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E S 1 BS*LJbb BLJ m Lb24bb7 OLLJbBLJ5 7 W

BS 466 : 1984
I

U'DC 621.874.2/:4"

O British Standards
of this publicationmay be photocopied
or otherwise reproduced without the
of BSI.
prior permission in writing

British Standard Specification for


0 Powerdrivenoverheadtravellingcranes,
semi-goliath and goliath cranes
for general use

Ponts-roulants, semi-portiqueset portiques lectriqued'usage gnral - Spcification

Kraftbetriebene Laufkrane, Halbportalkrane und Portalkrane fr den allgemeinen Gebrauch

British Standards Institution r -7

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BS 466 : 1984

Contents
Page Page
Foreword Inside front cover 45. Marking 13
Committees responsible Back cover 46. Technical information 13
47. Test certificates 13
Specification
Section one. General
Appendices
1.Scope 2
A. Information t o be supplied with enquiry
2. Definitions 2
or order 14
3. Information to be provided 5
B.Craneperformance 18
4. Classification 5 19
C. Information to be supplied by manufacturer
5. Service conditions 5
D. Classification of cranes and crane mechanisms 20
E.
Noise 27
Section two. Structural 28
F. Cranegantries
6. Permissible stresses in structures 5 G. United Kingdom and EEC legislation relating
7. Vertical deflection 5 to power driven overheadtravelling cranes 29
8, Vibration of crane structure 5 H. Headroom clearances, platform and
9. Structural sections 5 walkway widths 30
10. Joints 6 J. List of British Standards for materials and
11. Bridge girder 6 equipment suitablefor use in the manufacture
12.Endcarriages 6 of cranes 31
13, Buffers 6
14,Endstops 6 Tables
15. Drop stops 7
1. Duty type factors 11
16. Access platforms, walkways, ladders and stairs 7
2. Uprating of cables for mechanism groups 12
17.Emergencyescape provision 7
7 3. Typical full speeds relative t o mechanism
18. Driver's cabin 18
classification
4. Class of utilization for the crane as a whole 20
Section three. Mechanical 21
5. State of loading for the crane as a whole
19. Permissible stresses in mechanisms 7 6. Group classification for the crane as a whole 21
20.Brakes 8 7. Typical classification for overhead travelling
21. Motion limiting devices 9 industrial type cranes (O.T.C.) 22
22. Load indication and limiting devices 9 8. Typical classification for overhead travelling
23.Gearboxes 9 steelworks cranes 22
24. Lubrication of bearings 9 9. Typical classification for transporters 22
26. Keys, keyways, splines and serrations 9 I O . Typical classification for freight container
26. Guarding 9 cranes 23
11. Classes of utilization for mechanisms 23
Section four. Electrical 12. States of loading for mechanisms . 24
27.General 9 13. Group classification for mechanisms 24
28.Powersupply 9 14. Typical classification for overhead travelling
29. Earthing 10 industrial type crane (O.T.C.) mechanisms 25
30.Power distribution 10 15. Typical classification for overhead travelling
31. Control equipment 10 steelworks crane mechanisms 26
32.Resistor rating 11 16. Typical classification for transporter
33. Motors for crane motion drives 11 mechanisms 27
34. Enclosures 11 17. Typical classification for freight container
35.Brakes 11 crane mechanisms 27
36. Power supplies for auxiliary equipment 11
37.Heaters 12 Figures
38.Radiointerference 12 1. Typical crane types 3
39, Cables and conductors 12 2. Illustration of typical lifting attachments in
relation to safe working load 4
Section five, Protection and painting 3. Crane clearance dimensions 17
40. Protection and painting of metalwork 12 4. Tolerances on crane tracks 28
41, Surface condition of structural members 12 5. Permissible deviation of track straightness
42. Protection of machinery 12 in lateral (horizontal) plane 29
6. Permissible deviation of track straightness
Section six. Testing, marking and certification in vertical plane 29
43. Testing a t manufacturer's works 12 7. Permissible transverse inclination of tracks 30
44. Testing after final assembly and before
putting into service 12

