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Physics

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- Vector Analysis
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from 7-

7-8 in Nicholson 109.

Tutoring

T at #102 of

f Nicholson

N h l Hall.

H ll

at 2

a = const. x = x0 + v0t +

2

v = v0 + 2a ( x x0 )

2 2

Example: A red car and a green car, identical except for the color, move toward each

other in adjacent lanes and parallel to the x axis. At time t=0, the red car is at xr=0 and

the green car is at xg= 220 m

m. If the red car has a constant velocity of 20 km/h,

km/h the cars

pass each other at x =44.5 m, and if it has a constant velocity of 40 km/h, they pass each

other at x =76.6m. What are (a) the initial velocity and (b) the acceleration of the green

car??

20km 50

20k

x f (1) = v1t1 v1 = = m/s t1 = 8.0s

Red car: a=0 so h 9

x f (2) = v1t2 40km 100 t 2 = 6.9s

v2 = = m/s

h 9

Now we must simultaneously solve two equations for the green car.

at12

44.5 220 = v0t1 + = 175.5

2 a = 2.0m / s 2

This Gives!

76.6 220 = v0t 2 +

at 22

= 143.4

v0 = 13.9m / s

2

Special Case: free-falling body motion

Close to the surface of the Earth all objects move toward the center of the Earth

with an acceleration whose magnitude is constant and equal to 9.8 m/s2. We use

the symbol g to indicate the acceleration of an object in free fall.

B

a

a = -g

v = v0 gt (eq. 1)

y

gt 2

y = yo + v0t (eq. 2)

2

v 2 v02 = 2 g ( y yo ) (eq. 3)

A

Question

ball straight up and another ball straight down at

the same initial speed.

speed Neglecting air resistance

resistance,

which ball with the greater speed hits the ground

below the cliff?

1. upward.

2. downward.

3. neitherthey both hit at the

same speed.

Kinematics: Taking Advantage of Symmetry

v = v0 gt

y = v0t gt 1

2

2

v = v 2 gy

2 2

0

y= 1

2 ( v + v0 ) t

Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis (nonconstant acceleration)

When the acceleration of a moving object is not constant we must use

integration to determine the velocity v(t ) and the position x(t) of the object.

The integration can be done either using the analytic or the graphical approach:

t1 t1 t1 t1

dv

a (t ) = dv = a (t )dt dv = a (t )dt v1 v0 = a(t )dt v1 = v0 + a(t ) dt

dt t0 t0 t0 t0

t1

t0

1 t 1 t

dx

v(t ) = dx = v(t )dt dx = v(t )dt

dt t0 t0

t1 t1

x1 x0 = vdt x1 = x0 + vdt

t0 t0

t1

vdt

dt = [ Area

A under

d th

the v versus t curve bbetween

t d t1 ]

t0 and

to

Example: Acceleration: (a) If the position of a particle is given by x= 20t 5t3,

where x is in meters and t is in seconds, when, if ever, is the particles velocity zero?

(b) When is its acceleration a zero?

(c) For what time range (positive or negative) is a negative?

(d) For what time range (positive or negative) is a positive?

(e) Graph x(t),

x(t) v(t) and a(t).

a(t)

x(t) = 20t 5t 3

dx

v(t) = = 20 15t 2

dt

2

dv d x

( )=

a(t) = 2 = 30t

30

dt dt

In physics we have parameters that can be completely described by a

number and are known as scalars. Temperature and mass are such

parameters.

Other physical parameters require additional information about

direction and are known as vectors. Examples of vectors are

displacement velocity

displacement, velocity, and acceleration

acceleration.

This chapter covers the basic mathematical language to describe

vectors In particular we need to know the following:

vectors.

G m t i vector

Geometric t addition

dditi n and

nd subtraction

bt ti n

Resolving a vector into its components

The notion of a unit vector

Addition and subtraction vectors by components

Multiplication of a vector by a scalar

The scalar (dot) product of two vectors

The vector (cross) product of two vectors

Vector expressed by components

G

Vector a can be written with its components and unit vectors

G

a = a i + a j (two-dimensional case)

x y

The quantities ax i and a y j are called the vector components

ay

a = a +a 2

x

2

y and tan = .

ax

G k

Vector a in three-dimensional case

G G

a = axi + a y j + az k a

ax = a cos x ; a y = a sin y ; az = a sin z z

y

a = a +a +a

2

x

2

y

2

z j

x

ax ay az

cos x = ; cos y = ; cos x =

a a a

i

y Adding vectors by components

G G

G G a = ax i + a y j ; b = bx i + by j.

j

r G G G

b r = a + b = rx i + ry j.

G The components rx and ry are given by the equations

a x

rx = ax + bx and ry = a y + by .

O

y G G

G a = ax i + a y j ; b = bx i + by j.

j

G d G G G

b d = a b = d x i + d y j.

G The components d x and d y are given by the equations

a x d x = ax bx and d y = a y by .

O

Multiplying a Vector by a Scalar

G G G

Multiplication

p y a scalar s results in a new vector b = sa.

of a vector a by

The magnitude b of the new vector is given by b = | s | a.

G G

If s > 0,, vector b has the same direction as vector a.

G G

If s < 0, vector b has a direction opposite to that of vector a.

G G G G

The scalar product a b of two vectors a and b is given by

G G

a b =ab cos . The scalar product of two vectors is also

known as the "dot" product. The scalar product in terms

of vector components is given by the equation

G G

a b =axbx + a y by + az bz .

Application in physics:

G G

Work: W = F d = Fd cos

Example

G G

What is the angle between a = 3.0i 4.0 j and b = 2.0i + 3.0k ?

G G G

G a b

Use a b = ab cos such that cos =

ab

Since

a = 3.02 + (4.0)2 = 5.0 and b = (2.0)2 + 3.02 = 3.61

and k G

G G b

a b = axbx + a y by + az bz = axbx = 6.0

G G

a b 6.0

cos = = andd = 109

ab 5.0 3.61 j

G

a

i

The Vector Product of Two Vectors

G G G G

The vector product c = a b is a vector c.

G

The magnitude of c is given by the equation

i .

c = abb sin

G G G

c is perpendicular to the plane P defined by a and b .

G

The sense of the vector c is given by the right-hand rule:

G G

a. Place the vectors a and b tail to tail.

G

b. Rotate a in the plane P along the shortest angle

G

so that it coincides with b .

c. Rotate the fingers of the right hand in the same direction.

G

d The

d. h thumb

h b off the

h right

i h hand

h d gives

i the

h sense off c .

The vector product of two vectors is also known as

th "cross

the " " prodduct.

t

G G G

The vector product c = a b in terms of vector components

G G G

a = a x i + ay j + az k, b = b x i + by j + bz k, c = c x i + cy j + cz k

G

The vector components of vector c are given by the equations

cx = a y bz az by , cy = az bx axbz , cz = axby a y bx .

ay az az ax ax ay

or cx = , cy = , cz =

by bz bz bx bx by

Note: Those familiar with the use of determinants can use the expression

i j k

G G

a b = ax a y az

bx by bz

Note: The order of the two vectors in the cross product is important:

G G G G

(

b a = a b . ) Rotation axis

G

Application in physics: r

G G G G

Torque: = r F

F

Example

G G G G G G G G G

Show a (b c ) = b (c a ) = c (a b )

i j k

G G G

a (b c ) = (axi + a y j + az k) bx by bz

cx cy cz

ax ay az

= ax (by cz bz cy ) + a y (bz cx bx c y ) + az (bx cy by cx ) = bx by bz

cx cy cz

bx by bz

G G G

= cx cy cz = b ( c a )

ax ay az

cx cy cz

G G G

= ax ay az = c ( a b )

bx by bz

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