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Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa

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This article is about the ancient Roman statesman. For other uses, see Agrippa
(disambiguation).

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa

Bust of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa from the Forum of Gabii,

currently in the Louvre, Paris

Born possibly in November 62/64 BC

Uncertain,

possibly Arpino, Istria or Asisium[1]

Died 12 BC

Campania

Allegiance Roman Republic

Roman Empire

Years of service 45 BC 12 BC

Rank General

Commands Roman Army


held

Battles/wars Caesar's Civil War

Battle of Munda

Post-Caesarian civil war

Battle of Mutina

Liberators' civil war

Battle of Philippi

Final War of the Roman Republic

Battle of Actium

Battle of Alexandria

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (/rp/; 64/62 BC 12 BC) was a Roman consul, statesman,
general and architect.[2] He was a close friend, son-in-law, and lieutenant to Octavian and was
responsible for the construction of some of the most notable buildings in the history of Rome and
for important military victories, most notably at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC against the forces
of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. As a result of these victories Octavian became the first Roman
Emperor, adopting the name of Augustus. Agrippa assisted Augustus in making Rome a city of
marble[3] and renovating aqueducts to give all Romans, from every social class, access to the
highest quality public services. He was responsible for the creation of many baths, porticoes and
gardens, as well as the original Pantheon. Agrippa was also father-in-law to the second
Emperor Tiberius, maternal grandfather to Caligula, and maternal great-grandfather to the
Emperor Nero.

Contents
[hide]

1Early life

2Rise to power

3Life in public service

4Antony and Cleopatra

5Late life

6Legacy

o 6.1Marriages and issue

7Agrippa in popular culture

o 7.1Drama

o 7.2Literature

o 7.3Video games
8See also

9Notes

10References

11Further reading

Early life[edit]
Agrippa was born between 6462 BC,[4] in an uncertain location.[1] His father was perhaps
called Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa.[5] He had an elder brother whose name was also Lucius
Vipsanius Agrippa, and a sister named Vipsania Polla. The family had not been prominent in
Roman public life.[6] However, Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian (the future emperor
Augustus), and the two were educated together and became close friends. Despite Agrippa's
association with the family of Julius Caesar, his elder brother chose another side in the civil
wars of the 40s BC, fighting under Cato against Caesar in Africa. When Cato's forces were
defeated, Agrippa's brother was taken prisoner but freed after Octavian interceded on his behalf.
[7]

It is not known whether Agrippa fought against his brother in Africa, but he probably served in
Caesar's campaign of 4645 BC against Gnaeus Pompeius, which culminated in the Battle of
Munda.[8] Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study
in Apollonia (on the Illyrian coast) with the Macedonian legions, while Caesar consolidated his
power in Rome.[9] In the fourth month of their stay in Apollonia the news of Julius Caesar's
assassination in March 44 BC reached them. Agrippa and another friend, Quintus Salvidienus
Rufus, advised Octavius to march on Rome with the troops from Macedonia, but Octavius
decided to sail to Italy with a small retinue. After his arrival, he learned that Caesar had adopted
him as his legal heir.[10] Octavius at this time took Caesar's name, but modern historians refer to
him as "Octavian" during this period.

Rise to power[edit]
After Octavian's return to Rome, he and his supporters realised they needed the support of
legions. Agrippa helped Octavian to levy troops in Campania.[11] Once Octavian had his legions,
he made a pact with Mark Antony and Lepidus, legally established in 43 BC as the Second
Triumvirate. Octavian and his consular colleague Quintus Pedius arranged for Caesar's
assassins to be prosecuted in their absence, and Agrippa was entrusted with the case
against Gaius Cassius Longinus.[12] It may have been in the same year that Agrippa began his
political career, holding the position of Tribune of the Plebs, which granted him entry to
the Senate.[13]
Bust of Agrippa, Pushkin Museum