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Foreword
This British Standard has been prepared underthe direction Cranes are designed and constructed to operate satisfactorily
of the Mechanical Engineering Standards Committee, on tracks that are within certain tolerances and appendixF
It supersedes BS 466 : 1960 which is withdrawn, has therefore been included to bring the necessary
This standardwas first published in 1932 andwas revised information to the attentionof gantry designers and
in 1947 and 1960 and has now been updated t o reflect erectors.
current trendsand technologicalprogress within the Appendix G gives details of United Kingdom and EEC
industry;the major new provisions are: legislation relating to electric overhead travelling cranes.
(a) the introduction of the new classification system Appendix J comprises a list of British Standards for
based on that adopted by the international Organization materiais and equipment applicable to the manufacturing
for Standardization (published as I S 0 4301); of cranes.
(bl the reference where appropriateto the design This standard formsone of a series for cranes; the other
procedures containedin BS 2573 : Parts 1 and 2; British Standards in the series are:
(c) the recommendationof preferred lifting capacities, BS 327Power-drivenderrick cranes
lifting heights and working speeds. BS 357Power-driventravelling jib cranes
SI units are adopted throughout this standard. (rail-mounted lowcarriage type)
The new classification system provides a means of defining BS 1757 Specif cation for power-driven mobile cranes
the anticipated duty of an appliance andits mechanisms BS 1761 Single bucket excavators of the crawler
which serves as the basis of agreement betweenthe mounted friction-driven type
purchaser and the manufacturer, and supplies information
BS 2452 High pedestal or portal jib cranes
on which muchof the design analysis can be based.
The classificationof the appliance as a whole is first defined BS 2573 Rules for the design of cranes
from the number of operating cycles andfrom the Part 1 Specification for classification, stress
anticipated loadingit will experience during i t s life; calculations and design criteria for structures
secondly the class of each mechanism of the applianceis Part 2 Specification for classification, stress
defined, from their individual operating times and the calculations anddesign for mechanisms
loading that they will experience during their life. The duty BS 2799 Power-driven tower cranes for building and
of the applianceand its mechanisms is therefore fully engineering construction
defined to give a sound basis for rational design along BS 3579 Heavy duty electric overhead travelling and
with economic production. special cranes for use in steelworks
It is important that thenoise from cranes should be BS* Specification for wire rope hoists
within levels that will avoid their endangering health, and
appendix E draws attention t o Health and Safety Executive BS* Slewing jib cranes
documents coveringthis subject. Attention is drawn to BS 5744 which covers the safe use
As inadequate design andconstruction ofcrane gantries of cranes.
can seriously affect the safety and operationof the crane, Compliance with a British Standard does not ofitself
it is important thatcareful consideration is given to their confer immunity fromlegal obligations.
design and construction in accordance with BS 449.

*ln course of preparation.

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BSI BS*46b 811 L b 2 4 6 6 7 O11168118 2 W
BS 466 : 1984

British Standard Specification for

Power driven overhead travelling cranes, semi-goliath


and goliath cranes for general use

Sectionone.General

1. Scope NOTE, This includes all lifting attachments, magnets, etc. but not
the hook block (when fitted) (see figure 2 ) .
This British Standard specifiesrequirementsfor power-driven
overhead travelling cranes, semi-goliath and goliath cranes 2.8 safe working loadof a lifting attachment. The maximum
for general use, load that, under specified conditions,i s permitted to be
NOTE l. Typical crane types are shown in figure l. safely handled by the lifting attachment (see figure 2).
The clauses of this standard that deal specifically with the 2.9 Service conditions
means of power do not apply t o d.c., hydraulic or 2.9.1 in service. The conditions that apply to a crane
pneumatic poweredcranes, but the remainder of the whilst it is in use unladen, or with any load up to the safe
standard can be applied to the design and construction working load, or in physical readiness for use, and it is
of cranes of these types where relevant. under the control of the crane driver.
This standard does not apply to fixed runways (usually 2.9.2 out of service. The condition thatapplies to a crane
single track) of the type dealt with in BS 2853 or jib cranes. whilst no load is suspended and it is not under the control
NOTE 2. The titles of the publications referred to in this standard of the crane driver.
are listed on the inside back cover.
2.10 span. The horizontal distance between the centres
of the tracksthat support the crane.
2. Definitions
2.11 speeds of operation. The ranges of speeds a t which
For thepurposes of this British Standard, the following
crane motions operate.
definitions apply.
NOTE. The speeds of operation ofcrane motions are as follows:
2.1 crab (or trolley). An assembly incorporating one or greater than 1 O0 %
overspeed
more lifting units that traverses the bridge of the crane. full speed (nominal rated speed) 100 %
2.2 duty cycle. A cycle of electrical input(s) to a motor(4 fast speed 50%to100%
that commences when a loadk picked upand ends when slow speed 1 5 % t o 50%
creep speed O % t o 15%
the crane picks up the next load.
2.12 top running crane. An overhead travelling crane
2.3 goliath crane. A crane comprising a bridge supported supported, for i t s long travel motion, on thetop surface
by legs and capable of travelling on tracks a t ground or of elevated tracks on whichit travels.
deck level.
2.4 semi-goliath crane. A crane comprising a bridge 2.13 wheel base (of a crane). The distance between the
supported a t one end by leg(s) and a t the other end by centres of the wheels running on thesame track. On end
an end carriage(s) capableof travelling along tracks, carriages with more than two wheels the wheel base is taken
one a t ground or deck level and the other elevated. as the distance between the centres of the outside wheels.
2.5 Operational characteristics of control 2.14 wheel base (of a crab). The distance between the
centres of the wheels on the same track.
2.5.1 complete start. Operation of the controller by
holding the control in a fixed position until nominal 2.15 underslung crane. An overhead travelling crane
rated speed is reached. supported, for its long travel motion, from the bottom
flanges of tracks on whichit travels.
2.5.2 jogging operation. Operation of the controllerto
give partial starts. 2.16 bridge. The structural member(s1 on which the
crab(s) is supported.
2.5.3 electrical braking. Motor torque applied in the
NOTE. The bridge may be cantilevered beyond the leg(s)/end
direction oppositet o the existing motion (.e. as a braking carriages.
torque).
2.17 hoisting. The motion of liftingor lowering of the
2.6 overhead travelling crane. A crane comprising a bridge load in a vertical direction.
supported by end carriages capable of travelling along
elevated tracks. 2.18 cross traverse. Motion of the crab(s) along the bridge.
2.7 safe working load of a crane. The maximum load that, 2.19 long travel. Motion of the wholecrane along the track,
under specified conditions, is permitted to be safely
handled by the crane.

