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Guest Editors: Mowaffaq Hajja, Peter S. Bullen, Janusz Matkowski, Edward Neuman,

and Slavko Simic

Means and Their Inequalities

International Journal of Mathematics and

Mathematical Sciences

Janusz Matkowski, Edward Neuman, and Slavko Simic

Copyright 2013 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.

This is a special issue published in International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. All articles are open access articles

distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any

medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Editorial Board

The editorial board of the journal is organized into sections that correspond to

the subject areas covered by the journal.

Algebra

A. Ballester-Bolinches, Spain Dalibor Froncek, USA Frank C. Sommen, Belgium

P. Basarab-Horwath, Sweden Heinz P. Gumm, Germany Yucai Su, China

Howard E. Bell, Canada P. Haukkanen, Finland Chun-Lei Tang, China

Martin J. Bohner, USA P. E. Jorgensen, USA Ram U. Verma, USA

Tomasz Brzezinski, UK V. R. Khalilov, Russia Dorothy I. Wallace, USA

Stefaan Caenepeel, Belgium Aloys Krieg, Germany Pei Y. Wu, Taiwan

Ral E. Curto, USA Robert H. Redfield, USA Siamak Yassemi, Iran

David E. Dobbs, USA Alexander Rosa, Canada Kaiming Zhao, Canada

Geometry

Teodor Bulboaca, Romania S. M. Gusein-Zade, Russia Misha Rudnev, UK

A. Cavicchioli, Italy Henryk Hudzik, Poland N. Shanmugalingam, USA

Der-Chen Chang, USA R. Lowen, Belgium Zhongmin Shen, China

Christian Corda, Italy Anil Maheshwari, Canada Nistor Victor, USA

M.-E. Craioveanu, Romania Frederic Mynard, USA Luc Vrancken, France

Jerzy Dydak, USA Hernando Quevedo, Mexico

B. Forster-Heinlein, Germany Frdric Robert, France

R. Diaconescu, Romania Laurent, Romania Andrzej Skowron, Poland

M. A. Efendiev, Germany Radko Mesiar, Slovakia Sergejs Solovjovs, Czech Republic

S. Gottwald, Germany S. Montes-Rodriguez, Spain Richard Wilson, Mexico

B. Jayaram, India Carles Noguera, Czech Republic

Mathematical Analysis

Asao Arai, Japan Xianguo Geng, China Songxiao Li, China

Martino Bardi, Italy Attila Gilanyi, Hungary Noel G. Lloyd, UK

Peter W. Bates, USA Jerome A. Goldstein, USA Raul F. Manasevich, Chile

H. Begehr, Germany Narendra K. Govil, USA B. N. Mandal, India

Wolfgang zu Castell, Germany Weimin Han, USA Manfred Moller, South Africa

Shih-sen Chang, China Seppo Hassi, Finland Enrico Obrecht, Italy

Charles E. Chidume, Nigeria Helge Holden, Norway Gelu Popescu, USA

Hi Jun Choe, Korea Nawab Hussain, Saudi Arabia Jean Michel Rakotoson, France

Rodica D. Costin, USA Petru Jebelean, Romania B. E. Rhoades, USA

Prabir Daripa, USA Shyam Kalla, India Paolo Emilio Ricci, Italy

H. S. V. De Snoo, The Netherlands Hark M. Kim, Republic of Korea Naseer Shahzad, Saudi Arabia

Lokenath Debnath, USA Evgeny Korotyaev, Germany Marianna A. Shubov, USA

Andreas Defant, Germany Irena Lasiecka, USA H. S. Sidhu, Australia

Sever Dragomir, Australia Yuri Latushkin, USA Linda R. Sons, USA

Ricardo Estrada, USA Bao Qin Li, USA Ilya M. Spitkovsky, USA

Marco Squassina, Italy Michael M. Tom, USA Yuxi Zheng, USA

H. M. Srivastava, Canada Ingo Witt, Germany

Peter Takac, Germany A. Zayed, USA

Operations Research

Erik J. Balder, The Netherlands Imed Kacem, France Shey-Huei Sheu, Taiwan

Shih-Pin Chen, Taiwan Yan K. Liu, China Theodore E. Simos, Greece

Tamer Eren, Turkey Wen L. Pearn, Taiwan Frank Werner, Germany

Onesimo H. Lerma, Mexico Mihai Putinar, USA Chin-Chia Wu, Taiwan

Kenneth S. Berenhaut, USA Joseph Hilbe, USA Niansheng Tang, China

J. Dshalalow, USA Vladimir Mityushev, Poland Andrei I. Volodin, Canada

Hans Engler, USA Andrew Rosalsky, USA

Serkan N. Erylmaz, Turkey Gideon Schechtman, Israel

Contents

Means and Their Inequalities, Mowaffaq Hajja, Peter S. Bullen, Janusz Matkowski,

Edward Neuman, and Slavko Simic

Volume 2013, Article ID 698906, 1 page

Volume 2013, Article ID 689560, 9 pages

Volume 2013, Article ID 283127, 7 pages

The Monotonicity Results for the Ratio of Certain Mixed Means and Their Applications,

Zhen-Hang Yang

Volume 2012, Article ID 540710, 13 pages

and Jian Zhang

Volume 2012, Article ID 315697, 15 pages

Complete Moment Convergence of Weighted Sums for Arrays of Rowwise -Mixing Random Variables,

Ming Le Guo

Volume 2012, Article ID 730962, 13 pages

Volume 2012, Article ID 597490, 9 pages

A Nice Separation of Some Seiffert-Type Means by Power Means, Iulia Costin and

Gheorghe Toader

Volume 2012, Article ID 430692, 6 pages

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Volume 2013, Article ID 698906, 1 page

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/698906

Editorial

Means and Their Inequalities

Edward Neuman,4 and Slavko Simic5

1

Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

2

University of British Columbia, 2329 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4

3

Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Econometrics, University of Zielona Gora, Szafrana 4a,

65-516 Zielona Gora, Poland

4

Southern Illinois University, 1220 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA

5

Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade, Serbia

Copyright 2013 Mowaffaq Hajja et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,

which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The theory of means has its roots in the work of the Py- arising from forms, making this aspect of the subject of

thagoreans who introduced the harmonic, geometric, and interest to algebraists as well. Extensions of Gausss outstand-

arithmetic means with reference to their theories of music ing discoveries that relate the evaluation of certain elliptic

and arithmetic. Later, Pappus introduced seven other means integrals to iterations of the arithmetic and geometric means

and gave the well-known elegant geometric proof of the that led to the beautiful arithmeticogeometric mean resulted

celebrated inequalities among the harmonic, geometric, and in so many interesting results and lines of research. A quick

arithmetic means. look at the table of contents of the book Pi and the AGM by

Nowadays, the families and types of means that are being J. M. Borwein and P. B. Borwein shows how extensive this

investigated by researchers and the variety of questions that line of research is and also shows that the subject is related to

almost everything.

are being asked about them are beyond the scope of any single

The theory of means has applications in so many other

survey, with the voluminous book Handbook of Means and

diverse fields. Quoting from the preface of the aforemen-

Their Inequalities by P. S. Bullen being the best such reference

tioned book of P. S. Bullen, these include electrostatics, heat

in this direction. The theory of means has grown to occupy a

conduction, chemistry, and even medicine.

prominent place in mathematics with hundreds of papers on This issue contains several papers that pertain to some of

the subject appearing every year. the the aforementioned subjects.

The strong relations and interactions of the theory of One of the papers is an exposition of certain elementary

means with the theories of inequalities, functional equations, aspects of the subject, together with several open problems

and probability and statistics add greatly to its importance. that are within the comprehension of a graduate student. It

Continuous versions of some means and inequalities is hoped that such questions will lead to contributions from

among them tie it with real analysis and the theory of experts and amateurs alike.

integration. The fact that centers of triangles and simplices

Mowaffaq Hajja

can be viewed as means of points in the Euclidean spaces Peter S. Bullen

makes the subject of interest to geometers. Janusz Matkowski

Positivity and copositivity tests in the theory of forms Edward Neuman

naturally give rise to questions on internality tests of means Slavko Simic

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Volume 2013, Article ID 689560, 9 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/689560

Research Article

Some Elementary Aspects of Means

Mowaffaq Hajja

Department of Mathematics, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

Copyright 2013 Mowaffaq Hajja. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,

which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

We raise several elementary questions pertaining to various aspects of means. These questions refer to both known and newly

introduced families of means, and include questions of characterizations of certain families, relations among certain families,

comparability among the members of certain families, and concordance of certain sequences of means. They also include questions

about internality tests for certain mean-looking functions and about certain triangle centers viewed as means of the vertices. The

questions are accessible to people with no background in means, and it is also expected that these people can seriously investigate,

and contribute to the solutions of, these problems. The solutions are expected to require no more than simple tools from analysis,

algebra, functional equations, and geometry.

say that M N if M(1 , . . . , ) N(1 , . . . , ) for all

In all that follows, R denotes the set of real numbers and J J. We say that M < N if M(1 , . . . , ) < N(1 , . . . , )

denotes an interval in R. for all J for which 1 , . . . , are not all equal. This

By a data set (or a list) in a set , we mean a finite subset of exception is natural since M(, . . . , ) and N(, . . . , ) must

in which repetition is allowed. Although the order in which

be equal, with each being equal to . We say that M and N

the elements of a data set are written is not significant, we

are comparable if M N or N M.

sometimes find it convenient to represent a data set in of

A distance (or a distance function) on a set is defined to

size by a point in , the cartesian product of copies of .

We will call a data set = (1 , . . . , ) in R ordered if be any function : [0, ) that is symmetric and

1 . Clearly, every data set in R may be assumed positive definite, that is,

ordered.

A mean of variables (or a -dimensional mean) on J is (, ) = (, ) , , ,

defined to be any function M : J J that has the internal- (4)

ity property (, ) = 0 = .

min {1 , . . . , } M (1 , . . . , ) max {1 , . . . , } (1)

for all in J. It follows that a mean M must have the property Thus a metric is a distance that satisfies the triangle inequality

M(, . . . , ) = for all in J.

Most means that we encounter in the literature, and all (, ) + (, ) (, ) , , , , (5)

means considered below, are also symmetric in the sense that

M (1 , . . . , ) = M ((1) , . . . , () ) (2) a condition that we find too restrictive for our purposes.

for all permutations on {1, . . . , }, and 1-homogeneous in the

sense that 2. Examples of Means

M (1 , . . . , ) = M ((1) , . . . , () ) (3) The arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means of two pos-

for all permissible R. itive numbers were known to the ancient Greeks; see [1,

2 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

respectively, and are defined, for , > 0, by

1/

1 + + 1/

+ lim ( ) = (1 . . . ) (14)

A (, ) = , 0

2

for all 1 , . . . , > 0.

G (, ) = ,

The inequalities (7) can be written as P1 < P0 < P1 .

2 2 These inequalities hold for any number of variables and they

H (, ) = = . follow from the more general fact that P (1 , . . . , ), for

1/ + 1/ +

fixed 1 , . . . , > 0, is strictly increasing with . Power means

(6) are studied thoroughly in [3, Chapter III].

The celebrated inequalities

3. Mean-Producing Distances and

H (, ) < G (, ) < A (, ) , > 0 (7)

Distance Means

were also known to the Greeks and can be depicted in the

It is natural to think of the mean of any list of points in any

well-known figure that is usually attributed to Pappus and

set to be the point that is closest to that list. It is also natural

that appears in [2, p. 364]. Several other less well known

to think of a point as closest to a list of points if the sum of its

means were also known to the ancient Greeks; see [1, pp. 84

distances from these points is minimal. This mode of thinking

90].

associates means to distances.

The three means above, and their natural extensions to

If is a distance on , and if = (1 , . . . , ) is a data set

any number of variables, are members of a large two-

in , then a -mean of is defined to be any element of at

parameter family of means, known now as the Gini means and

which the function

defined by

1/()

( , . . . , ) () = (, ) (15)

, (1 , . . . , ) = ( 1 ) , (8) =1

(1 , . . . , )

where are the Newton polynomials defined by attains its minimum. It is conceivable that (15) attains its min-

imum at many points, or nowhere at all. However, we shall be

mainly interested in distances on J for which (15) attains

(1 , . . . , ) = . (9) its minimum at a unique point that, furthermore, has the

=1

property

Means of the type ,1 are known as Lehmers means, and

those of the type ,0 are known as Holder or power means. min { : } max { : } (16)

Other means that have been studied extensively are the

elementary symmetric polynomial and elementary symmetric for every data set . Such a distance is called a mean-produc-

polynomial ratio means defined by ing or a mean-defining distance, and the point is called the

-mean of or the mean of arising from the distance and

1/ will be denoted by (). A mean M is called a distance mean

/

( ) , , (10) if it is of the form for some distance .

1 /1

where is the th elementary symmetric polynomial in Problem Set 1. (1-a) Characterize those distances on J that are

variables, and where mean-producing.

(1-b) Characterize those pairs of mean producing distan-

ces on J that produce the same mean.

= ( ) . (11)

(1-c) Characterize distance means.

These are discussed in full detail in the encyclopedic work [3,

Chapters III and V]. 4. Examples of Mean-Producing Distances

It is obvious that the power means P defined by

If 0 is the discrete metric defined on R by

1/

1 + +

P (1 , . . . , ) = ,0 (1 , . . . , ) = ( ) 1 if =,

0 (, ) = { (17)

(12) 0 if = ,

that correspond to the values = 1 and = 1 are nothing but then the function () in (15) is nothing but the number

the harmonic and arithmetic means H and A, respectively. It of elements in the given data set that are different from

is also natural to set , and therefore every element having maximum frequency

1/ in minimizes (15) and is hence a 0 -mean of . Thus the

P0 (1 , . . . , ) = G (1 , . . . , ) = (1 . . . ) , (13) discrete metric gives rise to what is referred to in statistics as

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 3

the mode of . Due to the nonuniqueness of the mode, the with equality if and only if 1 = = = . Thus

discrete metric is not a mean-producing distance. is convex and cannot attain its minimum at more than one

Similarly, the usual metric = 1 defined on R by point. That it attains its minimum follows from the continuity

of (), the compactness of [1 , ], and the obvious fact that

1 (, ) = | | (18) () is increasing on [ , ) and is decreasing on (, 1 ].

If we denote the mean that defines by , then () is the

is not a mean-producing distance. In fact, it is not very diffi- unique zero of

cult to see that if = (1 , . . . , ) is an ordered data set of

even size = 2, then any number in the closed interval

1

[ , +1 ] minimizes sign ( ) , (26)

=1

(19) where sign() is defined to be 1 if is nonnegative and 1

=1

otherwise.

Note that no matter what > 1 is, the two-dimensional

and is therefore a 1 -mean of . Similarly, one can show that

mean arising from is the arithmetic mean. Thus when

if is of an odd size = 2 1, then is the unique 1 -

studying , we confine our attention to the case when the

mean of . Thus the usual metric on R gives rise to what is

number of variables is greater than two. For such , it is

referred to in statistics as the median of .

impossible in general to compute () in closed form.

On the other hand, the distance 2 defined on R by

Problem 2. It would be interesting to investigate comparabil-

2 (, ) = ( )2 (20)

ity among { : > 1}.

is a mean-producing distance, although it is not a metric. In It is highly likely that no two means are comparable.

fact, it follows from simple derivative considerations that the

function 5. Deviation and Sparseness

If is a mean-producing distance on , and if is the

2

( ) (21) associated mean, then it is natural to define the -deviation

=1

D () of a data set = (1 , . . . , ) by an expression like

attains its minimum at the unique point

D () = { ( () , ) : 1 } . (27)

1 Thus if is defined by

= ( ) . (22)

=1

2

(, ) = ( ) , (28)

Thus 2 is a mean-producing distance, and the corresponding

mean is nothing but the arithmetic mean. then is nothing but the arithmetic mean or ordinary

It is noteworthy that the three distances that come to average defined by

mind most naturally give rise to the three most commonly

used means in statistics. In this respect, it is also worth 1 + +

mentioning that a fourth mean of statistics, the so-called = (1 , . . . , ) = , (29)

midrange, will be encountered below as a very natural limiting

distance mean. and D is the (squared) standard deviation (2) given by

The distances 1 and 2 (and in a sense, 0 also) are mem-

bers of the family of distances defined by 2 2

+ +

(2) (1 , . . . , ) = 1 . (30)

(, ) = | | . (23)

In a sense, this provides an answer to those who are puzzled

It is not difficult to see that if > 1, then is a mean-produc-

and mystified by the choice of the exponent 2 (and not any

ing distance. In fact, if = (1 , . . . , ) is a given data set, and

other exponent) in the standard definition of the standard

if

deviation given in the right-hand side of (30). In fact, distance

means were devised by the author in an attempt to remove

() = , (24) that mystery. Somehow, we are saying that the ordinary

=1

average and the standard deviation (2) must be taken

or discarded together, being both associated with the same

then

distance given in (28). Since few people question the

2 sensibility of the definition of given in (29), accepting the

() = ( 1) 0, (25) standard definition of the standard deviation given in (30) as

=1 is becomes a must.