In 42 BC, Agrippa probably fought alongside Octavian and Antony in the Battle of Philippi.[14] After
their return to Rome, he played a major role in Octavian's war against Lucius Antonius and Fulvia
Antonia, respectively the brother and wife of Mark Antony, which began in 41 BC and ended in
the capture of Perusia in 40 BC. However, Salvidienus remained Octavian's main general at this
time.[15] After the Perusine war, Octavian departed for Gaul, leaving Agrippa as urban praetor in
Rome with instructions to defend Italy against Sextus Pompeius, an opponent of the Triumvirate
who was now occupying Sicily. In July 40, while Agrippa was occupied with the Ludi
Apollinares that were the praetor's responsibility, Sextus began a raid in southern Italy. Agrippa
advanced on him, forcing him to withdraw.[16] However, the Triumvirate proved unstable, and in
August 40 both Sextus and Antony invaded Italy (but not in an organized alliance). Agrippa's
success in retaking Sipontum from Antony helped bring an end to the conflict.[17] Agrippa was
among the intermediaries through whom Antony and Octavian agreed once more upon peace.
During the discussions Octavian learned that Salvidienus had offered to betray him to Antony,
with the result that Salvidienus was prosecuted and either executed or committed suicide.
Agrippa was now Octavian's leading general.[18]

Agrippa depicted in a relief of the Altar of Peace, the Ara Pacis

In 39 or 38 BC, Octavian appointed Agrippa governor of Transalpine Gaul, where in 38 he put


down a rising of the Aquitanians. He also fought the Germanic tribes, becoming the next Roman
general to cross the Rhine after Julius Caesar.[19] He was summoned back to Rome by Octavian
to assume the consulship for 37 BC. He was well below the usual minimum age of 43, but
Octavian had suffered a humiliating naval defeat against Sextus Pompey and needed his friend
to oversee the preparations for further warfare. Agrippa refused the offer of a triumph for his
exploits in Gaul on the grounds, says Dio, that he thought it improper to celebrate during a time
of trouble for Octavian.[20] Since Sextus Pompeius had command of the sea on the coasts of Italy,
Agrippa's first care was to provide a safe harbour for his ships. He accomplished this by cutting
through the strips of land which separated the Lacus Lucrinus from the sea, thus forming an
outer harbour, while joining the lake Avernus to the Lucrinus to serve as an inner harbor.[21] The
new harbor-complex was named Portus Julius in Octavian's honour.[22] Agrippa was also
responsible for technological improvements, including larger ships and an improved form
of grappling hook.[23] About this time, he married Caecilia Pomponia Attica, daughter of Cicero's
friend Titus Pomponius Atticus.[24]
In 36 BC, Octavian and Agrippa set sail against Sextus. The fleet was badly damaged by storms
and had to withdraw; Agrippa was left in charge of the second attempt. Thanks to superior
technology and training, Agrippa and his men won decisive victories at Mylae and Naulochus,
destroying all but seventeen of Sextus' ships and compelling most of his forces to surrender.
Octavian, with his power increased, forced the triumvir Lepidus into retirement and entered
Rome in triumph.[25] Agrippa received the unprecedented honour of a naval crown decorated with
the beaks of ships; as Dio remarks, this was "a decoration given to nobody before or since". [26]
Life in public service[edit]

Hadrian's Pantheon was built to replace the previous temple that had been built during Agrippa's rule.
Hadrian retained the legend MAGRIPPALFCOSTERTIVMFECIT, which means Marcus Agrippa, son of
Lucius, Consul for the third time, built this

Agrippa participated in smaller military campaigns in 35 and 34 BC, but by the autumn of 34 he
had returned to Rome.[27] He rapidly set out on a campaign of public repairs and improvements,
including renovation of the aqueduct known as the Aqua Marcia and an extension of its pipes to
cover more of the city. Through his actions after being elected in 33 BC as one of
the aediles (officials responsible for Rome's buildings and festivals), the streets were repaired
and the sewers were cleaned out, while lavish public spectacles were put on. [28] Agrippa signalled
his tenure of office by effecting great improvements in the city of Rome, restoring and
building aqueducts, enlarging and cleansing the Cloaca Maxima, constructing baths and porticos,
and laying out gardens. He also gave a stimulus to the public exhibition of works of art. It was
unusual for an ex-consul to hold the lower-ranking position of aedile, [29] but Agrippa's success
bore out this break with tradition. As emperor, Augustus would later boast that "he had found the
city of brick but left it of marble", thanks in part to the great services provided by Agrippa under
his reign.

