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Yi'lnity $H 8t$ Speaking & Listening

lntroduction to the
ISE ll $peaking & tistening exam
The aim of the Trinity College London's lntegrated Skills in English (lSE) exam (Speaking & Listening
module) is to assess candidates' competence in speaking and listening in English, in a context which
reflects their real world activity and their purpose for learning English. lt is an integrated and commu-
nicative exam, which is based on skills candidates will need for study and future employment.
The Speaking & Listening module is designed to be authentic and relevant to the candidate's circumstances
and future aspirations.
The exam is conducted as one-to-one, face-to-face speaking and listening tasks, with the candidate and
one examiner.
The task in the speaking part of the exam replicate real-life exchanges, in which the candidate and the
examiner share information, ideas and opinions.
ln the listening part of the Speaking & Listening module (the lndependent listening task) recordings are
played by the examiner in the interview followed by various tasks, which vary in format depending on the
exam level. The candidate first has to report on the general meaning of the recording and then to
summarise the ideas given. The audio part of the listening exam is pre-recorded to ensure standardisation of
the listening output.

Exam Format
A $PEAKING exam with 3 tasks and a LISTENING exam with one task.
Tiining: 25 minutes (23 minutes exam, plus 2 minutes examiner administration time).
Level: Cl of the CEFR

?lnity tSE lll Speaking &. Listening module Exam Format


TO$,'6S*,', t,,:t-,,.',,,,,,,;,r-..,=:.,,=.:.,.:.a::'=..1-;;,:,,
Speaking assessment
Collaborative task
iineludlng interaetive listening)
erCe . :,: ii
lndependent listening assessment

ISE rating scale


All tasks in each ISE level are linked to a particular CEFR level.
The rating scale below shows four distinct scores within each CEFR level:

lnterpretation
{.:::l:'i:. Excellent achievement - at the upper end of the CEFR level

3 Appropriate achievement - at the middle of the CEFR level

?, .,,. .."Oaable achievement - of the CEFR level, possibly newly qualified at that level
ti,:,.i,:.: Non-achievement - not of the CEFR level
6,1..:, No topic task, no perfiormance to rate

Published by GLOBAL ELT LTD


k
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copyright @ GLOBAL ELT LTD, 20 l6
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British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record of this book is available from the British Library'.
SucceedinTRINITYISEIII-speaking&Listening-StudentsBook-ISB\:-'-' ---
oSucceedinTRINITYISEIII-Speaking&Listening -Teacher'sBr'c'l-156.' --' - -
Ir]ntv
.,t "3f:
:tl Speaking & Listenimg

SPEAKING SFCT*A}{
#a:re 4 The ToPic Task
LeSSOn I '{"1"r y".,.,:": "f;:rr. ;, i page 6
"i
Lessan 2 ?h* Ts:*i*'?xek. page 10

Lessan 3 i !-* l,'-:4"/ 5-:. page 13

Lesson 4 -" i t: ;-if, !- ," - . "


page 15

Lesson 3 t fil1 ;1r*-t. ::r-;i page 20

X-esson 6 { n* *}p3{ {sq, page 22

#av The Collaborative Task


Lesssn I Yh* f.s:?{, i:**'a*iv* 3**} page 26

lesson 2 T"k* #*ll;;*::va:iv* "f;*;** page 29

Lesson 3 T:'; q -:l.r$;.';.i; " r ll='.: page 34

Reference pages
-i-r.:: "..:,:.
LesSons I & 2: i ,.' page 40

Lesson3 ,,* ...: , . page 43

Lesson 5 ir" ':.. page 45

Lesson I l: -.- ;;;" . ;. page 48

l-essors 2 7' *z* {*i lll.:*s"a: l'* "?.ai,:


k page 49

LeSSOn! r,r"r.,., .f i: . :.". page 50

:-IS?SNNG SETGN
The lndependent listening task page 51

Lesson l: The Format of the lndependenr Listening Task page sr


Lesscr 2: Recognising tFle speaker's point of view and inferring meaning page 5b

SXTRAS: Addiional exam pracice fbn the lndependent Lisrening Task page 58

LANGTAGE FUNTI*NS & GRP,MMAR SECTT*N page 59


Unit I Relative Clauses (l) page 60
Unit 2 Relative Clauses {?) & Participle Clauses page 64
Unlt 3 Causative Form and Adjectives page 68
Unit 4 tnversion page /
Unit 5 Past Modals page /b
Unit 6 Conditionals page 80
Unit 7 Passive Voice page 84
Language functions fur Ti'inity ISE lll
' lnitiating and maintaining the conversation
. Developing and justifying an argument
. Evaluating options, past actions/course of events and different statements

r Speculating
. Hypothesising

' Staging (ie a logical signposted structure)

. Summarising

r lndicating understanding of points made by the examiner

. Establishing common ground

Please note that the language functions are cumulative through the ISE levels. There are no suggested
grammar structures for ISE lll. Candidates are exPected to use a broad range of complex structures
to express thoughts clearly.

mt
ffi
LeSSOn I ryr** ?'*mic Yas$q. sas"s $

ln this lesson you will learn about the format of the Topic Task, Part l.

Exercise I
Listen to the recording. This is an example of the Topic Task, Part I . For questions $ -$ choose the correct opton or write
a short answer as appropriate.

Yn*"* False
3.
1". The topic is talked about from the very start of the interview.
7.
2. Part 1 is a discussion of the topic between the student and the examiner.
3.
3. The examiner makes notes about the student's performance while listening.
4. How long is Part 1? &.

5. The tone in Part L is quite formal. 3.

6. The examiner tells the student what topic to talk about.


?ri: F;xlse
7. The student discusses both sides of the topic. 6.
8. Why does the examiner interrupt the stuoent? v.

't -

Topic Thsk - Fax"t $

rrcpre .

* You choose and prepare a topic of your choice in advance.


Prepare well.
* You must prepare a formal handout for the examiner.
* You can also make notes for yourself. This is not compulsory
but is highly recommended.
* You are not allowed to have a fully scripted presentation - notes
should be short and function as cues for what you want to say.

r(ery'en1$er
" Practise your presentation and try to get the timing about right,
so that you can say all that you want to say in around 4 minutes.
Try to finish your discussion and asl< the examiner if they have
any questions.
Don't worry if you see the examiner writing notes while you
speak. They are not marl<ing you. They are making notes about
the things you say to use in the discussion phase in Part 2.
Try and finish your presentation within the 4 minutes, but don't
worry if the examiner stops your presentation before you have
finished. lt must end when time is up.
Keep your language quite formal and polite.
Tniniry iSf; tt Speaking The Topic Task - $,art I

Exercise 2
When discussing the topic, you talk about both sides of the argument. This is likely to involve supporting your points
with 'advantages and disadvantages'. Put the words in the box in the correct column based on their meaning.

.Advantages Ssadvartxg*s
pitfa lls
downsides
u psides
benefits
drawbacks
pros
cons

Exercise 3
You should choose a topic that promotes discussion not a fact-based one. This task is not simply about reporting facts or
describing things; it is about expressing and supporting viewpoints.

Which of the options would make the best topic, A or &? Choose the correct answer.
-1
J 1. A. The most popular forms of ecotourism
-j
J B. The effects of ecotourism on people and the land

2. A. The role of nature documentaries in conservation


B. My favourite documentary films of all time

l
3. A. Different types of voluntourism*
B. Making a profit out of volunteering

4- A. A history of hillwalking in the United Kingdom


B. The consequences of making our mountains more accessible to walkers

5. A. Solving the African poaching (illegal hunting) problem


B. Endangered mammals of Africa

voluntourism'. a form of tourism (travellers take parf in voluntary work, usually for a charity)

Exercise 4
Your topic should not iust be based on the pros and cons of something, although they are likely to be included. Your topic
should promote discussion and exploit the language functions of the level (see p. 4). Your topic could be, for example:
A Problem and solution topic
B Cause and effect topic
C For and against topic

Match these topics to the topic types above. Write A, E or e on the line.

1. There should be a ban on all forms of hunting


2. How the problem of poaching began
3. How to stop poaching
-6?"ir*!ca;
SC t! Speaking The Topic Task - Part I

Exercise 5
&.. Earlier, we looked at a few different ways to talk about advantages and disadvantages. What are some different ways
to say 'for' and 'against'? Write the missing letters.

l'm p r-,., I'm a

I'm i,- f,"v n _ f_v__r


I s..pp*r1 td S-PP T

&- lf you feel (or don't feel) very strongly about something, say so. Use an intensifier lil<e 'extremely'
Write the missing letters to complete the sentences.

!.1 s- ngl_ s_pp_r_ atotalbanonhunting.


?. l'm s* m_w h _t p-_ the increased use of nuclear power.
3" I'm ri__ rea__y i _ f_v*_r ofbanningcarsfromcitycentres.
4. I'm p1-ss' l' n .t_ly t drillingintheArctic.
$, I d '_ s_Pp r_ thebuildingofnewroadsforaccesstoscenicareasa a l.

*, Sometimes, you are neither or nor against somethlng. How do you say that? Put the words in the correct order
to make sentences.

t, I / strongly/ the / about /don't / issue / feel / one way orthe other / .

2^"1 I arelthinl< I good I against I for I arguments/ there/ and / this/.

3" I'm / anti / pro / this / neither I nor I


.

*{, I / see / cn / sides I the I of largument / both /


.

"$ l'm / about / issue / this / on the fence /


.
Ts"intty XSK tX$ Speal(ing The Topic Task - Par{ !

D. Are you 'for' or 'against' these things? Worl< in pairs. Tell your partner your opinion and explain why
(by highlighting advantages or disadvantages). Use some of the new phrases you've learned.
t " Building more roads in the countryside so people have easy access to beautiful and scenic places.
?. Allowing the sport of hunting as a way to control wild animal populations.
3. The use of nuclear power instead of fossil fuels such as oil and coal.
4. Searching for oil and gas in unexplored parts of the Arctic.
5, Banning cars from cty centres.

Exercise 6
\ow worl< in the same pairs and follow the instructions. Homeworl<
topic that you are interested in. lt can be any topic
Picl< a
Student l: Consider this topic in more detail: you want so long as it is an opinion-based (forlagainst)
Building rosds in he csuntryside so peopfe hcve cccess to beoutif,r.ll
subject. For example:
p/oces.
Giving pcrents rnsre leeve forn work whe* tfiey loe ciildre*"
3rainstorm ideas for and against the proposal" Use the suggestions
on page 40 to help you. Then follow the template on the same Research the subject online. Find out as much information
rage and make notes for a short presentaton. When you have as you can about both sides of the argurnent. Then script
finished, give your short presentation to Student 2. a formal presentation on the subiect. The presentation
should last about four minutes. Practise your timings and
Student 2: Consider this topic in more detail: shorten or lengthen the presentation as required.
Eonning cors porn cify centres- You can use the template on page 40 to help you.
Brainstorm ideas for and against the proposal. Use the suggestions
on page 40 to help you. Then use the notes template on the same
page for a shor-t presentation. When you have finished, give your
short presentation to Student l.

W
n
3ri*iy !S# {F Speal<ing The Topic'fask - ffars !

!-gSSOn 2 Yhe'$**axe Tas*{, Px.*-t }


E

I

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i.!:l:Li::

p$*li-l
f' I
:li!:u;ii:t:.::i:ii:1ii .Li.li ,' l ',
&M
K34 gd
git
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W K %dlil':.

HUNTING
WILD ANMAL$!I

Exercise I
Lool< at the images. What do they show about the different sides to wildlife tourism? Discuss in pairs'
Use the questions below for help if you need ideas.

$ How do you thinl< wild animals feel when they are surrounded by crowds of people?
? Are there any benefits to wildlife tours lil<e safaris and whale-watching?
3 What problems can be caused by wild animals becoming very familiar with people?
4 How do you feel about wildlife hunting holidays?
5 What are some of the drawbacl<s to having a lot of tourlsts visit a scenic place?

& Are you in favour of voluntourism? Why? / Why not?


Slnity g$m 3t Speaking The Topic Task ' Fa'r i

Exercise 2
Match the linking phrases in the box to the section of your presentation they would probably be used in.

ln conclusion, ... It is my belief that ...


Although it is true that ... And last but not least, ...
ln this presentaon, l'm going to discuss .. Addionally, ...
Firstly,...
I
S*et[*n : lntroduction

S*e{i**': ?: State your position


SectS*al 3: Aclcnowledge the other side of the argument

Seet*gi 4: Present your first argument

S*e{i's'* $; Present your second argument

Seetion S Present your final argument


S*efi*sl ?: Reiterate/summarise your position

Exercise 3
Number the sctions of this presentation in the correct order from l-7.

A. E.

_ Although it is true that you cannot stop progress and _ Thirdly, I feel it is time overpopulated parts of the world
that we must find a way to accommodate the growing started adopting new policies on children. Governments
human population and its demand for natural resources, I
should limit the number of children couples are allowed to
do not believe we should put our own concerns before have. This is the most sensible approach because, with peo-
those of the rest of the natural world. I think we can deal ple today living longer than ever before, our population
with the problems caused by an ever-growing population issues will only increase In future. Having fewer children
without destroying the beauty around us. would help ease the world's population difficulties.

B.
F.
_ lt is my belief that everything must be done to protect
the natural world and we must ensure that we do not allow _ ln short, I recognise that we face significant problems
our precious wild landscapes to be swallowed up by human caused by overpopulation and a shortage of resources.
activity. However, I feel we can solve these problems without nega-
tively impacting on the environment and the natural world.
We just need to adopt smart new building policies, use tech-
nology to improve our supply of key resources and take
c.
measures to reduce the number of children being born.
_ Secondly, I believe we can solve the issue of scarce
resources without destroying our planet. Where energy is
concerned, let's focus on creating more efficient renewable
technologies. That way, we will not have to mine and drill
the land and destroy precious wild habitats any more. G.
Where water is concerned, there is an abundance of sea _ Firstly, I believe we should build our cities up and down
water; so let's use technology to find efficient ways to turn rather than sideways. New technology allows us to construct
this into fresh water for drinking, farming and so on. very tall buildings that are safe. Similarly, we can also build
underground complexes that people can live and work in
with the technology we have today. Doing this would help
us to accommodate more people without having to find
D.
new land to build on.
_ ln this presentation, I wish to examine the question of
how we can accommodate the ever-increasing human pop-
ulation of the world without damaging the natural environ-
ment or wildlife.
-&"!"irlity
,$tr $$* Speaking The Topic Task - Pr't i Tr

Exercise 4 L
Put the linl<ing phrases in the correct column according to their function.

ln short, ...
Furthermore, ...
ln addition, ...
To sum up, ...
While...
ln summary ...
What is more, ...
Having said that, ...
To conclude, ...
Although ...

Exercise 5
Choose the correct options to complete the sentences.

* While I ln addition, it is true that there is a serious problem, I believe it can be resolved without harming the natural
world around us.

2 To concludg, I Having said that, it is my belief that I have shown that the benefits outweigh the disadvantages
considerably and that is why I am in favour of investing in renewable energy.

3 There are a number of advantages to opening up the countryside to more tourists. Having said thot, / While I thinl<
the downsides would be verT serious and wildlife would be adversely affected.

4 Not only can we build up in our cities, but we can also take advantage of the space underground.
Furthermore, I Although we can use the space inside the structures we build more efficiently.

Exercise 6
Worl< in pairs, Student I and Student 2.

S"{reffit i; Turn to page 40 and read the script about mal<ing the countryside more accessible. Then follow the instructions
below the text.

Scl,.dffit ?: Turn to page 42 and read the script about making the countryside more accessible. Then follow the instructions
below the text.

Homework It is imPortant to give structure


to
are awarded
your Presentation' Marks
When you have completed the notes, practise giving the
presentation. Refer only to your notes when doing this. in the exam for how clearlY
logicallY You Present Your
and
ideas'
I
above will
Time yourself, and mal<e your presentation longer or t-iit<ing phrases like those f,
shorter if you need to. lt should be 4 minutes long. helP You to imProve the structure
and flow of your presentation' '' '

:
Yrnity *Sffi {fi$ Speaking The Topic Task - Part I

LesSon 3 YFa* 3*m*q:"$;;x.sg{. ffiar* t

Exercise I
Look at the images. Discuss the future of the planet from an environmental point of view. ls the future bleal< (negative) or
encouraging? lf you need help with ideas to tall< about, considerthe questions below.

$What predictions have people made about global warming? Do you believe them? Why? / Why not?
? Do you know of any endangered animals and habitats around the world? What can we do to protect these?
3 Should we l<eep on lool<ing for new supplies of fossil fuels? Why? / Why not? What alternatives are there?
4 How do you feel about nuclear power?
$ What can we, as individuals, do to help protect the natural world?
& What should governments be doing to help protect the natural world?
? Are there any signs that global warming may already be happening? lf so, what are they?
& What might be the consequences of global warming for humanity?
T?r:ity $Str ,* Speaking The Topic Task - F;*rt !

Exercise 2 E
& Work together again in pairs. Read the text of a short recording about people's opinions on nuclear power. l:

Speculate about where you think the phrases in the box should go in the text.

a- Two in every ten people b. Two fifths of people c. One third of people
d. Seven out of ten people e. The maiority of people
in countres with nuclear power programmes are opposed to the use of this energy source.

Just {?} said they thought that nuclear power was safe and that more power plants should be built.
f ?i felt that nuclear power and fossil fuels could be completely replaced by renewables within the
next 20 years. {4} believed that it was OK to continue using existing nuclear power plants, while

{s} would lil<e every plant shut down immediately.


E:

S Now listen and checl< your answers.

C Discuss the beliefs of the people surveyed with your Partner. Do you agree with them?

Exercise 3
Quantifying other people's opinions and making general statements about them.
%
Rernditiber!
5"c

ln your presentation it is always impor-


Match the phrases ( I -5) to the percentages (A-E). tant to acknowledge the other side of
the argument. Often this involves pre-
senting another viewpoint. When doing
'L the vast majority of people A 5o/o this, you can use phrases such as those
2. a large portion of the population B l5o/o in x**"c!*es 3 and 3.
lfyou are expressing a fact, you can use
3. the overwhelming majority of people c 55o/o
a quantifying phrase (e.g. fhe vost
4,.. a small minority of people D 78o/o majority of people ...) and if you are
expressing a general statement, you
5;' a tiny percentage of people 95olo
can use a less specific phrase
(e.g. Sorne people ... I Many people ... I
A lot of people ...).
* Write the missing words to complete the general statements

M__ _ people are anti nuclear power in this day and age.

A _ _ _ o _ people feel that we should be investing more money and


resources into renewable sources of energy such as solar and wind power. Rernnrrber!
You don't have to make notes for your
l_ _s p__u __rly b_l__v_d thatrenewableenergyisthe presentation. However, it is a good idea
way forward; however, the fact is most renewables remain very expensive. to do this. That way, if you forget
something you want to say or you get a
A l_ r_e n __ b peoplewould be in favourof closing down
little nervous, you have some help. Your
all nuclear power plants.
notes should be short and only contan
f key words and ideas. You want to cre-
$ l_ _s a c_mm_n_y h_ld b that there are significant
deposits of oil and gas in the Arctic.
ate cues to help you with your train of
thought. l"'ih,i

Do not script your whole presentation.


Exercise 4 This is not allowed. Your notes should
Student l, turn to Page 43 and follow the instructions.
Worl< in pairs. be brief.
Student 2, turn to page 44 and follow the instructions.
Ti"riry i$* g&! Speaking The Topic Task - Fxrc I

Exercise 5
Now, let's revise what we know about the Topic Task, Part L Choose the correct option or write short answers.
I Part I is a presentotion / discussion .

? How long does it last?


3 Can you script what you want to say in full? Yes / No
4 Do you have to use notes? Yes / No
5 Do you have to do a handout for the examiner? Yes / No
S What are the notes the examiner mal<es
while listening to you about? Your mork I Things to discuss loter in Port 2

Exercise
Work in pairs, Student I and Student 2.

\ow it's time to give your topic presentation to your partner. Student l, using the notes you wrote for
romework, give your presentation to Student 2. Student 2, time it and stop Student I after 4 minutes.

Student 2, give Student I feedback on their presentation. Think about:


. Was their point of view clear?
. Were the arguments linl<ed together well?
. Did they acknowledge the other side of the argument?
. Did they support their points?
-hen swap roles.

Remember!
When you make a point, you must support your argument. Do this by developing/explaining it with more details, using
an example, or by quoting some relevant factual information.

For example:
D ev* I* 5:i nx:'* x6* x! n i r.x g
main point] Constructing new paths and signs in the Scottish Highlands would make the area much safer for visitors.
fexplain/develop it] These paths and signs would reduce the chances of hikers gettng lost, which is a leading cause of
accidents and fatalities. There would, therefore, be far fewer such incidences in the mountains.