4 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

It is worth mentioning that choosing an exponent other = (1 , . . . , ) is just another way of saying that the point

than 2 in (30) would result in an essentially different notion (, . . . , ) is a best approximant in of the point (1 , . . . , )

of deviations. More precisely, if one defines () by with respect to the -norm given in (34). Here, a point in

a subset of a metric (or distance) space (, ) is said to be a

best approximant in of if (, ) = min{(, ) :

() 1 + + (31)

(1 , . . . , ) = , }. Also, a subset of (, ) is said to be Chebyshev if every

in has exactly one best approximant in ; see [4, p. 21].

then () and (2) would of course be unequal, but more The discussion above motivates the following definition.

importantly, they would not be monotone with respect to each

other, in the sense that there would exist data sets and Definition 1. Let J be an interval in R and let be a distance

with (2) () > () () and (2) () < () (). Thus the choice on J . If the diagonal (J ) of J defined by

of the exponent in defining deviations is not as arbitrary as (J ) = {(1 , . . . , ) J : 1 = = } (35)

some may feel. On the other hand, it is (27) and not (31) that

is the natural generalization of (30). This raises the following, is Chebyshev (with respect to ), then the -dimensional

expectedly hard, problem. mean on J defined by declaring (1 , . . . , ) = if

and only if (, . . . , ) is the best approximant of (1 , . . . , ) in

Problem 3. Let be the distance defined by (, ) = (J ) is called the Chebyshev or best approximation -mean

| | , and let the associated deviation D defined in (27) or the best approximation mean arising from .

be denoted by D . Is D monotone with respect to D2 for any

=2, in the sense that In particular, if one denotes by the best approximation

-dimensional mean on R arising from (the distance on R

D () > D () D2 () > D2 ()? (32) induced by) the norm , then the discussion above says

that exists for all > 1 and that it is equal to defined

We end this section by introducing the notion of sparse-

in Section 4.

ness and by observing its relation with deviation. If is a

In view of this, one may also define to be the best

mean-producing distance on J, and if is the associated

approximation mean arising from the -norm of , that is,

mean, then the -sparseness S () of a data set =

the norm defined on R by

(1 , . . . , ) in J can be defined by

(1 , . . . , ) = max { : 1 } . (36)

S () = { ( , ) : 1 < } . (33)

It is not very difficult to see that () is nothing but what

It is interesting that when is defined by (28), the standard

is referred to in statistics as the mid-range of . Thus if =

deviation coincides, up to a constant multiple, with the

(1 , . . . , ) is an ordered data set, then

sparsenss. One wonders whether this pleasant property char-

acterizes this distance . 1 +

() = . (37)

2

Problem Set 4. (4-a) Characterize those mean-producing dis-

tances whose associated mean is the arithmetic mean. In view of the fact that cannot be defined by anything like

(4-b) If is as defined in (28), and if is another mean- (23) and is thus meaningless, natural question arises as to

producing distance whose associated mean is the arithmetic whether

mean, does it follow that D and D are monotone with

respect to each other? () = lim () (or equivalently = lim ())

(4-c) Characterize those mean-producing distances for

(38)

which the deviation D () is determined by the sparseness

S () for every data set , and vice versa. for every . An affirmative answer is established in [5,

Theorem 1]. In that theorem, it is also established that

6. Best Approximation Means

lim () (or equivalently lim ()) = ()

It is quite transparent that the discussion in the previous sec-

tion regarding the distance mean , > 1, can be written (39)

in terms of best approximation in , the vector space R

endowed with the -norm defined by for all and all . All of this can be expressed by saying that

is continuous in for (1, ] for all .

1/ We remark that there is no obvious reason why (38)

(1 , . . . , ) = ( ) . (34) should immediately follow from the well known fact that

=1

lim = (40)

If we denote by = the line in R consisting of the

points (1 , . . . , ) with 1 = = , then to say that for all points in R .

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 5

Problem Set 5. Suppose that is a sequence of distances on (7-a) Explore how the value of () compares with the

a set that converges to a distance (in the sense that common practice of taking the median of to be the

lim (, ) = (, ) for all , in ). Let . midpoint of the median interval (defined in (42) for

various values of .

(5-a) If is Chebyshev with respect to each , is it

necessarily true that is Chebyshev with respect to (7-b) Is continuous on R ? If not, what are its points of

? discontinuity?

(5-b) If is Chebyshev with respect to each and with

(7-c) Given R , is the convergence of () (as

respect to and if is the best approximant in of

with respect to and is the best approximant decreases to 1) to () monotone?

in of with respect to , does it follow that

The convergence of () (as decreases to 1) to ()

converges to ?

is described in [5, Theorem 4], where it is proved that the

We end this section by remarking that if = is convergence is ultimately monotone. It is also proved in

the -dimensional best approximation mean arising from a [5, Theorem 5] that when = 3, then the convergence is

distance on J , then is significant only up to its values of monotone.

the type (, V), where (J ) and V (J ). Other values It is of course legitimate to question the usefulness of

of are not significant. This, together with the fact that defining the median to be , but that can be left to statis-

ticians and workers in relevant disciplines to decide. It is also

every mean is a best approximation mean arising legitimate to question the path that we have taken the limit

(41) along. In other words, it is conceivable that there exists, in

from a metric, addition to , a sequence of distances on R that converges

makes the study of best approximation means less interesting. to 1 such that the limit , as decreases to 1, of their

Fact (41) was proved in an unduly complicated manner in associated distance means is not the same as the limit of

[6], and in a trivial way based on a few-line set-theoretic . In this case, would have as valid a claim as to being

argument in [7]. the median. However, the naturality of may help accepting

as a most legitimate median.

Problem 6. Given a mean M on J, a metric on J is

constructed in [6] so that M is the best approximation Problem Set 8. Suppose that and , N, are sequences

mean arising from . Since the construction is extremely of distances on a set that converge to the distances

complicated in comparison with the construction in [7], it is and

, respectively (in the sense that lim (, ) =

desirable to examine the construction of in [6] and see what (, ) for all , in , etc.).

other nice properties (such as continuity with respect to the

usual metric) has. This would restore merit to the construc- (8-a) If each , N, is mean producing with corre-

tion in [6] and to the proofs therein and provide raison detre sponding mean , does it follow that is mean

for the so-called generalized means introduced there. producing? If so, and if the mean produced by is

, is it necessarily true that converges to ?

7. Towards a Unique Median

(8-b) If and , N {}, are mean producing

As mentioned earlier, the distance 1 on R defined by (23)

does not give rise to a (distance) mean. Equivalently, the 1- distances with corresponding means and , and

norm 1 on R defined by (34) does not give rise to a if = for all N, does it follow that =

(best approximation) mean. These give rise, instead, to the ?

many-valued function known as the median. Thus, following

the statisticians mode of thinking, one may set

8. Examples of Distance Means

1 () = 1 () = the median interval of

(42) It is clear that the arithmetic mean is the distance mean

= the set of all medians of . arising from the the distance 2 given by 2 (, ) = ( )2 .

From a mathematicians point of view, however, this leaves a Similarly, the geometric mean on the set of positive numbers

lot to be desired, to say the least. The feasibility and naturality is the distance mean arising from the distance G given by

of defining as the limit of as approaches gives

us a clue on how the median 1 may be defined. It is a G (, ) = (ln ln )2 . (43)

pleasant fact, proved in [5, Theorem 4], that the limit of ()

(equivalently of ()) as decreases to 1 exists for every In fact, this should not be amazing since the arithmetic mean

R and equals one of the medians described in (42). This A on R and the geometric mean G on (0, ) are equivalent

limit can certainly be used as the definition of the median. in the sense that there is a bijection : (0, ) R, namely

() = ln , for which G(, ) = 1 A((), ()) for all

Problem Set 7. Let be as defined in Section 4, and let be , . Similarly, the harmonic and arithmetic means on (0, )

the limit of as decreases to 1. are equivalent via the bijection () = 1/, and therefore

6 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

the harmonic mean is the distance mean arising from the deviation, and if 1 , . . . , are given, then the -deviation

distance H given by mean of 1 , . . . , is defined to be the unique zero of

1 1 2 (1 , ) + + ( , ) . (49)

H (, ) = ( ) . (44)

It is direct to see that (49) has a unique zero and that this zero

The analogous question pertaining to the logarithmic mean does indeed define a mean.

L defined by

Problem 11. Characterize deviation means and explore their

exact relationship with distance means.

L (, ) = , , > 0, (45)

ln ln If is a deviation, then (following [11]), one may define

by

remains open.

Problem 9. Decide whether the mean L (defined in (45)) is (, ) = (, ) . (50)

a distance mean.

Then (, ) 0 and (, ) is a strictly convex function in

9. Quasi-Arithmetic Means for every . The -deviation mean of 1 , . . . , is nothing but

the unique value of at which (1 , ) + + ( , ) attains

A -dimensional mean M on J is called a quasi-arithmetic its minimum. Thus if happens to be symmetric, then

mean if there is a continuous strictly monotone function would be a distance and the -deviation mean would be the

from J to an interval I in R such that distance mean arising from the distance .

M (1 , . . . , ) = 1 (A ( (1 ) , . . . , ( ))) (46)

11. Other Ways of Generating New Means

for all in J. We have seen that the geometric and harmonic If and are differentiable on an open interval J, and if <

means are quasi-arithmetic and concluded that they are are points in J such that () =(), then there exists, by

distance means. To see that L is not quasi-arithmetic, we Cauchys mean value theorem, a point in (, ), such that

observe that the (two-dimensional) arithmetic mean, and

hence any quasi-arithmetic mean M, satisfies the elegant () () ()

functional equation = . (51)

() () ()

M (M (M (, ) , ) , M (M (, ) , )) = M (, ) (47) If and are such that is unique for every , , then we call

the Cauchy mean of and corresponding to the functions

for all , > 0. However, a quick experimentation with a

and , and we denote it by C, (, ).

random pair (, ) shows that (47) is not satisfied by L.

Another natural way of defining means is to take a

This shows that L is not quasi-arithmetic, but does not

continuous function that is strictly monotone on J, and to

tell us whether L is a distance mean, and hence does not

define the mean of , J, =, to be the unique point in

answer Problem 9.

(, ) such that

The functional equation (47) is a weaker form of the

functional equation 1

() = () . (52)

M (M (, ) , M (, )) = M (M (, ) , M (, )) (48)

We call the mean value (mean) of and corresponding to

for all , , , > 0. This condition, together with the

, and we denote it by V(, ).

assumption that M is strictly increasing in each variable,

Clearly, if is an antiderivative of , then (53) can be

characterizes two-dimensional quasi-arithmetic means; see

written as

[8, Theorem 1, pp. 287291]. A thorough discussion of quasi-

arithmetic means can be found in [3, 8]. () ()

() = . (53)

Problem 10. Decide whether a mean M that satisfies the func-

tional equation (47) (together with any necessary smoothness Thus V (, ) = C, (, ), where is the identity function.

conditions) is necessarily a quasi-arithmetic mean. For more on the these two families of means, the reader

is referred to [12] and [13], and to the references therein.

10. Deviation Means In contrast to the attitude of thinking of the mean as the

number that minimizes a certain function, there is what one

Deviation means were introduced in [9] and were further may call the Chisini attitude that we now describe. A function

investigated in [10]. They are defined as follows. on J may be called a Chisini function if and only if the

A real-valued function = (, ) on R2 is called a equation

deviation if (, ) = 0 for all and if (, ) is a strictly

decreasing continuous function of for every . If is a (1 , . . . , ) = (, . . . , ) (54)

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 7

has a unique solution = [1 , ] for every ordered data A form = (1 , . . . , ) is said to be copositive if

set (1 , . . . , ) in J. This unique solution is called the Chisini (1 , . . . , ) 0 for all 0. Copositive forms arise

mean associated to . In Chisinis own words, is said to be in the theory of inequalities and are studied in [14] (and in

the mean of numbers 1 , . . . , with respect to a problem, references therein). One of the interesting questions that one

in which a function of them (1 , . . . , ) is of interest, if the may ask about forms pertains to algorithms for deciding

function assumes the same value when all the are replaced whether a given form is copositive. This problem, in full

by the mean value : (1 , . . . , ) = (, . . . , ); see [14, page generality, is still open. However, for quadratic and cubic

256] and [1]. Examples of such Chisini means that arise in forms, we have the following satisfactory answers.

geometric configurations can be found in [15].

Theorem 2. Let = (1 , . . . , ) be a real symmetric form

()

Problem 12. Investigate how the families of distance, devia- in any number 2 of variables. Let v , 1 , be the

tion, Cauchy, mean value, and Chisini means are related. -tuple whose first coordinates are 1s and whose remaining

coordinates are 0 s.

12. Internality Tests

(i) If is quadratic, then is copositive if and only if 0

According to the definition of a mean, all that is required of a at the two test -tuples

function M : J J to be a mean is to satisfy the internality

property k1() = (1, 0, . . . , 0) , k() = (1, 1, . . . , 1) . (60)

min {1 , . . . , } M (1 , . . . , ) max {1 , . . . , } (55)

(ii) If is cubic, then is copositive if and only if 0 at

for all J. However, one may ask whether it is sufficient, the test -tuples

for certain types of functions M, to verify (55) for a finite,

preferably small, number of well-chosen -tuples. This ques- ()

k = (1, . . . , 1, 0, . . . , 0) , 1 . (61)

tion is inspired by certain elegant theorems in the theory of

copositive forms that we summarize below.

Part (i) is a restatement of Theorem 1(a) in [16]. Theo-

12.1. Copositivity Tests for Quadratic and Cubic Forms. By a rem 1(b) there is related and can be restated as

(real) form in variables, we shall always mean a homoge-

neous polynomial = (1 , . . . , ) in the indeterminates (1 , . . . , ) 0, R,

1 , . . . , having coefficients in R. When the degree of a

form is to be emphasized, we call a -form. Forms of 0 at the 3 -tuples (62)

degrees 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are referred to as linear, quadratic, (1, 0, . . . , 0) , (1, 1, . . . , 1) , (1, 1, 0, . . . , 0) .

cubic, quartic, and quintic forms, respectively.

The set of all -forms in variables is a vector space (over Part (ii) was proved in [17] for 3 and in [18] for all . Two

R) that we shall denote by F() . It may turn out to be an very short and elementary inductive proofs are given in [19].

interesting exercise to prove that the set It is worth mentioning that the test -tuples in (61)

do not suffice for establishing the copositivity of a quartic

{ } form even when = 3. An example illustrating this that

{ : = } (56)

uses methods from [20] can be found in [19]. However, an

{ =1 =1

} algorithm for deciding whether a symmetric quartic form

is a basis, where is the Newton polynomial defined by in variables is copositive that consists in testing at -tuples

of the type

= . (57)

=1 (

, . . . , , 1, . . . , 1, 0, . . . , 0) ,

The statement above is quite easy to prove in the special case (63)

3, and this is the case we are interested in in this paper. 0 , , +

We also discard the trivial case = 1 and assume always that

2. is established in [21]. It is also proved there that if = 3, then

Linear forms can be written as 1 , and they are not the same algorithm works for quintics but does not work for

worth much investigation. Quadratic forms can be written as forms of higher degrees.

2

= 12 + 2 = ( ) + ( 2 ) . (58) 12.2. Internality Tests for Means Arising from Symmetric

=1 =1 Forms. Let F() be the vector space of all real -forms in

variables, and let , 1 , be the Newton polynomials

Cubic and quartic forms can be written, respectively, as

defined in (57). Means of the type

13 + 1 2 + 3 ,

(59) 1/()

M=( ) , (64)

14 + 12 2 + 1 3 + 22 .

8 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

where is a symmetric form of degree , are clearly sym- 1< ( )2 , then is internal if and only

metric and 1-homogeneous, and they abound in the literature. if it is internal at the two test -tuples k() = (1, 1, . . . , 1)

These include the family of Gini means , defined in (8) ()

and k1 = (1, 1, . . . , 1, 0). In the general case, sufficient and

(and hence the Lehmer and Holder means). They also include

the elementary symmetric polynomial and elementary sym- necessary conditions for internality of , in terms of

metric polynomial ratio means defined earlier in (10). the coefficients of and , are found in [23, Theorem 3].