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(a) Underslung crane (singlegirder)

G
(b) Top running crane (double girder)

I (c) Top running crane


(single girder)

* (dl Semi-goliath crane


/ =-
Figure l.Typical crane types

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(e) Goliath crane (with cantilevered extension)

(f) Offset crab crane

Figure 1 (concluded).

Safe working load o f


lifting attachment
I

attachment
Lifting Slings Lifting beam Magnet Grab Bucket

Crane loads
Figure 2. Illustration of typical lifting attachments in relation to safe working load

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3. Information to be provided The weatherproofing shallafford ready access for the


3.1 Information to be provided by the purchaser. routine inspection and maintenanceof the protected
The purchaser should provideinformation in accordance equipment.
with appendix A to enable the crane manufacturer to offer 5.2.2.3.2 Wind loads. The crane shall be designed and-
the most suitable crane and equipment to satisfy the duty constructed for in-service and out-of-servicewind loads
requirements and service conditions. as specified in BS 2573 : Part 1.
NOTE. Attention is drawn t o appendix B where, t o aid economic NOTE. If the siting of a particular crane affects the wind loadings
manufacture of thecrane, it is recommended that lifting capacities, as outlined in BS 2573 : Part 1, the purchaser should specify the
lifting heights and speeds of operation are selected from preferred actual wind loadings t o be used in thedesign of the crane
values. (see 3.1 and 5.2.1).
3.2 Information t o be provided by the manufacturer. 5.2.2.3.3 Storm anchors. The crane shall be provided with
The manufacturer shall provide information to the purchaser suitable means for anchoring when left unattended or
of the crane being offered in accordance with appendix C. under storm conditions.
5.2.2.3.4 Brakes. The long travel motion shall be fitted
4. Classification with a parking brake that shall be automatically applied
The classificationof thecrane as a whole andof each when the craneis taken out of service. The cross traverse
mechanism shall be based on the information provided in motion shall be fitted witha brake.
accordance with appendix A and shall be determined in
accordance with appendix D.

5. Service conditions Section two. Structural


5.1 Normal service conditions. For normal service
conditions, the crane shall be.suppliedfor: 6. Permissible stresses in structures
(a) indoor use; 6.1 General. The permissible stresses and designof crane
structures shall complywith 6.2 and BS 2573 : Part 1.
(b) use a t ambient temperature between- 10 O C and
40 O C with no sources of high local heating,such as 6.2 Inertia forces. Inertia forces shall comply with
furnaces or radiant panel heaters; BS 2573 : Part 1 with the exception that the horizontal
inertia forces shall be taken as not less than 1/15 (nor
( c ) use a t an altitude not exceeding 1000 m above
more than 115 for metallic wheels on rails) of the vertical
sea level; load on the driven or brakedwheels.
(dl use in clean still air of normal humidity and free For the purposes of structural analysis, the horizontal
from contamination and deposits. inertia force due to the weight of each bridge girder,
5.2 Special service conditions inclusive of any attachments thereto, shallbe taken as
5.2.1 General. The manufacturer shall take any special a distributed load on the bridge girder. For concentrated
service conditions required bythe purchaser into account elements, such as crabs and large items of machinery,
and agree with the purchaser how he proposes t o meet the loads shall be consideredas forces concentrateda t the
each of these requirements and any limitations imposed respective centres of mass. The effect of thesuspended
in consequence of the special conditions. load shall be considered as a concentrated force a t the
NOTE. Attention is drawn t o appendix A which gives examples point ofsuspension.
of special service conditions that may require special attention.
5.2.2 Additional requirements
5.2-2.1 Handling molten metal. For cranes used for 7. Vertical deflection
handling molten metal, the minimum classification for the The bridge shallbe designed so that thevertical deflection
lifting unitmechanism relativeto the hazardous load shall caused by the safe working load and:the weightof the
be M5 (see table 13) and the lifting rope shall havea hoist or crab in the central position shall not exceed
metal core. 11750 of thespan.
If the crane has excesscapacity t a lower classification
for other use, then thecrane markings (see 45.1) shall
specify the maximum permissible weightof the hazardous 8. Vibration of crane,structure
...
load, .e. 'Maximum full ladle weight tonnes'. Due consideration shall& given to the crane structure's
5.2.2.2 Potentially explosive atmosphere. Cranes for vibration characteristics to avoid adverse effects on:
potentially explosive and flammable atmospheres shall (a) accurate load positioning and control where these
be designed to meet the appropriate ignition protection are critical;
requirements correspondingto the environmental
(b) safety, comfort and working efficiency of the
conditions under which they will be required to work operator on cab-controlledcranes.
as specified in BS 5345.
NOTE. For further information,see DD 32.
5.2.2.3 Outdoor use
5.2.2.3.1 Weatherprotection. The manufacturer shall
arrange weather protection for all electrical and mechanical 9. Structural sections
equipment, as necessary. to meet theconditions specified. 9.1 Corrosion allowance. Forcranes working outdoors or
The weatherproofing shallmake allowancesfor the in other corrosive environments,a corrosion allowance shall
temperature rise of equipment under normal operating be added to the thickness requiredfor structural strength
conditions. considerations.