Using *,* *xxrxg*ie


fmain point] Although there is a problem with overpopulaton and a shortage of housing in our major cities, there are
other ways to solve this issue rather than building outwards and destroying more of the natural environment. [exanrple]
For instance, we could build upwards and have more high-rise buildings. We could also utilise space underground.

Qu**ing a fx**
[main point] There is a commonly held belief that nuclear energy is very unsafe. This is simply wrong. fsupporting fact{s)]
ln all the time that nuclear power plants have existed, there have only been three major accidents. 33 countries have been
using nuclear power for collectively around 16,000 reactor years. The number of accidents is, therefore, actually tiny.

Homework
\ow that you have given your presentation in class, asl< yourself the following:
G Wos it
long enough or too longlshort? Do I need to oddlremove some content?
* Wos my outline plon clear? Could I follow it easily ond present my topic with a good flow? Con I make it cleorer?
* Did / support my orguments properly? Do I need to find out more obout the topc to justify my position?

Make any changes you think are necessary to your notes based on your answers to the above questions. Then, use your final
set of notes to produce a handout for the examiner. Remember that this should be very easy to follow and contain a summary
of all the key points of your presentation. Basicall it should be a longer version of your personal notes that someone who is
not familiar with the topic could understand.

Show the handout to your partner or teacher in the next class. Make sure that they understand the content and that they
think it is clear enough.
Trinity *Sffi l Speaking The Topic Tasl< - Fa"* ?

Lesson 4 Yh* Tr*p*r &as*c, ffiant ? E


ln this lesson you will learn about the format of the Topic Task, Part 2. The Topic Task, Part 2 lasts about 4 minutes. A

Exercise I
Listen to the recording. This is a sample of the Topic Tasl<, Part 2. For questions I -4 choose True or False.

l. Part 2 is a discussion between the examiner and the student.


2. The discussion is not related to the topic in Part I .
3. The examiner is the one asl<ing all the questions and keeping the conversation going.
4" The tone is argumentative.

Now let's look at the text of the discussion the examiner and student had and analyse it more closely.
What types of questions can I be asked? J&etiv* lirxe*':ixg
F**:. d* { ha:y rrty*e!{
Look at the highlighted comments from It is importont to show thot you hove listened to
*ir:i* .el r'*sg:*neJ?
the examiner. You can be asl<ed to: (ond understood) whot the other person hos soid.
There ore some stock
- explain/develop Il You con do this usrng cn ;j{r,:;:,;-'::,ilir:'ri':!,'i':i
n;* phrase
phroses ond exclomotions
- jar*t!fyld*S**:e$ ffi /ike ::;.,:::i Of ,itir,,:,:r ji..i:,i Of yOU COn festOte the
thot people use noturolly '..r..,
when they wont ta buy - ....i. i.. r i4 :.7:;,. .l -,t" , li point in your own words E to show that you hove
themse/ves o moment or - t'::iil: ':,;i'rrr ;it: -i1.:,,''r;.,';i: .iji understood.
two to think obout whot
they wont to soy. Examples Examiner: Elena, I'm very sorry but I'm going to Student:...jt:j::irt:.i:iri:ji.:i.i; And I think they do know
ore underlined. have to stop you there. I would like to discuss better. Often, they are aware of the damage their
some of the points you've made in your presenta- actions cause, but they are just out to make money
'T**"*-t*e!rixg' tion generally. I was wondering, first: have you so they don't stop. I think they sometimes take
any direct experience of voluntourism your- advantage of people's goodwill and desire to help.
It is important to allow a self? ll Examinen : :-"r:,. i,l.i mr'it y*L el*.r:'t thin{< the
bolonced discussion.
You should be oble to main-
Student: Um ... not really -
but I do a lot of in**x{ry s8'e"sld {:* sh!-!t e3*w*; e!*spit* t}:e
charity work, so I have seen first-hand the good it harn: if e;an aruse,$X
tain the conversotion. To do
does. That's why I'm so upset about reports the
this, you must sometimes Student: No, because I don't think all voluntourism
voluntourism industry is tal<ing resources away
invite the exominer to take is bad. Ithink there are examples of very well-run
from charities. For example, I volunteer at weel<-
turns; to respond. Usuolly, programmes that do help. lt would be a shame to
ends with a charity that rescues injured wild ani-
you do this by soying some- lose these. What I'd like to see nstead is a situation
mals. I'm training to be a vet, so my help can
thinglike ]rr - )'.+).or
sometimes make a real difference. lmagine what
where the ndustry is better-controlled, you know?
by osking o question.ffi Examiner: #i{, s* i{ y** r,;*;'* ill g*rvr:r'r*x**'r'1,
would happen if no-one volunteered at charities E
like mine. *r: g::r-t fut:*" ":41 E :tt*t;",i #
mc:*'t gle rr:de Examiner: I do; there is no question of how much Student: Well, first I'd have controls in place to
Defend your point of view good charities do in different areas. But I get the limit the profits voluntourism companies could
politely ond respect other
viewpoints.
feeling you don't blame the voluntourists them-
selves for the problem. Can you explain why? El
make. Second, I'd employ inspectors to visit the
sites where the voluntourism activity tal<es place
I
lf the examiner mokes o go.od student: yes. Lgucst . . . I think mosr people who
point, you do not hove to dis- sign up and puy-or,"y for a voluntouiist oliday
and checl< that the activty s actually beneficial.
I
Examiner: !i;;r::,i.* that all sounds fine in principle,
ogree with it. You can
ocknowledge that the point is
are... kind of... well-intentoned; they are not just but don't you think it's a little bit unrealistic, though?
I mean, sending lots of inspectors off to checl< all the
I
thinking about rhemselves and booking a luxury
volid and chonge your mind or
ogree somewhot, so /ong os
holiday, r+;,, :-:;*e*l # programmes sounds very expensive, for example.
* y** r*a!l3r e!":tn!* il's fcaci&le? ffi
I
you exploin why.
Here, for example, the student
Examiner: So, what you mean is they are
trying to do the right thing? El Student: No. i I
recognises voluntourists ore
portly to blome far the problem,
Student: Yes, exactly.
Examiner: #*C i* i1*r-* *ny p*in* in i:*ir;g
that might be a little unrealistic cost-wise, but
something has to be done. We could ... erm ... I
at least pass laws to limit how much money these
but then explains why she vv*i!-i*t:r:ti*ned ii f r,'" {::tr'i ' rllv \^'p - *r companies can make and control the types of
does not wont to crticise \ !nd:er* if y** *tai<* fil*li$t-* s*'*l'*r ii,sf**.*? ffi projects they are involved in, g-*tt k**crf ff
them too much.
\
\ Student: Well, no, of course; there is definitely Examiner: i.):' 7.:.:. -:-,,,::{ li1:t E
some ignorance there. But we don't live in a per- jli r;,il,,nrrr, -*
r. :
fect world and people can't always do the right
Student: Um ... I think it's unlikely to at the
,li?:fv dr:lu; !)llir';".rit! thine. vou know? I quess ... um ... even if these
f

tt is importonr not jusr ro - moment, but I wouldn't


-"*
ts be surprised fif there
there were
wer

stote your Pasition or vew


rTl" :.,T:ilT::-c",]::'-.:cr TJ:1'",.'l:l^:'"
trying and will learn - they care. That's better "* ;;;;s;;'*],r," .n" next five or so years. you see,
is starting to get a bad name, which
when osked a queston, but rhan lusl thinl<ing
LIlall lust LllllllllliP duuuL
'
..*^,; dll
about yourself
yuul>Ell ^,;;;^-;::-
all the ^^, voluntourism
and
Llllls -- dllu
llls cime i- ^ put
^^^_ to volunteering sooner or
:;:::.-;^-,;-^-:;,^--', is going ^,,+ people
^^^^r^ off
^rr.,^r,,^t^^-;-
I think there is a lot of selfishness in the world, -:
so
to exploin it. For exomple,
here the student not only I woutdn't tike to criticse people for rryins to be l"::':a Yl1::T"l:'tl-tl-1u
and llij-yl'F:9 l-o.i::'''
shortage of help for charities. This is when
soys thot she thinks the'vol- unselfish. *;e* t*e?" *cr?s*J 2":e*:-
*:elrl*:'f y:*ti &.&u.*e;:Y?*
the government will be forced to act.
untoursm industry will &
Examiner: Hmm... i:: So you think it
change in the medium term, Examiner: Um ... yes, i ':i;i'i:"::: will take a crisis before the situation improves
she then also exploins that ,l So you think the vol-
signilicantly. H Rignt, well, thank you, Elena. Now
she thinks this is becouse unfourists themselves are sometirnes naiveEl
let's move on to the collaborative task. OK?
there will be a shortoge of
volunteers cousing a crisis.
Trinity ISE lll Speakins The Topic Task - Pa* 7

Exercise 2
A Listen to the extracts l-7. Which style of discussion is suitable for an exam?
B Listen again. Match the problems (A-G) to the extracts (I -7). You do not need to write a problem beside the extract
' you chose in Exerclse 2 A.

A The student s too defensive and could sound rude.


B The student s very rude and doesn't respect turns.
Extract I _
Extract 2 _
C The student doesn't maintain the conversation. Extract 3 _
D The student doesn't explain their views. Extract4 _
F The student doesn't listen to the examiner. Extract 5 _
Extract 6 _
F The student monopolises the conversation too much.
Extract 7 _
The student maintains the conversation effectively.

lse Speculating about the future


e Now let's look at the language of speculation.
MC

Exercise 3
ow I
letr 'Vrite the phrases in order of probability from (meaning most probable) to 5 (meoning /eost proboble).
)nev
,,# definitely won't
elP.
might/maylcould
e
.::=:&:i happen probably won't
.'.;;
..t';#
,a::'i*l
probably will
rrism
.run .',.=iS definitely will
-' to
Ltion
cw?
Exercise 4
-atch the phrases ( l-5) in Column A to the phrases that mean the same (A-E) in Column B.
to:
tl
'le
.ce
t.
I
t" k's extr:emely/trighly likely to happen ' ia$ there's a good chance it will happen '

i*l!
:iple,
ugh? ,
t it's quite iikely to happenl , ,$: there s not really any chance it will happen '

-!,,.t .

ll thel
3. it's as- iit<ety as not likel)to happen U.: theiels,a very distinct/strong possibilty it will happen
le. i*"t*
t It's unlikeir to fappen ' , i , 1S there s flfty-fifty chance it will happen
I

5. t's extremely/highly unlikely to happen threls a slim possbility it wilf happen


rese

Exercise ,5
',
Complete these sentences with your own ideas about the topic in square brackets [ ].
Write your sentences down first, and then compare and discuss in pairs.
/ere l

;ee, :
Five years from now ...
rich l

or
:risis
I [robots] There's a good chance that ...
len l
2 feducation] lt's extremely unlikely that ...
(it 3 [medicine] There's a fifty-fifty chance that ...
)Yes
low, 4 [travel] lt's quite likely that we won't ...

5 [work] There's a slim possibility that ...

W
ft:*'F*pie Ya*E<' Frl ?

F.*
hxerelse 3 H
Choose the best option to complete each sentence. :-.
I We probably will have found / b* lin<iing a cure for cancer by the end of the decade.
.i: We probably will be living / have lived on Mars within the next 20 years.
:,i We probably will be using/ have used flying cars in the year 2040.
,i We probably will be clcsing/ have closej down all nuclear power plants before 2050; there will be none left.
i We probably won't have relied / be relying on fossil fuels any more in 2025.

xerss* ?
Work in pairs. Look at the images below and discuss the future of the planet and scientific developments. lf you need help
with what to discuss, read the questions. (Note: tn to use the language from Exercises 3-6 in your discussion.)

ln 20 years'time ...

: Do you think we will be living longer and healthier lives?

.,i Do you think astronauts will have returned to the Moon?

-:i Do you think we will be living in colonies on the Moon?


':. How do you think our homes and workplaces will have changed?
::,
What aspcts of life do you think will have changed the most? ln what ways?
ir How do you think the world we live in (the environment and nature) will have changed?
': How will these changes affect our lives?
:.:: Do you think family roles will have changed? How?
':i Do you think different nations will still be fighting and competing with each other or will the world be a peaceful place?
: i,r Do you think we will still be using fossil fuels? Why? / Why not?
Erir*cy XSffi $g* Speal<ing The Topic Task - Wart Z

Homeworl<
For each of the homeworl< tasl<s in lessons 4 and 5, work with the same partner if possible.

Give your partner a copy of your Topic Tasl<, Part I presentation and take a copy of their
presentation home with you.

Read your partner's presentation and thinl< of as many questions as you can to ask them about it.
Write a list of these questions.

Give your partner a copy of the list of questions in the next class and keep a copy for yourself.

Ncte:
This homework task is a very imPortant way to help your partner'
so do it carefully. Think of as many questons as you can to ask
them about their presentation.
e Ask them to explain and develop the points they made
c Ask them to justify or defend their arguments
e Ask them questions that involve speculation

q rffi-
-,in .;*. ,

'\j
kl'
q/
-..e*-".\
T?'i;'ri*y *$# e** Speaking The Topic Task - Far* ?
l
LeSSOn 5 y$xm"Vwpc"Km.s&qu ffimr* ? I

Hypothesis ]
ln this lesson, we are going to use the language of hypothesis.

Exercise I
l& Match l-3 to A-D to make as many complete sentences as possible.

Sixn

mor: young people from working class families


t,. lf we made education free for all, A would have got degrees
young people from different backgrounds would
.. lf we make education free for all, B have equal opportunities.
3. lf we had made education free for all, C we make the world a fairer place. ;

there will be more people from poor baclqgrounds


D
- going to universiry.

* Complete the sentences in the short presentation wth the correct form of the verb in bracl<ets.
I
get student loans instead (or not go at invest in education. This is true of
education should be free for all. And all). This means they leave university
if you think I don't include third-level with huge debts putting them at an
almost every country. To use the UK )
as an example again, a recent report
educatign in this comment, you even bigger disadvantage. The system showed that the poorest people pay
:
{ r} (be) wrong. Already clearly favours people from wealthy almost l0olo more of their income in
in countries across much of Europe, backgrounds. taxes than the richest people. This
primary and secondary education are Some people argue that if universities does not make sense to me. lf more
free. However, if parents want to stopped getting fees, they iS) _ taxes had been collected from the
send their children to university, there
- (not able to) maintain rich over the years and if this money
{.}} _ (be) usually huge high teaching and research standards. had been invested in education, uni-
fees to pay. ln England, for example, I admit that if fees were abolished, it versities iE) _ (not have to)
universiry fees presently cost up to {e} _ certainly start charging fees in the first place.
f9,000 per year. This is a big problem. (present) fundraising challenges, but lf you ask me, education {S} _
lf parents are on low incomes, they universities should be funded by the (be) a basic human right. Therefore,
i3) (not able to) afford state, not by students, in my view. lf it should be open to everyone, not
to send their children to university for the state had had a fairer tax system just to those who can afford it.
three
--or four years now. They - the over the years, there {?} _
children * {4} _ (have to) (be) a lot of money available now to

# Answer these questions about education with your own views.

f What would happen if all forms of education were free and there were no private schools or universities?
lf that happened,

? lf technology keeps improving, will students need to go to classes at all in future or will virtual learning take over?
E

-1 lf teachers and lecturers are sl<illed and knowledgeable, their students respect them - do you agree?

'{ lf you had attended school many years ago, how would things have been different? Have they changed for the better
or for the worse now?

3 Now discuss your answers to the questions in Exercise I C in pairs.


?l.inrify l$f $[ Speal<lng The Topic Task - Y;r*t- 2

Exencise 2
A, You are going to listen to a discussion about free education. You will hear the discussion twice.
Worl< in pairs. Student l, turn to page 45 and follow the nstructons. Student 2, turn to page 46.

B Now Student I and Student 2, role-play the discussion together.


Student l, use your notes to say Alexandra's turns Student 2, use yours to say Simon's turns.
You can use some of your own words to make points so long as the meaning is basically the same as what you originally heard.

F{ote: lf your partner gets stuck, help them - you have a full copy of their part of the dialogue..

Exercise 3
With a partner, look at the images for ideas and discuss the education system in your country today. lf you need help, ask
and answer the questions below.

tuu,
A
va

3, a *tn

I Would students perform better at school if they had less (or no) homeworl<?
2 What are the benefits and drawbacks if schoois provide free food for students?
3 lf students are divided into classes by ability from a young age, is this a good or bad thing?
4 lf a student is bad at academic subjects, should we (l) allow them to focus on applied learning (subjects like woodworl<,
metal worl<, other crafts, etc), or (2) let them leave school and do an apprenticeship instead, or (3) insist that they
continue with their academic education?
5 lf you were in charge of deciding the school curriculum, what subiects would you put more emphasis on?
6 Are final exams good or bad in your view? What would be the benefits and drawbacks if schools used only continuous
assessment to grade students instead?
7 lf you had been a teacher in your secondary school, how do you think you would have coped?
8 lf you were the principal of a school, would you insist that students wear school uniforms? Why (not)?

Exercise 4 Hornework
A For homeworl< in the last lesson, you wrote some I Lool< at the questions your partner has written about
questions for your partner about their presentation. your presentation. Think about how you would reply to
them.
Now look at their presentation again and write some
more questions for them (keeping a copy for yourself).
? Practise giving your presentation using your notes for
help/cues) because you will give your presentation n
the next lesson and then have a discussion with your
The additional questions should be hypothetical ones.
partner about it.
Write as many as you can think of.
3 Study the list of questions you wrote about your partner's
B Give your paftner the list of questions. presentaton for homework the last time.

4 Bring the following with you to the next class:


& Your short notes on your presentation.
&3 Your questions on your partner's presentation.
*'1ritv i$f !;t Speal<ing
j_!"}Ii. Tast< - War Z

$**SSmm S ?"** T'nr:i* 'lxll<. *ur!.".t.


Modals
ln this lesson, we are going to lool< at different uses of modal verbs like
should, could, etc.

Hxensise ff

l! Match l -5 to the sentences (A-E) with the same meaning.

, Young people must have the right to vote from


'16. " A
Young people ought not to have the right to vote
'" the ale of from the age of I 6.

,-' Young people ought to have the righr to vote Young people should definitely be allowed to vote
from the age of I 6. t
from the age of 16.

-'n
Young people could have the right to vote from ;
L
Young people should possibly be allowed to vote
the age of I 6. from the age of 16.

,*' Young people shouldn't have the right


- to vote D
Young people should probably be dlowed to vote
f.o-ih" age of 16. from the age of I 6.

* Young people mustn't have the right to vote from


*' the age of . e
There is no way young people should be allowed
I to vote from the age of I 6.

3 choose the best option from the words in italics to complete each sentence.

i Some young people feel that they don't hove to / mustn't respect people in authority any more because there are
no consequences when they misbehave.

? Parents feel guilty about working long hours away from the family, so they feel that they
have to / can spoll their
children with gifts to make up for this time away.

'i Youths today don't have to / mustn't spend as much time using digital devices
- they are losing their social sl<ills.

'* The educaton system must I could have got better. This is the only explanation for why this generation of
students,
grades are better on average than the last generation's.

'! Teenagers today can't I mightn't have less free time than previous generations. Many of our parents and grandparents
had to worl< to support their families and go to school at the same time, so this is simply
untrue.

d lt's possible that teenagers today2!gh'91-mus! mature more quicl<ly than they did in the past.
'Frinicy ;S 6tl Speaking The Topic Task - Parr ?

{,* Complete each sentence with the correct form of the verb in brackets.

The government should (pass) a law to allow l6-year-olds to drive a long time ago.

2 l6-year-olds should (allow) to vote in future elections.

3 You should (able to) leave school when you are l4 years old.

A
ry The law should (allow) teenagers to work full-time from the age of 15.

$ Parents should (not malce) their children study so hard when they are young
because youth is supposed to be a time of fun.

s Social network sites should (have) a minimum age for users of their sites from
the start to prevent access by young teens and children.

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. You must use the words in brackets.

Young people should be more interested in politics.


Young people ore <f an interest in politics. (ought, take)

Young people today should be more environmentally aware than past generations because of what they are taught
at school.
Young people today more environmentally aware than past generatons based
on what they learn at school. (supposed, be)

3 lt is essential that all young people have the right to a free education.

All young people the right to a free edlcaton. (must, granted)

Young people should never have to pay for healthcare services.


Young people (ought, given) access to {ree healthcare
Yrinity g$g egg Speal<ing The Topic Task - Fart 2

Exercise 2
With a partner, lool< at the images for ideas and discuss the lives of young people in your country today. If you need
help, ask
and answer the questions below.