Antony and Cleopatra[edit]

Statue of Agrippa at the Archaeological Museum of Venice

Agrippa was again called away to take command of the fleet when the war with Antony and
Cleopatra broke out. He captured the strategically important city of Methone at the southwest of
the Peloponnese, then sailed north, raiding the Greek coast and capturing Corcyra
(modern Corfu). Octavian then brought his forces to Corcyra, occupying it as a naval base.
[30]
Antony drew up his ships and troops at Actium, where Octavian moved to meet him. Agrippa
meanwhile defeated Antony's supporter Quintus Nasidius in a naval battle at Patrae.[31] Dio
relates that as Agrippa moved to join Octavian near Actium, he encountered Gaius Sosius, one of
Antony's lieutenants, who was making a surprise attack on the squadron of Lucius Tarius, a
supporter of Octavian. Agrippa's unexpected arrival turned the battle around. [32]
As the decisive battle approached, according to Dio, Octavian received intelligence that Antony
and Cleopatra planned to break past his naval blockade and escape. At first he wished to allow
the flagships past, arguing that he could overtake them with his lighter vessels and that the other
opposing ships would surrender when they saw their leaders' cowardice. Agrippa objected that
Antony's ships, although larger, could outrun Octavian's if they hoisted sails, and that Octavian
ought to fight now because Antony's fleet had just been struck by storms. Octavian followed his
friend's advice.[33]
On September 2, 31 BC, the Battle of Actium was fought. Octavian's victory, which gave him the
mastery of Rome and the empire, was mainly due to Agrippa. [34] Octavian then bestowed upon
him the hand of his niece Claudia Marcella Major in 28 BC. He also served a second consulship
with Octavian the same year. In 27 BC, Agrippa held a third consulship with Octavian, and in that
year, the senate also bestowed upon Octavian the imperial title of Augustus.
In commemoration of the Battle of Actium, Agrippa built and dedicated the building that served as
the Roman Pantheon before its destruction in 80AD. Emperor Hadrian used Agrippa's design to
build his own Pantheon, which survives in Rome. The inscription of the later building, which was
built around 125, preserves the text of the inscription from Agrippa's building during his third
consulship. The years following his third consulship, Agrippa spent in Gaul, reforming the
provincial administration and taxation system, along with building an effective road system and
aqueducts.

Late life[edit]

The theatre at Merida, Spain; it was promoted by Agrippa, built between 16 and 15 BC.

Agrippa's friendship with Augustus seems to have been clouded by the jealousy of Augustus'
nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus, which was probably instigated by the intrigues of Livia, the
third wife of Augustus, who feared his influence over her husband.[35] Traditionally it is said the
result of such jealousy was that Agrippa left Rome, ostensibly to take over the governorship of
eastern provinces a sort of honourable exile, but he only sent his legate to Syria, while he
himself remained at Lesbos and governed by proxy,[35] though he may have been on a secret
mission to negotiate with the Parthians about the return of the Roman legions standards which
they held.[36] On the death of Marcellus, which took place within a year of his exile, he was
recalled to Rome by Augustus, who found he could not dispense with his services. However, if
one places the events in the context of the crisis in 23 BC it seems unlikely that, when facing
significant opposition and about to make a major political climb down, the emperor Augustus
would place a man in exile in charge of the largest body of Roman troops. What is far more likely
is that Agrippa's 'exile' was actually the careful political positioning of a loyal lieutenant in
command of a significant army as a backup plan in case the settlement plans of 23 BC failed and
Augustus needed military support.[37] Moreover, after 23 BC as part of what became known
as Augustus' Second Constitutional Settlement, Agrippa's constitutional powers were greatly
increased to provide the Principate of Augustus with greater constitutional stability by providing
for a political heir or replacement for Augustus if he were to succumb to his habitual ill health or
was assassinated. In the course of the year proconsular imperium, similar to Augustus' power,
was conferred upon Agrippa for five years. The exact nature of the grant is uncertain but it
probably covered Augustus' imperial provinces, east and west, perhaps lacking authority over the
provinces of the Senate. That was to come later, as was the jealously guarded tribunicia
potestas, or powers of a tribune of the plebeians.[38] These great powers of state are not usually
heaped upon a former exile.
It is said that Maecenas advised Augustus to attach Agrippa still more closely to him by making
him his son-in-law.[39] He accordingly induced him to divorce Marcella and marry his
daughter Julia the Elder by 21 BC, the widow of Marcellus,[40] equally celebrated for her beauty,
abilities, and her shameless extravagance. In 19 BC, Agrippa was employed in putting down a
rising of the Cantabrians in Hispania (Cantabrian Wars).[35]
In 18 BC, Agrippa's powers were even further increased to almost match those of Augustus. That
year his proconsular imperium was augmented to cover the provinces of the Senate. More than
that, he was finally granted tribunicia potestas, or powers of a tribune of the plebeians. As was
the case with Augustus, Agrippas grant of tribunician powers was conferred without his having to
actually hold that office.[41] These powers were considerable, giving him veto power over the acts
of the Senate or other magistracies, including those of other tribunes, and the power to present
laws for approval by the People. Just as important, a tribunes person was sacred, meaning that
any person who harmfully touched them or impeded their actions, including political acts, could
lawfully be killed.[42]After the grant of these powers Agrippa was, on paper, almost as powerful as
Augustus was. However, there was no doubt that Augustus was the man in charge.
Agrippa was appointed governor of the eastern provinces a second time in 17 BC, where his just
and prudent administration won him the respect and good-will of the provincials, especially from
the Jewish population.[35] Agrippa also restored effective Roman control over the Cimmerian
Chersonnese (Crimean Peninsula) during his governorship.
Agrippas last public service was his beginning of the conquest of the upper Danube
River region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC.[43] He died
at Campania in 12 BC at the age of 51. His posthumous son, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Postumus, was named in his honor. Augustus honoured his memory by a magnificent funeral
and spent over a month in mourning. Augustus personally oversaw all of Agrippa's childrens
educations. Although Agrippa had built a tomb for himself, Augustus had Agrippa's remains
placed in Augustus' own mausoleum.[44]

