the thickness of the welded parts. You can find the recommended procedures to choose the
appropriate weld thickness in the theoretical part of the Help.
4.8 Standard profiles.
This paragraph is used to enable the setting (automatic completion) of the respective dimensions
of the connection [4.2] for connections with welded on beams with standardized profiles.
When choosing the profile, proceed as follows:
1. Choose the required profile type (standard) from the drop-down menu [4.9].
2. Choose the respective profile dimension from list [4.10].

3. Press the "<" button in the left part of the list to transfer the dimensions of the selected
profile to the input fields of paragraph [4.2].

Note: This paragraph is only functional for the selected forms of weld groups matching the
standardized profiles.
4.12 Effective weld length.
In a normal type of weld, so-called "end down-slopes" are formed. They result in weakening of the
section at the weld's beginning and end. The effective weld length will then be smaller than the
actual length (reduced by a worse-quality weld beginning and end). For more accurate
calculations, we therefore recommend controlling the load-bearing capacity of welds only for that
part (length) of the weld that has a rated section.
Check this switch in order to consider only the effective weld length during the strength checks of
the connection. The program will set the effective length automatically from the specified
dimensions. If the check box is unchecked, the load-bearing capacity of the weld will be
calculated directly for the dimensions of the connection set in paragraph [4.2].
Recommendation: The calculations using the effective length for the weld control err to the
side of safety. Therefore, the switch should preferably be on constantly. Exceptions include cases
when the weld is provided with special treatment (see the figure) or if it is impossible to use the
automatic calculation for the effective length setting (e.g. for intermittent welds).

Note: This parameter is insignificant for connections with circumferential welds.


4.13 Tensile /compression stress.
In welded-on beams loaded by bending moment, the normal stress with the shape described in
the picture is formed in the weld. The maximum stress then acts in the extreme points of the
weld group that are most distant from the neutral axis.

As is obvious from the picture, the stress in the upper weld acts in the direction of the tear of the
beam and has the character of tensile stress. The stress in the lower weld will then have the
character of compression stress. In the welds symmetrical along the neutral axis, the value of
both stresses will be the same; in the asymmetrical welds, the values of compression stress may
be higher. In view of the load-bearing capacity of the welded connection, however, the tensile
stress is usually more important for beams connected in that way.
In normal calculation, the program assesses the maximum calculated stress regardless of its
direction during the strength checks. By checking this switch, you will suppress the check of
compression (negative) stresses. During the strength checks, the program will assess only the
tensile (positive) stress.
Note: This parameter is insignificant for welds symmetrical along the neutral axis.
4.14 Loading of the connection.
Check the appropriate check boxes to the left of this paragraph to set the respective weld load
combination. Specify the size for the selected loads.
Hint: If you want to establish the maximum permissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button located to the right of the respective input field.
4.24 Strength checks of the connection.
If "Basic calculation method" or "Method of conversion coefficients" (see [1.3] or [1.5]) is
used, the strength checks of the connection are performed by comparison of the maximum
calculated theoretical stresses [4.27, 4.28] to the yield strength of the selected material of the
connection [4.25]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety against yield point [4.29]
must be higher than the safety required ([1.4] or [1.6]).
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see [1.7]) is used for calculation, the strength checks of
the connection will be performed by comparison of the maximum calculated theoretical stresses
[4.27, 4.28] to the permissible stress [4.26]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety
rate [4.29] must be higher than the safety required [1.8].
Hint 1: You can find the minimum safety values in the respective notes for paragraph [1.2] or in
the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: If the designed connection does not conform to the strength checks, you can use the
respective "min" button in paragraph [4.2] to find the suitable connection dimension.
4.26 Permissible stress.
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used for the calculation, set the value for
the permissible stress of the connection material on this line. This value is then used for defining
the safety rate [4.29] of the designed connection.
Note: For the remaining two calculation methods (see [1.3], [1.5]), this line is only informative
and the value of the permissible stress is set automatically based on the required safety and the
yield strength of the selected material.

Plug and slot welds. [5]


This paragraph is intended for the geometrical design and strength checks of connections with
plug and slot welds.