1g
lii
HARI
.,
li. .tr

I
I Are young people, especially children, spoiled too much by their parents today? Explain.
? What are the benefits and drawbacl<s of social networl<s and the internet for young people?
Should young people use
these seryices less?
3 Some say young people today are very selfish and only thinl< about themselves. Do you agree? please explain using examples.
4 What age should young people be allowed to worl< from? Explain.
$ What are the advantages and disadvantages of getting worl< experience while at school or university?
& Should young people be allowed to drive cars when they are l6?
? What is the voting
age in your country? Should it be changed? How can we get more young people involved in politics?
& Should young people today have more rights and freedom? Explain.
I Do young people in your country get free healthcare? Should they?
$& How can young people mal<e a real difference to the world we live in? What must they do?
Trinity ISE ll Speal<ing The Topic Tsl< - Fart 2

Exercise 3
A Now worl< in the same pairs as you did for the homeworl<.
Student l: Give your four-minute presentation to Student 2, using your short notes to help you.

Student 2: Listen to Student I's presentation. Time it and stop Student I when 4 minutes are up.

B Student 2, now ask Student I questions and have a discussion with them about their presentation. (Use the questions
you wrote down about their presentation for homeworl< for ideas on what to discuss.)

Exercise 4
A Now you will swap roles.
Student 2: Give your four-minute presentation to Student I , using your short notes to help you.

Student l: Listen to Student 2's presentation. Time it and stop Student 2 when 4 minutes are up.

B Student I , now ask Student 2 questions and have a discussion with them about their presentation. (Use the questions
you wrote down about their presentation for homeworl< for ideas on what to discuss.)

Homework
ieflect on how successful your presentation and the discussion of your topic n class were. Can you improve your own

I :.esentation?

Remember!
Find as many people as you can to practise
discussing your topic with outside of class.
lf posslble, swap your presentation with a
different partner from class every weel<. They
can write questions to asl< about your presentation
and you can write questions about theirs. Then
you can each give your presentation and have a
discusslon about it.
You can even discuss your topic with friends and
family at home if necessary. The questlons they
asl< you will give you new ideas for what to thinl(
about and discuss in the exam.
However, remember the aim is NOT to memorise
your presentation.
t-
E:

Lesson I

Developing and justifying an argument.


ln this lesson you will learn about the format of the Collaborative Task (which will deal with developing and justifying
an argument.).

Exercise I
.{ Listen once to the recording. This is an example of the Collaborative Task. For each question, write a short answer or
choose the correct option.

I What is the main topic of the conversation? 3 What is the woman's view on competitve sport?
(select two options)
l1 how to mal<e students more competitive
* a new.sports initiative in schools l&, lt can build social skills.
fr improving the health of students ffi lt makes everyone equal.
ff lt doesn't benefit everyone.
3 The woman believes that competitive sport ) lt has more value than non-competitive sport.

ih is too stressful for the majority of students.


should not be offered alongside non-competitive spot-t.
f;S
fr can boost confidence.

Tip!
ffi Now answer these questions about the Collaborative Task. ln this task, you must lead
Choose the correct option. the conversation and take
the initiative. Ask questions
& This tasl< lasts {lll_! minutes.
and make comments.
? lt involves a discussion I presentation .
Do not expect the examiner
3 The student / examiner has the information about the situation to control the conversation
and the student / examiner usually asl<s most of the questions. for you.

.,,.ri38t11si:i1,:,
:ji::dg;#;i,i:,:.
-{\"- _**T
t

wee&;;:q;;!;;q;+,"-,,.

i*efr4gqj?f,fi.
Trinuy l$ Speal<ing The Collaborative Tasl<

Exercise 2
Now look at the images and discuss the subject of celebrity role models in pairs. Thinl< about some of the different dilemmas
celebrity role models may face in everyday life. Ask and answer the questions if you need help and ideas for what to discuss.

t Who do young people lool< up to?


? Why are famous people often role models for the young?
3 Do famous people make good role models in your opinion?
&What are the advantages and disadvantages of being famous and in the public eye?
5 Do famous people have to be more careful about how they behave in public? Why?
6 What dilemmas do celebrity role models face?
7 Are family and friends better role models than famous people? Why (not)?
S Are some types of famous people better role models than others? lf so, which types and why?
l
Exercise 3 I
Group the phrases below (A-L) in the table according to their function -4). These functions are all Language functions
for Trinity ISE lll.
( I
(
i-

A That's a valid point ... G On balance, we can conclude ... E


E

I Would you agree that ... F"i All things considered ... ,

I can see what you are gettng at ... I I wonder if it might be better if ... ?
S
I

ffi I suspect that it is true that ... What you are saying makes a lot of sense ... Z :
c
K lt might be the case that ... K What do you consider to be ... 7
3
+
F Basicall we can understand that ... L What are your thoughts on ... I
t 5
.

E
A

You may find the phrases above helpful to use in Exercises 4 and 5.

Exercise 4
Worl< in pairs. Student l, turn to page 48.

Student ? Student I will start and tell you about their dilemma.
You are going to find out more about it and discuss it. ffi
Follow these prompts to complete the tasl<.
_%
.,:t
l: Find out as much information as you can about the dilemma.
?: Find out what the options are.
3: Find out what the consequences of the options are.
4r Tell Student I what you would do in their situation. 'fr
:-
"5
5: Listen to Student I's concerns and respond appropriately.
tr
q
#ffi
Exercise 5 BI
Worl< in pairs. Student 2, turn to page 49.

Student l: Student 2 will start and tell you about their problem.
You are going to find out more about it and discuss it.
Follow these prompts to complete the tasl<.

!: Find out as much information as you can about the problem.


?: Find out what the options are.
3; Find out what the consequences of the options are.
4
4: Tell Student 2 what you would do in their situation.
5: Listen to Student 2's concerns.
5

Homework 6

Thinl< up your own celebrity role model dilemma.


Decide {!} what the problem is; (?} what the options are; -,

{3} what the consequences of each option are - both positive


and negative.
I
?i'inity tS ,! Speaking The Collaborative Task

Lesson 2
Opinions
ln this lesson we will do an exercise related to the homeworl< and then focus on opinion-type questions.

Exercise I
Work in pairs and discuss the dilemmas you wrote for homeworl<.
Str"dent t:
l" Find out as much information as you can about Student 2's dilemma.
2. Find out what the options are.
3, Find out what the consequences of the options are.
4. Suggest what Student I should do - say what you would do.
5" Listen to Student I's concerns and give your opinion.
6. Sum up what you thinl< is the best way forward.

Then change roles and discuss Student I's dilemma.

Exercise 2
A Listen to the recording, which is an example of an opinion-type Task 2 question, and match the statements ( I - I 2)
to the speakers Man-Woman). Some statements can be matched to both spealcers.

$taternents
I Parents spoil young people and give them too many Presents.
? You cannot generalise and say all young people are spoiled and selfish.
3 Because young people are spoiled so much, they become very self-centred.
4 Discipline and poor behaviour are big issues in the education system.
$ Misbehaviour in school is another example of teen selfishness.
& Students today do not have more difficult lives than past generations.
? When students misbehave, it is because they need help not because they are selfish.
Youths are very environmentally conscious.
S Youths are open-minded and accepting of diversity.
| & The media paints youths in a negative light.

I I Young people are criticised too much by their elders.


? lf their elders praised young people and were more positive about them, this would encourage better behaviour.

Now look at the script on page 30. Write the items underlined next to their correct functions.
I a rhetorical queston:

? asl<ing someone to explain/develop their argument:

3 giving an example to support your point:

4 finding common ground (something you can both agree on):

5 politely disagreeing:

& inviting agreement:

? challenging an opinion:

& accepting that someone has made a good counter-argument:


Tr"ini*y SC A* Speal<ing The Collaborative Task T"

C Now work in pairs and discuss whether or not you think young people today are self-centred. You can use the examples Er
from the dialogue to help you and your own ideas as well. Try to use the language of some of the functions identified in Nc
Exercise 2B (politely disagreeing, etc). ide

Scx"&p&: usually have to work now. ln other words, parents spend


less time with their children than in the past and kids really
Examiner ffemale): Now let's move on to the Collaborative suffer because of this lack of help and suppor^t. Do you know
And for this next part, I'll tell you something and then
Tasl<. whot I meon?
you have to asl( me questions to find out more information
Examiner; I'll grant you school is tough, but past generations
and mal<e comments. You need to keep the conversation
of young people had other problems and yet they didn't
going. After 4 minutes, I'll end the conversation. Are you
become self-centred. For instance, they often had to work
ready?
in difficult lobs from a young age and also try to do their
$tledeffiC (male): Yes. schooling. Are you really suggesting the pressures of youth
Examiner: A lot of people say that the youth of today are can be an excuse for this generation's selfishness?
spoilt and selfish. Personall this is one stereotype that I am No, not at all. That's because I disagree with you
S*e*de*flC:
in agreement with. more fundamentally - I don't believe the youth of today are
$tq*det I see. Well, that's quite a controversial viewpoint. actually selfish.
Could you tell me why you feel that young PeoFIe ore sloilt and Examiner: OK, but what evidence do you have to back
selfish? that up? We read stories in the news every day about how
Examiner: Yes, well, it's just that they are given everything young people disrespect their parents and the elderl and
they want so they don't learn to be grateful, you know? And have all sorts of bad habits. Whot Froof is there to the con-
because their parents spoil them and give them lots of gifts, trary, I meon? t
they think they are the centre of their world too. ln other S**,{da:rrt: I thinl< the media loves these kinds of negative .t
words, this causes them to become very selfish and only stories, but what we don't see is the positive side of
think of themselves. youth culture today. Youths are very environmentally con-
Steides'$tr OK. I see whot you're saying, but I'm not sure thot
t's true. I think it's a generalisation to say that all young peo-
scious. They care about the planet in a way past generations
didn't. They are also much more worldly and accepting of
E
ple get what they want all of the time. For example, when different cultures and ways of life because they travel more
Fl
G
I

was growing up, my parents insisted that I worked hard to and are exposed to more diversity. How con peolle who core
'earn' any presents I got. For instance, when I wanted a new Passionotelv about our Plonet ond who wont to reslect the dif-
games console, I had to do the washing and ironing every ferent cultures thot exist there be self-centred? They sound
weel<end for l2 weeks first. So, you see, clearly not every very open-minded rather than selfish, wouldn't you say?
young person is spoiled. Examiner: Hmmm. I hoven't really thought obout it like that
Examiner: Well, perhaps I was exaggerating a little, but I before. I guess you've got o Point. The media can be unfair.
really do thinl< young people are more self-centred today. And perhaps if their elders were less critical of them, young
Just think about how disrespectful they are towards their people would show us even more of their positive traits.
elders, like their teachers, for example; misbehaviour in Maybe we have a responsibility to lead by example in trying
schools has become a huge problem. tosee the good in what they do to encourage more of this
Ster*eCt On thot point, I think we con both ogree. Discipline positive behaviour.
is definitely an issue in schools today. However, I thinl< if you Stt*de&c, On that point we can definitely agree. lt's about
try to understand it from children's perspectives, you will time we started giving young people more credit. lf their
see that they are not being selfish but crying out for help elders don't respect young people, why should young peo-
and attention. What I mean is that because school is so ple respect their elders.
competitive and stressful today, students often get frustrat- Examiner: Yes, I think that's a verT good point.
t\
ed and misbehaviour is a way to express that frustration.
OK. Thanl< you. We'll end the task there.
?t
Also, unfortunatel we live in a world where both parents 3\
4t
%ipt 5t
&\
Practise the different functions 7\
of debate, such as those &T
listed in Exercise 28' 9F
Be familiar with a varietY
,&t
of linking Phrases used r
for each function'
r=rin;tv Gilr SBea<i*g
Tle follaborative Thsk

xe"*Ese 3
Now lool< at the images and discuss the subiect of stereotypes in pairs. Ask and answer
the questions if you need help and
ideas for what to discuss.

&'w

What stereotypes are you familiar with?


Do you think there is always some truth to a stereotype? please explain.
What are the dangers of stereotyping people?
There are positive as well as negative stereotypes. Can you think of some examples of positive
ones?
Do you think we sometimes iudge people before we get to know them? Why (not)? Are you guilty
of doing that at times?
Why do we often prefer people who are similar to ourselves and who we have things in common
with?
What do you think makes a person more open-minded?
Do you consider yourself open-minded? please explain.
How do you react when you are around people who are very different from you?
Are you friends with people of different backgrounds? What are the benefits of having a wide variety
of friends in your
network?
Trinity !S lll Speaking The Collaborative Task

Asl<ing questons to maintain a conversaton


Exercise 4
A Practise mal<ing rhetorical questions as in the example. Rewrite each statement as a question.

Rhetorical questions are a way of restating the point you want to make in question form.
You are not really asking a question - you are implying that there is only one answer to the
question and that the answer is very obvious. You are actually emphasising your point.

Women are not bad drivers because statistically they have fewer crashes than men on the roads.
How can women be bod drivers when they hove fewer croshes stotisticolly thon men on the roods?

? Male ballet dancers must be incredibly strong athletes. So the idea that they are less masculine because they dance is
rather silly.

3 The idea that beautiful people are always happy is ridiculous - just thinl< about all the problems famous and so-called
'beautiful' celebrities have in their personal lives.

4 There is no one type of 'beautiful' anyway because each individual sees beauty differently; beauty is in the eye of the
beholder.

B We also use questions to invite agreement. Write the opinions as question as in the example. Use the phrases in brackets.

Ask a question without explaining your opinion when you want


to invite agreement or challenge someone to disagree with you.

N Being tall isn't necessarily a sign of good health. pl/ouldn"t you cgree)
Wouldn't you ogree that being tall isn't necessorily o sign of good health?

? I think most stereotypes are negative. {Wculd you sgree wtth me)

E
3 I believe the image of young people as portrayed by the media is very negative. {Don't you fnd) A

4 I find it terribly wronS to ludge a person by first impressions. St


{Don't you think}

Sr

t We also use questions to check understanding. Put the words in the correct order to mal<e questions as in the example.

When you want to check if you have understood somethng correctl


you can restate it in your own words as a checking question.

& you I saying / that I arel stereotypes / most / harmful I are I ?

Are you soying thot most stereotypes ore harmful? H


C(
3 suggesting I you I are / women / better I that I are / men I than I drivers / ?

CK

3 mean / suggest I do I to I you I beautiful / people I that I are / happy I always I ?


Tt-

4tryingIsayIthatItoIyouIareIwomen/jobsIthanIsome/bettersuitedImenIareItoI?
Trinity SE lll Speaking The Collaborative Thsk

D Match the queston sets (l-3) to their functions (A-E). There are two functions you do not need.

A inviting agreement with the point you just made


B restating a point in your own words to show understanding
C asking to rephrase a point to help your comprehension
D asl<ing to justify a point with more information
E stating your opinion with a rhetorical question

Can you explain what you mean by that exactly?


Could you explain that to me again, please?
I'm not sure I quite understand your point - could you go over it again please?
Would you mind saying what you mean in a different way to help me better understand your point?

What makes you thinl< that?


What evidence have you to bacl< that up?
a
Why do you feel that way?
Could you give me an example of why you thinl< that?

, you know?
k Tip!
, right?
, wouldn't you say?
Practise using functional
, don't you thlnl<?
questions like those in
Exercise 4 in the rest of
the exercises in this lesson.
Exercise 5
A Worl< in groups of four to six. First read this opinion:
Young people are extremely interested in celebrity. However, I om very doubtful
about, whether there are mony positive celebrity role models.

Now follow the instructions on page 49.

B Role-play your flnished dialogue with a partner. Then have an open discussion on the subject with them and talk
about any points that weren't mentioned in the written dialogue.

Exercise 6
A Work in pairs. First read this opinion:
Successful business peaple ffioke the best role models for the young.

Student l; You agree with this opinion. Write down (in note form) as many ideas as you can thinl< of to support
your argument. lf you need help, there are some ideas on page 49.

Student 2: You disagree with this opinion. Write down (in note form) as many ideas as you can think of to support
your argument. lf you need help, there are some ideas on page 49.

B Now have a discussion on the subject and share your differing points of view.
Tryto use some of the functional language highlighted earlier in this lesson.

Homework
Consider the following subject:

Children should be ntroduced to comrytitive sport from as yourrg an {tge ss poxible. Cosuot *ort does not horc the same beneftts.

Write down as many benefits and disadvantages of young people taking part in competitive sport as you can think of.
Then do the same for casual sport.
lri*i*y t$f !t Speaking "E
?re e*llaborative Tasl< T'

tess*m 3 E
Situations
ln this lesson we will do an exercise related to the homeworl< and then focus on situation-type questions.

Hxerase B lr
Work in groups of three or four. Have a debate with your group about the benefits and drawbacl<s of encouraging children P
to play competitive and casual sport.

Use the notes you made for homework to help you with ideas. Try to use functional language highlighted in the last lesson A
in your group discussi,:rn.

Go around the group in turn. Each student gets to mal<e one point, then the next student can respond.
N

*xeneEse ?
Now look at the images and discuss the subject of competitiveness in pairs. Ask and answer the questions if you need help
and ideas for what to discuss. N

lc

B
: ls it important to experence failure in life? Why (not)?
? What is your proudest achievement? S

3 Would you describe yourself as a competitive person? What are the dangers of being over-competitive?
4 Do you feel there is a lot of competition at your place of study/work? What kind of competition do you face there? S
How does it affect you?
1 Why do successful athletes enioy so much respect and attention? Should they? T
i, Some people say that your whole life is lust one big competition. Do you agree?
What areas of your life are very competitive?
? Do you enjoy compettive sports or do you prefer particiPating for fun or not at all?

fi ln what ways do countries compete with one another?


't Are you a patrotic person? ls patriotism good or bad?
Tr"inity ISE ll Speaking The Collaborative Task

Exercise 3
A Listen to the recording, which is an example of a situation-type Task 2 question.
complete the interview notes by writing the exact words or phrases that you hear.

lntenriew motes;
Problem?
- Player gets incredibly {l} _ in important {?}
Always an issue?
- No, not in {3} _ of competition

Nervous throughout important matches?


-Yes, but worst when she has a (4) _
- {5} _ shake and can't hold {} _ properly

Not nervous in early matches because you don't care?


-No, very {7} _ and want to win {8} _

Anything change from early to late rounds?


- No {e} at early matches
- Most {l} come to see the big games

Does having audience make you nervous?


- Yes

\t{orry about what people will think if play badly?


- Very much

Pretend they are not there?


-Difficultbecausethere,slotsofcheeringand{l}-between{N?}
- Hard to { 83} _ crowd

How long problem existed - used to playing in front of audience?


- No, only been in two { !4}
- Did {15} the second rime

ldeas:
- Nerves are {16} ,especially when playing in front of audience
- lf you {17} yourself to the situation more often, your performance should improve
- Play in front of people even outside of {18}
Expect {19} the next time you play
- This might help you {?0} and perform better

-isten again to check your answers.

B Now, work in pairs and take it in turns using the interview notes to role-play the tennis player and the other person

Student l: Ask the questions first. Listen to Student 2's answers and then give your opinion when you have all the
information that you need.

Studert ?: Answer the questions using the notes.


-hen swap roles.

Exercise 4
A Work in pairs again. Student l, turn to page 50. Student 2, turn to page 50.
&*irx*y *$tr & Speaking The Collaborative Task Tr

E
ffi Now continue as instructed below.
Le
$fldent ?, ask Student I questions based on these three cues: It'

3 You / try I do / something / about / problem I already? A


3 What / happen / situation / not improve?

Student 2, having listened carefully to the answers, ask Student I any other questions of your own you may have
about the situation. Then offer them some advice on what to do.

fr You will now change roles.


$tr-deffit fo ask Student 2 questions based on these four cues:

t What / kind / shop?


? What / business's strengths and weaknesses?
3 You / try I do / something / about / problem I already?
?.What / happen / situation / not improve?
H
Student | , having listened carefully to the answers, Student 2asl< any other questions of your own you may have ).
about the situation. Then offer them some advice on what to do. 'o

Exercise 5
& There are many different ways to speculate about and suggest the reasons for something by asking questions.

Complete the second queston so that it has a similar meaning to the first question, using the word(s) in bracl<ets.
Write no more than five words in each gap.

f ls the problem that your prices are too high?

that your prices are too high? {might}

) ls the reason you are losing customers that you don't have free parl<ing near your shop?
free parking be the reason for your loss of customers? {eould, lack}

;& Maybe the issue is that your competitor has a better selection of stock - is that possible?
that your competitor has a better selection of stock? {per}raps}

ffi There are also many different ways to make a suggestion or give advice on what action to take using questions'

Complete the second question so that t has a similar meaning to the flrst one, using the word in brackets.
Write no more than five words in each gap.

Why don't you lower your prices to make your business more competitive?
your prices to make your business more competitive? {c*nsidered}

? What about getting in some new stock so that you have all the latest styles of shoes?
gettng in some new stocl< so you have all the latest styles of shoes? {throught}

3 Do you think it might be a good idea to stop charging customers for parking?
wise to stop charging customers for parking? {rnight}
T"inlcy $K &t SpeaE<ing T"e cEiab*raive Tas<

HNereise S
Let's get competitive!
It's time for a game and there can only be one winner ... !

A You have three minutes. Thinl< of and write down as many problem situations
as you can.
(For example: My car won't stort ond I can't get to work.)