In view of Theorem 2 of the previous section, it is tempt- However, it is not obvious whether these conditions can be

ing to ask whether the internality of a function M of the type rewritten in terms of test -tuples in the manner done in

described in (64) can be established by testing it at a finite Theorem 3.

set of test -tuples. Positive answers for some special cases of

(64), and for other related types, are given in the following 13. Extension of Means, Concordance

theorem. of Means

Theorem 3. Let , , and be real symmetric forms of degrees The two-dimensional arithmetic mean A(2) defined by

1, 2, and 3, respectively, in any number 2 of nonnegative 1 + 2

variables. Let v() , 1 , be as defined in Theorem 2. A(2) (1 , 2 ) = (67)

2

(i) is internal if and only if it is internal at the two test can be extended to any dimension by setting

()

-tuples: k() = (1, 1, . . . , 1) and V1 = (1, 1, . . . , 1, 0). 1 + +

A() (1 , . . . , ) = . (68)

(ii) / is internal if and only if it is internal at the two test

-tuples: k() = (1, 1, . . . , 1) and V1() = (1, 0, . . . , 0). Although very few people would disagree on this, nobody

can possibly give a mathematically sound justification of the

(iii) If 4, then is internal if and only if it is internal

3

feeling that the definition in (68) is the only (or even the best)

at the test -tuples

definition that makes the sequence () of means harmonious

or concordant. This does not seem to be an acceptable defini-

()

k = (1, . . . , 1, 0, . . . , 0) , 1 . (65) tion of the notion of concordance.

In a private communication several years ago, Professor

Zsolt Pales told me that Kolmogorov suggested calling a

Parts (i) and (ii) are restatements of Theorems 3 and 5 in sequence M() of means on J, where M() is -dimensional,

[16]. Part (iii) is proved in [22] in a manner that leaves a lot to concordant if for every and and every , in J, we have

be desired. Besides being rather clumsy, the proof works for

4 only. The problem for 5, together with other open M(+) (1 , . . . , , 1 , . . . , )

problems, is listed in the next problem set. (69)

= M(2) (M() (1 , . . . , ) , M (1 , . . . , )) .

Problem Set 13. Let , , and be real symmetric cubic forms

of degrees 1, 2, and 3, respectively, in non-negative variables. He also told me that such a definition is too restrictive and

seems to confirm concordance in the case of the quasi-arith-

(13-a) Prove or disprove that 3 is internal if and only if it metic means only.

is internal at the test -tuples

Problem 14. Suggest a definition of concordance, and test it

on sequences of means that you feel concordant. In particular,

()

k = (1, . . . , 1, 0, . . . , 0) , 1 . (66) test it on the existing generalizations, to higher dimensions,

of the logarithmic mean L defined in (45).

(13-b) Find, or prove the nonexistence of, a finite set of

test -tuples such that the internality of / at the -

14. Distance Functions in Topology

tuples in gurantees its internality at all nonnegative Distance functions, which are not necessarily metrics, have

-tuples. appeared early in the literature on topology. Given a distance

(13-c) Find, or prove the nonexistence of, a finite set of function on any set , one may define the open ball (, )

test -tuples such that the internality of at in the usual manner, and then one may declare a subset

the -tuples in guarantees its internality at all non- open if it contains, for every , an open ball (, ) with

negative -tuples. > 0. If has the triangle inequality, then one can proceed in

the usual manner to create a topology. However, for a general

Problem (13-b) is open even for = 2. In Section 6 of [15], distance , this need not be the case, and distances that give

it is shown that the two pairs (1, 0) and (1, 1) do not suffice as rise to a coherent topology in the usual manner are called

test pairs. semimetrics and they are investigated and characterized in

As for Problem (13-c), we refer the reader to [23], [2429]. Clearly, these are the distances for which the family

where means of the type were considered. It is {(, ) : > 0} of open balls centered at forms a local

proved in Theorem 2 there that when has the special form base at for every in .

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 9

15. Centers and Center-Producing Distances [12] M. E. Mays, Functions which parametrize means, The Ameri-

can Mathematical Monthly, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 677683, 1983.

A distance may be defined on any set whatsoever. In [13] B. Ebanks, Looking for a few good means, American Mathe-

particular, if is a distance on R2 and if the function () matical Monthly, vol. 119, no. 8, pp. 658669, 2012.

defined by [14] M. Hall, and M. Newman, Copositive and completely positive

quadratic forms, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical

Society, vol. 59, pp. 329339, 1963.

() = (, ) (70)

[15] R. Abu-Saris and M. Hajja, Geometric means of two positive

=1

numbers, Mathematical Inequalities & Applications, vol. 9, no.

attains its minimum at a unique point 0 that lies in the 3, pp. 391406, 2006.

convex hull of { 1 , . . . , } for every choice of 1 , . . . , in [16] M. Hajja, Radical and rational means of degree two, Mathe-

matical Inequalities & Applications, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 581593,

R2 , then will be called a center-producing distance.

2003.

The Euclidean metric 1 on R2 produces the Fermat-

[17] J. F. Rigby, A method of obtaining related triangle inequalities,

Torricelli center. This is defined to be the point whose distan- with applications, Univerzitet u Beogradu. Publikacije Elek-

ces from the given points have a minimal sum. Its square, trotehnickog Fakulteta. Serija Matematika i Fizika, no. 412460,

2 , which is just a distance but not a metric, produces the pp. 217226, 1973.

centroid. This is the center of mass of equal masses placed at [18] M. D. Choi, T. Y. Lam, and B. Reznick, Even symmetric sextics,

the given points. It would be interesting to explore the centers Mathematische Zeitschrift, vol. 195, no. 4, pp. 559580, 1987.

defined by for other values of . [19] M. Hajja, Copositive symmetric cubic forms, The American

Mathematical Monthly, vol. 112, no. 5, pp. 462466, 2005.

Problem 15. Let , > 1, be the distance defined on R2 by [20] K. B. Stolarsky, The power and generalized logarithmic means,

(, ) = , and let be a triangle. Let = American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 87, pp. 545548, 1980.

(, , ) be the point that minimizes [21] W. R. Harris, Real even symmetric ternary forms, Journal of

Algebra, vol. 222, no. 1, pp. 204245, 1999.

(, ) + (, ) + (, ) [22] R. Abu-Saris and M. Hajja, Internal cubic symmetric forms in

(71) a small number of variables, Mathematical Inequalities & Appli-

= + + . cations, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 863868, 2007.

[23] R. Abu-Saris and M. Hajja, Quadratic means, Journal of Math-

Investigate how , 1, are related to the known triangle ematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. 299313,

centers, and study the curve traced by them. 2003.

[24] A. V. Arhangelskii, Mappings and spaces, Russian Mathemat-

The papers [30, 31] may turn out to be relevant to this ical Surveys, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 115162, 1966.

problem. [25] F. Galvin and S. D. Shore, Completeness in semimetric spaces,

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[1] T. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics, vol. 1, Dover, New 1991.

York, NY, USA, 1981. [27] R. Kopperman, All topologies come from generalized metrics,

[2] T. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics, vol. 2, Dover, New American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 8997, 1988.

York, NY, USA, 1981. [28] D. E. Sanderson and B. T. Sims, A characterization and gen-

[3] P. S. Bullen, Handbook of Means and Their Inequalities, vol. eralization of semi-metrizability, The American Mathematical

560, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Monthly, vol. 73, pp. 361365, 1966.

2003. [29] W. A. Wilson, On semi-metric spaces, American Journal of

[4] F. Deutsch, Best Approximation in Inner Product Spaces, Mathematics, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 361373, 1931.

Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2001. [30] D. S. Mitrinovic, J. E. Pecaric, and V. Volenec, The generalized

[5] A. Al-Salman and M. Hajja, Towards a well-defined median, Fermat-Torricelli point and the generalized Lhuilier-Lemoine

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1987.

[6] F. B. Saidi, Generalized deviations and best approximation the-

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no. 2, pp. 271283, 2005. 1, pp. 1931, 1986.

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Hindawi Publishing Corporation

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Volume 2013, Article ID 283127, 7 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/283127

Research Article

On Some Intermediate Mean Values

Slavko Simic

Mathematical Institute SANU, Kneza Mihaila 36, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia

Copyright 2013 Slavko Simic. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which

permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

We give a necessary and sufficient mean condition for the quotient of two Jensen functionals and define a new class , (, ) of

mean values where , are continuously differentiable convex functions satisfying the relation () = (), R+ . Then we

asked for a characterization of , such that the inequalities (, ) , (, ) (, ) or (, ) , (, ) (, ) hold for

each positive , , where , , , are the harmonic, arithmetic, logarithmic, and identric means, respectively. For a subclass of

with () = , R, this problem is thoroughly solved.

metic, and Gini mean, respectively.

It is said that the mean is intermediate relating to the means An easy task is to construct intermediate means related to

and , if the relation two given means and with . For instance, for an

arbitrary mean , we have that

(, ) (, ) (, ) (1)

(, ) ( (, ) , (, )) (, ). (4)

holds for each two positive numbers , .

It is also well known that The problem is more difficult if we have to decide whether

the given mean is intermediate or not. For example, the

min {, } (, ) (, ) relation

(, ) (, ) (, ) (, ) (2) (, ) (, ) (, ) (5)

max {, } ,

holds for each positive and if and only if 0 1, where

where the Stolarsky mean is defined by (cf [1])

1/(1)

1 1 1

= (, ) := 2( + ) ; (, ) := ( ) . (6)

( )

= (, ) := ; = (, ) := ; Also,

log log

(, ) (, ) (, ) (7)

1/()

( / )

= (, ) := ; holds if and only if 0 1, where the Holder mean of order

is defined by

+

= (, ) := ; = (, ) := /(+) /(+) +

1/

2 (, ) := ( ) . (8)

(3) 2

2 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

of a given mean by elements of an ordered class of means

(, ) , (, ) (, ), (17)

. A good example for this topic is comparison between the

logarithmic mean and the class of Holder means of order hold for each , R+ ?

. Namely, since 0 = lim 0 = and 1 = , it follows As an illustration, consider the function () defined to

from (2) that be

0 1. (9) + 1

{

{ , ( 1) =

0;

{ ( 1)

Since is monotone increasing in , an improving of the () = { log 1, = 0; (18)

{

{

above is given by Carlson [2]: + 1, = 1.

{ log

0 1/2 . (10) Since

{

{ , ( 1) =

0;

{

{ 1

{

{

0 1/3 (11) () = { l

{

{ 1 , = 0;

{

{ (19)

is the best possible approximation of the logarithmic mean by {

{

the means from the class . {log , = 1,

Numerous similar results have been obtained recently.

For example, an approximation of Seifferts mean by the class () = 2 , R, > 0,

is given in [4, 5].

it follows that () is a twice continuously differentiable

In this paper we will give best possible approximations

convex function for R, R+ .

for a whole variety of elementary means (2) by the class

Moreover, it is evident that (+1 , ) .

defined below (see Theorem 5).

We will give in the sequel a complete answer to the above

Let , be twice continuously differentiable (strictly)

question concerning the means

convex functions on R+ . By definition (cf [6], page 5),

+1 (, )

+ := (, ) (20)

(, ) := () + () 2 ( ) > 0, =

, (, )

2 (12)

defined by

(, ) = 0,

(, )

if and only if = .

+1 +1 +1

It turns out that the expression { 1 + 2(( + ) /2)

{

{ + 1 + 2(( + ) /2)

, R/ {1, 0, 1} ;

{

{

{

{

(, ) () + () 2 (( + ) /2) {

{ 2 log (( + ) /2) log log

, (, ) := = {

{ , = 1;

(, ) () + () 2 (( + ) /2) { 1/2 + 1/2 2/ ( + )

={

(13) {

{ log + log ( + ) log (( + ) /2)

{

{ , = 0;

{

{ 2 log (( + ) /2) log log

represents a mean of two positive numbers , ; that is, the {

{

{

{ ( )2

relation { , = 1.

{ 4 ( log + log ( + ) log (( + ) /2))

min {, } , (, ) max {, } (21)

(14)

Those means are obviously symmetric and homogeneous

holds for each , R+ , if and only if the relation of order one.

As a consequence we obtain some new intermediate mean

() = () (15) values; for instance, we show that the inequalities

Let , (0, ) and denote by the set {(, )} of (22)

1 (, ) (, )

convex functions satisfying the relation (15). There is a natural

question how to improve the bounds in (14); in this sense we hold for arbitrary , R+ . Note that

come upon the following intermediate mean problem.

22 log (/) log (/)

Open Question. Under what additional conditions on , 1 = ; 0 = ;

log (/)

, the inequalities (23)

1

1 = .

(, ) , (, ) (, ), (16) 2 log (/)

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 3

2. Results 3. Proofs

We prove firstly the following 3.1. Proof of Theorem 1. We prove firstly the necessity of the

condition (15).

Theorem 1. Let , 2 () with > 0. The expression Since , (, ) is a mean value for arbitrary , ;

, (, ) represents a mean of arbitrary numbers , if = , we have

and only if the relation (15) holds for .

min {, } , (, ) max {, } . (28)

Remark 2. In the same way, for arbitrary , > 0, + = 1,

Hence

it can be deduced that the quotient

lim , (, ) = . (29)

() + () ( + )

, (, ; , ) := (24)

() + () ( + ) From the other hand, due to lHospitals rule we obtain

represents a mean value of numbers , if and only if (15) () (( + ) /2)

holds. lim , (, ) = lim ( )

() (( + ) /2)

A generalization of the above assertion is the next. 2 () (( + ) /2)

= lim ( ) (30)

2 () (( + ) /2)

Theorem 3. Let , : R be twice continuously

differentiable functions with > 0 on and let = { }, ()

= 1, 2, . . . , = 1 be an arbitrary positive weight sequence. = .

Then the quotient of two Jensen functionals ()

Comparing (29) and (30) the desired result follows.

1 ( ) (1 )

, (, ) := , 2, (25) Suppose now that (15) holds and let < . Since () >

1 ( ) (1 ) 0 [, ] by the Cauchy mean value theorem there exists

(( + )/2, ) such that

represents a mean of an arbitrary set of real numbers

1 , 2 , . . . , if and only if the relation () (( + ) /2) ()

= = . (31)

() = () (26) () (( + ) /2) ()

But,

holds for each .

+

Remark 4. It should be noted that the relation () = () < < , (32)

2

determines in terms of in an easy way. Precisely,

and, since is strictly increasing, () ((+)/2) > 0,

() = () 2 () + + , (27) [, ].

Therefore, by (31) we get

where () := 1 () and and are constants.

+ +

( () ( )) () ( )

Our results concerning the means (, ), R are 2 2

(33)

included in the following. +

( () ( )) .

2

Theorem 5. For the class of means (, ) defined above, the

following assertions hold for each , R+ . Finally, integrating (33) over [, ] we obtain the assertion

from Theorem 1.

(1) The means (, ) are monotone increasing in ;

(2) (, ) (, ) for each 4; 3.2. Proof of Theorem 3. We will give a proof of this assertion

(3) (, ) (, ) (, ) for 3 1; by induction on .

By Remark 2, it holds for = 2.

(4) (, ) (, ) (, ) for 1/2 0;

Next, it is not difficult to check the identity

(5) there is a number 0 (1/12, 1/11) such that (, )

(, ) (, ) for 0 1;

( ) ( )

(6) there is a number 1 (1.03, 1.04) such that (, ) 1 1

(, ) (, ) for 1 2;

1 1

(7) (, ) (, ) (, ) for each 2 5; = (1 ) ( ( ) ( ))

(8) there is no finite such that the inequality (, ) 1 1

(, ) holds for each , R+ . + [(1 ) () + ( ) ((1 ) + )] ,

The above estimations are best possible. (34)

4 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

1

assertion of this type. Namely, for an arbitrary positive

:= ; := , = 1, 2, . . . , 1; sequence x = { } and an associated weight sequence p =

1 (1 ) { }, = 1, 2, . . ., denote

(35)

1

= 1.

1 (p, x)

Therefore, by induction hypothesis and Remark 2, we get

{ ( )

{

{ , R/ {0, 1} ;

{

{ ( 1)

( ) ( ) {

:= {log ( ) log , = 0;

1 1 {

{

{

{

{ log ( ) log ( ) , = 1.

max {1 , 2 , . . . 1 } (1 )

{

1 1 (40)

( ( ) ( ))

1 1

For R, > 0 we have

+ max {, } [(1 ) () + ( )

max {1 , 2 , . . . , }

1 1 which is equivalent to

((1 ) ( ( ) ( ))

1 1

Theorem 8. The sequence {+1 (p, x)/ (p, x)} is monotone

+ [(1 ) () + ( ) ((1 ) + )] ) increasing in , R.

This assertion follows applying the result from [7, Theo-

rem 2] which states the following.

= max {1 , 2 , . . . , } ( ( ) ( )) . Lemma 9. For < < < < +, the inequality

1 1

(36)

The inequality

( (p, x)) ( (p, x)) ( (p, x)) (42)

min {1 , 2 , . . . , } , (, ) (37)

can be proved analogously. holds for arbitrary sequences p, x.