Legacy[edit]

The Maison Carre at Nmes, modern France, built in 19 BC; Agrippa was its patron.

Agrippa was also known as a writer, especially on the subject of geography.[35] Under his
supervision, Julius Caesar's dream of having a complete survey of the Empire made was carried
out. Agrippa constructed a circular chart, which was later engraved on marble by Augustus, and
afterwards placed in the colonnade built by his sister Polla. [35] Amongst his writings, an
autobiography, now lost, is referenced.[35]
The term Via Agrippa is used for any part of the network of roadways in Gaul built by Agrippa.
Some of these still exist as paths or even as highways.
Marriages and issue[edit]
Agrippa had several children through his three marriages:

By his first wife, Caecilia Attica, he had a daughter, Vipsania Agrippina, who was to be
the first wife of the Emperor Tiberius, and who gave birth to a son, Drusus the Younger.

By his second wife, Claudia Marcella Major, he may have had a daughter, whose
existence remains unclear, but this hypothetical figure is referred to as "Vipsania Marcella". It
is possible that this daughter may have been a second daughter by Caecilia Attica, but there
is no information to say one way or the other. The existence of this daughter rests solely
on Publius Quinctilius Varus being mentioned as the son-in-law of Agrippa in Augustus'
funeral oration for Agrippa.[45]

By his third wife, Julia the Elder (daughter of Augustus), he had five children: Gaius
Caesar, Julia the Younger, Lucius Caesar, Agrippina the Elder (wife of Germanicus, mother
of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger), and Agrippa Postumus (a
posthumous son).
Through his numerous children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members
of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, whose position he helped to attain, as well as many other reputed
Romans.

[show]Agr

Agrippa in popular culture[edit]