E Now work in pairs' Take turns to read out your problems. Your partner must suggest
a solution or offer their own idea
(e'g' Might you be oble to get o lift with one of your colleogues?). Keep going until one
of you runs out of problems or can,t
thinl< of any more ideas. The other person is the winner.

You must offer your idea or suggestion in the form of a question.


The question should always begin in one of the following ways:
Might ... 2. Could ... 3 Haveyou considered ...
__:

Fdomewonk
-lere are a number of statements. Read the statements
and consider how you would discuss them and what points
ou would raise.
!' Young people'need to find ways of becoming more financially independent
from their parents.
?" There needs to be a rearistic barance between ambition and abirity.
3' Everyone should be carefur about the infruence of the media.

4" Advertising puts pressure on people to spend beyond their means.


5" There is a way for every Person to express themselves creatvelx
no matter what their ability.
6" Everyone has a right to justice.
7, Financial concerns seem to be ruling the world.
E" Everyone has the opportunty to be a good role model.

!
"*q
t;
'ii:r
*," i; i
Itl 1::
j: r i;i
Tl- mty ISE l

Speaking section

ffimwffi ffi

The Topic Task


Yhinisy l$H lll - Speaking Part I - The Topic Task Tr

Homework c
ffiPffiAKING: Speech Template cr

The Topic Tasl< (Task l) ?::.-:,t'..:::'=..:,.a...-=-:a',:,:.;:,:!a-i::..


Paragraph l: lntroduce the subject ofyour discussion
I

Paragraph 2: State your opinion


Lesson lt Tl=u;: --*r,-,;ir- "{'.;L+=l:: Paragraph 3: Briefly acl<nowledge the other side of the argument
Paragraph 4: Make the first pont to suppor-t your opinion
Exercise 6 (use examples and develop your point)
$tudent l: Consider this topic in more detail: Paragraph 5: Make the second point to support your opinion
Building roads in the countryside so people Paragraph 6: Make a final point in supporc of your opinion
hove occess to beautiful ploces. Paragraph 7: Summarise your views. Ask the examiner if he/she has
any questions
Suggested rguments
For:
- More people have the chance to appreciate the countryside
Legson 2z',,-i; = ?:'::. ::.:''1 ;::,:::,
- Encourages people to go outdoors - a healthier lifestyle
;

- Mal<es the outdoors safer for people Exercise 6


Against: Student l:
- New roads would ruin the scenery Below is a presentation written by a student on an issue
- The roadworks and increase in visitor numbers would put affecting the Scottish Highlands. First read the presentation
stress on local wildlife and answer the comprehension questions to rnal(e sure you
- We should not encourage people to use their cars more - understand it.
bad for the environment
In this presentotion, I om going to consider whether or not it is a
$?r"esen*a*icln f er'rr plate: good ideo to moke the Scottish Highlonds more occessible to the
II . Say what you are going to talk about] public.
Today I want to talk obout whether or not it is o good idea to ..
It is my personol belief that doing this would be o very big mistoke.
[2, State your personal belief] Personolly, I believe .. .
[3, Acknowledge the other side of the argument briefly] I will exploin my reosons for holding this belief shortly but fust I
Although it is true thot .. . I think the orguments forlogoinst will acknowledge thot there ore some strong orguments in fovour
ore stronger. of better occessibility. Perhops the moin one is thot building
more poths would, in theory, moke the Scottish mountoins sofer
f4. Justify your opinion] One reoson I think this is becouse . . .
(it would be horder o get /ost) ond so encouroge more people to
f5. Give another reason] Another reoson I think this is hot . . . do heolthy outdoor pursuits like hiking.
i6" Summarisel ln summory, I'm (not) in fovour of ... because ..
Thot said, lthinkthe risks outwergh the benefits of this course of
17. Ask the examiner if he/she has any questions]
oction. Why? Well, first of oll, because I believe that having more T
poths ond making it eosier for people to hike in the Scottish
$tudent 2l Consider this topic in more detail: A
mountans would octually be very dongerous. lt would ottroct more
Banning cars from city centres. ond more inexperienced hikers; people who ore not prepared for
Sugested frrguments the dangerous conditions thot can occur there. I believe this
could leod to mare injuries and fotalities.
For: To
- This measure would help reduce air and noise pollution with an increosed number of occidents ond incidents in
Secondly,
(a big problem in cities) the mountoins, this would Put more pressure on the rescue and
- lt would make the roads safer for cyclists and pedestrians emergency servlces. Bosicolly, it would cost the government more
'/ i(
- lt would mal<e the cty centre more family oriented money. Mountain rescue would hove to hove more staff and could
Against: not be run on o voluntary bosis ony more. Other emergency serv-
- Businesses could close if fewer people visited the city centre ices would o/so be offected and their resources droined, so they 3e
- Some people who worl< in the city centre may not have would not be oble to respond os well to normol incidents.
alternative means of transport
- People should be free to decide how they want to travel Finolly, I believe moking the Highlonds more occessible and en-
Dc
couroging more people to go there would be bod for the wildlife
Fresentaf lnn template: and nature of the area. There would inevitobly be more rubbish
I l. Say what you are going to talk about] produced and this would scor the londscope. Furthermore, rore
Todoy I want to talk obout whether or not it is o good ideo to .. ond endongered species like the Scottish wildcat would be put
f2. State your personal belief] Personolly, I believe ... under unnecessory sress. Their hobitot should be protected.

i3. Aclcnowledge the other side of the argument briefly] For oll the reosons cited above, while I ocknowledge that in some
Although t is true that ... I think the orguments forlagainst woys it would be nice for people to hove eosier occess to the
ore stronger. Highlonds, I thinkthis would do more horm thon good. In short, the
drowbocks, like endongering people, droining the resources of
[4. Justify your opinion] One reoson I think this is becouse ...
emergency serylces and harming noture, for outweigh the benef;ts.
[5. Give another reason] Another reoson I think this is thot .. .
Do you hove ony guestions for me?
[6, Summarise] In summary, I'm (not) in fovour of ... becouse ...
Trinity ISE lll - Speaking Part I - The Topic Task
Comprehenson q uestons B Now present the presentation to Student 2 using only your
notes to help you. Don't worry if the presentation isn't 4
Choose the correct option or write a short answer"
minutes long. This is just for practlce to get you used to
I The topic of the speech is: using notes, and to get you familiar with how to structure
A How to mal<e the Scottish Highlands more accessible to people your presentation.
B Whether or not the Scottish Highlands should be opened up
You can spend more time collecting information and things
to more people
to say on your chosen topic for the exam. You can also
C The effect of more activity in the Scottish Highlands on the
emergency services
time your presentation in practice so that you get it as
close as possible to the four-minute mark.
2 The speal<er _ the proposal.
l\is in favour of B rejects
Sample notes
3 The speal<er argues that more paths would make the mountains Topic: is opening the Highlands up to the public good or bad?
safer.
A True B False
View: Big mistake

What kind of new visitors does the speaker thinl< would be


attracted to the mountains if they were easy to get to? Benefit:
- Harder to get lost

From the point of view of safety, what does the speaker think Downsides:
more hil<ing in the mountains would possibly cause an increase - Attract inexperienced hiker; make mistal<es; serious accidents
in?
- More accidents : more pressure on rescue teams and
other emergency services
According to the speaker, what effect would more activity in the
mountains have on the resources of the emergency services?
- More people in area = bad for wildlife; litter problem;
human activity could cause animals stress

What two problems does the speaker think more tourist activity Conclusion:
in the Highlands would cause for the natural world? - Drawbacl<s outweigh benefits
and - Endanger people; drain resources from essential services;
harm nature
The speaker believes there are more than
to the ProPosal.
A drawbacks ... benefits B benefits ... drawbacks

Task
A ln the exam, you cannot take a script like this in with you.
You can only use short notes for reference. Use the
template below to put the script into note form.

-bpic:

/iew:

3enefit:

Jownsides:

lonclusion:
Y*"*rc*v gSffi &$A - Speakins ffiax't { - The Topic Task

Student ?: ? a What does the speaker thinl< increased levels of tourism


e!*w pn*r*ntti*n writen by a stud*nl *n an is:ue
is a would create more of for young people?
a{fecting tlr* Scotrish l-"iighiands" f irst rad th* pr*senta{i** b What does the speal<er suggest some of the profits from
ard ansv.et the ccrrpreirl-ston quesi:Qrrs i-J lrtr lKe sre ycu increased tourism should be spent on?
;nl*rstanel it. and

In this presentation, I om goingto consider whether or not it s o S The speal<er believes there are more than
good ideo to make the Scottish Highlonds more occessible to the to the proposal.
public.
lL drawbacl<s ... benefits & benefits ... drawbacks
It is my personol belief thot this is defnite ly the right thing to do.
I will exptoin my reosons for holding this belief shortly but first I
will readily ocknowledge thot there ore some issues thot need to Task
be token into considerotion. lt s importont to moke sure thot ln the exam, you cannot take a script lil<e this in with you.
betfer occessibitity does not negotively offect the locol wildlife or You can only use short notes for reference. Use the
environment. fhls is o possibility unless there is proper policing
template below to put the script into note form.
ofthe orea by wordens, ond so on.
However, I believe there ore significont benefits to improved oc- Topic:
cessibi/ity. First of all, the Highlonds is one of the most beoutiful
parts of the IJK ond t is right thot more people should be oble to
opprecote its beouty. Additionolly, I believe that if people experi-
View:
enced the noturol beouty of the Highlonds, it would make them
more environmentolly conscious.
Secondly, without a doubt, improved occessibility would moke
Downside:
the areo safer for hikers. Novigotion n the Highlonds con be
very difficult, especially in bad weother. This meons thot peoPle
often get lost, ond thot con be very serious and leod to iniury or
worse. Hoving better paths ond signs would result in fewer inci- Benefits:
dents of this kind ond would reduce the stroin on emergency
services, therefore.
Lost but not /east, ottroctng more people to the oreo would
generote much needed income for locols. There ore not o lot of
job opportunities in the Highlonds so mony young people who Conclusion:
live there hove to move to other ports of the UK to find work.
It is very sod thot they ore forced to leove their home. A bigger
tourism industry would support more iobs ond would help to
so/ve this problem. Perhops this would be the b(gest benefit $3 Now present the presentation to Student I using only your
of oll. And some of the extro money generoted could ideolly notes to help you. Don't worry if the presentation isn't 4
be spent on Protectngthe locol wildlife ond nature too. minutes long. This is lust for practice to get you used to
5o, in short, while I do think thot we hove to be very careful using notes, and to get you familiar with how to structure
about moking sure thot new visitors to the Highlonds do not
your presentation. You can spend more time collecting
domoge the environment, I believe that the benefits to moking information and things to say on the topic you prepare for
the areo more occessible ore very significant. Therefore' I am the exam. You can also time your presentation in practice
so that you get it as close as possible to the 4-minute mark.
certain it is the right thing to do. Do you hove ony questions?

Comprehenson questons Sample notes


Choose the correct option or write a short answer. ""*api*: is opening the Highlands up to the public good or bad?
f The topic of the presentation is:
A How to mal<e the Scottish Highlands more accessible to PeoPle View: Good idea
ffi Whether or not the Scottsh Highlands should be opened up *sw$sde:
to more people - potential harm to wildlife and nature; use wardens, etc to
The effect of more activity in the Scottish Highlands on the control
emergency services
fficme$its;
? The speal<er the ProPosal. - more visits : mal<e more people environmentally aware
& is in favour of B reiects - more paths : safer = fewer accidents : less drain on
3 The speal<er acknowledges that the proposal poses a possible
emergency services
threat to the nature of the Highlands.
- more tourism : more jobs for young people and more
& True H False money to spend on wildlife and nature
L(}ncl,rslsn:
4 What does the speaker think will happen to people's attitudes
towards nature if they visit the Highlands? - benefits outweigh drawbacl<s

speal<er suggest is very challenging for visitors


- Don't damage environment!
5 What does the
to the Highlands?
- Go ahead with proposal.

S What does the speal<er think would be two direct benefits of


constructing more pathways in the Highlands?
Fewer and less
-
Ynn**y $SK $*$ - Speaking parr $ _ The Topic Thsk
Lesson 3:*{r*cr Ei,:+r*r;, -{a,s*..
?;*"rt i ne .:sie*::
Although nuclear power may be preferable to fossil fuels,
Exercise 4 there are better and safer alternatives in the form of renew-
able energy sources. These can offer countries an independ-
Student I ent supply of energy at a reasonable cost without the dangers
Look at the notes below on the subject of using nuclear assoclated with radioactive nuclear waste.
power and do the tasl<.

T*pic: Task:
The benefits of nuclear power outweigh its drawbacks. ,& The notes oboye aren't suitable for use in the exam.
They are too long and some of the points are fully scripted.
$4y belief: Now lool< at the shortened notes below. Complete them
I am fundamentally against the use of nuclear power in using exact words or phrases from the original text above.
any circumstances.
'Y'ope
;
Reasons pe*pl* support fhe r.sc *f naetear pewer: - do benefits of nuclear {l; drawbacl<s
Nuclear power is a lot cleaner than fossil fuels. lt is also less
expensive than some renewables. lt gives countries without f*{y befi*f:
abundant natural resources control over their energy supply. - no; strongly {?} _ nuclear

Keasns *r" sr"ipl**l,t ruslear $lewsr":


Reasers & arn against ts use;
- more eco-friendlythan {3}
- Although nuel*ar p*\'/sr is m*:-e envi-*n-.:*-ally iri**dly - less costly than {4} _
rhan f*ssil fr.els... control of {5}
o it produces very dangerous radioactive waste material.
This materia{ tal<es thousands of years to become safe. ffieaserss egainst;
ln the meantime, lt is dangerous to the environment * n*t reaiiy ec+-friendiy
and wildlife if it is allowed to leak out of containment. . generates ij
Furthermore, when nuclear accidents like Chernobyl . not safe until {7} _ later
happen, it is a disaster. I a danger to {*}-- and {S}
r Also, nuclear power in the wrong hands can be turned r {l*} can occur
into a dangerous weapon. We have already seen, for r used as harmful {$ f }
example, the damage that hydrogen and atomic bombs
can do. lt is quite frightening. n*t r*ally chaap
infrastructure ) eps5ive than {i?}
- Whiie i: is trr;e th*r pr*di.;cir.g *uciear i:*wer 3}
expenr;ve than g*neretins *ergy {n*r:i gs}i"1* r*n*waiies.
iE i*ss r {| helping cost of renewables fall
"
o renewables soon more { lr} _
r the cost of building a nuclear power plant in the first
place is huge. lt is much more expensive than the infra- hr:w to c*ntrol energy supply
structure needed for renewable sources lil<e solar and
wind energy.
r nuclear = wrong: it's {15}
o {$e} rn every country
r Moreover, the cost of renewables is going down all the
e {*7} in sunny countries
time as technology improves and better ways are being
found to generate energy.
i erect { 8e} _ in windy areas
k.
r Therefore, if we invest more resources in the ff*re !"sisn:
renewables industry soon renewable energy generation - nuclear = betterthan {$g}
will be very cost effective. _ but not
{?*}
aC? - renewables : safer and not high {? E}
At rich in *!i or cth*r- l*ssil
ehe rn<:nent, srne ${.*tries
fi*eis d$ exereise a l* *{ power and ccr:rr*i aver
eouni-ies tha! do n*t h&ve tl"lese res*x;-*es. ffi Now use the notes to give a presentation to Student 2
o However, nuclear power is not the answer because it on the topic.
is unsafe. Although some countries do not have a large
supply of fossil fuels, they all have access to at least IMPORTANT
some renewable resources. You are familiar with your own topic, so you just need cues
1 Rivers, lakes and coastal tides can be used to create (short notes with l<ey words) for yourself. However, when
hydroelectricity, for example. Every country has at least you prepare your handout for the examiner, all your points
some of these. should be very clear. So, before the exam you prepare to gve
r Additionall some countries enjoy a lot of sunshine and the formal presentaton on a topic. You have chosen what
can use this to their advantage in producing solar power, you want to tall< about. You must prepare a handout for the
while, in windier areas, turbines can harness the natural examiner, using headings and bullets just like in your notes.
force of the wind. You can even use visual aids if you want to. ln otherwords,
o Therefore, nuclear power is not necessary to give you can give the examiner graphic information (for exomple: a
countries energy supply independence; renewables can diogram or imoge) if it is relevant to the topc and will promote
be harnessed to do this instead. understanding.
TFir'rty lsE tll - speakng p"or | , Th. T"p. T"rk
Student 2: Tasl<:
Lool< at the notes below on the subject of using nuclear A These notes are not suitable for use in the exam because
power and do the tasl<. they are too long and some of the points are fully scripted.
Now look at the shortened notes below. Complete them
Topic: using exact words or phrases from the original text above.
The benefits of nuclear power outweigh its drawbacks.
Topic:
My belief: - benefits of nuclear { l} drawbacl<s?
I am fundamentally in favour of the use of nuclear power.
My belief:
Reasons people are against nuelear power:
- yes; strongly {?} nuclear
Many people say it is very dangerous and unsafe because
radioactive waste is produced. They also say building nuclear
Reaso-ls against:
power plants is expensive. A lot of people fear the use of
- unsafe, due to {3}
nuclear power in weapons.
- {4} _ cost a lot
Reas<ns I arn fcr its cse: - nuclear technology can mal<e {5}
- Nucl*ar p<:vlrer i* n*t rintaf*
o Altogether, nuclear power has been produced for around
16,000 reactor years by 33 countries. ln that time there - :r-ci**r p*1rvr - not unsafe
have been only 3 major accidents. o few (i in its history
New technology is improving safety all the time. . (7) _ - improving safety
o The amount of harmful waste produced is very small o little {S} is produced
compared to the amount of waste produced by other solar and wind : much {F}
c _ and
energy fgrms, and nuclear waste is disposed of carefully.
damage areas of {} _
o People don't realise solar and wind power produce a lot
of waste, such as toxic metals, and also cause disturbance nuclear = very eco-friendl therefore
to large areas of land.
- L.:r!eer p$v!'qr gneraiie:n - !:t expensiv*
ln fact, nuclear power is a very clean energy form. And it
is much better for the environment than using fossil fuels. o { I l} _: high cost + { 2} _ tife

- lduci*ar F*wr gcn*rati*n is n*t ex:*r-:*iv* o nuclear : { 3} than renewables & fossil
o Although plants cost a lot of money to build, they can be fuels
used for a very long time
c Furthermore, producing nuclear energy is a lot cheaper - l-l*e !*ar p*v]#'- nt u:sed as !+/eapits
than both renewables and fossil fuels once the plant is . materal no good for ( | 4) _ - need
built {t5}_
c tal<es {;6} _ to produce
- i'i-cf*ar p*\j!*r chfi*$t b* ***d as weap*ns . very { I 7} _ process, so low { E}
c The nuclear material used in power plants cannot mal<e c compared to other industries = very (19)
bombs. You need enriched uranium to do this.
o Enriched uranium tal<es a long time to produce and the Corciusien:
process is extremely complicated. The risk it could be
- (20) fears
produced by dangerous organisations is very low.
e In fact, the risl<s of accidents of any sort in the nuclear
- nuclear = very {2 I i and {??}
industry are extremely low compared to other industries.
It is incredibly safe.
I Now use the notes to give a presentation to Student I

on the topic.
onclusi*n:
Although there are some fears about the safety and cost of
IMPORTI\NT
nuclear power, these are mostly misguided. Nuclear power is
actually extremely safe and very clean compared to other en- You are familiar with your own topic, so you just need cues
ergy sources. For these reasons, I strongly support its contin- (short notes with key words) for yourself. Howeve when
ued and increased use. you prepare your handout for the examiner, all your points
should be very clear. So, before the exam you prepare to
give the formal presentation on a topic. You have chosen
what you want to tall< about. You must prepare a handout for
the examiner, using headings and bullets just lil<e in your
notes.
You can even use visual aids if you want to. ln other words,
you can give the examiner graphic information (for exomple: a
diagrom or imoge) if it is relevant to the topic and will promote
understanding.
Yniniry lSH l - Speaking Part I - The Topic Task
Lesson 5:
Exercise 2
Student l
Listen, follow the turns and write short notes about the points Alexandra mal<es. Do not try to write down everything
she says as you won't have time. Just write the key words.

Alexandra: You say education should be free for all, but what about ( l)
Simon: I thinl< there should be no fee-paying institutions.
Alexandra: Are you saying that (2)
Wouldn't this be (3)
Simon: I'm not saying that exactly. What I am saying is that all fee-paying institutons should be tal<en over by the government
and run by the state.
Alexandra: I'm not sure about that. Shouldn't people(4)
Simon: I don't believe so. What about the people who can't afford to pay. lf rich people can buy a better education than
people who are less well-ofl then we live in an unfair society.
Alexandra: OK. But we don't ( do we?
The reason some parents send their children to fee-paying schools is that (6)
They only want to (7) Shouldn't they have the right to do this?
Simon: OK, but why should only some children get the best opportunities? I admit that some state schools are not very good
- on the other hand, some are truly excellent. We need to invest money into weak schools to improve them. That way,
everyone has an equal chance at receiving a good education.
Alexandra: But not all (8) . State schools sometimes have (9)
This is part of the reasons why ( l0) .Theyare(ll)
What do we do about ( l2)
Simon: Well, that's a good question. Howeve I don't believe there is such a thing as a bad student. We need a more flexible
school curriculum. Not every student is academically minded so school should have classes suited to students who are practi-
cally minded as well. This would improve such students' motivation levels. Do you know what I mean?
Alexandra: Yes, I guess so. I like ( I 3) too. But I thinl< if your idea is to worl<, the
r l4) and there needs to be ( I 5) . ls that realistic?
Simon: I believe so. The government simply needs to spend more of its budget on education. lf it does this now, it will create
a more skilled workforce and a stronger economy in the future.

Alexandra: Right. So I guess the major disadvantage of your suggestion is that (16) 7

Simon: Yes, that's true, but I think it's worth t because the long-term benefits far outweigh the short-term disadvantages.
We can secure the country's economic future and create jobs for all within a generaton.
Alexandra: You certainly mal<e a strong case but l'm still not sure ( I 7) . After all, money doesn't
3row on trees. lt would ( l8) _
Yr"$r"**ey &S *ge - Speaking Par"t & - The Topic Task

Student 2:
Listen, follow the turns and write short notes about the points Simon makes. Do not try to write down everything he says
as you won't have time. Just write the key words.

Alexandra: You say education should be free for all, but what about existing fee-paying private schools and so on?
Simon: lthinl< (l)
Alexandra: Are you saying you want all fee-paying schools to close? Wouldn't this be a waste of their resources?
Simon: I'm not saying that exactly. What I am saying is that (2)
Alexandra: I'm not sure about that. Shouldn't people have a right to pay for a better education if they want to?
Simon: I don't believe so. What about (3) 7

tf (4) , then (5)


Alexandra: OK. But we don't live in a perfect world, do we? The reason some parents send their children to fee-paying
schools is that the free schools in their area are not good enough. They only want to give their children the best opportunity
to succeed in life. Shouldn't they have the right to do this?
Simon: OK, but why should (6)
I admit that (7) - on the other hand, (8)
We need to (9) . That way, everyone has an equal chance at receiving
a good education.

Alexandra: But not all children want to learn. State schools sometimes have problems with discipline and behaviour. This is
part of the reason why private school students may perform better. They are better motivated. What do we do about the dis-
cipline problem?
Simon: Well, that's a good question. However, I don't believe (10)
We need (l l) . Not every student is ( l2)
so (l 3) . This would ( l4)
Do you l<now what I mean?
Alexandra: Yes, I guess so. I lil<e the idea of a more flexible school curriculum too. But I thinl< if your idea is to worl<, the
whole school system needs to change and there needs to be a lot of investment by the government. ls that realistic?
Simon: I believe so. The Sovernment simply needs to ( I 5) . lf it does this now, it will
( t6)
Alexandra: Right. So lguess the major disadvantage of your suggestion is that a huge amount of money has to be spent now
on education and the benefits will not be enjoyed for several years?
Simon: Yes, that's true, but I thinl< it's worth it because ( I 7)
We can ( l8) in a generation.
Alexandra: You certainly mal<e a strong case but I'm still not sure your plans are realistic. After all, money doesn't grow on
trees. lt would cost a lot to completely change the education system.

k
t-
Ti' nqf ISE lll
Speaking section

ffimrt X
The Collaborative Task
3: Explain ynur options.
The Collaborative Task ("lbsk 2)
Options: You can either tal<e the risk and accept the role,
Lesson I which comes with a huge salary or you can turn it down
and do another romantic comedy instead.
Exercise 4
4: Explain the consequences,
Student l:
Consequences: lf you accePt the role in the crime movie,
Studert l:
You will use this prompt card to explain a you are afraid you may lose some of your fans or damage
dilemma. You are a famous aftist. your image as a role model, but you will develop as an actor.
lf you reject the role, you will be bored, disinterested and
l: Yor start - explain your dilemma in your own words. typecast playing a role in 'another' romantic comedy instead,
Dilemma: You ore afamous ortist ond you hove been osked to but your popularity will be safe.
write obout your work for a school mogozine- The money from
sc/es of the mogazine will go to charity. You don't want to wrte 5: Thanl< Student I for their comments and ideas and say
the article but you don't want to disappoint the students or the what you are going to do to close the conversation.
chority either.

2: Explain tlre cause of your dilernma.


Why you don't wont to write the orticle: Although you are a
very famous artist, you have a major exhibition in the near Exercise 5
future and you do not have time to write the article. On the
other hahd, you do not want to let people down' Strdent 2:
Student 2: You will use this prompt card to explain a prob-
3; xplain youn options'
lem. You are a famous actor.
pticns: You can either reiect the invitation to write the
article, or admit that you do not have time to write it' l: Yor start - explain your problem in your own words.
Dilemma: You ore a fomous octor ond you have been offered o
4: xplainr the consequenes'
greot role in o crime movie bosed on true events. You reolly wont
Consequences: lf you refuse to write the article, the students to occept the role but you don't think you should.
will be upset and the charity will probably lose a lot of money
as fewer magazines will be sold. lf you ask someone else to 2: Fxplain the cause of your problem.
help you write the article, it may not reflect your true ideas
Why you don't think you should accept the role:
so you are worried that young people won't respect you as a
Although the script and cast for the movie are great and you
role model.
would really enjoy the challenge of the role, the real person ir
is based on is a hated figure and you are worried about what
5: Thanl< Student 2 for discussing your dilemma with you and
this could do for your public image. So far, you've only done
say what you are going to do to close the conversation.
popular romantic roles the public love.

3: fixplain your options.


Options: You can eithertal<e the risl< and accept the role,
which comes with a huge salary or you can turn it down
and do another romantic comedy instead.
Exercise 5
Student 2: 4: Explain the consequences"
Student 2: You will use this prompt card to explain a prob-
Consequences: lf you accept the role in the crime movie,
lem. You are a famous actor.
you are afraid you may lose some of your fans or damage
your image as a role model, but you will develop as an actor.
l: You start - explain your problem in your own words.
lf you relect the role, you will be bored, disinterested and
Dilemma: You ore o fomous octor ond you hove been offered o typecast playing a role in 'another' romantic comedy instead,
greot role o crime movie bosed on true events You reolly want
in but your popularity will be safe.
to occept the role but you don't think you should.
5: Thank Student I for their comments and ideas and say
?: Explain the cause of youl" problem. what you are going to do to close the conversation.
Why you don't think you should accept the role:
Although the script and cast for the movie are great and you
would really enloy the challenge of the role, the real person it
is based on is a hated figure and you are worried about what
this could do for your public image. So far, you've only done
popular romantic roles the public love.
Ti'inlfy SE ll - Speakins Fart ? - The Collaborative Thsk
Lesson 2
Exercise 54 Exercise 6
Each student should have one sheet of paper. On it, they Student l:
should write the first turn in a dialogue on this subject, A
following the instructions. Once they have written one turn, Stucrent l:
they should pass the sheet of paper to the next person in Successful busness people moke the best role models
their group. The sheet of paper should continue to be passed
- Show young people what's possible if you work hard and
around the group for different people to write on until all the
are motivated
turns ( I - l 0) are complete. Then each student should collect
their sheet.
- Have a comfortable lifestyle young people should aspire to
Note: Read all previous turns carefully to mal<e sure what (nice house, car, etc)
you are writing mal<es sense and fits in with the dialogue.
- Other successful people like celebrities are usually
lnstructions: controversial and poor role models by comparison
I Student | : [give your opinion on the subject and asl<
what Student 2's opinion is] - lnspire young people to worl< hard at school to become
successful too
2 Student ?: [you must politely disagree with Student I's
opinion, say something to support your argument and - Play an mportant role in the economy and make a valuable
then invite Student I to reply] contribution to society

Student X: fRespond to Student 2's comment and then


ask a rhetorical question] $trdent ?:
Successful business people do not moke the best role models
Student 2: [Respond to the question and make another
- They are often motivated by money and greed
point in favour of your side of the argument]
- They often have very dominant, bully-type characters to
Student l: [Restate Student 2's last pointin your own
get what they want
words to check that you understand what they are saying.]
- Healthcare professionals, volunteers and so on are better
Student 2: [Confirm if Student I has understood your
role models because they show more of a social conscience
point and invite them to agree with it.]
- Celebrities and athletes can also be great role models and
Student l: [Disagree strongly with Student 2's point and
inspire young people to work hard so they can enjoy the
explain whyl
rewards of success

Student 2: [Accept that Student I has made a good point


- Young people should be encouraged to find role models in
and move on to make another pont n support of your
areas that interest them, not just business
side of the argument]

Student l: [Find some common ground with Student I -


show that you agree somewhat with what they have to say]

0 Student 2: fConclude the conversation by summing up


your view on the subject.]
?inity ISE lll - Speaking Pzrt? - The Collaborative Task

Lesson 3
Student 2:
Exercise 4 Here is your situation:
Student l: I own a smoll shop.lt used to be very profitoble but now it hos
Here is your situation: storted making o /oss ond I om struggling to moke ony money.
The reason for this is a big competitor store opened up on the
My work colleogues ore very competitive ond I feel thot
edge oftown.
this oflects our combined performonce negotively because we
oct os individuals rother thon os o teom. Develop your background story. You have live minutes.
Develop your backgrc,r.nd stoy. You have five minutes. Write short notes on the following:
Write short notes on the following: What type of shop is it and what are the shops strengths and
weaknesses? (eg shoe shop, loyal customers, been in the same
What evidence is there that your tearn's per{ormance has town for many years, good location, no parking, high prices)
been affected? (eg bad atmosphere, low morale, pedorm-
ance figures lower than last year)

-.,.3
't:"9

*t
:....1
..9
:t-
.--.3
,;' What have you already tried to do about the problem that
hasn't worked? (eg run a marketing campaign, have a sale,
\fhat have you already tried to do about the problem that reduce prices)
hasn't worked? (eg bring it up at a meeting) How successful
was that? Could you have done things differently?

What do you think will happen if the situation doesn't improve?


(eg will have to let staff go, will lose business)
\{hat do you think will happen if the situation doesn't improve?
(eg staff will leave, profits will suffer, custorners will leave)
il,
T!"inity l$g ll Listening The !ndependent Listening Ths!<

*fhe the lndependent Listening


Lesson F ; Forr'rat of Task
ln this lesson you will learn about the format of the lndependent Listening Task.

ffixee"cise E

A Wth a partner think about how our lifestyle today compares with that of past generations. Work in pairs and have
a discussion on this subject now Use the images to help you. lf you need more ideas on what to discuss, ask and
answer the questions below.

sm i:J
@#

! Are we actually healthier than we were in the past or do we live longer lives now thanks to advances in medicine?
What do you think?
? To what extent has the advent of the internet affected the way we live our lives?

3 Think of some examples of both the positive and negative ways in which technology has changed the way we live.
Do you think the influence of technology overall has been positive or negative on our lives?
4 ln what ways was life different for previous generations (for both the better and the worse)?
5 Would you like to have been born 100 years ago? Why (not)?
& ls the world today a safer or more dangerous place than it was 50 years ago?

? ln whatways have advances in different modes of transport affected our lives?


I Would you say life for people living 50 years ago was more or less convenient and comfortable? Please explain.
Trinity ISE lll Listening The lndependent Listening Tasl<

Exercise 2
You are going to listen to an example of the lndependent Listening Tsk
Listen and choose the correct option or write a short answer.

I You hear a tall< / conversation.


2 You hear the recording once / twice.
3 First you must say what the tall< is about in one or two sentences /
give a summary of all the key points of the tall<.

4 Then you must say what the talk is about in one or two sentences /
give a summary of all the key points in the tall<.

k
5 You have one / two minute(s) to discuss the key ponts of the talk.

6 Can you take notes while the recording plays? YES / NO


Remmber!
Exercise 3 You are sitting at a desk with the examiner as you listen to
You hear the recording twice in the lndependent Listening the recording. They cannot remain completely still and
Task, so thinl< of it as two different parts of the task: Part I silent, so don't get dstracted by their presence. Focus on
and Part 2. the task and don't worry about what they are doing. They
are not grading or judging you while you tisten.
Let's lool< at Part I first. This is where you listen to get a
It may help you to concentrate if you focus on a point or
general idea of the topic and then summarise what the
oblect in front of you and avoid looking around.
recording is about in one or tvvo sentences for the examiner. lf you want to improve your powers of concentration, you
You are not allowed to tal<e notes. Besides, you don't need can listen to talks at home in front of other people, whh or
:o; you are not tryng to remember every detail and fact. without headphones on. Try not to get distracted by the
nstead, you just want the gist or the main point of what is noises or movements they make.
discussed.
You can find suitable talks on sites like TED.com. Choose
subjects you are interested in or which are related to the
A Now let's practise listening for gist. Listen to two short exam topics themselves.
tall<s and choose the best option (A, B or C) for each
question. Treat the listening exercise just like an exam task, ie listen
once for general understanding, then listen again and surn-
marise the mportant points made.

Talk I
I What is the tall< about?
A life-threatening diseases and the urgent need for changing
lifestyle habits
B our sedentary lifestyle and its effects on social interaction
C ways to cure one particular disease affecting society today

2 Which of the following is a lcey/main point?


A online shopping is becoming very popular and may soon surpass traditional shopping
B a lot of people today work in offices from nine in the morning to five in the evening
C the inactive nature of our daily routine contributes to the international health problem

]rlk 2
I What is the tall< about?
A how to solve the problem of indiscipline in schools
B how to encourage healthier living in schools
C how to update classroom teaching methods to engage students in their subjects
Ti"inity l$f tll Listening The !ndependert Listening Tasl<

I These are answers given for Part I of the lndependent Listening. Which answer is the most suitable?
Choose the best summary for each talk, A, B or C.

?alk 6

A The speal<er suggests that life-threatening health issues are increasing at a worrying rate throughout the Western world and
that one of the main reasons for this is our sedentary lifestyle. People work in offices, then sit in front of screens all evening and
don't even go out to shop or socialise as much any more. ln fact, online shopping will soon be more popular than traditional
shopping. According to the speaker, this is a serious problem which will only get worse if we don't change our routines.
B The speaker discusses the health crisis in the Western world; how it is already very serious and worsening. (S)he suggests
that our sedentary lifestyle is a big part of the problem and that unless we change our lifestyles it will only get worse.
C The speal<er discusses the health crisis and criticises people for being laz antisocial and for leading inactive lifestyles.
She/He says that unless we stop being lazy and inactive we cannot solve the problem and it will only get worse.

Talk ?
A The speal<er examines discipline in schools toda suggests ways to improve it and claims students would welcome more
PE (Physical Education) classes being par-t of the school timetable.
B The speaker highlights the need to promote healthier living in schools and says 'there should be more oppol'tunities to
exercise in the school timetable' and that 'we must ensure kids are surrounded by only the healthiest eating options n
school.'
C The tp"k"r highlights the need to promote healthier living in schools, suggests why traditional methods of doing this fail
and mentions ways in which it could be done effectively.

C Now, bearing in mind the explanations you read in checking the answers to Exercise 38, put an X beside the things
you should not do in the exam when you are giving your short summary of what the recording is about to the examiner
in Part l.

! Express your own views on the subject. 5 Report specific facts and figures.
2 Express key information in your own words. 6 Report the speaker's views on the subject.
3 Cover as many details and points as possible. 7 Provide a long and detailed answer.

4 Quote directly from the recording.

xerese 4
Worl< in pairs. You will now listen again to the talk from Exercise 2.

A Listen once and then write a short summary of what the tall< was about in one or two sentences. Compare your
summary to your partner's and decide which one is the best.

B Remember, you cannot take notes in Part I in the exam, so now put away what you have written and take it in turns
to summarise the tall< to your partner again in your own words without any notes.

Hxercls* 5
llo Now listen again to the tall< and complete the notes a student has made for Part 2 with words or phrases you hear.

Question: Tll me the different ways the speaker evaluates how healthy our lifestyle today is compared with past
generatons and whether you thinl< he comes to a conclusion.
Trinity ISE lll Listening The Endepende*t Lstening Tast<

Notes
Support for idea we have healthier lifestyles today comes from ...
A Statistics on ( I ) which show both men and women live much longer today than in the past.
A ln 1980, men could expect to live to around (2) and women to around {3}
AToday the ages have gone up to (4) and (5) respectively for men and women.
A lt is predicted that it will soon reach the (6) for both sexes.
A Therefore, if we are living longer toda we must lead (7) than we did in the past.

Counter evidence comes from ...


A New research from scientists in the (8)
A Suggests we are (9) than past generations.
A Rate of occurrence of (10) health issues and (l l) is now higher
from a ( l2) than ever before by an average of around (l 3)
A The research suggests we are a lot more ( l4) in the treatment of our health and looking after
our bodies than ever before.
AThe (15) are not at all suspect
A Based on a (16) of 6,000 adults over the course of ( l7)
A One of the most comprehensive studies of its l<ind ever.

Conclusions - what accounts for increased longevity if we are not healthier today?
A lt sounds like a (18) to say we live longer today but are less healthy.
A Great progress in the field of ( l9) can explain this.
A Thanks to that progress, even though we tal<e less good care of ourselves than our (20) dd,
we can still live longer.
A lf we hadn't been (2l) in the way we lived, the average life expectancy would already have
passed the (72)

B What do you thinl< is wrong with the student's notes in Exercise 54? Choose Yes or No.
I Are the notes accurate? Yes / No
2 Do they contain only key information? Yes / No
3 Are the notes shorr and concise? Yes / No
4 Would you have time to write these notes while listening? Yes / No

C Bearing in mind the question and the information you need to l<now to answer t fully, try rewriting the notes now in
your own words to mal<e them more effective. Tal<e into consideration the issues highlighted in Exercise 5B.

D Now worl< in pairs. Using only your final shortened set of notes, take it in turns to report on what the speaker says.
You should try to tall< for about one minute.

Time your partner when they are talking.

Honrewo"k
Search online and find a tall< on a subject of interest to you. The tall< should last no longer than about 5 minutes.
Listen to the tall< and (l) write a short summary in one or rwo sentences of what it is about. Then listen again
and (2) mal<e notes on the key information and conclusions in the talk.
Bring your notes with you to the next class to repoft on what you have learned.
Trinity ISE lll Listening The lndependent Listening Task

Lesson 2: Recognising the speaker's pont of view and inferrng meanng


ln this lesson you will practise tasks that help you to recognise the key points the speaker is trying to mal<e.

Exercise I
Worl< in pairs and tell your partner about the tall< you made notes on for homeworl< in the last lesson. Say in one or two
sentences what it was about and then report on the key information and conclusions of the tall< in about one minute.
Time your partner's report and stop them when a minute has elapsed.

Exercise 2
Worl< in pairs and have a discussion on the subject of personal economics - thinl< about how our spending habits and the
financial pressures we face are different to (or the same as) in the past. Use the images to help you. lf you need more ideas
on what to discuss, asl< and answer the questions below.

"*r"**--l
_--,ruLD
-;
*geF?,

I What do you thinl< are the biggest expenses households face today? Do you thinl< the balance of these expenses is any
different to how it was for past generations?

2 What is the housing situation your country? Are homes cheap or expensive? Do most people buy or rent?
lil<e in
What is the housing situation for young adults? Do they find it easy to get onto the property ladder?

3 What are the costs lil<e for families in education today? ls school education free? What about third-level education?
What educational expenses do families have to account for even if there are no school or university fees?

4 Do you thinl< the education system is more affordable and accessible today than it was in the past?

5 Thinl< about the area in which you live: what are the biggest industries and what are the most popular and lucrative
(well-paid) professions? Do you thinl< that the situation was any different for past generations? if so, please explain how.

6 Thinl< about the employment situation inside of most families today. How common is it for both parents to be working?
Why do many families have dual incomes today? What about the position of men and women in the worl<place?
Are women's and men's earnings comparable? Do they have equal prospects in the worl<place?
Exereise 3: Understanding tone of delivery
Often how we say something s iust as impor-tant as what we actually say.

A Listen to the four speal<ers tall< about women's status in the workplace today. Group the speakers according to whether
or not they mean what they say.

B Now listen again and infer what the speakers thinl<. Match the speakers to the opinions.
Speaker I A Feels that men are actually treated unfairly today.
Speaker 2 B Feels that while the situation has improved, there is much more worl<
still to do to achieve equality for women.
a Speal<er 3 c ls enthusiastic about policies which require companies to hire certain
quotas of women and about progress in general on worl<place equality.
Speaker 4 D Feels there has been a very significant change of policy towards
fairer treatment of women in the worlcplace.
;a
Exercise 4: Understanding when people gve an indirect opinion
Listen to each short extract and choose the best option (A, B or C).
.i
I Speal<er I suggests that
A most young adults are better off in economic terms today but admits a few are still in a bad financial situation.
I B the ideal way for young adults to buy a home is with the help of their parents.
C young adults, unlike most other economic groups, are less well-off today than they were in the past.