For the proof of necessity, put 2 = 3 = = and

proceed as in Theorem 1. Putting there = , = + 1, = + + 1 and = ,

= + , = + + 1, we successively obtain

Remark 6. It is evident from (15) that if R+ then has to

be also convex on . Otherwise, it shouldnt be the case. For

example, the conditions of Theorem 3 are satisfied with () = (+1 (p, x))

+1

( (p, x)) ++1 (p, x),

3 /3, () = 2 , R. Hence, for an arbitrary sequence { }1 (43)

of real numbers, we obtain +1

(+ (p, x)) (p, x) (++1 (p, x)) .

3

1 3 (1 )

min {1 , 2 , . . . , } 2

3 (1 2 (1 ) ) (38) Since > 0, multiplying those inequalities we get the

relation (41), that is, the proof of Theorem 8.

max {1 , 2 , . . . , } . The part (1) of Theorem 5 follows for 1 = 2 = 1/2.

Because the above inequality does not depend on , a A general way to prove the rest of Theorem 5 is to use an

probabilistic interpretation of the above result is contained in easy-checkable identity

the following.

= (1 + , 1 ) , (44)

variable with support on (, +), one has (, )

()3 + 3 (min )

2

3 ()3 + 3 (max )

2

.

(39) with := ( )/( + ).

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 5

(, ) (, ) ()

= 1 2 ; = 1 2 ;

(, ) (, ) 2

(, ) 2

1

1

= ; = ( + ) 2

(, ) log (1 + ) log (1 ) + 1 =0 (2 2 + 1) ( + 1) (2 + 1)

=0

(, )

(, ) = 2 .

0

(1 + ) log (1 + ) (1 ) log (1 ) (51)

= exp ( 1) ;

2

Hence,

(, )

1

(, ) 0 = 1 = 0; 2 = , (52)

90

1

= exp ( ((1 + ) log (1 + ) + (1 ) log (1 ))) . and, after some calculation, we get

2

(45)

2 1 1

= (( + 2) ( + 1) ) ,

Therefore, we have to compare some one-variable ( + 1) (2 + 3) 1 2 + 1 1 2

inequalities and to check their validness for each (0, 1).

For example, we will prove that the inequality > 1.

(53)

(, ) (, ) (46)

Now, one can easily prove (by induction, e.g.) that

holds for each positive , if and only if 0.

Since (, ) is monotone increasing in , it is enough to

1 1

prove that := ( + 2) ( + 1) (54)

1 2 + 1 1 2

0 (, )

1. (47) is a negative real number for 2. Therefore 0, and the

(, ) proof of the first part is done. For 0 < < 1 we have

By the above formulae, this is equivalent to the assertion (, )

that the inequality 1

(, )

() 0 (48)

(1 ) ((1 + )+1 + (1 )+1 2) log ((1 + ) / (1 ))

holds for each (0, 1), with = 1

2 (1 + ) (2 (1 + ) (1 ) )

log (1 + ) log (1 ) 1

() := = 2 + (4 ) ( 0) .

2 6

(49) (55)

((1 + ) log (1 + ) + (1 ) log (1 ))

+ log (1 + ) + log (1 ). Therefore, (, ) > (, ) for > 0 and sufficiently

small := ( )/( + ).

We will prove that the power series expansion of () Similarly, we will prove that the inequality

have non-positive coefficients. Thus the relation (48) will be

proved. (, ) (, ) (56)

Since

holds for each , ; 0 < < if and only if 1.

2 As before, it is enough to consider the expression

log (1 + ) log (1 )

= ;

2 0 2 +1 (, )

= () () := () , (57)

1 (, )

2

2

log (1 + ) + log (1 ) = ;

0 +1 (50) with

() = 1;

2

(58)

2 (1 + ) log (1 + ) + (1 ) log (1 )

= 2 , () = .

0 ( + 1) (2 + 1) 2

6 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

It is not difficult to check the identity Therefore, by the transformation given above, we get

() () 5

() = . (59) log

3

= log [ ]

increasing for (0, 1). 3 (1 + )5 + (1 )5 2

Therefore

2 15 + 152 + 4

= log [ ]

(, ) 15 2 + 2

lim () = 1. (60)

1 (, ) 0+

1 + 2 + 4 /4 2

log [ ] = log (1 + )

By monotonicity it follows that (, ) (, ) for 1. 1 + 2 /2 2 (68)

For > 1, ( )/( + ) = , we have

2 4 6

1 = +

(, ) (, ) = ( ( 1) 2 + (4 )) (, ) 2 8 24

6 (61)

2 4 6

( 0+ ) . + + +

2 12 30

Hence, (, ) > (, ) for > 1 and sufficiently small. 1

= ((1 + ) log (1 + ) + (1 ) log (1 ))

From the other hand, 2

(, ) ( 1) (2+1 2) = log ,

lim [ 1] = 1 := () .

1 (, ) 2 ( + 1) (2 2)

(62) and the proof is done.

Further, we have to show that (, ) > (, ) for some

Examining the function (), we find out that it has the positive , whenever > 5.

only real zero at 0 1.0376 and is negative for (1, 0 ). Indeed, since

(1 + ) + (1 ) 2 = ( ) 2 + ( ) 4 + (6 ) , (69)

2 4

(, ) 4 log 2

lim () = . (63)

1 (, ) 1 for > 5 and sufficiently small , we get

Hence +1 2 +1 4 6

1 ( 2 ) + ( 4 ) + ( )

=

(, ) 4 log 2 + 1 ( 2 ) 2 + ( 4 ) 4 + (6 )

1 . (64)

1 (, )

1 + ( 1) ( 2) 2 /12 + (4 ) (70)

A calculation gives 4 log 2/ 1.0200. =

1 + ( 2) ( 3) 2 /12 + (4 )

Note also that 1

= 1 + ( ) 2 + (4 ) .

6 3

2 (, ) (, ) . (65)

Similarly,

Therefore, applying the assertion from the part 1, we get

1

= exp ( ((1 + ) log (1 + ) + (1 ) log (1 )))

(, ) (, ), 2; 2

(66) (71)

(, ) (, ), 2. 2 2

= exp ( + (4 )) = 1 + + (4 ) .

2 2

Finally, we give a detailed proof of the part 7.

We have to prove that (, ) (, ) for 5. Since Hence,

(, ) is monotone increasing in , it is sufficient to prove

that the inequality 1 1

( ) = ( 5) 2 + (4 ) , (72)

6

5 (, ) (, ) (67)

and this expression is positive for > 5 and sufficiently

holds for each , R+ . small, that is, sufficiently close to .

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 7

obtain

(, )

(, )

1 (1 + )+1 + (1 )+1 2

=

+ 1 (1 + ) + (1 ) 2

1

exp ( ((1 + ) log (1 + ) + (1 ) log (1 ))) ,

2

(73)

Since for > 5,

1 2 1

lim = , (74)

1 + 1 2 2

and the last expression is less than one, it follows that the

inequality (, ) < (, ) cannot hold whenever / is

sufficiently large.

The rest of the proof is straightforward.

Acknowledgment

The author is indebted to the referees for valuable sugges-

tions.

References

[1] K. B. Stolarsky, Generalizations of the logarithmic mean,

Mathematics Magazine, vol. 48, pp. 8792, 1975.

[2] B. C. Carlson, The logarithmic mean, The American Mathe-

matical Monthly, vol. 79, pp. 615618, 1972.

[3] T. P. Lin, The power mean and the logarithmic mean, The

American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 81, pp. 879883, 1974.

[4] P. A. Hasto, Optimal inequalities between Seifferts mean and

power means, Mathematical Inequalities & Applications, vol. 7,

no. 1, pp. 4753, 2004.

[5] Z.-H. Yang, Sharp bounds for the second Seiert mean in terms

of power mean, http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.5494.

[6] G. H. Hardy, J. E. Littlewood, and G. Polya, Inequalities,

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1978.

[7] S. Simic, On logarithmic convexity for differences of power

means, Journal of Inequalities and Applications, vol. 2007,

Article ID 37359, 8 pages, 2007.

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Volume 2012, Article ID 540710, 13 pages

doi:10.1155/2012/540710

Research Article

The Monotonicity Results for the Ratio of

Certain Mixed Means and Their Applications

Zhen-Hang Yang

Power Supply Service Center, Zhejiang Electric Power Company, Electric Power Research Institute,

Hangzhou 310014, China

Copyright q 2012 Zhen-Hang Yang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative

Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in

any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

We continue to adopt notations and methods used in the papers illustrated by Yang 2009, 2010

to investigate the monotonicity properties of the ratio of mixed two-parameter homogeneous

means. As consequences of our results, the monotonicity properties of four ratios of mixed

Stolarsky means are presented, which generalize certain known results, and some known and new

inequalities of ratios of means are established.

1. Introduction

Since the Ky Fan 1 inequality was presented, inequalities of ratio of means have attracted

attentions of many scholars. Some known results can be found in 214. Research for the

properties of ratio of bivariate means was also a hotspot at one time.

In this paper, we continue to adopt notations and methods used in the paper 13, 14

to investigate the monotonicity properties of the functions Qif i 1, 2, 3, 4 defined by

g1f p; a, b

Q1f p : ,

g1f p; c, d

g2f p; a, b

Q2f p : ,

g2f p; c, d

1.1

g3f p; a, b

Q3f p : ,

g3f p; c, d

g4f p; a, b

Q4f p : ,

g4f p; c, d

2 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

where

g1f p g1f p; a, b : Hf p, q Hf 2k p, q , 1.2

g2f p g2f p; a, b : Hf p, p m Hf 2k p, 2k p m , 1.3

g3f p g3f p; a, b : Hf p, 2m p Hf 2k p, 2m 2k p , 1.4

g4f p g4f p; a, b : Hf pr, ps Hf 2k p r, 2k p s , 1.5

homogeneous functions defined by 15, 16. For conveniences, we record it as follows.

function which has first partial derivatives. Then, Hf : R2 R2 R is called a homogeneous

function generated by f with parameters p and q if Hf is defined by for a / b

1pq

fap , bp

Hf p, q; a, b , if pq p q / 0,

faq , bq

1.6

ap fx ap , bp ln a bp fy ap , bp ln b

Hf p, p; a, b exp , if p q /

0,

fap , bp

where fx x, y and fy x, y denote first-order partial derivatives with respect to first and

second component of fx, y, respectively.

If limy x fx, y exits and is positive for all x R , then further define

1/p

fap , bp

Hf p, 0; a, b , 0, q 0,

if p /

f1, 1

1/q

faq , bq 1.7

Hf 0, q; a, b , if p 0, q /

0,

f1, 1

and Hf p, q; a, a a.

Remark 1.2. Witkowski 17 proved that if the function x, y fx, y is a symmetric and

first-order homogeneous function, then for all p, q Hf p, q; a, b is a mean of positive numbers

a and b if and only if f is increasing in both variables on R . In fact, it is easy to see that the

condition fx, y is symmetric can be removed.

If Hf p, q; a, b is a mean of positive numbers a and b, then it is called two-parameter

homogeneous mean generated by f.

The two-parameter homogeneous function Hf p, q; a, b generated by f is very

important because it can generates many well-known means. For example, substituting

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 3

y and Lx, x x for f yields Stolarsky

means HL p, q; a, b Sp,q a, b defined by

p

q a bp 1/pq

, if pq p q / 0,

p aq bq

L1/p ap , bp , if p

/ 0, q 0,

Sp,q a, b 1.8

L1/q aq , bq , 0, p 0,

if q /

I 1/p ap , bp , if p q /

0,

ab, if p q 0,

y, and Ix, x x is the identric

exponential mean see 18. Substituting A Ax, y x y/2 for f yields Gini means

HA p, q; a, b Gp,q a, b defined by

p p 1/pq

a b

q,

, if p /

Gp,q a, b aq bq 1.9

1/p p p

Z a , b , if p q,

As consequences of our results, the monotonicity properties of four ratios of mixed

Stolarsky means are presented, which generalize certain known results, and some known and

new inequalities of ratios of means are established.

In 15, 16, 20, two decision functions play an important role, that are,

2 ln f x, y

I I x, y ln f x, y xy ln f xy ,

xy

2.1

xI

J J x, y x y x y xIx .

x

x 3

T3 x, y : xyxIx ln , where I ln f xy , x at , y bt . 2.2

y

T t : ln f at , bt , 0

t/ 2.3

4 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

has well properties see 15, 16. And it has shown in 14, 3.4, 16, Lemma 4 the relation

among T t, Jx, y and T3 x, y:

T t t3 T3 x, y , where x at , y bt , 2.4

1 3

T t Ct3 J x, y , where C xy x y ln x ln y > 0. 2.5

y

x

T3 x, y T3 , 1 T3 1, . 2.6

y x

Now, we observe the monotonicities of ratio of certain mixed means defined by 1.1.

time dierentiable function, and T3 1, u strictly increase (decrease) with u > 1 and decrease (increase)

with 0 < u < 1. Then, for any a, b, c, d > 0 with b/a > d/c 1 and fixed q 0, k 0, but q, k are

not equal to zero at the same time, Q1f is strictly increasing (decreasing) in p on k, and decreasing

(increasing) on , k.

The monotonicity of Q1f is converse if q 0, k 0, but q, k are not equal to zero at the same

time.

Proof. Since fx, y > 0 for x, y R R , so T t is continuous on p, q or q, p for

p, q R, then 2.13 in 13 holds. Thus we have

1 1

1 1 1 1

ln g1f p ln Hf p, q ln Hf 2k p, q T t11 dt T t12 dt, 2.7

2 2 2 0 2 0

where

t12 tp 1 tq, t11 t 2k p 1 tq. 2.8

1 1

1 1

ln g1f p tT t12 dt tT t11 dt

2 0 2 0

1

1 1 1

tT |t12 |dt tT |t11 |dt by13, 2.7 2.9

2 0 2 0

1 |t12 |

1

t T vdv dt,

2 0 |t11 |

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 5

and then

ln Q1f p ln g1f p; a, b ln g1f p; c, d

1 |t12 |

1 1 1 |t12 |

t T vdv dt t T v; c, ddv dt

2 0 |t11 | 2 0 |t11 |

1 |t12 | 2.10

|t11 |

T v; a, b T v; c, ddv

t|t12 | |t11 | dt

0 |t12 | |t11 |

1

: t|t12 | |t11 |h|t11 |, |t12 |dt,

0

where

y

T v; a, b T v; c, ddv

x , if x

/ y,

h x, y : yx 2.11

T x; a, b T x; c, d, if x y.

Since T3 1, u strictly increase decrease with u > 1 and decrease increase with 0 < u < 1,

2.4 and 2.6 together with b/a > d/c 1 yield

v v

3 b d

v T3 1, T3 1, > <0, for v > 0,

a c

2.12

and therefore hx, y > <0 for x, y > 0. Thus, in order to prove desired result, it suces to

determine the sign of |t12 | |t11 |. In fact, if q 0, k 0, then for t 0, 1

t2 t2 q1 t kt > 0, if p > k,

|t12 | |t11 | 12 11 4t pk 2.13

|t12 | |t11 | t12 t11 < 0, if p < k.

It follows that

> <0, if p > k,

ln Q1f p 2.14

< >0, if p < k.

This completes the proof.

Theorem 2.2. The conditions are the same as those of Theorem 2.1. Then, for any a, b, c, d > 0 with

b/a > d/c 1 and fixed m, k with k 0, k m 0, but m, k are not equal to zero at the same time,

Q2f is strictly increasing (decreasing) in p on k, and decreasing (increasing) on , k.

6 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

The monotonicity of Q2f is converse if k 0 and k m 0, but m, k are not equal to zero at

the same time.

1 1

ln g2f p ln Hf p, p m ln Hf 2k p, 2k p m

2 2

1 1 2.15

1 1

T t22 dt T t21 dt,

2 0 2 0

where

t22 tp 1 t p m , t21 t 2k p 1 t 2k p m . 2.16

1 1 1 |t22 |

1 1 1

ln g2f p T t22 dt T t21 dt T vdv dt, 2.17

2 0 2 0 2 0 |t21 |

and then

ln Q2f p ln g2f p; a, b ln g2f p; c, d

1 |t22 | 1 |t22 |

1 1

T v; a, bdv dt T v; c, ddv dt

2 0 |t21 | 2 0 |t21 | 2.18

1

1

|t22 | |t21 |h|t21 |, |t22 |dt,

2 0

where hx, y is defined by 2.11. As shown previously, hx, y > <0 for x, y > 0 if T3 1, u

strictly increase decrease with u > 1 and decrease increase with 0 < u < 1; it remains to

determine the sign of |t22 | |t21 |. It is easy to verify that if k 0 and k m 0, then

t2 t2 k m1 t > 0, if p > k,

|t22 | |t21 | 22 21 4 pk 2.19

|t22 | |t21 | |t22 | |t21 | < 0, if p < k.

Thus, we have

> <0, if p > k,

ln Q2f p 2.20

< >0, if p < k.

The proof ends.

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 7

Theorem 2.3. The conditions are the same as those of Theorem 2.1. Then, for any a, b, c, d > 0 with

b/a > d/c 1 and fixed m > 0, 0 k 2m, Q3f is strictly increasing (decreasing) in p on k,

and decreasing (increasing) on , k.