Plug and slot welds are usually used for lap joints. They are not suitable for the transfer of high
forces and are especially not suitable for dynamically loaded connections. The connection is
formed by the weld on walls of circular or oval openings and in the contact surface of the
adjoining part. Plugs and slots of small dimensions are usually fully filled with the weld.
These welds are not suitable for the joining of thicker plates and are usually used for thinner
plates up to approx. 15 mm thick. In view of the stress, slot welds are more preferable due to the
better quality of penetration of the weld root. A better quality of the weld, i.e. better strength
characteristic of the joint, can be achieved by sloped walls of openings.
Designing procedure for the connection:
1. On line [5.1] choose the required connection type.

2. In paragraph [5.2] set all required connection dimensions.

3. Set the appropriate value for the connection loading on line [5.8].

4. If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used, set the permissible stress
value on line [5.11].

5. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection on line [5.14].

6. If you want to optimize the connection dimensions or the designed connection does not
comply with the strength checks, use the "min" buttons in paragraph [5.2] to find the
suitable connection dimensions.

7. If you want to establish the maximum admissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button on line [5.8].

Hint: Detailed information on the plug weld calculation can be found in the theoretical part of the
Help.
5.1 Connection type.
Choose the required type of connection from the drop-down menu.
5.2 Dimensions of the connection.
Use this paragraph to set all required connection dimensions.
Hint 1: You can find the recommended procedures to choose the appropriate weld dimensions in
the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: After any of the "min" buttons located to the right of the input fields are pressed, the
program will find the minimum suitable value of the respective dimension for the respective load,
selected material and required connection safety.
5.7 Loading of the connection.
Set the appropriate value for the connection loading on line [5.8].
Hint: If you want to establish the maximum permissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button located to the right of the input field.
5.9 Strength checks of the connection.
If "Basic calculation method" or "Method of conversion coefficients" (see [1.3] or [1.5]) is
used, the strength checks of the connection are performed by comparison of the maximum
calculated theoretical stresses [5.12, 5.13] to the yield strength of the selected material of the
connection [5.10]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety against yield point [5.14]
must be higher than the safety required ([1.4] or [1.6]).
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see [1.7]) is used for calculation, the strength checks of
the connection will be performed by comparison of the maximum calculated theoretical stresses
[5.12, 5.13] to the permissible stress [5.11]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety
rate [5.14] must be higher than the safety required [1.8].
Hint 1: You can find the minimum safety values in the respective notes for paragraph [1.2] or in
the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: If the designed connection does not conform to the strength checks, you can use the
respective "min" button in paragraph [5.2] to find the suitable connection dimension.
5.11 Permissible stress.
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used for the calculation, set the value for
the permissible stress of the connection material on this line. This value is then used for defining
the safety rate [5.14] of the designed connection.
Note: For the remaining two calculation methods (see [1.3], [1.5]), this line is only informative
and the value of the permissible stress is set automatically based on the required safety and the
yield strength of the selected material.

Spot (resistance) welds. [6]


This paragraph is intended for the geometrical design and strength checks of connections with
spot welds.

Spot resistance welds are usually used to connect thin plates and thin-walled parts. They are
especially very useful in lot production. The connections with spot welds are not very appropriate
for transferring high forces. In view of the type of stress, we distinguish two basic types of
connections with spot welds:
- connections with welds stressed in shear (lap joints)
- connections with welds stressed in tear (by tension)
In technical practice, not more than 3 parts with maximum total thickness up to approx. 15 mm
are allowed to be joined for connections with resistance welds. The thickness ratio for individual
parts should not exceed 1:3. The welds should be positioned towards the external force so that
they are always only stressed in shear. Spot welds stressed in tension have significantly lower
load-bearing capacity, which is why their use is not recommended. Lap welds can be made as
single-shear or double-shear. A minimum of 2 and maximum of 5 spot connections should be
located in the direction of acting force.
Designing procedure for the connection:
1. On line [6.1] choose the required connection type.

2. In paragraph [6.2] set all required connection dimensions.

3. Set the appropriate value for the connection loading on line [6.7].

4. If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used, set the permissible stress
value on line [6.10].

5. Check the calculated safety of the designed connection on line [6.13].

6. If you want to optimize the connection dimensions or the designed connection does not
comply with the strength checks, use the "min" buttons in paragraph [6.2] to find the
suitable connection dimensions.

7. If you want to establish the maximum admissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button on line [6.7].
Hint: Detailed information on the spot weld calculation can be found in the theoretical part of the
Help.
6.1 Connection type.
Check the switch with the respective image to select the required connection type.
6.2 Dimensions of the connection.
Use this paragraph to set all required connection dimensions.
Hint 1: You can find the recommended procedures to choose the appropriate weld dimensions in
the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: After any of the "min" buttons located to the right of the input fields are pressed, the
program will find the minimum suitable value of the respective dimension for the respective load,
selected material and required connection safety.
6.6 Loading of the connection.
Set the appropriate value for the connection loading on line [6.7].
Hint: If you want to establish the maximum permissible load for the respective connection, use
the "max" button located to the right of the input field.
6.8 Strength checks of the connection.
If "Basic calculation method" or "Method of conversion coefficients" (see [1.3] or [1.5]) is
used, the strength checks of the connection are performed by comparison of the maximum
calculated theoretical stresses [6.11, 6.12] to the yield strength of the selected material of the
connection [6.9]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety against yield point [6.13]
must be higher than the safety required ([1.4] or [1.6]).
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see [1.7]) is used for calculation, the strength checks of
the connection will be performed by comparison of the maximum calculated theoretical stresses
[6.11, 6.12] to the permissible stress [6.10]. If the connection is to conform, the resulting safety
rate [6.13] must be higher than the safety required [1.8].
Hint 1: You can find the minimum safety values in the respective notes for paragraph [1.2] or in
the theoretical part of the Help.
Hint 2: If the designed connection does not conform to the strength checks, you can use the
respective "min" button in paragraph [6.2] to find the suitable connection dimension.
6.10 Permissible stress.
If "Method of permissible stresses" (see. [1.7]) is used for the calculation, set the value for
the permissible stress of the connection material on this line. This value is then used for defining
the safety rate [6.13] of the designed connection.
Note: For the remaining two calculation methods (see [1.3], [1.5]), this line is only informative
and the value of the permissible stress is set automatically based on the required safety and the
yield strength of the selected material.

Setting calculations, change the language.


Information on setting of calculation parameters and setting of the language can be found in the
document "Setting calculations, change the language".
Supplements - This calculation:
3.0 User setting of calculation parameters.
Depending on the applied calculation method (see the main calculation [1.2]) you can use this
part to set some parameters affecting the calculation of the welded connections proper. In
paragraph [3.1] you can set the required value of the coefficients used for "Method of
conversion coefficients". Paragraph [3.10] is used to set the basic calculation parameters for
"Method of permissible stresses".
Hint: Detailed information on the used calculation methods can be found in the theoretical part
of the Help.
3.2 Setting the weld anisotropic coefficients.
Use this paragraph to set the values of conversion coefficients used by the program in the
calculation of comparative stresses for "Method of conversion coefficients".
Recommended values of conversion coefficients:
Weld type, way of load Coefficie
nt
Butt welds subject to compression 1.00
Butt welds subject to tension 0.85 ...
- manual arc or flame welding 1.00
- contact resistance welding
- manual welding, connections after slotting with rewelded
root
- automatic welding under welding flux or in CO2 , double-

sided welded connections
- electroslag welding

Butt welds subject to shear 0.70
End fillet welds 0.75 ...
- manual welding, weld without penetration 1.00
- manual arc welding, electrodes with higher strength (min.
20% more)
- automatic welding under welding flux or in CO2 , weld
thickness > 8mm, penetration depth 0.2a

- automatic welding under welding flux, single-layer welds
less than 8mm thick, penetration depth 0.4a
Side fillet welds 0.65 ...
- manual welding, weld without penetration 0.90
- manual arc welding, electrodes with higher strength (min.
20% more)
- automatic welding under welding flux or in CO2 , weld
thickness > 8mm, penetration depth 0.2a

- automatic welding under welding flux, single-layer welds
less than 8mm thick, penetration depth 0.4a
Plug and slot welds 0.50 ...
- manual arc welding, welds with vertical walls 0.65
- welding under welding flux or in CO2 , welds with sloped
walls
Spot resistance welds subject to shear 0.65
Spot resistance welds subject to tension 0.50

3.11 Method of comparative stress calculation for butt welds.


Use the appropriate switch to select the required relation that will be further used in the
calculation of comparative stress.
For butt-welded connections, technical calculations most frequently use the second relation,

which is also applied by the program in "Basic calculation method". If this relation is used, the
permissible tensile stress of the basic material is usually used to define the permissible stress in
the weld section.
The first relation

is used to define the rated stresses in a butt weld section less frequently. This method is used e.g.
in DIN 18800, or for a simplified calculation method according to prEN 1993-1-8. Generally, we
can say that if used, the value of the permissible stress should be derived based on the
permissible stress of the material in shear.