2 Speal<er 2 implies that


A she wishes she had a lifestyle more lil<e the one her father enjoyed when he was young.
B when her father's generation were growing up, life was a lot more difficult.
C she is grateful her father made the decision to worl< down the mines from a young age.

3 Speal<er 3 feels that overall life in his community


A is much better now but he regrets that something in particular has been lost.
B has got worse and he is very concerned about the job situation and lack of community spirit.
C has improved dramatically and he is confident a sense of community spirit will eventually return.
4 Speal<er 4
A university fees and feels they should not be imposed.
is against
B is strongly in favour of university fees and thinl<s the system is very fair.
C believes university fees are, unfortunatel necessary to support the third-level education system.

Exercise 5 (Exam-style'l?ask)
\ow worl< in pairs.
A Student I, listen to the recording once and then tell Student 2 what it is about in one or two sentences.
Student 2, turn to page 58 and read the text of the tall<. Write what it is about in one or two sentences.
Then compare your answer with Student I's.

B Student l, listen to the recording again. Tal<e notes for the following tasl<:
You will tell Student 2: Whot pros ond cons of the introduction of o universol healthcore
system does the speokerdiscuss?
Does he reach o conclusion for or agoinst the policyT
Then tell Student 2 your answer using your notes to help you. You have one minute to speal<.
Student 2, look at the text on page 58 again and mal<e notes on the same question. When Student I tells you
their answer, compare it with your notes. Then, if you thinl< they have missed anything important, discuss it with
them afterthey have finished speal<ing. (Time their presentotion and stopthem ofter one minute.)

s$
Trinity ISE l l-istening Tlre lndependert l-istening Thsk

fixe"eis* 6 (Exam-style Task)


Now worl< in pairs.
A Student 2, listen to the recording once and then tell Student I what it is about in one or two sentences.
Student | , read the text of the tall< below. Write what it is about in one or rwo senrences.
Then compare your answer with Student 2's.
B Student 2, listen to the recording again. Take notes for the following tasl<:
You will tell Student l: What daes the speaker say abaut the arguments for and agoinst raising the minimum wage?
Does she .ame aut in favour ofthe proposal or nat?
Then tell Student I your answer using your notes to help you.
Student l, lool< at the text below, again, and mal<e notes on the same question. When Student 2 tells you
their answer, compare it with your notes. Then, if you thinl< they have missed anything important, discuss it with
them after they have finished spealcing. (Time their presentotion ond stop them after one minute.).

ffiKYRAS:Additional exam practice for the lndependent Listening Task


lA Economic lssues: Listen to the tall< and summarise what t is about in one or two sentences.
I B Now listen again and Tell me the speaker's attitude ta market econamies in genera!, and in particular her cancerns
about welfare, safety ond security in such economies.
2r4 Economic issues and Lifestyles: Listen to the tall< and summarise what it is about in one or two sentences.
28 Now listen again and: Iell me the different conclusions the speaker draws about our spending hobits today, ond
in particulor the trends he identifies os positive and negative for consumers.

TEXT from page 57 fixes'eise S TEXT from page 58 ffxs"sse 6


There is much debate at the moment over whether or not we should There is always a lot of debate when the subject of the minimum
introduce universal healthcare in this country. Presently, heaithcare is wage comes up. Many people argue that it is too low, while others
only available to those who can afford to pay for it. As we all l<now,
warn of the dangers of increasing it.
medical bills can be incredibly costly and while health insurance can
Well, let us look at these so-called dangers first. lncreasing the mini-
reduce the expense, the reality is that some people cannot afford to
mum wage would naturally increase costs for businesses. When costs
take out a policy. This leaves them in the very dangerous situation of not
increase, so do prices. That means products could become slightly
being able to pay for any emergency health procedures they may need.
more expensive. Moreover, small companies with tight budgets
That is perhaps one of the strongest arguments for why we need uni-
might be put out of business if they couldn't afford the additional
versal or free healthcare for everyone. No-one should be denied
costs of the wage increases, so jobs could be lost in that way.
essental medical care in this day and age. But it is not by any means
lndeed, there is also a job risk depending on how big businesses
the only argument for its introduction. lndeed, statisticallX people live
would react. lf wages are increased, in this globalised economy we
longer on average in countres where universal healthcare is available.
operate in, they may simply decide to move their offices to another
ln other words, it increases life expectancy for the whole population.
Furthermore, universal healthcare is a system that is already proven to country with cheaper labour. ln this scenario, increasing the minimum
worl<. lt has been successfully introduced in countries lil<e Switzerland wage would be counterproductive in the sense of actually putting
and Germany. Therefore, the government is not going into unl<nown
people out of jobs rather than making their situation better.
territory if it adopts this policy; the risk of failure is low as we have The risk of significant job losses in large companies is particularly
already seen it successfully implemented elsewhere. And finall it is concerning. However, let us asl< ourselves for a moment how ikely
about time we regulated costs in the healthcare industry properly. large companies which have invested huge amounts of money into
Studies have shown that healthcare providers in this country are max- their businesses in this country are to simply move elsewhere if
imising profit not value for money at the moment. ln other words, there is a small pay increase. Yes, they might save on labour costs n
patients pay too much for the services they receive. a new base, but would they have access to the same quality of facili-
Having said that, the issue is definitely not completely black and white. ties and services - lil<e fast internet and excellent transport linl<s
On the other side of the argument, we must understand that the (both of which are vital for businesses today)? Probably not since the
notion of 'free' is misleading. Nothing is free and in reality the intro- overall level of service we offer business - our country's package, if
duction of free healthcare will be paid for in higher taxes. Also, as we you lil<e - is one of the best in the world. Therefore, I thinl< the risk
have seen in other state-controlled industries, there is a danger that of mass job losses happening is actually quite low where large com-
standards will fall if healthcare becomes state-controlled. State worl<- panies are concerned.
ers in other sectors are l<nown to be less competent and poorly moti- There may indeed be a slight increase in prices for consumers and
vated than their private sector peers. This is a worry And of course, some small businesses may feel more financial pressure, but let's
as with anything free, there is the potential for it to be abused. ln consider if the benefits of an increased minimum wage offset these
other words, people are more likely to use the serrice if it's free. downsides, shall we? And for a start, let's lool< at the social benefits.
They may turn up at Accident and Emergency with minor injuries and The purpose of the minimum wage is to enable worl<ers to live
ailments. This could lead to longer waiting times for patients who are above the poverty line. At the moment, it is too low to fulfil this
really sick. objective, so it is unquestionably fairer to raise it from a social justice
As far as I'm concerned, this must end now. Of course there are pit- perspective. But there are other potential benefits we need to con-
falls to any system, but perhaps we can learn from the mistakes other sider too. For example, raising the minimum wage would result in
countries made when they introduced universal healthcare and create more income tax for the government, so it could spend more
a system of our own that is even more fair. We can take precautions money in important areas lil<e healthcare and education.
against some of the risl<s. For example, we can fine timewasters who Additionally, it would give those on low incomes more disposable
turn up at A&E for no reason and have inspectors assess staff per- income, so overall consumer spending would increase, which would
formance in hospitals to ensure the highest standards are maintained. boost the economy. I feel the strongest argument and the one that
There is no perfect system, but let me assure you that the present convinces me, howeve is the notion of social justice - do it because it
one is not the best we can do. lt can and must be changed, therefore. is the right thng to do. No one should live below the poverty line today.
Relative Clauses (l)

RALATIVE CTAUSES A. Combine the two sentences into one sentence.


Make ob'a relative clause. Give all the possitrle
a subordinate clause which provides us
A relative clause is
with more information about a person or thing in a main forms.
clause.
1. a. The couple were very nice.
Relative clauses are introduced either with a relative pronoun b. I met them at the corner shop last night.
(who, whom, which, that, whose) that can refer to the Subject
or Object of the main clause or with a relative adverb (when,
where, why).

2. a. Do you know the family?


1. who and whom refer to people:
b. They live upstairs from me.
e.g. The neighbours who live next door have two daughters.
Stephen is a car mechanic whom you can trust.

2. which refers to things:


e.g. The CDs (which/that) she bought are expensive. 3. a. She talked to the man.
tl. He was sitting next to her on the train.
3. that refers to people and things (in defining clauses only):
e.g. The trffic police fficer who/that showed me the way
was particuiarty helpful.

4. a. A pupil asked the teacher a question.


4. whose indicates possession:
b. She couldn't answer it.
e.g. The woman whose car was stolen has notiJied the police.

5. when indicates time:


e.g. Awgust is the month when most people go away on holday.
a" That's the woman.
6. where indicates place: tr. Her daughter is a mechanic.
e.g, This is the hotel where we stayed last year

7. why indicates reason:


e.g. I don't understand (lhe reason) why we have to go there Jirst. . a. I don't understand the reason.
b. I must get it stamped and signed.
ATTEl\TION
1. The pronoun cannot be omitted when it refers to the subject
of the main verb:
e.g. The man who lives across the road s a lawyer. 7. a. Christmas is a time.
b. The family get together.
2. The pronoun may be omitted when it refers to the object of
the main verb:
e.g. The man (whom) I have spoken of is a lawyer.

DEFINING CLAUSES NON.DEFINING CLAUSES


1. The clause identifies the noun that the clause is 1. The clause gives extra information about the noun
referring to and so the clause (not the pronoun) that the clause is referring to and so the clause
cannot be omitted. (not the pronoun) can be omitted.
2. No commas. 2. The clause is separated from the rest of the
3. We can use that. sentence by commas.
4. We can omit the pronoun when it is the object of 3. We cannot use that.
the verb.
4. We cannot omit the pronoun under any
circumstances-
Relative Clauses (1)
DEFINING CLAUSES
Examples: B- Complete the sentences with the words below.
I. The coJfee (which/that) she made u,as ye"! we1ft.
(But the coffee I made was strong.) that, what, whatever, whenever, whoever,
2. Jarcd x,orles.fir a company that makes lighters. wherever, which, which
3. Today I met tut old.friend (who/tlmt) I hadn't seen
.for over ecrr.
l. She's obviously very much in love with him. means I
haven't got a chance with her.
4. I met tlrc famil- *^hose daugltter is Maty'5 flatmate.
2. She iust shows up she feels like it wiout
In the examples above, the relative clauses identify which bothering to phone first.
or what kind of person or thing the speaker is referring to.
3. She comes and goes as she pleases always doing .,.,.,.,.,.,...... she
likes.
NON-DEFINING CI-AUSES
4- I haven't rcceived I ordered ,et.
Examples:
'1,.
The coffee, yt,hich she made, was uery weak. = 5. He wants to return the object, would be fine if he hadn't
The rctfee rs weafr. lost the receipt.
(Oh. by the wa it was made by her.) 6. Invite ... you like, except for her!
2. Jared told nte about his comp&nJ*, **hiclt is about to 7" You can hold the party you like as long as it's within
ckse tlrwn. a ten-minute drive from the school.
3. Today I met Susie, o^ho(nt) I hadn't seen for sir yecrs.
8. The hook .......... you ordered hasn't arrived yet.
4. Sa.ran, whose daughter is Man,'s.flatmate, is in hospilal.

In the examples above, the relative clauses do not identify


e person or thing the speaker is referring to. We already
C. Expand the reduced relative clauses telow"
know that. Instead, the clauses provide extra (parentherical)
information about the person or thing.
l. Anyone caught driving without a licence will be fined
1000 pounds.
R,ELATIVE CLAUSES
Special Notes
1. In non-defining relative clauses which can rei'er not 2. His teacher is the only person interested in helping him.
only to a single noun but also to the whole situaon
described in the main clause:
e.g. ,S/re had obviousb: been cry,iltg, w*hich upset me
tremendousl.r-,
3. Harrl Erar and The Secret Pancake is the title of the book
2. whateve whoever, whichever, whercver and whenever coming out tomoffow.
can replace relative pronouns when these refer to unknown
or indeterminate things or people:
e.g. Take whatever you w-ant.fv)m. the sttie (anything you
want).
3. what can replace a noun! not a pronoun:
e.g. Tbll me what you ruorf (the thing that you want) d,?d
I'll cheek to see if we've got . I'm afraid v,e ltavcn't
got the sauce lhat you otdered. Ma- I suggest an
altern.ative?

REDUCED CLAUSES

l. \{ho, whirh, that and be can be omitted in 2. Who, which, that and the main verb can be
defining clauses: replaced by a participle in defining clauses:
e.g. l/a.r sweet shot is the only one in the e.g. Richard Cerc wen the name of the act<r
neighbourhood (that is) open wttil night starrir?g in the.fi\n, Desth in the Valley.
(= who stared)
Relative Clauses (1)

'**-, -.- ^.ifI


ffwq*p*rll-#: '
I

Underlne oo, ,or) or words in the sentence that can be omtted.

1. Is there a way that I can persuade you fo give it up?


2. Is there anything that I can do to help?
3. Johanna has bought a rare antique which is worth many thousands.
4. The number of people that have been injured has not been asce{ained.
5. Is there any cake that's left over after the child's raid in the kitchen?
6. Anyone who is interested in joining should click here.
7. The speech that was made by the Minister was not well received.
8. The restaurant which you recommended to me fumed ori to be a rip off.
9. The poem that was recited by Mary was not known to us.
10. A Wedding in Soho is the title of the irlm that is being shown tonight.

ffipss*sw# wffi21
Expand the reduced relative clsuses belsw.

1. Anyone not carrying an ID will not be admitted into the building.

2. Dr Johannes was the name of the doctor treafing the young girl at the time"

3. Someone not aware of the particular sifuation rnight think we lvere exaggerating the difficulties.

4. A1l of the songs sung by the band were old and boring"

5. None of the vehicles used in the race suffeed any damage"

*i2l
i tl
w"ge-poaw*,sw
tr"3e#trLicrk*f
For questions 1-10, read the text bel.ow. Llse the word given in capitals to farm u word that fits in eadt space. There k an
example at the beginnng {0).

THE GREAT THBATRE : (0) ACCOUSTICALLY


(1) K}IOW
One major problem with fhe Great Theafre is its (0) atoastics. The Vicmrian solution fo the :
problem was a canvas awning in the roof. A place where more than tr00 million people, i tzr SUPPOSE
famous and (1) " . hale spent tirne over I25 years. has its share of ghosfs. Among : (3) IDENTITY
thern is a limping man, (2) ......... a former clerk of works with a club foot, said to
i t+.r SIGHTS
haunt the stairs looking for jobs to do. There is also a littie old rnan in a cap. first seen in 1924
:
by workmen repairing the organ and since (3) ........"...... ....... as Father Willis, the instrumenl's
(5) IMPROVE

original builder. Since the (4) .....".,....... there have been reports of a 'cold atrnosphere' , rul DESPAiR
behind the organ. Although $ 5million has been spent on (5) ...".."........ since l90fj, : (7) EXTEND
the Great Theatre is still in (6) ...."""........ need of {7) ....".,.".-."". repairs. ltlow
i tsl AMBITION
there are (8) .......".....-. plans to spend a further $ 67 million or (9) ,........,
every aspecf ofthe theatre. The (10) has asked for nearly' three-quariers of iol MODERN
that from the National Lottery. :(10) h{ANAGE
Relative Clauses (1)

:41
For questions 7-8, read the text below and decde which snswer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap.

R"UNNTNG THE HAL[,


Keeping one of Britain's best-loved public buildings running is a constant struggle for fhe staff, rnany of (l) ..... may
have to work l4-hour shifts cleaning (:2) .....after each event. Twelve full+ime cleaners get (3) ..... more than 200 mops
a year. Each month the 766 doors require 25 litres of paint; up to 35 metres of carpet wear (4) ..... , 30 chairs (Si ..... to
be repaired and 400 light bulbs replaced. (6) ..... they decorate, they have to be very caretul ('7) ..... timing. as rhe smell
of paint can affect singers badly. Twenty staff members carry radios at all times, tuned to four different channels: for
stewards and housekeeping, show management and elecfricians, catering and, last but not (S) .. .. , security.

l. A whom B them C those D cleaners


2. A down Bup C out D around
3. A through B over C under D done
4. A out Boff C down D much
5. A needn't B must C got D have
6. A When B Once C After D As soon as
7. A around Bto C about D for
8. A most B first C leasf D second

ipl
isl
For qaestions 1-9, yead the text below and think ofthe word which besffits each space. {Jse only one word in each space.
There is an example al the beginning (0).

THE GREAT FIALL


Two enormous wrestlers roll around the ring. (0) l the ringside seats big men (1) .......... eanings and
tattoos shout their encoragement. Beside {2) "......-....-.. , their wives and girlfriends, glittering with gold
jewellery scrsam as loudly as they can (3) .......... the wrestlers. The noise is tremendous. Twenty-four
hours (4) , the scene at the same London hall is almost unrecognisable. Now. a pop group,
Boyzone" is performing. Five thousand people, (5) ......,......." girls in their early teens, are screaming and
clapping their hands (6) ..........,,... their heads. (7) ......"........ the show, the corridors are full of
young fans trying to catch sight of their idols. Stewards in red and blue jackers ralk anxiousty (S) .......".......
their radios. Security, (9) ...,......,.... always, is a rop prioriry.

ffi
a) Relative Clauses (2)

A. Sentence Transformatians.
NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES: 1. The anthology, in which her paper was published,
PREPOSITIONS AND PRONOUNS
is on the bookshelf.
1. FORMAL style: preposition + pronoun: The anthology, ................, ..... , is
Use which or whom immediately atter a preposition.
on the tlookshelf.
Never use that or who after a pronoun:
e.g. The gutr, tvith which the vic/ia rucls shot, ltas not been
.fbund. 2. Mr Carter, who I was talking to you about. is also coming.
2. INFORMAL styte: pronoun ... preposition (at the end Mr Carter,
of the clause): is also coming.
e.g. Ile gun, which the victn wls slrof with, has not been
fowd.
3. They bought a house, whose price was extortionate.
3. Possession: noun + of which or that ... of:
They bought a house,
e.g. Ile lent ne a book, whose title/the title of wlziclt I've
.forgotten, was extol'tionate.

B. Complete the senfences with the phrases below.

both of whom several of which


QUANTITYING NON.DEFINING on top of which a number of whom
RELATIVE CLAUSES atlout which wherever
at which time in spite of which
alVboth/either/neither/none/tralf/any/each/fedmany/ in which case most of whose
much/oney'somry'several + of which, of whom, of whose

e.g. Dei.rdre has to (ttend tu*o conferences, brth af wltich f. I paid a hefty fine for parking illegally,
arc in Stain. my licence has been revoked.
The lad,*'s penrls and fur coas, most of *^hich w^t 2. The exarniner asked me questions on areas
destroyed in the.fire, were belieted ta be imitatians.
I knew nothing.
the first/second/last etc. + of which/of whom, 3. I forgot to use a key ingredient, ......".........".
the youngest/rnajority + of whom, the meal turned out to be delicious.
a number of which/whorn 4 .There were thousands of participants, .............
e.g. Hugh has to attend three ea4ference$, t.frst of whiclt had bought several tickets.
r ir /li homekwtt. 5. New technology mobile phones can pick up a signal
Londoners, the majorir- of whom do not ew*fi trs, you happen to be.
normally travel to r"or* b public transport.
6. We went to France in 2012.
during which, despite which/whom, at which point/mq we decided to get married.
in which case/evtnt etc. 7. I met up with Jack and Jill last night, ...........

e.g. lftey enjoyed a homenwde meal, after which thel' tttrtk complained about their spouses the whole evening.
a ktng walk along thr seafront. 8. He was an obscure poeti "......"".". ...."... poems
are unfamiliar to the general public"
9. You rnay wish to unsubscribe, ............."...
you should contact customer services.
10" This particular album is made up of a collection of songs,
had been banned in England until
very recently.
b) Participle Clauses

C. Sentence transformations.

1. When she opened the door, she saw the parcel on the
PARTICIPLE CLAUSES
door mat.
In participle clauses we replace the relative pronoun and the she saw the parcel on the
verb. Participle clauses give extra information about time' door mat.
reason, cause, conditions and results of the main clause.
The subjects of the participle clause and the main clause are
2. Because she hasn 't got a degree, she is very unlikely to
usually the same.
get the job.
Time: she is very unlikely to get
e.g. Turning at the corner, she saw the other car and came the job.
to a halt. (AsAVhen she turned at the comer.)

Reason/Cause: 3. Because it was ironed a second ago, the shirt felt very
e.g, Not being partcularly hard-working, she is unlikely to hot on the skin.
get promoted. (Because she is not hard-working.) the shirt felt very hot
Not having worked before, I couldn't tell if the offer on the skin.
was good or-not. (Because I hadn't worked before).