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BS 466 : 1984

9.2 Exposure to accidental damage. Special consideration 11.2.4 Load on lattice girders, Braced or lattice girders
shall be given to the thickness of members that are likely to shall withstand, in addition t o the direct tensile or
be exposed to accidental damage. Any increase of thickness compressive stressesi n the flanges, the local bending
required for this purpose shall be additional to the stresses due to the maximumwheel or roller loads and
corrosion allowance. their own weight between the panel points.
9.3 Enclosed sections. Larger enclosed sections shall be 11.3 Braced and lattice girders
designed so that every part is accessible for periodic 11.3.1 Local bending moments. Local bending moments
inspection, brushing and painting. Drain holes shall be used in the calculationof stresses shall benot less than
provided where wateris likely to collect. Smaller enclosed WL/6 a t the panel centreand WL/12 a t the panel points
and tubular sections, where access is impracticable, shall be where W is the total vertical load on the member arising
sealed to prevent the ingress of moisture. Where tubular from live load and the weightof the member, and L is the
members are drilled to take bolts, precautions shallbe distance between panel points.
taken to ensure that the joints are waterproof.
11.3.2 Tension members. Where single angle bars
10. Joints connected by one leg are used as tension members,
The strength ofa bolted joint a t any section of a structural the effective sectionalarea shall be taken as the net
member shall be a t least 1.25 times the minimum strength sectional area of the connected leg added to one-half of
of the section requireda t that point. the sectional area of the free leg. When the outstand leg
is cleated a t the end connections, the net sectionalarea
11, Bridgegirder of the angle shall be taken.
11.1 Effective section. Where the rail i s secured to the top 11.3.3 Compression members. The latticing of compression
beam or flange of a crane bridge girder, the rail shall be members shall be proportioned t o resist a transverse shear
regarded as part of the effective section of the beam or a t any point inthe length of the member not less than
flange for load carryingpurposes provided that: 2.5 % of the axial loadin the member.
(a) the means adopted to secure the rail are sufficient 11.3.4 Flat lattice bars. The thickness of flat lattice bars
to resist the horizontal shear loading between the rail shall be not less than 1/40 of the shortest distance between
and the flange or beam under the applied loads, the centres of connections, in the case of single latticing,
in addition to the lateral force resultingfrom the inertia and 1/60 in the case of double latticing connected a t the
of the lifting unitand load calculatedin accordance intersection.
with 6.2;
12. End carriages
(b) any joints in the rail that are located within the
middle third ofthe span are full penetration welds and 12.1 Length. The length of the end carriages shall be such
any joints thatare not fullpenetration welds are in that they prevent contact by any other part of the crane
in the event of a collision between cranes on the same
such a position that the interruption of the rail area
by the joint will not cause the stress in the remaining tracks or with the end stops.
section of the girder to exceed the permissible maximum; 12.2 Wheelbase. The wheelbase of an end carriage shall
(c) when calculating the section contributed by the
satisfy the following minimum requirements where
rail, allowance is made for 6 mm wear in the depth of applicable.
the rail. (a) Top runningcrane. The wheelbase shall be not less
Where the rail is not secured as specified in (a) or not than 117 of the crane span.
welded as in (b),the cross section of the rail shall not be (b) Underslung crane. The wheelbase shall be not less
included when calculating the effective section of the than 1/7 of the crane span where the travel speed of the
girder. crane is more than 40 m/min and 1/8 where the travel
11.2 Effect of wheel loads speed of the crane is 40 m/min or less.
11.2.1 General. Consideration shall be given to localized 12.3 Withdrawal of track wheels. End carriages shall be,
effects of wheel loadings on the stressesin the bridge girder. designed so as to enable the track wheels to be withdrawn
readily.
11.2.2 Load directly over web. When a wheel load is placed
directly over the web of a bridge girder, it shall either be 13. Buffers
assumed to be distributed over a distance of three times the
distance from the application of the wheel load t o the point 13.1 Resilient buffers. Resilient buffers shall be fitted
a t which the stress is being calculated, takinginto account to cross traverse and long travelmotions unless motion
any discontinuance in the materials, or a more detailed ,
limiting devices (see 21.2) are provided or thespeedqare
calculation shall be made. less than 40 m/min.
Particular attention shall be given to all the resulting 13.2 Two or more unitson the same tracks. Where two or
stresses passing through the connection between the web more units (.e. cranes'or crabs) ari5.onthe same tracks,
and the flange, If fullpenetration butt welds are not used resilient buffers shall be provided between themunless
for this connection, it shall not be assumed that there is anti-collision devices are fitted (see 21.2) or the maximum
direct contact between weband flange parent materials. potential collision speed is less than 40 m/min.
11.2.3 Load between webs. Where the wheel load is 14. End stops
carried between the webs,that part of the flange plate
between the webs shall not be assumed to give adequate The manufacturer shall provide end stops on the crane
bridge to prevent the crab(s)from over-traversing.
support, I f necessary, the flange plate shallbe supported
a t intervals t o transmit the loadto the girder webs. NOTE. The purchaser will be responsible for providing stops on
the gantry rail(s) to prevent over-travelling of the crane.