An Audience at Agrippa's, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Drama[edit]
Agrippa is a character in William Shakespeare's play Antony and Cleopatra.
A fictional version of Agrippa in his later life played a prominent role in the 1976 BBC
Television series I, Claudius. Agrippa was portrayed as a much older man, though he would have
only been 39 years old at the time of the first episode (24/23 BC). He was played by John Paul.
Agrippa is the main character in Paul Naschy's 1980 film Los cntabros, played by Naschy
himself. It is a highly fictionalized version of the Cantabrian Wars in which Agrippa is depicted as
the lover of the sister of Cantabrian leader Corocotta.
Agrippa appears in several film versions of the life of Cleopatra. He is normally portrayed as an
old man rather than a young one. Among the people to portray him are Philip Locke, Alan
Rowe and Andrew Keir.
Agrippa is also one of the principal characters in the British/Italian joint project Imperium:
Augustus (2003) featuring flashbacks between Augustus and Julia about Agrippa, which shows
him in his youth on serving in Caesar's army up until his victory at Actium and the defeat of
Cleopatra. He is portrayed by Ken Duken. In the 2005 series Empire the young Agrippa (played
by Christopher Egan) becomes Octavian's sidekick after saving him from an attempted
poisoning.
Marcus Agrippa, a highly fictional character based on Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa's early life, is
part of the BBC-HBO-RAI television series Rome. He is played by Allen Leech. He describes
himself as the grandson of a slave. The series creates a romantic relationship between Agrippa
and Octavian's sister Octavia Minor, for which there is no historical evidence.
Literature[edit]
Agrippa is a main character in the early part of Robert Graves novel I, Claudius. He is a main
character in the later two novels of Colleen McCullough's Masters of Rome series. He is a
featured character of prominence and importance in the historical fiction novel Cleopatra's
Daughter by Michelle Moran. He also features prominently in John Edward Williams' historical
novel Augustus. In the backstory of Gunpowder Empire, the first volume in Harry
Turtledove's Crosstime Traffic series, Agrippa lived until AD 26, conquering all of Germania for
the Empire and becoming the second Emperor when Augustus died in AD 14.
Video games[edit]
A heavily fictionalized version of Agrippa is one of the playable characters (the other being an
equally fictionalized Augustus) in the video game Shadow of Rome. There, Agrippa is sentenced
to become a gladiator after his father was wrongly sentenced for assassinating Caesar. Agrippa's
goal is to stay alive as a gladiator for as long as possible, while Augustus acts as an infiltrator
who slowly exposes the conspiracy against Caesar. Eventually, Augustus is able to prove
Vipsanius' innocence and both of them are pardoned. Then a civil war breaks out, because the
direct successor was outraged by exposure of the conspiracy. Agrippa and Augustus fight against
Antonius. Agrippa also appears as a Great Admiral in the computer game Sid Meier's Civilization
V.

See also[edit]
Julio-Claudian family tree

Notes[edit]
1. ^ Jump up to:a b Reinhold, p. 9; Roddaz, p. 23.

2. Jump up^ Plate, William (1867). "Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius". In Smith,


William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: Little, Brown and
Company. pp. 7780.

3. Jump up^ http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/basics101/f/011508Marble.htm

4. Jump up^ Dio 54.28.3 places Agrippa's death in late March 12 BC, while Pliny the
Elder 7.46 states that he died "in his fifty-first year". Depending on whether Pliny meant that
Agrippa was aged 50 or 51 at his death, this gives a date of birth between March 64 and March
62. His family cognomen was the Latin form of Greek Agrippas, meaning "wild horse". A calendar
from Cyprus or Syria includes a month named after Agrippa beginning on November 1, which may
reflect the month of his birth. See Reinhold, pp. 24; Roddaz, pp. 2326.

5. Jump up^ cf Pantheon inscription "MAGRIPPALFCOSTERTIVMFECIT" [1].

6. Jump up^ Velleius Paterculus 2.96, 127.

7. Jump up^ Nicolaus of Damascus, Life of Augustus 7.

8. Jump up^ Reinhold, pp. 1314.

9. Jump up^ Suetonius, Life of Augustus 94.12.

10. Jump up^ Nicolaus of Damascus, Life of Augustus 1617; Velleius Paterculus 2.59.5.

11. Jump up^ Nicolaus of Damascus, Life of Augustus 31. It has been speculated that
Agrippa was among the negotiators who won over Antony's Macedonian legions to Octavian, but
there is no direct evidence for this; see Reinhold, p. 16.

12. Jump up^ Velleius Paterculus 2.69.5; Plutarch, Life of Brutus 27.4.

13. Jump up^ Mentioned only by Servius auctus on Virgil, Aeneid 8.682, but a necessary
preliminary to his position as urban praetor in 40 BC. Roddaz (p. 41) favours the 43 BC date.