Condition: 4. Because she wasn't able to tell anyone, she sat alone in
e.g. Washed by hand, the delicate fabric will not be harmed. her room and brooded.
(If it is washed by hand.) she sat alone in her

Result: room and brooded.


e.g. The nanny never showed up, making it impossble for the
mother to 80 to work that daY. 5. Because she hadn't done her essay, she decided not to
(As a result of the nanny not showing up...)
show up in class that day.
...... , she decided not to show up
in class that dav.

Special Notes D. Sentence transformations.


The tense of the participle clause is usually indicated by 1. The man who iumped the queue was saying 'I only want
the verb in the main clause.
to ask a question.'
1. The -ing participle infers active voice and could refer The man jumped 'I only want
to both past and present: to ask a question.'
e.g, Assuming you'd lke to go, I can arrange for a lift'
(= I assume)
2. After he had been left to fend for himself, the boy stafied
2,The past participle infers passive voice and could refer to flee.
to both past and present: the boy started to flee.
e.g. Carefully maintained, it would last a long time.
(= If it is carefully maintained)
3. After she'd been given an incredible amount of homework,
3. The perfect participle refers to one thing happening she decided to stay in and study.
before another:
amount of
e.g. Having promsed to reward het I took her shopping.
(= Because/after I had promised) homework, she decided to stay in and study.
Relative Clauses (2) and Participle Clauses

iri
Fill in the gaps with a relutive adverb or pronoun. Sometimes a preposition is also required.

l. flat
The he lived was on a very noisy road.

2. The pub ....... they were supposed to meet, has closed down.

3. The reason ....... he divorced his wife has never been very clear.

4. An Indian restaurant is a place ....... one can have spicy food.

5. The table ....... they sat, was facing the busy road.

6. The chair ....... the cat is sitting, needs painting.

7. A theatre is a building ....... plays are performed.

8. Winter is theseason ....... these animals hibernate.

9. 2014 is the year ....... his book was published.

10. The day .............. I started my new job, was the best day of my life.

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J4 .l? 4 , t

Underline the correct answer.

l. Not ownng / owned a car,I have to take the bus to work.


2. When discussing / discussed a patient's psychological problems, try to be as discreet as possible.

3. Consumed / Consuming daily, the vitamin will treat the deficiency in a month.
4. Having called / Calling everyone, Lucy put the phone down and headed for the door.
5. Criticising / Criticised for her performance, the artist felt unappreciated.

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.1,
For questions l-g, )ea the text below und decide which unswer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap.

AFTER THB WEDDING


After the wedding, David is sent to boarding school (1) he is very unhappy. And when his mother dies a
(2) ........... before his twelfth birthday, he is taken out of school and sent to work in a warehouse in London. This
mirrors Dickens's own leaving school when he was a child, (3) ........... he was sent to work in a factory.
Copperfield works ten hours a day, six days a week (4) ........... a pay that's quite adequate for a boy of his age at
the time. In his breaks he wanders around the area, behaving (5) ........... an adult visiting public houses and drinking
alcohol. But David is (6) ........... very unhappy (7) ........... his life that he eventually runs away to his aunt, Miss
Betsey Trotwood, who adopts him and brings him (8) ........... as a gentleman.

1. Awhich Bthat Cwho Dwhere


2. Alot Bhour Cdecade Dlittle
3. A and B in spite C however D though
4. Aon Bin Cat Dfor
5. Abadly Blike Cto Dwrong
6. Asuch Bso Cnot Donly
7. Afrom Bfor Cwith Din
8. Aup Bon Cabout Daround
Relative Clauses (2) and Participle Clauses

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For questons 1-9, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. (Ise only one word in each space.
There is an example at the beginnins Q).

DAVID COPPERFIELD

One of Charles Dickens's most famous and best-loved novels is David Copperfield. It tells the story of Copperfield
(0) from his bifth six months after his father's death. (1) . his birth, his mother argues wirh her husband's
rich aunt, Miss Betsey Trotwood, (2) . ............. is upset because David turns (3) .. . .............. to be a boy.
Dickens based Miss Betsey (4) ............... a Mary Strong, who lived in Broadstairs, Kent, where Dickens
spent many family holidays and (5) much of David Copperfield was written.

David Copperfield spends his early childhood with his pretty young mother and their servant, Peggotty. There's a
drawing in the book (6) .. .......... shows them in church, David looking up at his mother (7) .. . . .....
Peggotty keeps an eye on their house out of the window to 'make herself as sure as she can that it's not (8)
robbed, or is not in flames'. But Mr Murdstone, a handsome young man, has his eye on the pretty young widow, her
house and her small income, left (9) ... her by her dead husband. Mrs Copperfield ignores Peggotty's
warnings, and marries Mr Murdstone. This totally changes David's life because he and Murdstone dislike one another.

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For questions 1-10, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that ftts in each space. There is an
example at the beginnins Q).

(0) FAME
WHO WAS CHARLES DICKENS'S?
(1) BEAR
Charles Dickens was one of the world's most (0) fuuau authors and the Dickens
House Museum was once his home. (1) . . .. .......... in 1812 in Pofismouth, his (2) REMOVAL

family moved to London in 1822, but his father was put in prison in 1824 for not (3) TMPOVERTSHED
paying his debts, and the twelve-year-old Charles was (2) .... from
school and sent to work in a factory to help support the family. Charles considered (4) APPLTCMTON
this period to be the most terrible time in his life and his family's (3) .... . ........
(s) OBSERVE
would be a great influence on his later writing. Charles (4) ...... ........... his unique
power of (5) ............. to London, the city in which he spent most of his (6) ROUTTNE
life. He (6) . . .. ....... walked the city streets, 10 or 20 miles at a time, and
(7) DESCRTBE
his (7) .......... of nineteenth-century London allow readers to experience
the sights, sounds and smells of the old city as it was at the time. Dickens's genius (8) APPEARANCE
(8) ............ . on the world stage at a time of many changes in London,
(9) DRAMA
the most (9) ... . . . of which was, probably, that of the (10)
of the railway. (10) coME

EilI
a) Causative Form

A. Write sentences in the way shown:


0. Susan did not make that skirt herself.
She had it made.
CAUSATIVE FORM
l. I'm not cleaning the jacket mysell.
have/get something done
(= to employ or otherwise engage someone to do something
for you)
e.g. I'm having/getting the roof repaired tomorrow. 2. They haven't painted the house themselves
I'm having the flat redecorated.

have someone do something 3. Fay did not make the curtains herself.
e.g. They're having the plumber install a new pipe.

get someone to do something


e.g. The got the owner to pay for the new heating system. 4. Fanny employed a professional photographer to take

photographs of the whole family.


have something done
can also be used to replace passive voice. Here the subject
is the victim of a misfortune or accident:
5. Daniel won't serice the car himself.
e.g. Jack and Jill had their passports stolen. =
Their passports were stolen from them.

get something done


can also be used when the subject causes something to
happen intentionally or accidentally:
B. Sentence Transformations.
e.g. Itruill be another couple ofhours before I can get it
1. Debby's driving licence was taken away by the police.
finished. (intentional) but
He got his finger caught in the doox (accidental)

have something/someone doing


2. May's nose was broken in a fight last night.
L. when someone won't allow something to happen:
e.g. I won't have you talking to your sster like that! Now,
ap olo g i s e imme diate ly !

2. when consequences are brought about: 3. He accidentally caught his top in his fly.
e.g. You'tl have the whole country complaining if you
increase this fax.

3. v,'hen someone persuades/causes something or someone


4. She taught him how to build the structure
to do something:
e.g. I'll have him doing his homework in no time. on his own in no time.
I'll have it working again in under a minute.

5. If you reveal this information, it will make the whole


department turn against me.

E
Causative Form and Adjectives

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Complete the sentences with the phrases below.

get it all done, had him playing, have you going, had Joe look it up on, have someone ring,
had my car stolen, had anyone complain, get a firm to do

1. If you give me your phone number, I'11 ............... you as soon as possible.

2. Unfortunately, I've ...... last night.

3. We'Il never be able to move the grand piano without help. Why don't we it for us?

4. No, John! I won't round the pub every evening. You need to spend time with your son.
5. I'd never heard of this disease before so ...................
I Oxford Internet Encyclopaedia.
6. It's too much work. I won't be able to ................. .......... before the end of the week.

7. I've never about this particular teacher before. I think you're exaggerating.

8. The n'ew music teacher ................... ........ the piano in a jiffy.

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For questions 7-8, read the text below snd decide which unswer (4, B, C or D) best fits each gap.

THE SIGNIFTCANCE OF LONG HATR


In Israel and other parts of the Middle East, women often kept their hair covered by fabric draped (1) .......... the face
like a hood. Hairstyles in the Middle East and elsewhere, in fact, held deeper significance. Some cultures considered
women's long hair to be sexually provocative and so (2) .......... had to be either covered up or controlled (3) ... ......
tight plaits, rolls or buns.
The prophet Samson's power was recorded in Scripture as (4) .......... connected to his long, thick hair. And (5) ..........
the Polynesians of the Pacific, the first time a boy's hair was cut marked his coming (6) .......... age. It was also a way
(7) ..........which he was now different from women. Hair was thought to contain the 'mana', or power, and so the
cutting of hair was a risky business. To mark the special haircutting ceremony, the women of the Cook islands draped
specially-decorated quilts about the room. These quilts were then given (8) .......... gifts.

1. A from Bin Con D about


) A that B these C they Dit
3. A from B with Con Din
4. A complete B very C not D being
A among B from Cin D like
6. A such Bof C not D only
7. A from B with Cin Dbv
8. Aas Bto C for D with
Causative Form and Adjectives

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For questions 1-10, reqd the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form s word that
fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

THB VICTORIA AND ALBERT (0) COLLECT

(1) AMAZE
The Victoria and Albert Museum's (0) collections span two thousand years of
history in nearly every area, from many parts of the world, and visitors to the (2) AVAIL
museum will enter a treasure house of (1) . ........... beautiful objects.
The museum was established in 1852, with the aim of making works of art, in (3) INSPIRATTON
all forms, (2) ............... to all, to educate working class people and to
(4) EXHIBIT
(3) . ............. British designers. Our collections make us a world-leader
in (4) ........... .. of fashion and textiles, accessories, jewellery,
(s) DECORATE
metalwork, furniture and all other forms of (5) ........... . art from all
periods. We have also (6) .......... fine art - painting, drawings, prints (6) ACQUISTTTON
and sculptures - in order
to tell a more complete story of the history of art and
design. The Young People's Programme aims to (7) ................................. young (7) DTSCOURAGMENT
people, aged 14-25 from wide (8) .......... backgrounds to become
(8) CULTURE
involved with the V&A collections and make museum visits part of their
(9) ... . . . . life and leisure time activity. The programmes for young (9) SOCIETY
people are (10) and attempt to cater for their specific needs
and taste. (10) VARIETY

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For questions 7-9, resd the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in
each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

ADVERTISING
Some claim (0) thetadvertising exerts an evil influence on people. persuading (1) . . ............. to buy products they
don't really need or want. Others argue that (2) . ....... performs an important function (3) . ............... it
provides information about products and services in order (4) .... . ...... ....... people to then be able to make
(5) ...................... their own minds. It could also be argued that advertising promotes competition among companies
and is, (6) . , a healthy thing because it helps provide employment and keep prices down.

Unfortunately, we all know how irritating TV adverts can (7) . . Just when we have settled down to
watch our favourite programme, the interruptions begin, spoiling our concentration. However, some people go even
so far as to say that the quality of some advertisements is much higher than (8) . in some of the
programmes and that advertising, therefore, provides excellent entertainment.

Clearly, what is wrong with advertising in the main is the false promises it makes, You know the drill: wear this
perfume and all the men will find you irresistible, buy this car and all the women will chase (9) .......,.............. you.
Frankly, I find this sort of distortion of the truth, quite immoral.

EII
Inversion

NEGATIVE ADVERBS A. Put the words in order to create sentences using


1". never (before/again)
inversion as in the example.
2. rarely 0. Hardly I had ar:rived the went alarm off when.
3. seldom Hardly hqd I arrived when the alarm went off.
4. little 1. Scarcely she had the building when it started to rain left.
5. hardly/barely/scarcely (ever/when/before) Scarcely

e.g. Little did she suspect who he was. 2. I will never speak to her again
Rarely does she visit them any more.
Never

B. Put the words in order to create sentences using


inversion.
RESULT CLAUSES
so/such (that) 1. So she fell she asleep on the couch was so tired.
So
e.g, Such was his envy that he dvorced her.
So ignorant was he, that he didn't even realise he was 2. Such the shattered explosion windows force the of that was
being snubbed. the.
Such

INVERTED CONDITIONALS
C. Fill in the blanks as in the example.
lst Conditional:
0. Had he arrived (arrive) earlier, he wouldn't have missed her,
e.g. Should you {- Ifyou (should)} see her, let her know.

2nd Conditional: 1. ................. (decide) to stay longer, inform the


e,g. Were she {= If she were} here, I would fire her. receptionist.

3rd Conditional: 2. ......................... (be) unwell, he would rake the day off.
e.g. Had he arcived {= If he had arrived} earlier, he
wouldn't have missed her 3. .......................... (be) truthful he might not have left her.

ATTENTION
4. ................. . (be) Harry, Ron would be dead.

Had it not been for = If it hadn't been for/but for

D. Fill in the blanks as in the example.


0. Only by chance did I hear (I heard) abour rhe wedding.
ONLY 1. Only by ................ (pay them off) .....................
Invert the main clause: (he was able) to keep them silent.
1. Only whenlafterlby, Not only...but also, Not only but... 2. Not only .... (he lied) to her but he also cheated
as well
on her.
2. Only when/not until (that)
3. Not until (she had finished) her
3. Only ifA{ot unless, only then, only by chance, only in
homework ......... (she went out) with her
this way, only with difficulty, only yesterday
friends.
e.g. Only when/after he had spoken to her, did she
realise her mistake.
4. Not unless ...... (she apologises)
Only by working hard/hard work can one make (she will get) her toy back.
mone\).
5. Only if ..................... (you study) hard
(you can pass) the exam.

6. Only with difficulty ......................... (she was able) to stand.


Inversion

: ill
For questions 1- 10, complete the second sentence so thqt it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using as many
words of the original sentence as possible.

1. I have never in all my life been so insulted.


Never .......... so insulted.

2. He had never for one moment imagined that it could happen to him.
Never .......... .. that it could happen to him.

3. He was so unpopular that he didn't even get a single vote.


So ................ he didn't even get a single vote.

4. He didn't only break it, he also lied about it.


Not only .......... about it.

5. It was not until 1945 that the war finally came to an end.
Not until 1945 ............ to an end.

6. I had never been more mistaken before.


Never before .. mistaken.

7. The parties did not agree to anything at any point in time.


At no time to anything.

8. You must not disturb me for any reason whatsoever.


On no account ................... ....... me.
9. It was only then that he believed her.
Only then ............. her.

10. It was the first time I had been to Paris.


Never before . Paris.

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For questions 1-10, resd the text below. Use the word given in capitals to fotm a word that jlts in each space. There is an
example at the beginning (0).

(0) PEACE
DOVE OF PEACE (1) TNVESTTGATE
(2) EXrST
'Dove of peace' it is called, but it is not always as (0) ppgegful as it is made out to be. I had
(3) FAIL
spent the day on an (1) ........... tour of the city looking for a (2)
(4) EXPECT
address. Accepting my total (3) ............... as a detective, I chose to have dinner at an
(s) UNDERSTAND
outdoor restaurant. During dinner, quite (4) a dove landed on my table,
(6) PAIN
clearly on the (5) that it would be fed. But when I refused to feed it, it
bit me (6) . on the thumb, an (7) ........... that drew blood. As I resisted (7) TNJURE

the (8) ......... to slap it I heard (9) ............. behind me and realised that I (8) TEMPT

had been the source of a little, light (10) (9) LAUGH


(10) ENTERTATN
Inversion

:tl I

.51
For questions 7-9, read the text below snd think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space.
There is an example at the beginnins Q).

SURVIVAL

They had long waited for this day. It had (0) been the first in many years that their crops had not been destroyed
(1) ..... ....... drought, insects or even soldiers. Many days had been spentplanting, caring (2) . . . .

small fields of corn, squash, watermelons and pumpkins. The people had done all this secretly. Only two or three
people (3) . . ......... go at any one time to tend to the crops. They were always very cautious and suspicious
of (4) .......... who came too close to their tiny fields, for there were, at that time, rumours of soldiers
in the area.
The people worked hastily preparing for a feast. Much time had gone into this celebration (5) . . . ...... they
had decided they were safe. Maybe it (6) ..................... the weariness of the people, maybe they were tired
(7) ........-......... running from soldiers or maybe they needed something to make (8) .................... laugh. Maybe
it was all these things. (9) ....... ...... the reason, they were having a feast.

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For questions 7-8, read the text below and deci.de which answer (4, B, C or D) best fits each gap.

PORK

If you eat in a French or Cantonese restaurant, you will be sampling some of the finest cuisines in the
world. (1) the menu there will be at (2) one, and often many, pork dishes. In France, even
small villages have their own butcher's shop (3) specialises in cooked and cured pork. In China,
pigs are everywhere and everyone eats (4) . Yet pigs are, literally, dirty animals, and can be

dangerous to eat. Pigs wallow in mud and eat all (5) ........... of rubbish (6) . ... which they contract
parasitic worms that can cause disease in humans if the meat is not cooked (7) . ..
But why do pigs wallow in mud? The reason for this is that wallowing in mud is a more efficient way
(8) losing heat than a regular bath in water.

1. AOn BAt cup D From


2. A all B least C best D most
3. A which B and C witch Dit
4. Air B this C them D pig
A species B type C kind D sorts
6. A from Bof C for Dbv
A accurately B properly C correct D good
8. Aof B for Cto Din
Past Modals

A. Sentence transformations.
1. I don't think she's at home. The car's gone.
She .............. (leave) the house.
The car's gone.

Must have ... I can't have ... / couldn't have


2. I don't think he has taken it. I would have seen him.
assumption, deduction, certainty, conciusion,
He ............... .......... (take) it without my seeing
negative deduction
him do it.
e.g. She's not answering her phone.
She must have left t at home. (assumption/deduction) 3. I don't think he told her because he didn't know about it.
He can't/couldn't have said anything without my He ............... ........ (tell) her.
hearng it. I was with him all the time. (certainty)

He can't/couldn't have seen it. I had it with me. 4. I don't think it was Peter you saw. He's not in Athens.
(conclusion/negative deduction) It .................. ..... (be) Peter you saw.

5. It isn't possible that she was involved in the robbery.


She was in hospital.
She.............. ......... (involve) in
the robbery.

B. Sentence transformations.
1. I don't believe he stole it. He's a good person.

Past modals (other uses)


He ............... (steal) it.

surprise, disbelief, annoyance, irony, assumption, cerlainty


2. Why didn't you ring me to tell me it was cancelled?

e.g. He's an honest person. He can't/couldn't have cheated'


You .............. (ring) me.
(surprise, disbelief) I'm not pleased.

I've waited for an hour' You might/could have told me


you weren't coming. {annoyance) 3. How could he have passed? He never studied.
I ................... (know) he would fail.
I might/should have known it wouldn't work. Nothing
he ever does works. (ironY)
4. Someone called but they put the phone down as soon as
'someone called at 3.' 'Oh, that would have been
they heard my voice.
Sophie. She said she'd drop by'' (assumption, cerlainty)
Oh, that .....(be) MollY.
She's too embarrassed to speak to anyone else'

5. No one could have moved that table without help.


She .............. (move) that table
all by herself.
Past Modals

C. Sentence transformations.
1. They didn't call to say they'd be late.
Should (not) have ... ought (not) to have
They ............ (call) to say they'd be
criticism, unfulfilled obligation, expectation, late.
assumption

2. I don't think he's at work. It's 7 o'clock.


e.g. They ought to/should have notified me earlier.
(criticism/unfulfilled obligation)
He ............... (finish) by now.

He ought to/should have arrived by now.


3. I am most annoyed that you borrowed it without asking me.
(expectation /assumption)
You .............. (ask) if you could
borrow it.

D. Sentence transformations.
1. They are late. Maybe they missed the bus.

May/might (not) have ... could have They ............ ..... (miss) the bus.

possibility 2. It is possible that he has not been notified.


He............... ....... (notify).
e.g. She never showed up. She might/may not have
been told about t. (possibility) 3. I didn't recognise the language. Maybe it was Greek.
He didn't phone me. He may/might/could have It .................. (be) Greek.
forgotten to do so. (possibility)
4. Shall we tell her the news? Maybe she hasn't heard.
She .............. (hear) the news.

E. Sentence transformations.
ATTENTION
1. You were very rude. That was quite unnecessary.
I did not need to do it. = I did not have to do it (and
I didn't do it).
You .............. .......... (be) so rude.
so
2. He didn't do the washing up because Mathew had already
I needn't have done it. = I did it but it wasn't necessary.
done it.

e,g. I called her to tell her but she already knew. She .............. .......... (do) the washing up.
So I needn't have called hex
3. I took my umbrella because I thought it would rain, but it
I didn't call her because it was not my responsibility.
didn't.
I didn't need to rng her myself.
I ................... ..... (take) my umbrella with me.

4l
Past Modals

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Sentence transformations. Fill in the blanks using past modals.

1. It was not my fault. I did not deserve to be punished.


L.................. ...... punished.
2. It was wrong to take my car without asking.
You .............. without asking.
3. Punctuality was not essential.
One............. punctual.

4. I don't think she's at the office. She usually leaves work early.
She .............. the office.

5. I don't believe he has done such a thing.


He ............... such a thing.

6. I knew he'd get lost. He never consults a map.


L.................. ...... he would get lost.

7. 'Someone stopped by earlier but they didn't leave a name.'


'Oh, that ...... (be) Sandy. She said she'd drop by.'

8. I took a taxi because I thought I might be late, but I arrived there far too early.
i ................... ...... a taxi.

9. They haven't arrived yet. Maybe they missed their flight.


They ............ their flight.
10. Maybe no one told her.
She.............. ........... told.

11. I don't reckon she's at home. She starts work at 9.


She .............. ....... (leave) the house by now

12. I am most annoyed that you told her before you told me.
You .............. me first.

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For questions 1-9, read the text below and think of the word which best jits each space. Use only one word in each space.
There is an example at the beginnins Q).

CHESS: HUMANS VERSUS MACHINES


Chess had long (0) been considered a game at (1) ........... only humans can excel. Players need to employ
logic and strategy, combined (2) . . . .................. creative and adaptable gameplay, (3) ' . . ..........'..... an attempt to
understand how an opponent's skills or weaknesses (4) . ...................... be used against them. Often, character traits
(5) . . ....... .......... as aggression, caution and recklessness will determine how a game is played, and good players will
be (6) ........... to evaluate a new opponent from their early moves, and adapt their own style of play accordingly.
But (7) .... many conceded that computers sulpass humans in logical analysis, it was widely believed that
the emotional human factor, (8) .... is, the ability to actively compete and the desire to succeed, ultimately
gave humans the upper hand. Machines, it was theorised, could not anticipate or comprehend the seemingly illogical
and idiosyncratic moves that humans with their comprehension (9) ............ winning and losing come up with
to trap and bluff a fellow, human player. This is how things stood a few years ago. But things have changed.
Past Modals

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For questions 7-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fts each gap.

CAVIAR

It was mid-morning (1) .......... the fishermen pulled in a sturgeon, a variety the Iranians call 'chalbash'. The

chalbash looks like a cross (2) .......... a catfish and a stegosaurus. It has whiskers and rows of sharp, bony
protrusions along its back where other fish (3) .......... have fins. (4) .......... the dock, two fishermen leapt
from their boat and placed the quivering fish in a wooden box'

(5) .......... the processing building, the men put on white boots, smocks, caps and masks. They wash their
hands and snap on rubber gloves (6) .......... if getting ready for surgery. The fish is brought in and laid
(7) .......... on the granite floor. They wash, weigh and measure it. Carefully, an assistant slices open the fish's
belly and reveals the roe: thousands of gleaming black eggs, each about the size of the point (8) .'........ a dull
pencil.'

1. A before B but C how D for


2. A among B between C over D with
3. A would B should C has D had
4. AFrom B Beside CAt DIn
5. ABy B Into C Indoors D Inside
6. Aas B even C only D and
7. Ain B out C over Dup
8. Aon Bin C from Dto

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For questions 7-70, read the text below. use the word given in capitals to form a woril that fits in each space. There is
an example ut the beginning (0).

(0) TNFORM
TOURISM
(1) PUBLISH

We had spent winter seeking out (0) informstion regarding a decent summer breakaway;
(2) PROMOTE

we had sifted through (1) ............... galore' all the (2) (3) ADVERTISE
literature, travel guides, a million newspaper and magazine (3) """""""' (4) COMFORT
We had read about (4) .......... . .. .. little package tours which were
(5) FASHION
(5) ........... . but treated holiday makers like so many sheep, and we could
(6) REDUCE,
have written a book about low-season (6) . 'Let's do something
with a (7) .' said Kate. I agreed. I was open to any (7) DIFFER

(8) .............. .. by now. So we spent two weeks on an African safari and it (8) SUGGEST
was an (9) ............... .... success. I get the (10) ..'.'..'..... ""' that
(9) QUALIFY
we'll be going again. (10) IMPRESS

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Conditionals
A. Fill in the blanks using the appropriate form of the
verb in brackets.

1. If you (be) a good boy, you


TYPE 1: Future possibility/probability (can/have) desert.
If + present (simple or continuous) +
future or imperative or can, ma1t, might, must, should,
2. If he's (find) it difficult, you ..............
(should/give) him a hand.
owght to, had better + bare infinitive

e.g. If she is workng, I will not disturb her.


3. ifhe is ...................... (not/go), he ................
If there is a problem, notify the manager. (had better/call) and let them know.

4. If you ....... (lose) your ID, you ..............


(must/tell) the police.

5. If you ....... (not/want) to see her, you


....... (ought/leave) immediately.

6. lf you ........ thave) a headache,


(take) an aspirin.

B. Sentence transformations. Fill in the blanks.

1. You can't get a rise because you are not a good employee.
TYPE 2: Hypothetical/Unreal present If you .......... ......... a good employee, you
If + past (simple or continuous) + a rise.

would, should, might, could + bare infinitive 2. I advise you to see a doctor.

e.g, If I were rich (which I am not), I w-ouldn't be If L....................... in your shoes, I ................... ................... a

working there. doctor.

3. He is here because he likes you.


If he ............ you, he .......... here.

C. Sentence transformations. Fill in the blanks.


TYPE 3: Hypothetical/Unreal past 1. You didn't get a pay rise because you didn't ask for one.

If + past perfect (simple or continuous) + If you .......... for a pay rise, you ......................... it.
would/should/might/could have + past pafiiciple 2. You really ought to have seen a lawyer.

e.g. If I had been there (which I was not), I'd have


If I ............... in your position, L..................
helped her. a lawyer.

3. He didn't come because you didn't invite him.


He ............... if you ........... ...... him.

IMPERATIVE: Replaces Type I D. Sentence transformations. Fill in the blanks.


e.g. If you ctre late one more time, you'll be fired.= If I catch you cheating in the exam, I will fail you.
Be late one more time and ltou'll be fired! = in the exam and L.......................... you!
Don't be late next time or you'll be fired! in the exam or L............................ you!
Conditionals

E. Sentence transformation. Fill in the blanks.


POLITE REQUESTS: If + future/would
e.g. I'd be grateful if you would ask her (polite request)
I ................... (appreciate) it if you
..... (reply) at your earliest convenience.

R Sentence transformations. Fill in the blanks.


ZERO: General truths 1. Plants that aren't watered regularly, wither and die.
If+present+present If you .......... plants regularly, they
e.g. If you heat water, it boils
2. The baby is crying because it is hungry.
If the baby , it ...................... .

G. Sentence transformations. Fill in the blanks.


1. If you don't water the flowers, they will die.
Unless: unless (= if not) + affirmative Unless the flowers, they
e.g. Unless you work harder, you will get the sack. =
2. If you don't feed the baby, it will continue to cry.
If you don't work harde4 you will get the sack.
Unless ......... the baby, it ...... to cry.

3. The money will only be paid if a new contract is signed


Unless a new contract

H. Sentence transformations. Fill in the blanks.


1. I will lend you my car only if you promise to drive carefully.
Only if + inversion in the main clause Only if you .............. my car.
e.g, Only if you work harder will you keep your job. 2. Medicines are effective only if taken as prescribed.
Only if . effective.

I. Sentence transformations. Fill in the blanks.


INVERTED CONDITIONALS
TYPE 1: ' :t:::::::'::::::::::'::-ll:- Ti;e,. see me
e.g. If you (happen to) see Mary, ask her to ring me. :

':::: :-: ll'" -l *::l::;-.


Should you (happen to) see Mary, ask her to ring
me. ' :l::":: him my gree,ings

' :: ::."' ::: ::: :: -*i ::*. ::il:*:#;:1':,,


TYPE 2:
e.g. If she rang you/were to ring you, how would you
feel about it? : Were she to ring you, how would
youfeel about it? - -:::ii::
TYPE 3:
:::: :::l::l-:::::-"" T:"';iT;rgive her?

e.g. If I had(n't) relied on Jason, I wouldn't have ended


up in this mess. : Had I (not) relied on Jason, I ' :l :1i: :::: ::: :*l ::::: ffifftH" me,him
wouldn't have ended up in this mess.

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Conditionals

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Sentence transformations. Fill in the blunks using conditionals'

1. I advise you to speak to the teacher.


If I ............... .. in your position, I .........'......... to the teacher.

2. He is angry because he is jealous.


Ifhe............. ....., he .............. angry.

3. I will lend you my book only if you promise to return it within a month.
Only if you .............. my book within a month .........'.......'..........' you'

4. I'll tell you, only if you promise not to tell.


Only if ..........'..'.'... You'

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6. If you happen to come across it, let me know.
let me know.

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8. If I hadn't bumped into him, I would never have found out.
I would never have found out.
9. If she had been extra careful, she would not have ruined it.
she would not have ruined it.

10. If you don't cut the grass, your garden will look honible.
Unless ...... , your gardenwill look horible.
11. The contract will be signed only if the money is paid in advance.
Unless the money , the contract

12. I will keep your secret only if you pay me.


Only if you .............. .... your secret.

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For questions l-15, resd the text below snd. think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space.
There is an example at the beginning (0).

POSITIVE LEADERSHIP
No two people view the (0) same situation exactly alike. When you look at a glass of water that is (1)
halfway, do you see it as (2) ........ ......... half-full or half-empty? In (3) words, do you have an optimistic
or pessimistic outlook (4) ......................... things? And what effect does your outlook (5) . . ..........'... on the way you
relate to (6) .............. .... , particularly your subordinates? By expressing a positive attitude towards
(7) .'.......'.'...
you are leading, you will receive a positive response in (8) ........... . Do you think your leadership has anything

to (9) ..................... with your team's performance? Peter Grainger, a British training consultant and author of Managing
people,(10) ...................... an expert in improving work perfotmance and management skills. He believes that a person's
(11) ........ .. to deal successfully with some areas of work environment, (12) '. failing in others,
is largely (13) ........... . to personality. It's your personality that forms your personal style, and
(14) ........ . understanding more about your character will (15) .... you the chance to develop

natural strengths while tackling your limitations.

--
Conditionals

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For questions 7-8,read the text below und decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fitseach gap.

POISONED BY LEAD
Wealthy Romans loved wine and drank prodigious amounts of it. (1) doing so they were unwittingly poisoning
themselves with lead leached from the wine cask linings by the acidity of the drink. Lead poisoning specifically struck
(2) . ........ the ruling classes, who were the main consumers of expensive commodities (3) . . .. as wine, olive oil,
honey-derived drinks and preserved fruits, (4) of which were stored in lead-linedjars. They also absorbed lead
from the lead plumbing in the water supply system. When in 150 BC women were (5) allowed to drink wine, the
lead build-up in their bodies reduced their fertility, and the few children they (6) became weak and listless. The
ruling classes lost their vigour and grip (7) ...........the empire. It is well known today that lead damages the brain, muscles
and nerves, and causes anaemia. The theory that the Roman Empire succumbed to a slow but lethal exposure to lead
(8) ........... has been backed up by the discovery of lead in ancient bones.

1. AIn B But C Thus DAs


2. Ato Bat C with D for
3. A such B like C same D expensive
4. A little B few C all D both
5. A not B then C once D first
6. A bore B born C bear D borne
7. Ain Bon C from D onto
8. A poisoning B poisoned C poison D poisons

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For questions 1-10, reud the text below, Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in euch space. There is an
example at the beginninq (0).

(0) VARY
HERE COMES THE BRIDE
(1) CENTRE

The bride, of course, is(0) inv&riably late, and, as she is, after all, the (1) .........
(2) PATTENT
character in the drama, people who have arrived early must wait(2).................... until (3) BORE
she appears. (4) COMMTT
(3) ............... begins to play its part. The groom has time to reconsider the (s) ABSENT
(4) ........ ..... he is about to make, the best man (5) ..... fingers rhe (6) WrSE
ring and wonders about his friend's (6) . ......... in taking this step. The priest (7) ADD
does a mental (7) ........... of the (8) ...... at the door, but, shush, (8) rAKE
the organ starts up, announcing the (9) ......... of the bride, who is (10) .................. (9) ARRTVE
dressed in white. (10) cusToM
Passive Voice

PASSIVE VOICE A. Ttrrn the following sentences into passive voice.


1. Simple Tenses
l. They redecorated their sitting room.
be + past participle: is/was/has been/will be/will have
Their sitting room ............
been done

2. Continuous Tenses 2. The demonstrators were attacking the embassy.

be + being +past participle: is/was being done/will be The embassy (by the demonstrators).
being done/will have been being done 3. They are serving the tea.
3.Infinitives The tea
Present infinitive:
4. The police had planned the raid then.
(to) be + past participle
The raid ...................... then.
e.g. It needs to be done.
5. I do not own the building.
Perfect infinitive:
(to) have been + past participle The building

e.g. It was said to have been done.

MODALS B. Ttrrn the following sentences into passive voice.


can, must, may, be going to, have to, used to etc. 1. We are going to fire her soon.

modal + be + past participle She is going ................... soon.


e.g. You must ask them first. 2. They have to sue the company.
They must be asked first.
The company

SPECIAL CASES
C. Turn the following sentences into passive voice.
1. Verbs with two objects:
1. He didn't offer me tea.
give, lend, offer, promise, send, tell
I ................... .............. tea.
e.g. She gave me a pen.
a) I was given a pen (by her).
Tea.............. ................. me.

b) A pen was given to me. 2. He killed her with a gun.


She .............. ............... a gun.
2. Make, see, help, hear:
e.g. She made me eot t up. : 3. They have used cotton to make this top.
I w*as made to eat it up. but This top .. cotton.
He helped me (to) finish it. :
I was helped to finish it. 4. The nurse didn't let me see her.
I ................... ................. her.
3. Let --+ allowed to
5. The muggers made us give them our money.
e.g. He let us leave.:
We were allowed to leave.
We ............... our money.

6. We heard them leave the building.


4. doer + by
They ............ ..... the building.
material -+ with/of /in
e.g. It was covered with/in snow.
Passive Voice

1. Imperative 3. Question Words + 4. Negative Words


muslshould be + past participle: WhalWho/l4/hen /Wherey'WhyAlow + No-one +nodoer:
:
e.g. Please return it now. :
auxiliary verb/modal + Verb + e.g. Nobody claimed it.
Subject+ Past participle: It wasn't claimed.
It must/should be returned now.
2. Phrasal Verbs/Prepositions
e.g. Who wrole this book? = any +no:
Who was this book wrtten by? = e.g. They didn't do anything.
e.g. They will carry out the plan. : By whom was this book written? Nothing was done.
The plan will be carried out.

D. Ttrrn the following sentences into passive voice. E. Ttrrn the following sentences into passive voice.
1. Don't pick up the flowers. 1. He's been looking after the cat.
The flowers The cat by him.
2. Please, clean it up immediately! 2. They will be painting the flat.
It .................. immediately. The flat . (by them).
3. The army took it away. 3. We will have been working on it for a month by then.
It .................. the army. It .................. ...... a month by then.
4. How do you open it? 4. Sophie may ask Peter to help out.
How............ ....................... ? Peter ............ .... by Sophie.
5. How much did you pay for it? 5. Write down her address.
How much ............. ? Her address ... down.
6. Nobody knew it. 6. Someone has broken into the bank.
It ........... .. ... .. The bank
7. I haven't said anything. 7. Why did she call it off?
Nothing Why ............ (by her)?
8. She must send you the letters.
a) You the letters.
b) The letters .......... .......... you.

PERSONAL/IMPERSO{AL CONSTRUCTION
say, believe, think, consider, know, report, expect, understand

Personal: Present (same tenses)


He is believed ... person + passive + full infinitive e.g. People believe she is clever. :
It is said that she
is clever. :
She is said to be clever.
lmpersonal:
It is believed that he ... it + passive + that + clause Past (different tenses)
e.g. People believe she was clever : It is said that
she was clever : She is said to have been clever

F. Ttrrn the following sentences into passive voice. G. Tirrn the following sentences into passive voice.
1. It is believed that the man is a criminal. 1. They believe the man is wearing a black top and blue jeans.
The man ........ a criminal. The man is believed .. a black top
2. They say Sylvia works all day long. and blue jeans.
is
a) It ........ all day long.
2. It is known that the woman was rich.
b) Sylvia ......... allday long.
The woman ................ rich.
3. They say Suzy worked all day long.
is
a) It ........ all day long. 3. It is understood that Lucy told the truth.
b) Suzy ......... all day long. Lucy is understood ...... the truth.

4. They consider her to be very stingy.


a) It is ......... very stingy.
b) She ...... very stingy.
5. They consider her to have been very stingy.
is

rl
a) It verY stingY.
b) She ........ very stingy.
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For questions 7-9, read the text below and think ofthe word which best fits each space, (/se only one word in each space.
There is an example at the beginning (0).

HANDLTNG ANGER

Anger is an emotion which we all have to deal with at one time or (0) another. Some people claim that they
never try to control their feelings when they are in an angry mood, (1) .. .... .............. indeed in any other mood for
that matter, believing all emotions should be experienced just (2) ...... they present themselves,
(3)...............disagreeabletheymaybe.Nevertheless,(4).......................thevastmajorityofpeople,angeris
clearly an undesirable emotion.
The idea is that giving in (5) ........... your rage is as good a way as (6) . . . . ...... other of handling
anger. Although research shows that this does (7) ............ . ...... or nothing to dispel anger, it may lead to you feeling
considerably (8) ....... . ....... upset.
But if yoi-r prefer not to express your anger, an effective strategy is to have a cooling-off period during
(9) . . . ...... the most important aim is to place yourself in the sort of situation in which there are unlikely
to be further triggers for rage. Indeed, it's hard to remain angry for long when you are having a good time.

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For questions 7-8, read the text below and decide which answer (4, B, C or D) best fits each gap.

SAYING 'NO'POLITELY
For many of us, saying 'no' is the hardest thing we have to do. Spouses, friends, children, bosses, colleagues, charities
and community groups - all weigh in with requests for our time or money, or (l) ........... . We would like to oblige but we
have to refuse demands that will impose too great (2) .. .. . . cost on our own time and tranquillity. Saying 'no' is every
person's prerogative, and it need not seem harsh or unkind. Whenever you find yourself about to say 'yes' but (3)
to say 'no', try one of the following strategies.
Begin with a compliment. When asked to serve on a committee, soften your refusal (4) . . . . saying: 'I'm so glad you
asked. I really admire your organisation, but I'm just too busy to accept your offer.' The same approach works socially.
Try: 'There's no one I'd (5) ........... have lunch with,' when turning (6) . ....... an engagement. Or: 'Jim and I always have
a wonderful time at your parties, so I'm really sorry we can't make it.'And at work: 'I'm sure you wouldn't assign this job
to me if you didn't think I (7) . . .... handle it, but I really am overloaded.'
And when emotional blackmail is used to make you say 'yes', respond (8) . . . only half of what the person says. To
a mother who laments, 'If you cared about me, you wouldn't make me spend Sunday alone,' comment only on the first
phrase. Ask: 'How long have you been telling yourself that I don't care about you?'

1. Aboth Bnot Cneither Dall


2. Aa B- Cits Dthe
3. Aalso Bnot Cused Dwanting
4. Abut Bfor Cand Dby
5. A wish B prefer C rather D like better
6. Afor Bout Cdown DuP
7. Ashould Bwould Ccould Dmight
8. Ato Bfor Con Dat
Passive Voice

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For questions 1-10,, ,ro m, tuxt below. Use the word given in capitals to form a word thqt fitsin each space. There is an
example at the beginning (0).

HOROSCOPE (O) SPECIAL


(1) FTNANCE

Expect delays (0) esneciall! if you have to travel. Although you will experience a little (2) SUCCEED
(1) ................ .. (2) . . . .. this is a week to pause and (3) STRESS
plan your next move. It may be a (3) time and you may have (4) PARTNER
a (4) ............. .... problem. However, a new domestic (5) .......... (s)ARRANGE
will work well, but it will require effort and careful (6) . ........... .. on your (6) MANAGE
parl. Under pressure, you may (7) ......... ... agree to a meeting this weekend (7) WrLL
but it is (8) .......... . . that it will go as planned, (9) . . .............................. if a (8) LrKE
lot of money is involved. Just keep your cool and you will be a (10) ...........
(9) PARTICULAR
in the end.
(10) wrN

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