3.12 Method of comparative stress calculation for fillet welds.


Use the appropriate switch to select the required relation that will be further used in the
calculation of comparative stress.
For fillet-welded connections, the technical calculations almost solely use the first relation,

which is also applied by the program in "Basic calculation method". When this relation is used,
the permissible stress in shear of the basic material is usually used to define the permissible
stress in the weld section.
With respect to the established calculation convention (for the sake of the calculation, the load-
bearing weld section is reclined into the plane of connecting the parts), the literature mentions
the second relation for fillet welds only very rarely.

If you still use it, the value of the permissible stress should be derived based on the permissible
tension stress of the material.

3.13 Calculation with distribution of shear stress.


In some technical calculations, the theory of shear stress distribution is used for strength checks
of fillet welds subject to shear force in the plane of connection of parts. According to this theory,
the shear stresses in the loaded section are transferred only by the welds parallel to the stress
direction. When checking this switch, the program will use the reduced load-bearing section of
the weld group in calculation of shear stresses.

Recommendation: This switch should not be used for cases when the total length of the welds
perpendicular to the stress direction is significantly greater than the total length of the welds
parallel to the weld direction. For such welded connections, the calculation will produce
misleading results if the switch is on.
Note: This switch has no meaning for connections with welds located in only one direction.

Workbook modifications (calculation).


General information on how to modify and extend calculation workbooks is mentioned in the
document "Workbook (calculation) modifications".
Welding Terms and Acronyms

OAW Oxyacetylene Welding


SMAW Shielded Metal Arc Welding aka Stick Welding
TMAW Tungsten Metal Arc Welding aka TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) or Heliarc

GMAW TERMS
GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding, aka MIG (Metal Inert Gas) or Wire Feed Welding
FCAW Flux Cored Arc Welding
AWS American Welding Society
cfh Cubic Feet per Hour (when setting the flowmeter for GMAW and TMAW, you
need a minimum of 20cfh)
psi Pounds per Square Inch
IPM Inches Per Minute (for setting the wire speed on a GMAW welder)
Arc Force The pressure of the welding process
Arc Gap The distance between the tip of the electrode and the metal being welded
Penetration The depth of the weld into the base metal
Porosity Impurities trapped within the weld, usually caused by not enough
shielding gas or dirty base metal.
Stickout How far the wire sticks-out out past the contact tip. Usually no more
than 3/8 an inch for GMAW, and 1-1/2 inch for FCAW.
Travel Speed The rate in which you weld.
Travel Angle 5 to 15 degrees
Gun Angle Perpendicular (90) for a flat weld joint, or half the angle (45 for T-
Fillet, etc.)
Shielding Gasses Commonly used for GMAW is 75% Argon mixed with 25% C0 2, or
100% CO2. For TMAW 100% Ar is used. For Dual Shield FCAW, either a 75/25 mix or
100% CO2 is used.
Dual Shield A welding process that uses Flux Cored wire as well as shielding gas.
Forehand Pushing your welding puddle, giving a shallower penetrating weld.
Backhand Pulling your welding puddle, giving a deeper penetrating weld.
Inert A group of gasses that are non-reactive to other elements. These include
Helium and Argon (Ar is really a Noble gas).
Duty Cycle The percentage of welding time that can be done in relation to the
percentage of time the welder must rest. A 60% duty cycle welder can weld for 6
minutes, but then it must rest for 4 minutes.

Be able to identify GMAW Welding Parts, Equipment, and Accessories


Contact Tip
Nozzle
Diffuser
Insulator
Liner
Gun
Flowmeter
Cylinder
Drive Wheels
Knurled Drive Wheels
Hub Tension Nut
Wire Spool
Wire Spool Retainer
Anti Spatter Spray
Nozzle Dip
Drive Wheel Tension Knob

GMAW Welding Notes

FCAW vs. GMAW vs. Dual Shielding

FCAW

Flux Cored Arc Welding

Uses a wire that has powdered flux inside the wire.

The flux helps keep the welding process from oxidizing as well as remove impurities from within
the weld.

There is no need for shielding gases or a nozzle.

GMAW

Gas Metal Arc Welding

Uses a solid wire and shielding gases.


Shielding gases help keep the welding process from oxidizing as well as remove impurities from
within the weld.

75% Argon and 25% CO2 is a common mixture of shielding gases, as it produces a smooth weld
bead.

100% CO2 is also common as it provides a deeper penetrating weld, however, the appearance
is not as smooth as the 75/25 mixture.

The shielding gas flowmeter needs to be set at 20 cfh (cubic feet per hour).

Dual Shielding

Work Angle 900

Travel Angle 50 to 150

Drag deeper penetration method, also called backhand. 100 is a good angle.

Push Shallower penetration method, also called forehand. 100 is a good angle.

Stickout to 3/8

Excessive Spatter

Caused by:

Wire speed set too fast (inches per minute)

Stickout too long

Draft (wind is blowing the shielding gases)

Excessive Penetration

Caused by:

Too much heat (turn amperage/voltage down)

Traveling too slow

Burnthrough can also be caused by too much heat and traveling too slow.
Flux Cored Arc Welding

Pluses

Minuses

Gas Metal Arc Welding

Pluses

Minuses
MODES OF MIG WELDING

Short Circuit Transfer, or Short Arc

Low amps, low volts


The electrode makes contact, melts, and repeats.
o This process occurs 20 to 200 times per second.
o This form of welding is violent and produces high spatter.
For Stainless, use ER 308, with Argon and 2% Oxygen
For Aluminum, us ER 4043, with Argon only.

Globular Transfer

Higher Voltage
Mild Steel
Wire only touches the metal at the start, then globs of molten wire are expelled into the
puddle.
Use in the Flat Position only - The globs are BIGGER than the electrode, so gravity is a
problem.

Spray Arc Transfer

High Amps and High Wire Speed (an example would be 28 volts and 350 ipm)
Can use pure Argon as a shielding gas; gives a higher deposition rate.
High Frequency gives a humming sound, which is desirable.
Globulars are smaller than the electrode, and are deposited at hundreds per second.
This excellerated speed of deposition by the arc force overcomes gravity.

Pulsed Spray Transfer

Special welding machine that provides optional pulsed arc


Puddle freezes slightly between pulses.
Good for thin sections, aluminum, and out of position welding.

GMAW Welding Notes for GMAW Exam

Define the following:


1. Arc Force: The amount of pressure at the end of the electrode (created by

the electrical flow).

2. Arc Gap: The distance between the end of the electrode and the metal.

3. Penetration: The depth of the weld into the metal.

4. Porosity: Impurities trapped within the weld (caused by dirty metal or weld

not being shielded).

5. Stickout

6. Travel Speed

7. GMAW stands for

8. FCAW stands for

9. Dual Shielding is what?

10.MIG stands for

11.TIG stands for

12.TMAW stands for

13.SMAW stands for

14.CFH (AKA cfh) stands for

15.IPM stands for

16.Set Flow Meter at ______ cfh.


17.The wire speed is measured in __________ _____ minute
18.The spool of wire of a Miller Welder should feed from the (bottom/top) of the
spool (circle one).
19.Before feeding the wire, remove the __________________ tip.
20.The work angle should be ________ degrees.
21.The travel angle should be between ________ and ________ degrees.
22.Dragging gives a (deeper/shallower) penetrating weld (circle one).
23.Pushing gives a (deeper/shallower) penetrating weld (circle one).
24.A major cause of poor welds is lack of metal ______________________
25.Stickout should be between ______ and ______ inches.
26.GMAW gas mixture should be 25%______ and 75%________.
27.Or, GMAW gas could be 100%_________.
28.The 100% non-mixture gas gives a (deeper/shallower) penetrating weld
(circle one).
29.What is the tightening nut called that holds and tightens the tension on the
spool of wire________
List 3 ways to reduce excessive spatter:

30.___________________________________________________________________
31.___________________________________________________________________
32.___________________________________________________________________
List 2 ways to reduce excessive penetration:

33.___________________________________________________________________
34.___________________________________________________________________
The 4 methods of MIG welding are:

35.___________________________________________________________________
36.___________________________________________________________________
37.___________________________________________________________________
38.___________________________________________________________________
Give 3 cons (bad things) to SMAW:

39.___________________________________________________________________
40.___________________________________________________________________
41.___________________________________________________________________
Give 3 pros (good things) to SMAW:

42.___________________________________________________________________
43.___________________________________________________________________
44.___________________________________________________________________
Give 3 cons (bad things) to GMAW

45.___________________________________________________________________
46.___________________________________________________________________
47.___________________________________________________________________
Give 3 pros (good things) to GMAW

48.___________________________________________________________________
49.___________________________________________________________________
______________________