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BS 466 : 1984

a 15. Drop stops


The end carriages and crab(s) shalr be
fitted withdrop
18.3 Enclosure. Control cabins shall be either open type
or totally enclosed, depending on theoperating conditions
stops to prevent a drop of more than 25 mmin the event and the environment.
of breakage of a track wheel bearing or axle. Totally enclosed cabins shall be fitted with safety glass
and provision shall be made to prevent the driver from
16. Access platforms, walkways, laddersand stairs falling through theglass. The windows shallbe arranged
16.1 General. Access platforms, walkways, ladders, stairs, so that theycan be cleaned.
handholds andfootholds shall be provided as necessary Open cabins shallbe provided with guard rails 1 m high or
to give safe access to the driver's cabin (whenfitted) and equivalent protection for the driver. Toe boardsof 50mm
to parts of the crane requiring routine inspection and minimum height shall be fitted tothe walking surface.
maintenance, Where these are mounted on orform part 18.4 Illumination. Where natural or artificial illumination
of the crane they shall be provided by the manufacturer. is inadequate, additional illuminationshall be provided to
NOTE l . Where these do not form part of the crane, afford safe access to the crane and to enable the driver to
the responsibility for supply should be agreed between the operate the crane safely.
manufacturer and the purchaser.
NOTE 2. Recommendations for headroom clearances, platform 18.5 Audible warning device. An audible warning device
and walkway widths are given in appendix H. (See also item 11 shall be fitted tocranes operated from a cabin to enable
of appendix C.) the driver to give warning to persons in the vicinity.
16.2 Guard railsand toe boards. The outer sides of
platforms and walkways shallbe securely fenced with
toe boardsand double tiered guard rails. The guard rails
shall have a minimum height of 1 m above the walking Sectionthree.Mechanical
surface and the toe board shallhave a minimum height
of 50 mm above the walking surface. 19. Permissible stresses in mechanisms
16.3 Openings in platforms and walkways. All openings 19.1 General. The permissible stresses and design of crane
in platforms and walkways shallbe fenced as specified mechanisms shall comply with BS 2573 : Part 2.
in 16.2. 19.2 Wheels running on rails or tracks
16.4 Walkway surfaces. Walkway surfaces shall benon-slip. 19.2.1 Lateral location. Provision shall be made to ensure
the lateral location of the wheels on the rails or tracks.
16.5 Ladders. Ladders shall comply with BS 421 1 except
that safety hoops arenot required where equivalent 19.2.2 Metal wheels. Metal wheels shall be machined to
protection is provided. size and any flanges tapered and radiusedto ensure smooth
NOTE. Ladders should not be less than 300 mm wide. running.
16.6 Stairs. Stairs shallcomply with BS 5395 where 19.3 Ropes and rope reeving components
applicable. Where space is limited, stairs shallin no case 19.3.1 Wire ropes
be less than 430 mm wide. 19.3.1.1 General. Wire ropes shall comply with BS 302,
BS 3530 or I S 0 2408 with the exception that selection
17. Emergency escape provision shall be based on the group classificationof the
Where a driver cannotdescend safely from an elevated mechanism ( M ) (see clause 4) and the requirements of
cabin by his normalroute if the crane is stranded away BS 2573 : Part 2.
from the normalaccess point, or in a case of emergency, NOTE. For ropes used on cranes that handle molten metal,
an alternative means of escape shall be provided. see 5.2.2.1.

19.3.1.2 Two or more ropes in a system. Where two or


18. Driver'scabin more ropes are used in a system, means shall be provided
18.1 General. Where a driver's cabin is fitted, it shall have for ensuring that thetensile forcesin the ropesare
a clear headroom of not less than 1.80 m. distributed in the designed proportions.
The internal dimensions of the cabin shall providefor any 19.3.2 Rope drums
control gear, or apparatus therein and give the driver 19.3.2.1 Drum width. Where a rope drum is of insufficient
adequate space for safe operation. Electric cables and width to accommodate the rope in one layer, special arrange-
hydraulic pipes shall be arranged to avoid accidental ments shall be provided to ensure the correct reeling of the
damage. rope. The capacityof the drumshall be sufficient to ensure
NOTE 1. The cabin should afford the driveras clear a view as that for the heightof lift specified;
possible of the load and the surroundings. The controlsshould
be positioned so that the driver can readily operate thecrane (a) no fewer thantwo dead turns remain onthe drum
whilst viewing the load, irrespective of i t s position. a t each anchored end a t the lower limit of hoisting;
NOTE 2. Any special requirements for the driver's cabin should be (b) the drumwill accommodate one further turn of rope
the subject of agreement between the purchaser and the manufac- at the upper limit of hoisting.
turer. This should include requirements for protection against
excessive heat radiation or toxicfumes or dust, the need for air 19.3.2.2 Flanges. The drum shall have flanges a t both ends,
conditioning or heating (see clause 37)and the provision of fire except where a rope guideis fitted thateffectively guides
extinguishers, etc. the rope into the drum grooves and ensures that it is

I
. 18.2 Access. Whenever access to the cabin is not via the
crane bridge platforms butis directly from a fixed access
point inthe building, an access platform shall be provided,
attached to the cabin, completewith handrails and safety
retained therein. Flanges shall project not less than two
rope diametersabove the rope.
NOTE. A gear or other wheer secured to the drum may be regarded
as forming one of theflanges.
gate or chain.