14. Jump up^ Pliny the Elder 7.148 cites him as an authority for Octavian's illness on the
occasion.

15. Jump up^ Reinhold, pp. 1720.

16. Jump up^ Dio 48.20; Reinhold, p. 22.

17. Jump up^ Dio 48.28; Reinhold, p. 23.

18. Jump up^ Reinhold, pp. 2324.

19. Jump up^ Dio, 48.49

20. Jump up^ Dio 48.49; Reinhold, pp. 2529. Agrippa's youth is noted by Lendering, "From
Philippi to Actium".

21. Jump up^ Reinhold, pp. 2932.

22. Jump up^ Suetonius, Life of Augustus 16.1.

23. Jump up^ Appian, Civil Wars 2.106, 118119; Reinhold, pp. 3335.

24. Jump up^ Reinhold, pp. 3537.

25. Jump up^ Reinhold, pp. 3742.

26. Jump up^ Dio 49.14.3.

27. Jump up^ Reinhold, pp. 4547.

28. Jump up^ Dio 49.4243.


29. Jump up^ Lendering, "From Philippi to Actium".

30. Jump up^ Orosius, History Against the Pagans 6.19.67; Dio 50.11.112.3; Reinhold, pp.
5354.

31. Jump up^ Dio 50.13.5.

32. Jump up^ Dio 50.14.12; cf. Velleius Paterculus 2.84.2 ("Agrippa ... before the final
conflict had twice defeated the fleet of the enemy"). Dio is wrong to say that Sosius was killed,
since he in fact fought at and survived the Battle of Actium (Reinhold, p. 54 n. 14; Roddaz, p. 163
n. 140).

33. Jump up^ Dio 50.31.13.

34. Jump up^ Reinhold, pp. 5758; Roddaz, pp. 178181.

35. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Agrippa, Marcus


Vipsanius". Encyclopdia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 425426.

36. Jump up^ David Magie, The Mission of Agrippa to the Orient in 23 BC, Classical
Philology, Vol. 3, No. 2(Apr., 1908), pp. 145-152

37. Jump up^ Syme (1939), 342.

38. Jump up^ Syme (1939), 337-338.

39. Jump up^ Cassius Dio 54.6

40. Jump up^ Suetonius, The Life of Augustus 63; Dio, 6.5; Reinhold, Marcus Agrippa. A
biography, pp. 67-68, 86-87.

41. Jump up^ Dio, Roman History 54.12.4.

42. Jump up^ Everett (2006), 217.

43. Jump up^ Dio, 28

44. Jump up^ Cassius Dio 54.28.5

45. Jump up^ Klner Papyrus I (1976), no. 10.

46. Jump up^ May be the 'Gnaeus Asinius' mentioned in the records of the townsfolk of
Puteoli, to whom that man was a patron

47. Jump up^ Consul suffectus in AD 38

48. Jump up^ Seneca, The Pumpkinification of Claudius

49. Jump up^ Cassius Dio (60.27.5)

50. Jump up^ CIL 06, 00889

51. Jump up^ CIL 06, 00888

52. Jump up^ CIL 06, 00890


References[edit]
Badian, E. (1981). "Notes on the Laudatio of Agrippa". Classical Journal. 76: 97109.

Buchan, J. (1937). Augustus. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Evans, H.B. (1982). "Agrippa's Water Plan". American Journal of Archeology. 86 (3):
401411. doi:10.2307/504429.

Firth, J.B. (1903). Augustus Caesar and the Organization of the Empire of Rome. New
York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.

Gray, E.W. (1970). "The Imperium of M. Agrippa: A Note on P. Colon. Inv. No.
4701". Zeitschrift fr Papyrologie und Epigraphik. 6: 227238.

Lendering, Jona. "Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa". Livius. Retrieved 2007-04-22.

McKechnie, P. (October 1981). "Cassius Dio's Speech of Agrippa: A Realistic Alternative


to Imperial Government?". Greece and Rome. 28 (02): 150
155. doi:10.1017/S0017383500033258.

Metello, Manuel Dejante Pinto de Magalhes Arnao; and Joo Carlos Metello de
Npoles (1998). Metellos de Portugal, Brasil e Roma (in Portuguese). Lisboa: Edio Nova
Arrancada. ISBN 972-8369-18-2. Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)

Reinhold, Meyer (1933). Marcus Agrippa: A Biography. Geneva: W. F. Humphrey Press.

Roddaz, Jean-Michel (1934). Marcus Agrippa (in French). Rome: cole Franaise de
Rome.

Shipley, Frederick W. (1933). Agrippa's Building Activities in Rome. St. Louis:


Washington University.

Further reading[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has
media related to Marcus
Vipsanius Agrippa.

Goldsworthy, Adrian (2014), Augustus: From Revolutionary to Emperor, London,


UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 9780297864257

Powell, Lindsay (2015), Marcus Agrippa: Right-hand man of Caesar Augustus, Barnsley,
UK: Pen & Sword, ISBN 9781848846173

Geoffrey Mottershead, The Constructions of Marcus Agrippa in the West, University


of Melbourne, 2005

Augustus' Funeral Oration for Agrippa


Marcus Agrippa, article in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith