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LOW TEMPERATURE DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM

A MODELLING APPROACH

3rd 4DH Annual Conference

PhD Fellow Soma Mohammadi


18 Aug 2014

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Outline

What is the problem


Main idea
The approach
Results, Conclusion and discussion
Next steps

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What is the problem

In order to apply low-temperature concept for an


existing district heating network:

1. Winter Time, Peak heat load periods

2. Summer Time, Low heat load periods

There is need for new strategies in District Heating System.

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Main idea

Develop a model for thermo-hydraulic calculation of


District Heating Networks (DHN)

Optimal supply temperature in existing DHS


Heat loss in DHN, Pump power demand, Return temperature to the plant

Apply different solutions in developed model


Local heat pump for DHW temperature boosting,
Include individual heating systems

Production Distribution Consumption

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DHN modeling

Time delay
Transportation time from the power plant to the
consumers and back again
Distance Distribution
Flow velocity Network
Dynamics
Pipe heat capacity

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DHN modeling

Heat loss
Difference between the DH water temperature and the
surrounding soil temperature
Insulation material and thickness Distribution
Pipe material and size Network
Dynamics
Pipes configurations
+
Pressure loss
Pipe material, Pipe length, Pipe size
Dynamic of
Consumers
Flow velocity

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DHN modelling

Fully Dynamic modelling


Both temperature and flow are simulated
dynamically
Very short time steps (0.5 2 s)
Very large computer capacity
Long calculation time

Pressure and flow changes are spreading around 1,000


times faster than temperature fluctuations.

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DHN modelling

Pseudo- Dynamic modeling


The network is modelled in regular time intervals
(hourly or less time intervals).
Flow and pressure are modelled steady state.
Transient temperature is calculated dynamically.

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DHN modelling
dx = Element Length

Temperature Dynamic Undisturbed ground


simulation Tsoil
Finite element method
Qconduction
Implicit numerical Tinsulation
Q
approximations Twater-pipe

Tin Tout

Pipe element sections

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DHN Modelling

Main assumptions
Slug flow- Uniform velocity in radial direction
Axial heat transmission is neglected.
No temperature rises due to friction losses by
converting pump energy into heat
No Interaction between return and supply pipe
Constant water properties

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Model structure

Consumer Heat load Mass flow rate at


Consumer Return Temperature each consumer
Heat loss in the
network
Developed
Supply Temperature
Plant Supply Temperature model at each consumer
In MATLAB
Pump power demand

Pipe Data Return Temperature


Ground Temperature to Plant

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Developed model

The model is applied for a typical summer and winter


day by using Hourly data :

A District Heating system with 8 Consumers


Plant supply temperature = 75 C
Soil temperature = 4 14 C

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Developed model
10 m
25 m
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Typical winter and summer day


Aggregated heat load profile for 8
consumers (SH +DHW)
60
Winter
Pipe Type Aluflex Single pipe 50
Summer
40
Supply Temp 75C kWh
30
Element length 1m
20
Time interval 1 hour 3600 s
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*Aluflex : PEX/PUR
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Hour

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Developed model

750 s 2100 s

Consumer 2, Winter time Consumer 2, Summer time

1000 s 2400 s

End consumer, Winter time End consumer, Summer time

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Developed model

Summer Time Winter Time


Total Heat supply (kWh) - Qs 227 1000

Total Heat loss in DHN (kWh) - Qhl 19 24

Pump power demand (kWh) 0,0083 0,66


Qhl/Qs % 8,3 2,4

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Next Steps

Validation
Optimal Supply Temp for an
existing DHN Energy
consumption cost

GIS data for part of Skring

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Questions?

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