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19.3.2.3 Rope anchorages. Rope anchorages shall be (b) Brake drums and discs shall have adequatethermal
readily accessible. capacity .for the duty required.
19.3.2.4 Drum surfaces. Rope drum surfaces shall be (c) The bearing pressureon the linings shall be conducive
finished smoothly and be free from surface defects liable to uniform braking and long life.
to damage the rope. (d) Power released brakes shall be applied automatically
19.3.2.5 Grooves. The contour a t the bottom of the o by spring(s) or weight(s1 when the power supplyto the
grooves shall be circular over a minimum angle of 120 . brake is interrupted. Power applied brakes shall not be
The radius of the groove shall be not less than 0.53 times fitted without a back-up system of the power released
the nominal diameterof the rope. t Y Pe.
The groove pitch for single layering shallbe not less than: (e) Brakes shall be provided with means of adjustment
(a) 1,08d for ropes of less than 38 mm diameter, to compensate for wear.
where d is the nominal rope diameter;or (f) Springs for electromechanical brakes shall be of the
(b) d + 3 mm for ropes of 38 mm diameter and above. compression type and shall not be stressed in excess
of 80 % of the elastic limit of the material.
The groove pitch shall also ensurethat the rope leaving the
drum does not contact the adjacentturn of rope under. (9) Under service conditions brakes applied by hand
any condition of operation. shall not require a force greater than 110 N (25 Ibf) a t
the handle. Brakes applied by foot shall not require a
The lead angle of the rope shall not exceed 1 in 12 either force of more than 180 N (40 Ibf) on the pedal.
side of the helix angle of the groove in the drum.
(h) Brakes shall be protected from hostile environments
19.3.3 Rope pulleys likely to adversely affect their operation, including
19.3.3.1 Rope pulley surfaces. Rope pulley surfaces shall rain, oil and grease.
be finished smoothly and be free from surface defects 20.2 Hoist brake. A hoist brake shall be provided which,
liable to damage the rope. when the power is cut off or fails, will arrest themotion
19.3.3.2 Grooves. Rope pulleys shall be grooved to a and hold a t rest any load up to and including the overload
depth not less than 1.6 times the diameterof the rope. test load (see clause 4 4 ) a t any position of the lift,
The contour a t the bottom of the groove shall be circular The load shall be brought to rest in the shortest time
over a minimum angle of 120 and have an included consistent with safe crane operation.
angle of 52 O , Provision shall be made to enable any load capableof
19.3.3.3 Angle of fleet. The angle of fleet between the overcoming thefriction in the system up to and including
rope anda plane perpendiculart o the axis of the pulley the overload t e s t load to be lowered safelyin a controlled
shall not exceed 1 in 12 for the minimum pulley diameter manner in the event of power failure.
t o rope diameter ratio permitted by BS 2573 : Part 2. The brake shallbe designed to exert a restraining torque
NOTE. For larger pulley diameter to rope diameter ratios, of a t least 50 % greater than the maximum torque
consideration should be given to decreasing this angle to prevent transmitted to the brake drumfrom the suspended load
interference between the rope and the pulley flange.
under service conditions. In estimating this torque,
19.3.3.4 Pulley guards, Pulleys carrying ropesthat are the effects of friction in the transmission system between
likely t o be unloaded in service shall be provided with the load and the brake shallbe ignored.
guards t o retain the ropes in the grooves. 20.3 Long travel motion brakes. Cranes shall be fitted
19.4 Lifting hooks. Lifting hooks shall comply with with a long travel motion brake(s1 capableof bringing a
BS 2903 or BS 3017 as applicable. fully loaded crane to rest, without shock, from the highest
Swivelling hooksshall be mounted on anti-friction bearings. speed it can attain (see also 5.2.2.3.4).
NOTE 1. If requlred by the purchaser, hooks complying with When a foot operated brake is provided in a cabin mounted
BS 2903 may be provided with a device to prevent the displace- on the.crane bridge, the brake pedal shallbe designed
ment of the sling or the load from the hook. and positioned to facilitate safe operation of the crane
NOTE 2. If required by the purchaser, a locking device may be by the driver.
fitted to prevent rotation of the hook.
When a crane is controlled from other than a cabin
19.5 Shackles. Shacklesshallcomply with the requirements
mounted on the crane bridge, the long travelmotion
for strength and safety specified in BS 3032 or BS 3551.
brake(s) shall be of the power released type.
Shackles used for attaching the hook shallbe provided with
screwed pins. 20.4 Cross traverse motion brakes. The cross traverse
NOTE. Slotted heads in countersunk screwed pins are not motion of a crane shall be provided with a brake(s) if:
recommended. (a) the specified traversingspeed under full load is
If angularly loaded, shackles shallnot be subjected to a greater than 32 m/min;
load exceeding one-third of the specified proof load. (b) the crab is mounted on anti-friction bearings;
When the shackle is a permanent fitting, the pin shall be (c) the drivers cabinis attached to the crab;
effectively locked.
(d) the crane is for outdoor use (see 5.2.2.3.4).
The cross traverse motion brake(s1 shall be capable of
20. Brakes bringing thefully loaded crabto rest, without shock,
20.1 General. Brakes shall comply with the following. from the highest speed it can attain.
(a) Drums and discs shall be manufactured from hard
wearing material. The rubbing surface shallbe smooth
and free from defects.

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I B S I BS*4bb 8 4 W l b 2 4 b b 70 1 4 b 8 5 5 T

BS 466 : 1984

21. Motion limiting devices 25. Keys, keyways, splines and serrations
21.1 Hoisting. A positively operated motion limiting 25.1 Keys and keyways. Keys and keyways shall comply
device shall be provided that stops the upward motion with BS 4235.
when a predetermined level is reached. 25.2 Splines and serrations. Splines and serrations shall
NOTE l . The limiting device should be regarded as a safety feature be of straight-sided or involute form.Straight-sided splines
and not as a routine operational means of stopping. Where normal and serrations shall comply with BS 2059 and involute
operation ofthe crane necessitatesfrequent approach t o the
upward limit, an additional motion limitingdevice should be splines shallcomply with BS 3550.
provided that operates independently and requires manual
resetting. 26. Guarding
Where required by thepurchaser (see item 22 of 26.1 General. Guard design shall comply with BS 5304.
appendix A), a device shall be provided t o stop the NOTE l . Where reasonably practicable,all potentially dangerous
downward motion when a predetermined level is reached. parts of the crane shouldbe guarded.
NOTE 2. Such a device shouldbe fitted i f the operator cannot NOTE 2. Where practicable, guarddesign should permit inspection
of critical parts of crane mechanisms without the removing of
see the load in i t s lower position.
guards or covers and without the need to dismantle components
21.2 Cross traverse and long travel limiting devices. of the crane.
Limiting devices, when fitted (see item 22 of appendix A) NOTE 3. See appendix G for statutory requirements.
shall: 26.2 Inspection covers. Where an inspection cover is
(a) prevent over-traversingand overtravelling; provided, the possibility of access to dangerous parts
(b) prevent collision where two or more units when the cover is removed shall be prevented (e.% by a
(e.g. cranes or crabs) operate on the same track. wire mesh screen) unless the cover is secured by fasteners
NOTE l . Limiting devices may also be required to prevent that require theuse of a tool toopen the cover.
collision of cranes on overlapping tracks,or to separate two or 26.3 Gear wheels, pinions and chain drives.All gear
more cranes'onthe same track so as not tooverload the gantry.
wheels, pinions and chain drives shall be completely
NOTE 2. The limiting devices should be regarded as a safety encased unless such parts are so situated in relation to the
feature andnot as a routine operational means of stopping.
Where normal operation of the crane necessitates frequent
structure of the crane as to be as safe as if complete
approach to the travel limits, additional motion limiting encasement were provided.
devices should be provided that operate independently.
26.4 Revolving shafts and couplings. Guards shallbe
provided for revolving shafts and couplings unless they
22. Load indication and limiting devices
have no protruding sets screws, bolts orkeys and are
Load indication and limiting devices, when fitted, so situated in relation to the structure of the crane as to
(see item 22 of appendix A) shall sense the load on be as safe as if guards were provided.
the crane by means other than the current consumed NOTE. Where a long travel drive shafti s considered t o be safe by
by
the
hoistmotor. - virtue of i t s position, loose sleeves on the shaft are recommended.
NOTE. Such devices are recommended i f weights of objects 26.5 Hook blocks. Hook blocks shall be fitted with guards
t o be lifted are not known accurately.
to prevent the possibility of trappingbetween a sheave and
an in-running rope.
23. Gearboxes
23.1 Lubrication. Gearboxes shall be designed so that
the gears which theyenclose will be automatically
lubricated a t all operating speeds. The boxes shall prevent Section four. Electrical
escape or contamination of the lubricantand breathing
shall be provided. 27. General
Where oil replacement is necessary, facilities for filling, The electrical installation of thecrane shall start a t the long
drainage and means of indicating clearly the correctlevel travel collectors or othermeans of power pick-up, and this
shall be provided. shall be the pointto which data on the incoming supply
23.2 Changegear levers. Manually operated change-gear shall be referred.
levers shall be positively locked in position on hoist NOTE l . Attention is drawn to the IEE Wiring Regulationsfor
gearboxes. Provision shallbe made t o prevent the block Electrical Installations which form the basis for the design of the
overhauling whilst changing gear. overall electrical installation of thecrane. Terminologyfrom these
regulations has been used throughout theelectrical clauses in this
23.3 Inspection covers. I f inspection covers are fitted standard.
to the gearbox, they shall be of quick release type that NOTE 2. Attention i s drawn t o the legal requirements of the
do not require the use of a tool for their removal so that Electricity (Factories Act) Special Regulations 1908 and 1944.
the gear teeth can be inspected and lubricated by hand NOTE 3. Attention is drawn t o the recommendations givenin
methods (see 26.2). BS 5304.
NOTE 4. The electrical clauses do not apply to d.c. power supplies.
24. Lubrication of bearings
Provision shallbe made for the service lubrication of all 28. Powersupply
bearings unless sealed or lubricated for life. Ball and The crane shall be designedto operate onthe power supply
roller bearings shall, in addition, be suitably lubricated specified by the purchaser (see item 12 of appendix A).
before assembly. Lubricating nipples shallcomply with
BS 1486 : Part 1 or Part 2. All nipples on a crane shall
be of the same type and size.