The monotonicity of Q2f is converse if m < 0, 2m k 0.

1 1

ln g3f p ln Hf p, 2m p ln Hf 2k p, 2m 2k p

2 2

1 1 2.21

1 1

T t32 dt T t31 dt,

2 0 2 0

where

t32 tp 1 t 2m p , t31 t 2k p 1 t 2m 2k p . 2.22

1 1 |t32 |

1

1

ln g3f p 2t 1 T t32 T t31 dt 2t 1 T v; a, bdv dt.

2 0 2 0 |t31 |

2.23

Hence,

ln Q3f p ln g3f p; a, b ln g3f p; c, d

1 |t32 |

1

2t 1 T v; a, b T v; c, d dv dt

2 0 |t31 | 2.24

1

1

2t 1|t32 | |t31 |h|t31 |, |t32 |dt,

2 0

where hx, y is defined by 2.11. It has shown that hx, y > <0 for x, y > 0 if T3 1, u

strictly increase decrease with u > 1 and decrease increase with 0 < u < 1, and we have

also to check the sign of 2t 1|t32 | |t31 |. Easy calculation reveals that if m > 0, 0 k 2m,

then

t232 t231

2t 1|t32 | |t31 | 2t 1

|t32 | |t31 |

tk 1 t2m k

42t 12 pk 2.25

|t32 | |t31 |

> 0, if p > k,

< 0, if p < k,

8 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

which yields

> <0, if p > k,

ln Q3f p 2.26

< >0, if p < k.

Thus the proof is complete.

Theorem 2.4. The conditions are the same as those of Theorem 2.1. Then, for any a, b, c, d > 0 with

b/a > d/c 1 and fixed k, r, s R with r s / 0, Q4f is strictly increasing (decreasing) in p on

k, and decreasing (increasing) on , k if kr s > 0.

The monotonicity of Q4f is converse if kr s < 0.

1 r

s,

T pt dt, if r /

ln Hf pr, ps r s s 2.27

T pr , if r s.

The case r s /

0 has no interest since it can come down to the case of m 0 in Theorem 2.2.

Therefore, we may assume that r / s. We have

ln g4f p ln Hf pr, ps Hf 2k p r, 2k p s

r r 2.28

1 1 1 1

T pt dt T 2k p t dt,

2rs s 2rs s

and then

r r

1 1

1 1

ln g4f p tT pt dt tT 2k p t dt

2rs s 2rs s

r 2.29

1 1

t T pt T 2k p t .

2rs s

Note that T t is even see 13, 2.7 and so tT pt T 2k pt is odd, then make use

of Lemma 3.3 in 13, ln g4f p can be expressed as

|r|

1 r s

ln g4f p t T pt T 2k p t dt

2 |r| |s| |s|

2.30

1 r s |r| |t42 |

t T vdv dt,

2 |r| |s| |s| |t41 |

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 9

where

t42 pt, t41 2k p t. 2.31

Hence,

ln Q4f p ln g4f p; a, b ln g4f p; c, d

|r| |t42 |

1 rs

t T v; a, b T v; c, d dv dt

2 |r| |s| |s| |t41 | 2.32

|r|

1 rs

t|t42 | |t41 |h|t41 |, |t42 |dt,

2 |r| |s| |s|

where hx, y is defined by 2.11. We have shown that hx, y > <0 for x, y > 0 if T3 1, u

strictly increase decrease with u > 1 and decrease increase with 0 < u < 1, and we also

have

sgn|t42 | |t41 | sgn t242 t241 sgnk sgn p k . 2.33

It follows that

sgn Q4f p sgnr s sgnk sgn p k sgn h|t41 |, |t42 |

> <0, if kr s > 0, p > k,

< >0, if kr s > 0, p < k, 2.34

< >0, if kr s < 0, p > k,

> <0, if kr s < 0, p < k.

3. Applications

As shown previously, Sp,q a, b HL p, q; a, b, where L Lx, y is the logarithmic mean.

Also, it has been proven in 14 that T3 1, u < 0 if u > 1 and T3 1, u > 0 if 0 < u < 1. From the

applications of Theorems 2.12.4, we have the following.

Corollary 3.1. Let a, b, c, d > 0 with b/a > d/c 1. Then, the following four functions are all

strictly decreasing (increasing) on k, and increasing (decreasing) on , k:

i Q1L is defined by

Sp,q a, bS2kp,q a, b

Q1L p , 3.1

Sp,q c, dS2kp,q c, d

for fixed q 0, k 0, but q, k are not equal to zero at the same time,

10 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Sp,pm a, bS2kp,2kpm a, b

Q2L p , 3.2

Sp,pm c, dS2kp,2kpm c, d

for fixed m, k with k 0 and k m 0, but m, k are not equal to zero at the same

time,

iii Q3L is defined by

Sp,2mp a, bS2kp,2m2kp a, b

Q3L p , 3.3

Sp,2mp c, dS2kp,2m2kp c, d

iv Q4L is defined by

Spr,ps a, bS2kpr,2kps a, b

Q4L p , 3.4

Spr,ps c, dS2kpr,2kps c, d

Remark 3.2. Letting in the first result of Corollary 3.1, q k yields Theorem 3.4 in 13 since

Sp,k S2kp,k Sp,2kp . Letting q 1, k 0 yields

Ga, b Sp,1 a, bSp,1 a, b La, b

Q1L < < Q1L 0 . 3.5

Gc, d Sp,1 c, dSp,1 c, d Lc, d

Inequalities 3.5 in the case of d c were proved by Alzer in 21. By letting q 1, k 1/2

from Q1L 1/2 > Q1L 1 > Q1L 2, we have

Aa, b Ga, b La, bIa, b Aa, bGa, b

> > . 3.6

Ac, d Gc, d Lc, dIc, d Ac, dGc, d

Remark 3.3. Letting in the second result of Corollary 3.1, m 1, k 0 yields Cheung and Qis

result see 23, Theorem 2. And we have

Ga, b Sp,p1 a, bSp,p1 a, b La, b

Q2L < < Q2L 0 . 3.7

Gc, d Sp,p1 c, dSp,p1 c, d Lc, d

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 11

Remark 3.4. In the third result of Corollary 3.1, letting k m also leads to Theorem 3.4 in 13.

Put m 1/2, k 1/4. Then from Q3L 1/4 > Q3L 1/2, we obtain a new inequality

He1/2 a, b La, bI1/2 a, b

> . 3.8

He1/2 c, d Lc, dI1/2 c, d

A1/3 a, b S1/6,5/6 a, bI1/2 a, b

> . 3.9

A1/3 c, d S1/6,5/6 c, dI1/2 c, d

Remark 3.5. Letting in the third result of Corollary 3.1, k 1/2 and r, s 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1,

and we deduce that all the following three functions

Lp a, bL1p a, b Ip a, bI1p a, b Ap a, bA1p a, b

p , p , p ,

Lp c, dL1p c, d Ip c, dI1p c, d Ap c, dA1p c, d

3.10

are strictly decreasing on 1/2, and increasing on , 1/2, where Lp L1/p ap , bp , Ip

I 1/p ap , bp , and Ap A1/p ap , bp are the p-order logarithmic, identric exponential, and

power mean, respectively, particularly, so are the functions Lp L1p , Ip I1p , Ap A1p .

4. Other Results

Let d c in Theorems 2.12.4. Then, Hf p, q; c, d c and T t; c, c 0. From the their

proofs, it is seen that the condition T3 1, u strictly increases decreases with u > 1 and

decreases increases with 0 < u < 1 can be reduce to T v > <0 for v > 0, which is

equivalent with J x yxIx < >0, where I ln fxy , by 2.4. Thus, we obtain critical

theorems for the monotonicities of gif , i 1 4, defined as 1.21.5.

dierentiable function and J x yxIx < >0, where I ln fxy . Then, for a, b > 0 with

a/ b, the following four functions are strictly increasing (decreasing) in p on k, and decreasing

(increasing) on , k:

i g1f is defined by 1.2, for fixed q, k 0, but q, k are not equal to zero at the same time;

ii g2f is defined by 1.3, for fixed m, k with k 0 and k m 0, but m, k are not equal to

zero at the same time;

iii g3f is defined by 1.4, for fixed m > 0 and 0 k 2m;

iv g4f is defined by 1.5, for fixed k, r, s R with kr s > 0.

If f is defined on R2 \ {x, x, x R }, then T t may be not continuous at t 0, and

2.13 in 13 may not hold for p, q R but must be hold for p, q R . And then, we easily

derive the following from the proofs of Theorems 2.12.4.

12 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Theorem 4.2. Suppose that f: R2 \ {x, x, x R } R is a symmetric, first-order homogenous

and three-time dierentiable function and J x yxIx < >0, where I ln fxy . Then for

b the following four functions are strictly increasing (decreasing) in p on k, 2k and

a, b > 0 with a /

decreasing (increasing) on 0, k:

i g1f is defined by 1.2, for fixed q, k > 0;

ii g2f is defined by 1.3, for fixed m, k with k > 0 and k m > 0;

iii g3f is defined by 1.4, for fixed m > 0 and 0 k 2m;

iv g4f is defined by 1.5, for fixed k, r, s > 0.

and identric exponential mean, respectively, then from Theorem 4.1, we will deduce some

known and new inequalities for means. Similarly, letting in Theorem 4.2 fx, y Dx, y

|xy|, Kx, y xy| lnx/y|, where x, y > 0 with x / y, we will obtain certain companion

ones of those known and new ones. Here no longer list them.

Disclosure

This paper is in final form and no version of it will be submitted for publication elsewhere.

References

1 E. F. Beckenbach and R. Bellman, Inequalities, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1961.

2 W. L. Wang, G. X. Li, and J. Chen, Some inequalities of ratio of means, Journal of Chendu University

of Science and Technology, vol. 1988, no. 6, pp. 8388, 1988.

3 J. Chen and Z. Wang, The Heron mean and the power mean inequalities, Hunan Bulletin of Mathe-

matics, vol. 1988, no. 2, pp. 1516, 1988 Chinese.

4 C. E. M. Pearce and J. Pecaric, On the ration of Logarithmic means, Anzeiger der Osterreichischen

Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche, vol. 131, pp. 3944, 1994.

5 C. P. Chen and F. Qi, Monotonicity properties for generalized logarithmic means, Australian Journal

of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol. 1, no. 2, article 2, 2004.

6 F. Qi, S. X. Chen, and C. P. Chen, Monotonicity of ratio between the generalized logarith- mic means,

Mathematical Inequalities & Applications, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 559564, 2007.

7 F. Qi and S. X. Chen, Complete monotonicity of the logarithmic mean, Mathematical Inequalities and

Applications, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 799804, 2007.

8 E. Neuman and J. Sandor, Inequalities for the ratios of certain bivariate means, Journal of Mathe-

matical Inequalities, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 383396, 2008.

9 C. P. Chen, The monotonicity of the ratio between generalized logarithmic means, Journal of Mathe-

matical Analysis and Applications, vol. 345, no. 1, pp. 8689, 2008.

10 C. P. Chen, Stolarsky and Gini means, RGMIA Research Report Collection, vol. 11, no. 4, article 11,

2008.

11 C. P. Chen, The monotonicity of the ratio between Stolarsky means, RGMIA Research Report Collec-

tion, vol. 11, no. 4, article 15, 2008.

12 L. Losonczi, Ratio of Stolarsky means: Monotonicity and comparison, Publicationes Mathematicae,

vol. 75, no. 1-2, article 18, pp. 221238, 2009.

13 Z. H. Yang, Some monotonictiy results for the ratio of two-parameter symmetric homogeneous func-

tions, International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, vol. 2009, Article ID 591382, 12

pages, 2009.

14 Z. H. Yang, Log-convexity of ratio of the two-parameter symmetric homogeneous functions and an

application, Journal of Inequalities and Special Functions, no. 11, pp. 1629, 2010.

15 Z. H. Yang, ON the homogeneous functions with two parameters and its monotonicity, Journal of

Inequalities in Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 6, no. 4, article 101, 2005.

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lities and Applications, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 499516, 2007.

17 A. Witkowski, On two- and four-parameter families, RGMIA Research Report Collection, vol. 12, no.

1, article 3, 2009.

18 K. B. Stolarsky, Generalizations of the Logarithmic Mean, Mathematics Magazine, vol. 48, pp. 8792,

1975.

19 C. Gini, Diuna formula comprensiva delle media, Metron, vol. 13, pp. 322, 1938.

20 Z. H. Yang, On the monotonicity and log-convexity of a four-parameter homogeneous mean,

Journal of Inequalities and Applications, vol. 2008, Article ID 149286, 12 pages, 2008.

21 H. Alzer, Uber Mittelwerte, die zwischen dem geometrischen und dem logarithmischen, Mittel

zweier Zahlen liegen, Anzeiger der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Nat-

urwissenschaftliche, vol. 1986, pp. 59, 1986 German.

22 H. Alzer, Ungleichungen fur Mittelwerte, Archiv der Mathematik, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 422426, 1986.

23 W.-S. Cheung and F. Qi, Logarithmic convexity of the one-parameter mean values, Taiwanese Journal

of Mathematics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 231237, 2007.

24 H. Alzer, Uer eine einparametrige familie von Mitlewerten, II, Bayerische Akademie der Wissen-

schaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. Sitzungsberichte, vol. 1988, pp. 2329, 1989 Ger-

man.

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Volume 2012, Article ID 315697, 15 pages

doi:10.1155/2012/315697

Research Article

Refinements of Inequalities among

Difference of Means

Department of Electronic Information, Teachers College, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100011, China

Copyright q 2012 Huan-Nan Shi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative

Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in

any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

In this paper, for the dierence of famous means discussed by Taneja in 2005, we study the Schur-

geometric convexity in 0, 0, of the dierence between them. Moreover some inequalities

related to the dierence of those means are obtained.

1. Introduction

In 2005, Taneja 1 proved the following chain of inequalities for the binary means for a, b

R2 0, 0, :

where

ab

Aa, b ,

2

Ga, b ab,

2ab 1.2

Ha, b ,

ab

2

a b Aa, b Ga, b

N1 a, b ,

2 2

2 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

aab b 2Aa, b Ga, b

N3 a, b ,

3 3

a b a b 1.3

N2 a, b ,

2 2

a2 b2

Sa, b .

2

The means A, G, H, S, N1 and N3 are called, respectively, the arithmetic mean, the geometric

mean, the harmonic mean, the root-square mean, the square-root mean, and Herons mean.

The N2 one can be found in Taneja 2, 3.

Furthermore Taneja considered the following dierence of means:

Theorem A. The dierence of means given by 1.4 is nonnegative and convex in R2 0,

0, .

Further, using Theorem A, Taneja proved several chains of inequalities; they are

refinements of inequalities in 1.1.

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 3

1 1 1

MSA a, b MSH a, b MAH a, b MSG a, b MAG a, b, 1.5

3 2 2

1 1 1

MAH a, b MN2 N1 a, b MN2 G a, b MAG a, b MAN2 a, b, 1.6

8 3 4

4

MSA a, b MSN2 a, b 4MAN2 a, b, 1.7

5

3

MSH a, b 2MSN1 a, b MSG a, b, 1.8

2

3 2

MSA a, b MSN3 a, b MSN1 a, b. 1.9

4 3

For the dierence of means given by 1.4, we study the Schur-geometric convexity of

dierence between these dierences in order to further improve the inequalities in 1.1. The

main result of this paper reads as follows.

Theorem I. The following dierences are Schur-geometrically convex in R2 0, 0, :

1

DSHSA a, b MSH a, b MSA a, b,

3

1 1

DAHSH a, b MAH a, b MSH a, b,

2 3

DSGAH a, b MSG a, b MAH a, b,

1

DAGSG a, b MAG a, b MSG a, b,

2

1

DN2 N1 AH a, b MN2 N1 a, b MAH a, b,

8

1

DN2 GN2 N1 a, b MN2 G a, b MN2 N1 a, b,

3

1.10

1 1

DAGN2 G a, b MAG a, b MN2 G a, b,

4 3

1

DAN2 AG a, b MAN2 a, b MAG a, b,

4

4

DSN2 SA a, b MSN2 a, b MSA a, b,

5

4

DAN2 SN2 a, b 4MAN2 a, b MSN2 a, b,

5

DSN1 SH a, b 2MSN1 a, b MSH a, b,

3

DSGSN1 a, b MSG a, b 2MSN1 a, b,

2

4 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

3

DSN3 SA a, b MSN3 a, b MSA a, b, 1.11

4

2 3

DSN1 SN3 a, b MSN1 a, b MSN3 a, b.

3 4

The proof of this theorem will be given in Section 3. Applying this result, in Section 4,

we prove some inequalities related to the considered dierences of means. Obtained

inequalities are refinements of inequalities 1.51.9.

The Schur-convex function was introduced by Schur in 1923, and it has many important

applications in analytic inequalities, linear regression, graphs and matrices, combinatorial

optimization, information-theoretic topics, Gamma functions, stochastic orderings, reliability,

and other related fields cf. 414.

In 2003, Zhang first proposed concepts of Schur-geometrically convex function

which is extension of Schur-convex function and established corresponding decision

theorem 15. Since then, Schur-geometric convexity has evoked the interest of many

researchers and numerous applications and extensions have appeared in the literature cf.

1619.

In order to prove the main result of this paper we need the following definitions and

auxiliary lemmas.

i x is said to be majorized by y in symbols x y if ki1 xi ki1 yi for k

n

n

1, 2, . . . , n 1 and i1 xi i1 yi , where x1 xn and y1 yn are

rearrangements of x and y in a descending order.

ii Rn is called a convex set if x1 y1 , . . . , xn yn for every x and y ,

where and 0, 1 with 1.

iii Let Rn . The function : R is said to be a Schur-convex function on if

x y on implies x y. is said to be a Schur-concave function on if and

only if is Schur-convex.

i Rn is called a geometrically convex set if x1 y1 , . . . , xn yn for all x,y

and , 0, 1 such that 1.

ii Let Rn . The function : R is said to be Schur-geometrically convex

function on if ln x1 , . . . , ln xn ln y1 , . . . , ln yn on implies x y. The

function is said to be a Schur-geometrically concave on if and only if is

Schur-geometrically convex.

Definition 2.3 see 4, 20. i The set Rn is called symmetric set, if x implies P x

for every n n permutation matrix P .

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 5

ii The function : R is called symmetric if, for every permutation matrix P ,

P x x for all x .

Lemma 2.4 see 15. Let Rn be a symmetric and geometrically convex set with a nonempty

interior 0 . Let : R be continuous on and dierentiable in 0 . If is symmetric on and

ln x1 ln x2 x1 x2 0 0 2.1

x1 x2

concave function.

ab 1 2ab

1 , 2.2

2a2 b2 2 a b2

ab ab 3

, 2.3

2a2 b2 a b2 4

3 ab a b 5 ab

2 2 a b

. 2.4

2 a b 4 a b2

Proof. It is easy to see that the left-hand inequality in 2.2 is equivalent to a b2 0, and

the right-hand inequality in 2.2 is equivalent to

2a2 b2 a b a b2 4ab

, 2.5

2a2 b2 2a b2

that is,

a b2 a b2

. 2.6

2a2 b2 2a2 b2 a b 2a b2

2 a2 b2 2a2 b2 a b 2 a2 b2 a b2 2a b2 , 2.7

The inequality in 2.3 is equivalent to

2a2 b2 a b a b2

. 2.8

2a2 b2 4a b2

6 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Since

2a2 b2 a b 2 a2 b2 a b2

2a2 b2 2a2 b2 2a2 b2 a b

2.9

a b2

,

2a2 b2 a b 2a2 b2

2 a2 b2 a b 2a2 b2 4a b2 , 2.10

that is,

a b 2a2 b2 2 a2 b2 4ab , 2.11

a b 2a2 b2 2 a2 b2 2 a2 b2 4ab , 2.12

Notice that the functions inthe inequalities 2.4

are homogeneous. So, without loss of

generality, we may assume a b 1, and set t ab. Then 0 < t 1/4 and 2.4 reduces

to

3 1 2t 1 5 t2

. 2.13

2 2 2 1 2t 4 1 2t2

9 1 2t 1 25 t4 5t2

1 . 2.14

4 2 2 4t 16 1 2t4 21 2t2

reduces to

1 2t 16t2 2t 12 1/816t 72 7/8

0, 2.15

162t 14

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 7

0, 2.16

21 2t 2

Lemma 2.6 see 16. Let a b, ut ta 1 tb, vt tb 1 ta. If 1/2 t2 t1 1 or

0 t1 t2 1/2, then

ab ab

, ut2 , vt2 ut1 , vt1 a, b. 2.17

2 2

Proof of Theorem I. Let a, b R2 .

1 For

1 ab 2ab 2 a2 b2 3.1

DSHSA a, b MSH a, b MSA a, b ,

3 2 3a b 3 2

we have

2

,

a 2 3a b 3 2a2 b2

3.2

DSHSA a, b 1 2a2 2 b

,

b 2 3a b2 3 2a2 b2

whence

DSHSA a, b DSHSA a, b

: ln a ln b a b

a b

3.3

1 2ab 2 ab

a bln a ln b .

2 3a b2 3 2a2 b2

1 2ab 2 ab

0, 3.4

2 3a b2 3 2a2 b2

which implies 0 and, by Lemma 2.4, it follows that DSHSA is Schur-geometrically convex

in R2 .

2 For

1 1 ab ab 1 a2 b2 3.5

DAHSH a, b MAH a, b MSH a, b .

2 3 4 3a b 3 2

8 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

notice that DAHSH a, b 1/2DSHSA a, b.

3 For

a2 b2 ab 2ab 3.6

DSGAH a, b MSG a, b MAH a, b ab ,

2 2 ab

we have

,

a 2a2 b2 2 ab 2 a b2

3.7

DSGAH a, b b a 1 2a2

,

b 2a2 b2 2 ab 2 a b2

and then

DSHSA a, b DSHSA a, b

: ln a ln b a b

a b

3.8

ab 1 2ab

a bln a ln b .

2a2 b2 2 a b2

geometrically convex in R2 .

4 For

1 1 a2 b2

DAGSG a, b MAG a, b MSG a, b a b ab , 3.9

2 2 2

we have

DAGSG a, b 1 b a

1 ,

a 2 2 ab 2a2 b2

3.10

DAGSG a, b 1 a b

1 ,

b 2 2 ab 2a2 b2

and then

DSHSA a, b DSHSA a, b

: ln a ln b a b

a b

3.11

ab

a bln a ln b 1 .

2a2 b2

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 9

ab

1 0, 3.12

2a2 b2

5 For

1

DN2 N1 AH a, b MN2 N1 a, b MAH a, b

8

a b a b 1 1 1 ab 2ab

a b ab ,

2 2 4 2 8 2 ab

3.13

we have

DN2 N1 AH a, b 1 ab 1 b a b 1/2

a

a 4 a 2 4 22

1 b 1 1 2b2

,

4 4 ab 8 2 a b2

3.14

DN2 N1 AH a, b 1 ab 1 a b a b 1/2

b 4 b 2 4 2 2

1 a 1 1 2a2

,

4 4 ab 8 2 a b2

and then

DN2 N1 AH a, b DN2 N1 AH a, b

ln a ln b a b

a b

3.15

1 ab a b 5 ab

a bln a ln b
.

4 2 a b 2 ab 4 a b2

ab a b 5 ab

0, 3.16

2 a b 2 a b 4 a b2

10 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

6 For

1

DN2 GN2 N1 a, b MN2 G a, b MN2 N1 a, b

3

3.17

ab ab 2 a b a b

,

4 6 3 2 2

we have

DN2 GN2 N1 a, b 1 b 1 ab 1 a b a b 1/2

,

a 4 12 ab 6 a 2 6 2 2

3.18

DN2 GN2 N1 a, b 1 a 1 ab 1 a b a b 1/2

,

b 4 12 ab 6 b 2 6 2 2

and then

DN2 GN2 N1 a, b DN2 GN2 N1 a, b

ln a ln b a b

a b

a b a b 1/2

1 a b ab ab

ln a ln b a b

4 6 2 12 2 3.19

1 3 ab a b

a bln a ln b
.

6 2 2 a b 2 ab

By 2.4 we infer that 0, which proves that DN2 GN2 N1 is Schur-geometrically convex in

R2 .

7 For

1 1

DAGN2 G a, b MAG a, b MN2 G a, b

4 3

3.20

ab 1 1 a b a b

ab ,

8 12 3 2 2

we have

DAGN2 G a, b 1 b ab a b

,

a 8 24 ab 12 2a 12 2a b

3.21

DAGN2 G a, b 1 a ab a b

,

b 8 24 ab 12 2b 12 2a b

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 11

and then

DAGN2 G a, b DAGN2 G a, b

ln a ln b a b

a b

a b a b a b a b

a b

ln a ln b

8 12 2 12 2a b 3.22

a bln a ln b 2 ab a b

1
.

8 3 2 a b 2 ab

From 2.4 we have 0, and, consequently, by Lemma 2.4, we obtain that DAGN2 G is

Schur-geometrically convex in R2 .

8 In order to prove that the function DAN2 AG a, b is Schur-geometrically convex in

2

R it is enough to notice that

1

DAN2 AG a, b MAN2 a, b MAG a, b 3DAGN2 G a, b. 3.23

4

9 For

4

DSN2 SA a, b MSN2 a, b MSA a, b

5

3.24

a b 1 a2 b2 1

a b 2a b,

2 5 2 5

we have

DSN2 SA a, b 1 a 1 ab a b

,

a 2 5 2a2 b2 5 2a 5 2a b

3.25

DSN2 SA a, b 1 b 1 ab a b

,

b 2 5 2a2 b2 5 2b 5 2a b

12 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

and then

DSN2 SA a, b DSN2 SA a, b

ln a ln b

a b

a b a b

a b a b aa b ba b

2 2

1

ln a ln b

2 5 2a b 5

2 2 2 2 5 2a b

a bln a ln b 5 ab ab a b

.

5 2 2 a2 b2 a b ab

3.26

5 ab ab a b 5 3

2 0, 3.27

2 a b

2 2 a b ab 2 2

so 0, which proves that the function DSN2 SA a, b is Schur-geometrically convex in R2 .

10 One can easily check that

11 To prove that the function

a2 b2 a b 2ab 3.29

DSN1 SH a, b 2MSN1 a, b MSH a, b ab

2 2 ab

12 For

3

DSGSN1 a, b MSG a, b 2MSN1 a, b

2

3.31

1 a b

2 2

a b ab ,

2 2

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 13

we have

DSGSN1 a, b 1 b a

1 ,

a 2 2 ab 2a2 b2

3.32

DSGSN1 a, b 1 a b

1 ,

b 2 2 ab 2a2 b2

and then

DSGSN1 a, b DSGSN1 a, b

ln a ln b a b

a b

3.33

a bln a ln b ab

1 .

2 2a2 b2

By the inequality 2.2 we get that 0, which proves that DSGSN1 is Schur-

geometrically convex in R2 .

13 It is easy to check that

1

DSN3 SA a, b DAGSG a, b, 3.34

2

14 To prove that the function DSN1 SN3 is Schur-geometrically convex in R2 it is

enough to notice that

1

DSN1 SN3 a, b DAGSG a, b. 3.35

6

4. Applications

Applying Theorem I, Lemma 2.6, and Definition 2.2 one can easily prove the following.

14 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Theorem II. Let 0 < a b. 1/2 t 1 or 0 t 1/2, u at b1t and v bt a1t . Then

1 1 1

MSA a, b MSH a, b MSH u, v MSA u, v MSH a, b

3 3 3

1 1 1 1

MAH a, b MAH u, v MSH u, v MAH a, b

2 2 3 2

4.1

1 1 1 1

MSG a, b MSG u, v MAH u, v MSG a, b

2 2 2 2

1

MAG a, b MAG u, v MSG u, v MAG a, b,

2

1 1

MAH a, b MN2 N1 a, b MN2 N1 u, v MAH u, v MN2 N1 a, b

8 8

1 1 1

MN2 G a, b MN2 G u, v MN2 N1 u, v MN2 G a, b

3 3 3

4.2

1 1 1 1

MAG a, b MAG u, v MN2 G u, v MAG a, b

4 4 3 4

1

MAN2 a, b MAN2 u, v MAG u, v MAN2 a, b,

4

4 4 4 4

MSA a, b MSN2 a, b MSN2 u, v MSN2 u, v MSN2 a, b

5 5 5 5

4.3

4

4MAN2 a, b 4MAN2 u, v MSN2 u, v 4MAN2 a, b,

5

MSH a, b 2MSN1 a, b 2MSN1 u, v MSH u, v 2MSN1 a, b

4.4

3 3 3 3

MSG a, b MSG u, v MSG u, v MSG a, b,

2 2 2 2

3 3 3

MSA a, b MSN3 a, b MSN3 u, v MSA u, v MSN3 a, b

4 4 4

4.5

2 2 3 2

MSN1 a, b MSN1 u, v MSN3 u, v MSN1 a, b.

3 3 4 3

Remark 4.1. Equation 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5 are a refinement of 1.5, 1.6, 1.7,

1.8, and 1.9, respectively.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the referees for their helpful comments and suggestions. The

first author was supported in part by the Scientific Research Common Program of Beijing

Municipal Commission of Education KM201011417013.

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 15

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Applications, vol. 336, no. 1, pp. 7080, 2007.

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Convex Analysis, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 103108, 2007.

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Inequalities, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 127136, 2007.

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convex or Schur-concave, Journal of Mathematics of Kyoto University, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 229238, 2008.

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Mathematics, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 853856, 2000.

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vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 212215, 2007.

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values, Mathematical Inequalities & Applications, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 219224, 2006.

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16 H.-N. Shi, Y.-M. Jiang, and W.-D. Jiang, Schur-convexity and Schur-geometrically concavity of Gini

means, Computers & Mathematics with Applications, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 266274, 2009.

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Inequalities & Applications, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 745753, 2007.

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Hindawi Publishing Corporation

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Volume 2012, Article ID 730962, 13 pages

doi:10.1155/2012/730962

Research Article

Complete Moment Convergence of Weighted Sums

for Arrays of Rowwise -Mixing Random Variables

Ming Le Guo

School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241003, China

Copyright q 2012 Ming Le Guo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative

Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in

any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The complete moment convergence of weighted sums for arrays of rowwise -mixing random

variables is investigated. By using moment inequality and truncation method, the sucient

conditions for complete moment convergence of weighted sums for arrays of rowwise -mixing

random variables are obtained. The results of Ahmed et al. 2002 are complemented. As an

application, the complete moment convergence of moving average processes based on a -mixing

random sequence is obtained, which improves the result of Kim et al. 2008.

1. Introduction

Hsu and Robbins 1 introduced the concept of complete convergence of {Xn }. A sequence

{Xn , n 1, 2, . . .} is said to converge completely to a constant C if

P |Xn C| > < , > 0. 1.1

n1

Moreover, they proved that the sequence of arithmetic means of independent identically

distributed i.i.d. random variables converge completely to the expected value if the variance

of the summands is finite. The converse theorem was proved by Erdos 2. This result has

been generalized and extended in several directions, see Baum and Katz 3, Chow 4, Gut

5, Taylor et al. 6, and Cai and Xu 7. In particular, Ahmed et al. 8 obtained the following

result in Banach space.

2 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

separable real Banach space B, . Let P Xni > x CP |X| > x for some random variable X,

constant C and all n, i and x > 0. Suppose that {ani , i 1, n 1} is an array of constants such that

sup|ani | O nr , for some r > 0,

i1

1.2

|ani | On , for some 0, r.

i1

1 and fix > 0 such that 1 /r < 2. Denote s max1

1/r, . If E|X|s < and Sn i1 ani Xni 0 in probability, then n1 n P Sn > <

for all > 0.

convergence result for sums of i.i.d. random variables.

Theorem B. Let EX1 0, 1 p < 2 and r p. Suppose that E|X1 |r |X1 | log1 |X1 | < .

Then

n

r/p21/p 1.3

n E Xi n1/p

< , > 0.

n1

i1

The main purpose of this paper is to discuss again the above results for arrays of

rowwise -mixing random variables. The author takes the inspiration in 8 and discusses

the complete moment convergence of weighted sums for arrays of rowwise -mixing random

variables by applying truncation methods. The results of Ahmed et al. 8 are extended to -

mixing case. As an application, the corresponding results of moving average processes based

on a -mixing random sequence are obtained, which extend and improve the result of Kim

and Ko 9.

For the proof of the main results, we need to restate a few definitions and lemmas for

easy reference. Throughout this paper, C will represent positive constants, the value of which

may change from one place to another. The symbol IA denotes the indicator function of A;

x indicates the maximum integer not larger than x. For a finite set B, the symbol B denotes

the number of elements in the set B.

-mixing random variables, if

k m , P A > 0 0, as m , 1.4

k1

dominated by a random variable X write {Xi } X if there exists a constant C, such that

P {|Xn | > x} CP {|X| > x} for all x 0 and n 1.

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 3

Lemma 1.3. Let the sequence {Xn , n 1} of random variables be stochastically dominated by a

random variable X. Then for any p > 0, x > 0

E|Xn |p I|Xn | x C E|X|p I|X| x xp P {|X| > x} , 1.5

Definition 1.4. A real-valued function lx, positive and measurable on A, for some A > 0,

is said to be slowly varying if limx lx/lx 1 for each > 0.

By the properties of slowly varying function, we can easily prove the following lemma.

Here we omit the details of the proof.

