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AC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.

2
EEC631L Three Phase Alternator

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

Three Phase Alternator Under Load

OBJECTIVES
1. To determine the voltage regulation characteristics of the alternator with resistive, capacitive
and inductive loading
2. To observe the effect of unbalanced loads on the output voltage

DISCUSSION
The output voltage of an alternator depends essentially upon the total flux in the air-gap. At no load,
this flux is established and determined exclusively by the DC field excitation.

Under load, however, the air-gap flux is determined by the ampere-turns of the rotor and the ampere-
turns of the stator. The latter may aid or oppose the magnetomotive force of the rotor depending upon
the power factor of the load. Leading power factors assist the rotor, and lagging power factors oppose
it.

Because the stator magnetomotive force has such an important effect upon the magnetic flux, the
voltage regulation of alternators is quite poor, and the DC field current must continuously be adjusted
to keep the voltage constant under variable load conditions.

If one phase of a three-phase alternator is heavily loaded, its voltage will decrease due to the IR and
IXL drops in the stator winding. This voltage drop cannot be compensated by modifying the DC field
current because the voltages of the two other phases will also be changed. Therefore, it is essential
that three-phase alternators do not have loads that are badly unbalanced.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1 unit Equipment 8110: Mobile Workstation
1 unit Equipment 8241: Synchronous Motor/Generator Module
1 unit Equipment 8211: DC Motor/Generator Module
1 unit Equipment 8311: Resistance Module
1 unit Equipment 8331: Capacitance Module
1 unit Equipment 8321: Inductance Module
1 unit Equipment 8821: Power Supply Module (0 120 Vdc, 120 Vdc)
1 unit Equipment 8426: AC Metering Module (250 / 250 / 250 V)
1 unit Equipment 8425: AC Metering Module (2.5 A)
1 unit Equipment 8412: DC Metering Module (2.5 A)
1 unit Equipment 8920: Hand Tachometer
20 pcs EMS 8941: Connecting Wires
1 unit 8942: Connection Belt
1 unit Electronic Multi-tester

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EEC631L Three Phase Alternator

CHECKING ACTIVITIES
CAUTION!

High voltages are present in this experiment!


DO NOT make any connections with the power on!

Make sure that the


1. main switch of the Power Supply module is in the zero (0) position;
2. its variable supply knob is set to MINIMUM; and
3. the set is UNPLUG.

Electronic Multi-tester

1. Check battery level by turning the device on


2. Check calibration for voltage AC reading by observing a zero reading. If not, inform the
instructor
3. Put the selector switch and instrument mode for continuity test function. Link together the
probes to check for a beep sound

8941: Connecting Wires

1. Check each wire for continuity using the continuity test function of the electronic multi-tester
2. Check for visible sign of insulation tear or damage

Equipment 8241: Synchronous Motor/Generator Module

1. Check the fiber glass protection panel for any break or damage
2. Open the fiber glass protection panel and check smooth rotation of roller bearing assembly
mounted at the side of the module
3. Visually check the visible part of the stator and rotor copper windings for evidence of burn or
insulation breakdown. If there is, inform the instructor. If none, proceed.
4. Check for smooth rotation of the rotor
5. Check for a good connection of the wires coming from inside the machine and into the
connector leads mounted on the fiber glass protection panel
6. Close the fiber glass protection panel and perform continuity test for the three windings
(terminal pairs 1-4, 2-5, and 3-6) of the Synchronous Motor
7. Set rheostat knob to minimum setting. Close switch S1 and connect the multi-tester at
terminal pair 7-8. Set instrument to measure resistance. Rotate rheostat knob to increase
resistance. Observe multi-tester resistance reading if it increases. Open switch S1.

Equipment 8211: DC Motor/Generator Module

1. Check the fiber glass protection panel for any break or damage
2. Open the fiber glass protection panel and check smooth rotation of roller bearing assembly
mounted at the side of the module
3. Visually check the visible part of the armature and field copper windings for evidence of burn
or insulation breakdown. If there is, inform the instructor. If none, proceed.
4. Check for smooth rotation of the armature
5. Check for a good connection of the wires coming from inside the machine and into the
connector leads mounted on the fiber glass protection panel

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EEC631L Three Phase Alternator

6. Press once the black reset/fuse button located at the lower right portion inside the fiber glass
panel to ensure that the fuse is not tripped.
7. Close the fiber glass protection panel and perform continuity test for the armature circuit
(terminal pair 1-2) of the DC motor
8. Perform continuity test for the Shunt circuit (terminal pair 5-6) of the DC motor
9. Set rheostat knob to minimum setting. Connect the multi-meter tester at terminal pair 7-8. Set
instrument to measure resistance. Rotate rheostat knob to increase resistance. Observe
multi-meter if resistance reading increases.

Equipment 8311: Resistance Module and Equipment 8321: Inductance Module

1. Check the toggle switch for any loose part when you toggle the switch.
2. Turn off all switches.
3. Connect in parallel each bank of resistors
4. Plug the probes of the multi-tester; one on top and the other at the bottom
5. Using the resistance setting of the multi-tester, check the resistance of each resistor by
turning on each switch and compare the multi-tester reading with the indicated resistance
value in the front panel of the module.

Equipment 8331: Capacitance Module

1. Check the toggle switch for any loose part when you toggle the switch.
2. Turn off all switches.

Equipment 8426: AC Voltmeter, Equipment 8425: AC Ammeter, and Equipment 8412: DC Ammeter

1. Check the front panel for any breaks or damage


2. Check the good connection of the wires inside the meter modules and into the connector
leads mounted on the panel
3. Set all meter needles to zero. Adjust plastic screw on the front panel below the meter view
screen for each meter instrument using a screw driver if necessary

Equipment 8821: Power Supply Module

1. Set the main switch to OFF (0 position) and the control knob to zero (full counter clockwise,
minimum)
2. Using an AC Voltmeter module, connect each meter to each terminal pairs 1-2, 2-3, and 3-1.
3. Set meter selector switch to 7-N.
4. Plug and turn on the Power Supply module. Observe uniformity of all three pilot lamps. If not,
inform the instructor.
5. Observe the voltmeters if the voltage across each pair terminals 1-2, 2-3, and 3-1 is 208 V AC
thereabouts. If not, inform the instructor.
6. Observe the built-in meter if it will indicate a value of 120V DC thereabouts. If not, inform the
instructor.
7. Turn the knob to minimum (full counter clockwise), turn off the Power Supply Module and
unplug the work station.

Equipment 8920: Hand Tachometer

1. Check the rubber cone at the tip of the apparatus


2. Slide the switch to Contact position

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AC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.2
EEC631L Three Phase Alternator

3. Press the black button on the right side and check if a number zero is indicated in the view
screen.

8942: Connection Belt

1. Check for visible signs of wear and tear

MODULES SET UP ACTIVITIES


1. Place the DC Motor Module at the lower center slot (beside the Power Supply Module) of the
Mobile Workstation
2. Place the Synchronous Motor/Generator Module at the lower right slot of the Mobile Workstation
3. Place the AC Voltmeter Module on top of the Synchronous Motor/Generator Module
4. Place the DC Voltmeter/Ammeter Module on top of the DC Motor Module
5. Place the AC Ammeter Module on top of the Power Supply Module
6. Place the Inductive Load Module on top of the AC Ammeter Module
7. Place the Resistive Load Module on top of the DC Voltmeter/Ammeter Module
8. Place the Capacitive Load Module on top of the AC Voltmeter Module

PROCEDURES
1. Using your Three-Phase Synchronous Motor/Generator, DC Motor/Generator, Resistive Load,
Power Supply, AC Ammeter, AC Voltmeter and DC Voltmeter/Ammeter, connect the circuit shown
in Figure 2.1. Note that the balanced resistive load is wye-connected to the three-phase output of
the alternator. The alternator rotor is connected to the variable 0-120 V DC output of the power
supply, terminals 7 and N. The DC Shunt Motor winding is connected to the fixed 120 V dc output
of the power supply, Terminals 8 and N.

Figure 2.1

2. a. Couple the DC motor to the alternator with the connection belt.

b. Set the DC motor field rheostat at its full clockwise position for minimum resistance.

c. Set the alternator field rheostat at its full clockwise position for maximum resistance.

d. Adjust each resistance section for a resistance of 300 .

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EEC631L Three Phase Alternator

3. a. Turn on the power supply and, using the hand tachometer, adjust the DC motor rheostat for
a motor speed of 1800 rpm.

NOTE: This speed must be kept constant for the remainder of the experiment!

b. Close switch S1 in the synchronous generator (alternator).

c. Adjust the DC excitation of the alternator until the output voltage E 1 = 208 V AC. Measure and
record the full load I1 and I2. (2 points)

I1 = _________ A AC I2 = _________ A DC

d. Open the three resistance load switches for a no load condition on the alternator and measure
and record the no load E1 and I2. Remember to check the motor speed and readjust to 1800
rpm if required. (2 points)

E1 = _________ V AC I2 = _________ A DC

e. Return the voltage to zero and turn off the power supply.

f. Calculate the alternator regulation with resistive loading. (2 points)


VNL VFL
%regulation x100%
VFL

% regulation = _________ %

4. a. Using the Inductive Load Module, replace the resistive load with an inductive load.

b. Adjust each inductance section for a reactance X L of 300 .

c. Repeat procedure 3 and record the full load values of I1 and I2. (2 points)

I1 = __________ A AC I2 = _________ A DC

d. Open the three inductive load switches for a no load condition on the alternator and measure
and record the no load E1 and I2. Remember to check the motor speed and readjust to 1800
rpm if required. (2 points)

E1 = __________ V AC I2 = _________ A DC

e. Return the voltage to zero and turn off the power supply.

f. Calculate the alternator regulation with inductive loading. (2 points)


VNL VFL
%regulation x100%
VFL

% regulation = ___________ %

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g. With inductive load, does the stator magnetomotive force air or oppose the rotor

magnetomotive force? (1 point) _____________

5. a. Using the Capacitive Load Module, replace the resistive load with an inductive load.

b. Adjust each capacitance section for a reactance X C of 300 .

c. Repeat procedure 3 and record the full load values of I1 and I2. (2 points)

I1 = ___________ A AC I2 = __________ A DC

d. Open the three capacitive load switches for a no load condition on the alternator and measure
and record the no load E1 and I2. Remember to check the motor speed and readjust to 1800
rpm if required. (2 points)

E1 = ___________ V AC I2 = __________ A DC

e. Return the voltage to zero and turn off the power supply.

f. Calculate the alternator regulation with capacitive loading. (2 points)


VNL VFL
%regulation x100%
VFL

% regulation = __________ %

g. With capacitive load, does the stator magnetomotive force air or oppose the rotor

magnetomotive force? (1 point) ______________

6. a. With a capacitive reactance load of 1200 per phase, turn on the power supply and adjust
for a motor speed of 1800 rpm.

b. Adjust the DC excitation of the alternator until the output voltage E 1 = 208 V AC.

c. Increase the capacitive loading switching on an additional reactance of 600 in parallel with
each of the 1200 sections and observe what happens. (2 points)

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

d. Increase the capacitive loading further by switching the 300 across each section and record
the observation. (2 points)

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

e. Return the voltage to zero and turn off the power supply.

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EEC631L Three Phase Alternator

f. Explain your observation. (2 points)

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

7. a. Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 2.2. Note that only one of the alternator phases has a
load.

Fig. 2.2

b. Turn on the power supply and adjust the DC motor rheostat for a motor speed of 1800 rpm.

c. Adjust the DC excitation of the alternator until the voltage across the 600 load E1 = 208
V AC. Measure and record the two other phase voltages E2 and E3. (2 points)

E2 = _________ V AC E3 = _________ V AC

d. Turn off the power supply without touching any of the variable controls.

e. Reconnect the three AC voltmeters so that they will measure the voltage across each of
the three stator windings.

f. Turn on the power supply. Measure and record the voltage across each of the three stator
windings. (2 points)

E14 = __________ V AC E25 = _________ V AC E36 = __________ V AC

g. Return the voltage to zero and turn off the power supply.

h. Did the single-phase load produce a large imbalance? __________

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REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Why the alternator output voltage decreases with resistive load? (2 points)

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

2. Comment on the full-load rotor currents measured at inductive loading compared to


a resistive and capacitive loading. Comment on the basis that at each loading type, a
terminal voltage of 208 Volts is maintained. (3 points)

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

3. Why is it dangerous to connect an alternator to a long transmission line that behaves


like a capacitor? (2 points)

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

4. The rotor of an alternator, at rated power, dissipates more heat at a low lagging
power factor load that at high power factor load. Explain. (3 points)

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________
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