Lemma 1.5. Let lx > 0 be a slowly varying function as x , then there exists C (depends only

on r) such that

k

i Ckr 1 lk n1 nr ln Ckr 1 lk for any r > 1 and positive integer k,

ii Ckr 1 lk nk nr ln Ckr 1 lk for any r < 1 and positive integer k.

The following lemma will play an important role in the proof of our main results. The

proof is due to Shao 10.

Lemma 1.6. Let {Xi , 1 i n} be a sequence of -mixing random variables with mean zero. Suppose

2

that there exists a sequence {Cn } of positive numbers such that E k m

ik 1 Xi Cn for any k 0, n

1, m n. Then for any q 2, there exists C Cq, such that

q

k j

E max q/2 q

Xi C Cn E max |Xi | . 1.7

1jn k 1ik n

ik 1

Lemma 1.7. Let {Xi , 1 i n} be a sequence of -mixing random variables with i1 1/2 i < ,

then there exists C such that for any k 0 and n 1

2

k n

k n

E Xi C EXi2 . 1.8

ik 1 ik 1

4 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

inequality, we have

2

k n

k n

E Xi EXi2 2 EXi Xj

ik 1 ik 1 k 1i<jk n

k n 1/2 1/2

EXi2 4 1/2 j i EXi2 EXj2

ik 1 k 1i<jk n

1.9

k n

k n1 k n

EXi2 2 1/2 j i EXi2 EXj2

ik 1 ik 1 ji 1

n

k n

1 4 1/2

i EXi2 .

i1 ik 1

2. Main Results

Now we state our main results. The proofs will be given in Section 3.

Theorem 2.1. Let {Xni , i 1, n 1} be an array of rowwise -mixing random variables with EXni

0, {Xni } X and m1

1/2

m < . Let lx > 0 be a slowing varying function, and {ani , i 1, n

1} be an array of constants such that

sup|ani | O nr , for some r > 0,

i1

2.1

|ani | On , for some 0, r.

i1

a If 1 > 0 and there exists some > 0 such that /r 1 < 2, and s

max1 1/r, , then E|X|s l|X|1/r < implies

k

2.2

n lnE sup ani Xni < ,

> 0.

n1

k1 i1

k

1 2.3

n lnE sup ani Xni < , > 0.

n1

k1 i1

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 5

Remark 2.2. If 1 < 0, then E|X| < implies that 2.2 holds. In fact,

k

n lnE sup ani Xni

n ln |ani |E|Xni | n ln

n1

k1 i1

n1 i1 n1

2.4

C

n lnE|X| n ln < .

n1 n1

k k

> n lnE sup ani Xni

n ln P sup ani Xni > x dx

n1

k1 i1

n1 0

k1 i1

2.5

k

n lnP sup ani Xni > x dx.

0 n1 k1

i1

Therefore, from 2.5, we obtain that the complete moment convergence implies the complete

convergence, that is, under the conditions of Theorem 2.1, result 2.2 implies

k

n lnP sup ani Xni > < ,

2.6

n1

k1 i1

k

1

n lnP sup ani Xni > < . 2.7

n1

k1 i1

1 if 1 > 0 and there exists some > 0 such that /r 1 < 2, and s

max1 1/r, , then E|X|s l|X|1/r < implies

2.8

n lnE ani Xni < ,

> 0,

n1

i1

1 2.9

n lnE ani Xni < , > 0.

n1

i1

Corollary 2.5. Let {Xni , i 1, n 1} be an array of rowwise -mixing random variables with

EXni 0,{Xni } X and m1

1/2

m < . Suppose that lx > 0 is a slowly varying function.

6 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

k

2.10

np21/t

lnE max Xni n1/t

< , > 0.

1kn

n1 i1

k

11/t 2.11

n lnE max Xni n1/t

< , > 0.

1kn

n1 i1

Corollary 2.6. Suppose that Xn i ai n Yi , n 1, where {ai , < i < } is a sequence of

real numbers with |ai | < , and {Yi , < i < } is a sequence of -mixing random variables

with EYi 0, {Yi } Y and m1

1/2

m < . Let lx be a slowly varying function.

n

r/t21/t 2.12

n lnE Xi n1/t

< , > 0.

n1

i1

n

11/t 2.13

n lnE Xi n1/t

< , > 0.

n1

i1

Remark 2.7. Corollary 2.6 obtains the result about the complete moment convergence of

moving average processes based on a -mixing random sequence with dierent distributions.

We extend the results of Chen et al. 12 from the complete convergence to the complete

moment convergence. The result of Kim and Ko 9 is a special case of Corollary 2.6 1.

Moreover, our result covers the case of r t, which was not considered by Kim and Ko.

Proof of Theorem 2.1. Without loss of generality, we can assume

sup|ani | nr , |ani | n . 3.1

i1 i1

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 7

Let Snk x ki1 ani Xni I|ani Xni | nr x for any k 1, n 1, and x 0. First note that

E|X|s l|X|1/r < implies E|X|t < for any 0 < t < s. Therefore, for x > nr ,

k

1 r 1 r r

x n supE|Snk x| x n supE ani Xni I |ani Xni | > n x EXni 0

k1 k1

i1

E|ani Xni |I |ani Xni | > nr x E|ani X|I |ani X| > nr x

i1 i1 3.2

|ani |E|X|I|X| > x n E|X|I|X| > x

i1

Hence, for n large enough we have supk1 E|Snk x| < /2nr x. Then

k

n lnE sup ani Xni

n1

k1 i1

k

n ln

P sup ani Xni x dx

n1

k1 i1

k

r 3.3

n r

ln P sup ani Xni n x dx

n1 nr

k1 i1

r

C n r

ln P sup|ani Xni | > n x dx

n1 nr i

r

C r

n ln P sup|Snk x ESnk x| n x dx : I1 I2 .

n1 nr k1 2

Noting that > 1, by Lemma 1.5, Markov inequality, 1.6, and 3.1, we have

I1 C nr ln P |ani Xni | > nr x dx

n1 nr i1

C nr ln nr x1 E|ani Xni |I |ani Xni | > nr x dx

n1 nr i1

C n ln x1 E|X|I|X| > xdx

n1 nr

kr 1

C n

ln x1 E|X|I|X| > xdx

n1 kn kr

8 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

k

C n ln k1 E|X|I|X| > kr C k1 E|X|I|X| > kr n ln

n1 kn k1 n1

C k lkE|X|I|X| > kr CE|X|1 1 /r l |X|1/r < .

k1

3.4

Now we estimate I2 , noting that m1 1/2 m < , by Lemma 1.7, we have

2

m

m

r r

sup E ani Xni I |ani Xni | n x E ani Xni I |ani Xni | n x

1m< i1 i1

3.5

r

C Ea2ni Xni

2

I |ani Xni | n x .

i1

By Lemma 1.6, Markov inequality, Cr inequality, and 1.5, for any q 2, we have

r

P sup|Snk x ESnk x| n x Cnrq xq Esup|Snk x ESnk x|q

k1 2 k1

q/2

Cnrq xq Ea2ni Xni

2

I |ani Xni | nr x E|ani Xni |q I |ani Xni | nr x

i1 i1

q/2

rq q

r

3.6

Cn x Ea2ni X 2 I |ani X| n x Cnrq xq E|ani X|q I |ani X| nr x

i1 i1

q/2

r

C P |ani X| > n x C P |ani X| > nr x

i1 i1

: J1 J2 J3 J4 .

So,

I2 nr ln J1 J2 J3 J4 dx. 3.7

n1 nr

From 3.4, we have n1 n

r

ln nr J4 dx < .

For J1 , we consider the following two cases.

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 9

If s > 2, then EX 2 < . Taking q 2 such that q r/2 < 1, we have

r

n ln J1 dx

n1 nr

q/2

q 3.8

C n r rq

ln x a2ni dx

n1 nr i1

C nr rq lnnqr/2 nrq 1 C n qr/2 ln < .

n1 n1

If s 2, we choose s such that 1 /r < s < s. Taking q 2 such that qr/21 /r

s < 1, we have

r

n ln J1 dx

n1 nr

q/2

s 1 2s s

q r

C n r rq

ln x |ani ||ani | E|ani X| |X| I |ani X| n x dx

n1 nr i1

3.9

q/22s

C nr rq lnnq/2 nqr/2s 1 x q

nr x dx

n1 nr

C n qr/21 /rs ln < .

n1

So, n1nr ln nr J1 dx < .

Now, we estimate J2 . Set Inj {i 1 | nj 1r < |ani | njr }, j 1, 2, . . .. Then

j1 Inj N, where N is the set of positive integers. Note also that for all k 1, n 1,

n |ani | |ani |

i1 j1 iInj

3.10

r

rq

Inj n j 1 nr Inj j 1 k 1rqr .

j1 jk

Hence, we have

Inj j rq Cn r krrq . 3.11

jk

10 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Note that

r

n ln J2 dx

n1 nr

C n r rq

ln xq E|ani X|q I |ani X| nr x dx

n1 nr j1 iInj

k 1r

rq

r

C n r rq

ln Inj nj xq E|X|q I |X| x j 1 dx

n1 j1 kn kr

rq

r

C nr rq ln Inj nj krq 11 E|X|q I |X| k 1r j 1

n1 j1 kn

3.12

k 1j 11

C nr ln krq 11 Inj j rq E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r

n1 kn j1 i0

2k 11

C nr ln krq 11 Inj j rq E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r

n1 kn j1 i0

k 1j 1

rq

C nr

ln k rq 11

Inj j E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r

n1 kn j1 i2k 1

: J2 J2 .

Taking q 2 large enough such that rq r < 1, for J2 , by Lemma 1.6 and 3.11, we

get

2k 11

J2 C nr ln krq 11 n r E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r

n1 kn i0

2k 11

k

C krq 11 E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r n ln

k1 i0 n1

2k 11

C k rq r lk E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r

k1 i0

C C E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r k rq r lk

i3 ki/2

C C i rq r 1 liE|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r C CE|X|1 1/r l |X|1/r < .

i3

3.13

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 11

For J2 , we obtain

j 1k 1

J2 C nr ln krq 11 Inj j rq E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r

n1 kn j1 i2k 1

C nr ln krq 11 E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r Inj j rq

n1 kn i2k 1 jik 11 1

C nr ln krq 11 nr ir1q kr1q E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r

n1 kn i2k 1

3.14

r

k

C k1 ir1q E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1 n ln

k1 i2k 1 n1

C k lk ir1q E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r

k1 i2k 1

C i 1 rrq E|X|q I ir < |X| i 1r CE|X|1 1/r l |X|1/r < .

i4

So n1 n

r

ln nr J2 dx < . Finally, we prove n1 n

r

ln nr J3 dx < . In fact, noting

1 a/r < s < s and qr/21 /r s < 1, using Markov inequality and 3.1, we

get

q/2

rs s s

r

n ln J3 dx C nr

ln n x E|ani X| dx

n1 nr n1 nr i1

qrs /2 rs 1q/2 q/2

C nr

lnn n n xs q/2 dx

n1 nr

C nr rq/2 q/2 lnnrs q/2 1 C n qr/21 /2s ln < .

n1 n1

3.15

Thus, we complete the proof in a. Next, we prove b. Note that E|X|1 /r < implies that

3.2 holds. Therefore, from the proof in a, to complete the proof of b, we only need to

prove

1r r

I2 C n ln P sup|Snk x ESnk x| n x dx < . 3.16

n1 nr k1 2

12 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

in the proof of 3.12, 3.13, and 3.14, we get

1 r

C n ln x2 Ea2ni X 2 I |ani X| nr x dx C CE|X|1 /r l |X|1/r < . 3.17

n1 nr i1

I2 C n1r ln n2r x2 E|Sxn ESxn |2 dx

n1 nr

C n1 r ln x2 Ea2ni Xni

2

I |ani Xni | nr x dx

n1 nr i1

C n1 r ln x2 Ea2ni X 2 I |ani X| nr x dx 3.18

n1 nr i1

C n1r ln P |ani X| > nr x dx

n1 nr i1

C n1 r ln x2 Ea2ni X 2 I |ani X| nr x dx C < .

n1 nr i1

k

3.19

ani Xni sup ani Xni .

i1

k1 i1

Proof of Corollary 2.5. By applying Theorem 2.1, taking p 2, ani n1/t for 1 i n,

and ani 0 for i > n, then we obtain 2.10. Similarly, taking 1, ani n1/t for 1 i n,

and ani 0 for i > n, we obtain 2.11 by Theorem 2.1.

Proof of Corollary 2.6. Let Xni Yi and ani n1/t nj1 ai j for all n 1, < i < .

Since |ai | < , we have supi |ani | On1/t and i |ani | On

11/t

. By applying

Corollary 2.4, taking r/t 2, r 1/t, 1 1/t, we obtain

n

r/t21/t

n lnE Xi n1/t

n lnE a X < , > 0.

n1

i1 n1

i ni ni

3.20

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 13

Acknowledgment

The paper is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China no. 11271020

and 11201004, the Key Project of Chinese Ministry of Education no. 211077, the Natural

Science Foundation of Education Department of Anhui Province KJ2012ZD01, and the

Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation no. 10040606Q30 and 1208085MA11.

References

1 P. L. Hsu and H. Robbins, Complete convergence and the law of large numbers, Proceedings of the

National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 33, pp. 2531, 1947.

2 P. Erdos,

On a theorem of hsu and robbins, Annals of Mathematical Statistics, vol. 20, pp. 286291,

1949.

3 L. E. Baum and M. Katz, Convergence rates in the law of large numbers, Transactions of the American

Mathematical Society, vol. 120, pp. 108123, 1965.

4 Y. S. Chow, On the rate of moment convergence of sample sums and extremes, Bulletin of the Institute

of Mathematics, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 177201, 1988.

5 A. Gut, Complete convergence and ces`aro summation for i.i.d. random variables, Probability Theory

and Related Fields, vol. 97, no. 1-2, pp. 169178, 1993.

6 R. L. Taylor, R. F. Patterson, and A. Bozorgnia, A strong law of large numbers for arrays of rowwise

negatively dependent random variables, Stochastic Analysis and Applications, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 643

656, 2002.

7 G. H. Cai and B. Xu, Complete convergence for weighted sums of -mixing sequences and its

application, Journal of Mathematics, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 419422, 2006.

8 S. E. Ahmed, R. G. Antonini, and A. Volodin, On the rate of complete convergence for weighted sums

of arrays of banach space valued random elements with application to moving average processes,

Statistics & Probability Letters, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 185194, 2002.

9 T. S. Kim and M. H. Ko, Complete moment convergence of moving average processes under

dependence assumptions, Statistics & Probability Letters, vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 839846, 2008.

10 Q. M. Shao, A moment inequality and its applications, Acta Mathematica Sinica, vol. 31, no. 6, pp.

736747, 1988.

11 W. F. Stout, Almost Sure Convergence, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1974.

12 P. Y. Chen, T. C. Hu, and A. Volodin, Limiting behaviour of moving average processes under -

mixing assumption, Statistics & Probability Letters, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 105111, 2009.

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Volume 2012, Article ID 597490, 9 pages

doi:10.1155/2012/597490

Research Article

On Huygens Inequalities and the Theory of Means

Jozsef

Sandor

Department of Mathematics, Babes-Bolyai University, Strada Kogalniceanu no. 1,

400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Sandor, jsandor@math.ubbcluj.ro

Sandor. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative

Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in

any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

By using the theory of means, various refinements of Huygens trigonometric and hyperbolic

inequalities will be proved. New Huygens type inequalities will be provided, too.

1. Introduction

The famous Huygens trigonometric inequality see e.g., 13 states that for all x 0, /2

one has

The hyperbolic version of inequality 1.1 has been established recently by Neuman

and Sandor 3:

Let a, b > 0 be two positive real numbers. The logarithmic and identric means of a and

b are defined by

ba

L La, b : b; La, a a,

for a /

ln b ln a

1/ba 1.3

1 bb

I Ia, b : b; Ia, a a,

for a /

e aa

2 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

ab

P P a, b : for a

/ b, P a, a a. 1.4

2 arcsina b/a b

Let

ab

A Aa, b : , G Ga, b ab,

2

1.5

1 1

H Ha, b 2

a b

denote the arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means of a and b, respectively. These means

have been also in the focus of many research papers in the last decades. For a survey of

results, see, for example, 46. In what follows, we will assume a /

b.

Now, by remarking that letting a 1 sin x, b 1 sin x, where x 0, /2, in

P, G, and A, we find that

sin x

P , G cos x, A 1, 1.6

x

3AG 2 1

P> 3 HA, A, G. 1.7

2G A A G

1 1 1

Ha, b, c 3 . 1.8

a b c

sinh x

L , G 1, A cosh x, 1.9

x

3AG 2 1

L> 3 HG, G, A. 1.10

2A G G A

2. First Improvements

b.

Suppose a, b > 0, a /

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 3

3AG

P > HL, A > HA, A, G, 2.1

2G A

3AG

L > HP, G > HG, G, A. 2.2

2A G

Proof. The inequalities P > HL, A and L > HP, G have been proved in paper 7 see

Corollary 3.2. In fact, stronger relations are valid, as we will see in what follows.

Now, the interesting fact is that the second inequality of 2.1, that is, 2LA/L A >

3AG/2GA becomes, after elementary transformations, exactly inequality 1.10, while the

second inequality of 2.2, that is, 2P G/P G > 3AG/2AG becomes inequality 1.7.

3AG

2.3

3

P> A2 G > ,

2G A

3AG

2.4

3

L > G2 A > .

2A G

Proof. The first inequality of 2.3 is proved in 6, while the first inequality of 2.8 is a well-

known inequality due to Leach and Sholander 8 see 4 for many related references. The

second inequalities of 2.3 and 2.4 are immediate consequences of the arithmetic-geometric

inequality applied for A, A, G and A, G, G, respectively.

Remark 2.3. By 2.3 and 1.6, we can deduce the following improvement of the Huygens

inequality 1.1:

sin x 3 cos x

> 3 cos x > , x 0, . 2.5

x 2 cos x 1 2

sin x 2L 3 cos x

> > , x 0, . 2.5

x L 1 2 cos x 1 2

sinh x 3 cosh x

3

> cosh x > , x > 0. 2.6

x 2 cosh x 1

sinh x 2P 3 cosh x

> > , x > 0. 2.6

x P 1 2 cosh x 1

4 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

We note that the first inequality of 2.5 has been discovered by Adamovic and

Mitrinovic see 3, while the first inequality of 2.6 by Lazarevic see 3.

Now, we will prove that inequalities 2.2 of Theorem 2.1 and 2.4 of Theorem 2.2

may be compared in the following way.

3AG

2.7

3

L> G2 A > HP, G > .

2A G

Proof. We must prove the second inequality of 2.7. For this purpose, we will use the inequal-

ity see 6:

2A G

P< . 2.8

3

This implies G/P > 3G/G 2A, so 1/21 G/P > 2G A/G 2A.

Now, we will prove that

2G A 3 G 2.9

> .

G 2A A

2x 1

> 3 x. 2.10

x2

becomes a 1a 13 < 0, which is true.

Note. The Referee suggested the following alternative proof: since P < 2A G/3and the

3

harmonic mean increases in both variables, it suces to prove stronger inequality A2 G >

H2A G/3, G which can be written as 2.9.

Remark 2.5. The following refinement of inequalities 2.6 is true:

sinh x 2P 3 cosh x

3

> cosh x > > , x > 0. 2.11

x P 1 2 cosh x 1

P is not possible, as by numeri-

3

cal examples one can deduce that generally HL, A and A2 G are not comparable. However,

in a particular case, the following result holds true.

3AG

2.12

3

P > HL, A > A2 G > .

2G A

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 5

3

x 12 2 3 x 1 > x 4.

3

2.13

Proof. A computer computation shows that 2.13 is true for x 4. Now put x a3 in 2.13.

By taking logarithms, the inequality becomes

a3 1

fa 2 ln 9 ln a 3 ln2a 1 > 0. 2.14

2

a2a 1 a3 1 f a 3a 1 a2 a 3 . 2.15

As 42 4 3 2 3 2 22 3 3 2 1 3 2 3 > 0, we getthat f a > 0 for

3 3 3

a 4. This means that fa > f 4 > 0, as the inequality is true for a 4.

3 3 3

3 AG 2 2.16

L> G ,

2

1 A 1 4A3

1 < 1 3

N. 2.17

2 L 2 GA G2

3 A 2.18

N< .

G

So

1 A 3 A

2.19

1 < .

2 L G

3

This immediately gives HL, A > A2 G.

sin x 2L 3 cos x

> > 3 cos x > , 2.20

x L 1 2 cos x 1

which is a refinement, in this case, of inequality 2.5 .

6 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

3. Further Improvements

Theorem 3.1. One has

AG 3AG

3.1

3

P> A2 G >

LA > > ,

L 2G A

AG 3AG

3.2

3

L > GP > G2 A > > .

P 2A G

Proof. The inequalities P > LA and L > GP are proved in 10. We will see, that further

refinements of these inequalities are true. Now, the second inequality of 3.1 follows by the

first inequality of 2.3, while the second inequality of 3.2 follows by the first inequality of

2.4. The last inequality is in fact an inequality by Carlson 11. For the inequalities on AG/P,

we use 2.3 and 2.8.

sin x cos x 3 cos x

> L > 3 cos x > > , x 0, , 3.3

x L 2 cos x 1 2

sinh x cosh x 3 cosh x

3

> P > cosh x >

> , x > 0, 3.4

x P 2 cosh x 1

where L and P are the same as in 2.6 and 2.5 .

AL AG 3AG

P> LA > HA, L >

> > , 3.5

I L 2G A

I G 3AG

3.6

3

L>L > IG > P G > G2 A > .

AL 2A G

Proof. The first two inequalities of 3.5 one followed by the first inequality of 3.1 and the

fact that Gx, y > Hx, y with x L, y A.

Now, the inequality HA, L > AL/I may be written also as

AL

I> , 3.7

2

Further, by Alzers inequality L2 > GI see 13 one has

L G

> 3.8

I L

AL AG 3AG

> > , 3.9

I L 2G A

so 3.5 is proved.

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 7

The first two inequalities of 3.6 have been proved by the author in 5. Since I > P

see 14 and by 3.2, inequalities 3.6 are completely proved.

> L > > >

> , x 0, , 3.10

x L 1 I L 2 cos x 1 2

sinh x sinh x ex coth x1 1 3 cosh x

> ex coth x1/2 > P >

3

> cosh x > .

x x cosh x sinh x/x 2 cosh x 1

3.11

3 AG 2 A 2G AL 3AG 3.12

P> A > A > AL > HA, L > > ,

2 3 I 2G A

3 AG 2 2A G 3 3AG 3.13

L> G > IG > G > P G > G2 A > .

2 3 2A G

Proof. In 3.12, we have to prove the first three inequalities, the rest are contained in 3.5.

The first inequality of 3.12 is proved in 6. For the second inequality, put A/G t > 1

By taking logarithms, we have to prove that

t1 t2

gt 4 ln 3 ln ln t > 0. 3.14

2 3

The third inequality of 3.12 follows by Carlsons relation L < 2G A/3 see 11.

The first inequality of 3.13 is proved in 9, while the second one in 15. The third

inequality follows by I > 2A G/3 see 12, while the fourth one by relation 2.9. The

fifth one is followed by 2.3.

Remark 3.6. The first three inequalities of 3.12 oer a strong improvement of the first

inequality of 3.1; the same is true for 3.13 and 3.2.

The main result of this section is contained in the following:

8 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

A G 2 3AA G A2G A

3 3AG 4.1

P> A > > > ,

2 5A G 2A G 2G A

3 A G 2 3GA G G2A G 3AG 4.2

L> G > > > .

2 5G A 2G A 2A G

Proof. The first inequalities of 4.1, respectively, 4.2 are the first ones in relations 3.12,

respectively, 3.13.

Now, apply the geometric mean-harmonic mean inequality:

3 3

3

xy2 3

xyy > ,

1 1 1 1 2 4.3

x y y x y

for x A, y A G/2 in order to deduce the second inequality of 4.1. The last two

inequalities become, after certain transformation,

The proof of 4.2 follows on the same lines, and we omit the details.

Theorem 4.2. For all x 0, , one has

2

x

sin x 4 tan > 3x. 4.5

2

x

sinh x 4 tanh > 3x. 4.6

2

As cos x 1 2cos2 x/2 and sin x 2 sinx/2 cosx/2, we get inequality 4.5. A

similar argument applied to 4.6, by an application of 4.2 and the formulae cosh x 1

2cosh2 x/2 and sinh x 2 sinhx/2 coshx/2.

Remarks 4.3. By 4.1, inequality 4.5 is a refinement of the classical Huygens inequality 1.1:

x

2 sin x tan x > sin x 4 tan > 3x. 4.3

2

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 9

x

2 sinh x tanh x > sinh x 4 tanh > 3x. 4.4

2

We will call 4.5 as the second Huygens inequality, while 4.6 as the second hyper-

bolic Huygens inequality.

In fact, by 4.1 and 4.2 refinements of these inequalities may be stated, too.

The inequality P > A2G A/2A G gives

sin x 2 cos x 1

> , 4.7

x cos x 2

or written equivalently:

sin x 3

> 2, x 0, . 4.8

x cos x 2 2

Acknowledgments

The author is indebted to Professor Edward Neuman for his support and discussions on this

topic. He also thanks the Referee for a careful reading of the paper and a new proof of

Theorem 2.4.

References

1 C. Huygens, Oeuvres Completes 18881940, Societe Hollondaise des Science, Haga, Gothenburg.

2 J. S. Sandor and M. Bencze, On Huygens trigonometric inequality, RGMIA Research Report

Collection, vol. 8, no. 3, article 14, 2005.

3 E. Neuman and J. Sandor, On some inequalities involving trigonometric and hyperbolic functions

with emphasis on the Cusa-Huygens, Wilker, and Huygens inequalities, Mathematical Inequalities &

Applications, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 715723, 2010.

4 J. Sandor, On the identric and logarithmic means, Aequationes Mathematicae, vol. 40, no. 2-3, pp.

261270, 1990.

5 J. Sandor, On refinements of certain inequalities for means, Archivum Mathematicum, vol. 31, no. 4,

pp. 279282, 1995.

6 J. Sandor, On certain inequalities for means. III, Archiv der Mathematik, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 3440, 2001.

7 E. Neuman and J. Sandor, On the Schwab-Borchardt mean, Mathematica Pannonica, vol. 14, no. 2,

pp. 253266, 2003.

8 E. B. Leach and M. C. Sholander, Extended mean values. II, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and

Applications, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 207223, 1983.

9 J. Sandor, On certain inequalities for means. II, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, vol.

199, no. 2, pp. 629635, 1996.

10 E. Neuman and J. Sandor, On the Schwab-Borchardt mean. II, Mathematica Pannonica, vol. 17, no. 1,

pp. 4959, 2006.

11 B. C. Carlson, The logarithmic mean, The American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 79, pp. 615618, 1972.

12 J. Sandor, A note on some inequalities for means, Archiv der Mathematik, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 471473,

1991.

13 H. Alzer, Two inequalities for means, La Societe Royale du Canada, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1116, 1987.

14 H. J. Seiert, Ungleichungen fur einen bestimmten Mittelwert, Nieuw Arch, Wisk, vol. 13, no. 42,

pp. 195198, 1995.

15 J. Sandor, New refinements of two inequalities for means, submitted.

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Volume 2012, Article ID 430692, 6 pages

doi:10.1155/2012/430692

Research Article

A Nice Separation of Some Seiffert-Type Means by

Power Means

1

Department of Computer Sciences, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400114 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

2

Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400114 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Copyright q 2012 I. Costin and G. Toader. This is an open access article distributed under the

Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and

reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Seiert has defined two well-known trigonometric means denoted by P and T. In a similar

way it was defined by Carlson the logarithmic mean L as a hyperbolic mean. Neuman and

Sandor completed the list of such means by another hyperbolic mean M. There are more known

inequalities between the means P, T, and L and some power means Ap . We add to these

inequalities two new results obtaining the following nice chain of inequalities A0 < L < A1/2 <

P < A1 < M < A3/2 < T < A2 , where the power means are evenly spaced with respect to their

order.

1. Means

A mean is a function M : R2 R , with the property

We will refer here to the following means:

i the power means Ap , defined by

1/p

ap bp

Ap a, b , 0;

p/ 1.3

2

2 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

ii the geometric mean G, defined as Ga, b ab, but verifying also the property

p0

ab

Pa, b 1

, b;

a/ 1.5

2 sin a b/a b

ab

Ta, b , a

/ b; 1.6

2 tan1 a b/a b

ab

Ma, b 1

, b;

a/ 1.7

2 sinh a b/a b

qap bp 1/pq

, pq p q /0

paq bq

p 1/ap bp

1 aa

, p q

/0

Sp,q a, b ep bb 1.8

p

1/p

ap bp

, 0, q 0

p/

pln a ln b

ab, p q 0.

The mean A1 A is the arithmetic mean and the mean S1,0 L is the logarithmic

mean. As Carlson remarked in 5, the logarithmic mean can be represented also by

ab

La, b 1

; 1.9

2 tanh a b/a b

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 3

thus the means P, T, M, and L are very similar. In 3 it is also proven that these means can

be defined using the nonsymmetric Schwab-Borchardt mean SB given by

b2 a2

, if a < b

cos1 a/b

SBa, b 1.10

a2 b2

, if a > b

cosh1 a/b

Given two means M and N, we will write M < N if

for a / 2.1

It is known that the family of power means is an increasing family of means, thus

Of course, it is more dicult to compare two Stolarsky means, each depending on two

parameters. To present the comparison theorem given in 8, 9, we have to give the definitions

of the following two auxiliary functions:

|x| y

, x/y

k x, y xy

signx, x y,

2.3

L x, y , x > 0, y > 0

l x, y

0, x 0, y 0, xy 0.

holds true if and only if pq r s, and (1) lp, q lr, s if 0 minp, q, r, s, (2) kp, q kr, s

if minp, q, r, s < 0 < maxp, q, r, s, or (3) lp, q lr, s if maxp, q, r, s 0.

We need also in what follows an important double-sided inequality proved in 3 for

the Schwab-Borchardt mean:

a 2b

2.5

3

ab2 < SBa, b < , b.

a/

3

4 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Being rather complicated, the Seiert-type means were evaluated by simpler means,

first of all by power means. The evaluation of a given mean M by power means assumes the

determination of some real indices p and q such that Ap < M < Aq . The evaluation is optimal

if p is the the greatest and q is the smallest index with this property. This means that M cannot

be compared with Ar if p < r < q.

For the logarithmic mean in 10, it was determined the optimal evaluation

as it was shown in 3. Moreover in 12 it was determined the optimal evaluation

To prove the full interlacing property of power means, our aim is to show that A3/2 can be put

between M and T. We thus obtain a nice separation of these Seiert-type means by power

means which are evenly spaced with respect to their order.

3. Main Results

We add to the inequalities 2.11 the next results.

are satisfied.

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 5

Proof. First of all, let us remark that A3/2 S3,3/2 . So, for the first inequality in 3.1, it is

sucient to prove that the following chain of inequalities

A2 2A

M< < S3,1 < S3,3/2 3.2

3

is valid. The first inequality in 3.2 is a simple consequence of the property of the mean M

given in 1.11 and the second inequality from 2.5. The second inequality can be proved by

direct computation or by taking a 1 t, b 1 t, 0 < t < 1 which gives

1 t2 2 3 t2 3.3

< ,

3 3

which is easy to prove. The last inequality in 3.2 is given by the comparison theorem of the

Stolarsky means. In a similar way, the second inequality in 3.1 is given by the relations

S3,3/2 < S4,1 3

AA22 < T. 3.4

The first inequality is again given by the comparison theorem of the Stolarsky means. The

equality in 3.4 is shown by elementary computations, and the last inequality is a simple

consequence of the property of the mean T given in 1.11 and the first inequality from 2.5.

x x

1

< A3/2 1 x, 1 x < , 3.5

sinh x tan1 x

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank the anonymous referee for oering them a simpler proof for their

results.

References

1 H.-J. Seiert, Problem 887, Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 176, 1993.

2 H.-J. Seiert, Aufgabe 16, Die Wurzel, vol. 29, pp. 221222, 1995.

3 E. Neuman and J. Sandor, On the Schwab-Borchardt mean, Mathematica Pannonica, vol. 14, no. 2,

pp. 253266, 2003.

4 K. B. Stolarsky, Generalizations of the logarithmic mean, Mathematics Magazine, vol. 48, no. 2, pp.

8792, 1975.

5 B. C. Carlson, The logarithmic mean, The American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 79, pp. 615618, 1972.

6 J. M. Borwein and P. B. Borwein, Pi and the AGM: A Study in Analytic Number Theory and Computational

Complexity, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1987.

6 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

7 B. C. Carlson, Algorithms involving arithmetic and geometric means, The American Mathematical

Monthly, vol. 78, pp. 496505, 1971.

8 Zs. Pales, Inequalities for dierences of powers, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications,

vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 271281, 1988.

9 E. B. Leach and M. C. Sholander, Multi-variable extended mean values, Journal of Mathematical

Analysis and Applications, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 390407, 1984.

10 T. P. Lin, The power mean and the logarithmic mean, The American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 81,

pp. 879883, 1974.

11 A. A. Jagers, Solution of problem 887, Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde, vol. 12, pp. 230231, 1994.

12 P. A. Hasto, Optimal inequalities between Seierts means and power means, Mathematical

Inequalities & Applications, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 4753, 2004.

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