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W 362q667 0346856 3 W

BS 466 : 1,984

29. Earthing
The crane structure shall be connected to earth. The motor
and this connection shall not be interrupted by any fuse
or contact.
O
frames and metal cases of all electrical equipment including 31.3 Contactors. Contactors shall complywith BS 5424 :
metal conduit and cable guards shall be bondedto earth or Part 1. Reversing contactors shallbe interlocked so that
the crane structure by a protective conductor. only one directional contactor can be in the closed
position.
The crane wheels shall not be used as the means of earthing.
NOTE. Attention i s drawn to 26.2.2 of BS 5744 : 1979 which gives 31.4 Control circuit transformers
recommendationsfor earthing and bondingof the crane track. 31.4.1 General, Control circuit transformers shall comply
Attention i s also drawn to the requirements for earthing electrical with BS 3535.An earthed screen shall be provided between
equipment given in 31.2 and 31.6.2. the primary and secondary winding. The transformer frame
shall be earthed.
30. Power distribution 31.4.2 Fusing. The primary winding of the control circuit
30.1 Isolation. A means shall be provided on thecrane for transformer shall be protected by a fuse in each line
isolating the crane from the power supplyclose t o the connection. The unearthed pole of the secondary winding
collectors or othermeans of power pick-up. This shall take shall also be fused.
the form of isolating devices fed in parallel:
31.5 Control devices
(a) for the motion drives;
31.5.1 General. I f power is lost for any reason, it shall not
(b) forthe auxiliary circuits; be possible to restart the drive on restorationof the supply
(c) for the lifting magnet if fitted. unless the control device has first been returned t o the 'off'
The isolating devices shall comply with BS 5419.Provision position.
shall be made for locking each of these isolating devices NOTE 1, Consideration should be given t o the need for control
devices to be of a type which, when released, cuts off the electrical
in the off position. supply t o the motor systems.
The isolating device for motion drives shall be capable of NOTE 2. Control devices should be arrangedto allow the driver,
interrupting the stall current of the largest electric motor when in his normal operating position, ampleroom for their
fitted t o the crane. operation and, as far as i s practicable, an unrestricted viewof
the load.
30.2 Short circuit protection. Short circuit protection shall
NOTE 3. Control devices that are a t a fixed position relative t o the
be provided a t each of the isolator positions specifiedin crane should, when practicable, movein the directions of the
items (a) to (c) of 30.1. motions that they control.
30.3 Power switching in the driver's cabin. If power cables 31.5.2 Selection of control facilities. Cranes having
are brought into the driver's cabin, an addition.al switch alternative control facilities shall be provided with means
isolator shall'be providedin the cabin capableof cutting to prevent operationfrom more than one facility a t any
off the supply to the motion drives. one time.
30.4 Main contactor. A main contactor capable of cutting 31.5.3 Push buttons. Push button control devices, with the
off the power supplyto the motion drives shallbe exception of emergency stop buttons, shall be shrouded.
provided. This contactor shallbe operated from the 31.5.4 Markings at the controls. On or adjacent to each
control position by resethtop device(s1. control device there shall be a durable marking identifying
30.5 Emergency stop device. An emergency stop device the motion controlled, and the direction of movement.
shall be provided a t each control facilityto de-energize 31.5.5 Markings on the crane. When the control devices
the main contactor for the motion drives (see BS5304). are other than in a fixed position relative to the crane,
NOTE. The stop device Specified in 30.4 may be regarded as the designation of horizontal directions marked on the
fulfilling this requirement providedit complies with the
recommendations of BS 6304.
control device shall be marked on the crane so that it is
clearly visible to the driver.

31. Controlequipment 31.6 Pendant controls


31.1 Control supply. Control circuits shall be supplied a t 31.6.1 General. Cranes with pendant controls shall not
have long travel speeds in excess of 63 m/min.
a nominal voltage not exceeding 11 5 V.
NOTE l . It is, however, recommendedthat the control circuit 31.6.2 Earthing. If the pendant control enclosure is of
voltage should beas low as practicable. metal, it shall be earthed. The earth shallnot depend on
NOTE 2. If specified by the purchaser, means may be provided to chains or hooks for continuity.
reinstate the supply to the control circuits for testing purposes 31.6.3 Support and construction. The weight of the
after the isolating device for the motion drives has been opened.
In this case it should not be possible to re-close the isolating device pendant control shall be supported independently of
t o the motion drives whilst the control circuit supply i s energized its electrical conductors.
for testing. NOTE. The pendant control should be constructed so that it is
capable of withstanding rough handling.
31.2 Control circuit earthing. One end of the secondary
winding of a control circuit transformer shall be earthed 31.7 Non-conductive controls. Equipmentthat operates
via a bolted link. the crane by radio, induction or other non-conductive
In the case of d.c. control circuits one pole of the rectifier means shall include the following.
shall be earthed via a bolted link. (a) A key switch or equivalent security device on the
One end of the coil of all relays and contactors shallbe transmitter that can be used to prevent unauthorized
connected to the earth side of the control circuit supply use of the transmitter.

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BSI

BS 466 : 1984

(b) The sending of a continuous orcontinuously Table 1. Duty typefactors

I
repeating secure signal whenthe transmitter is in use,
which the crane receiver can identify. Mechanism Cyclic duration Starting class ( C H
NOTE 1. A signal i s regarded as secure when it includes at group factor* (equivalent starts per hour)
least three characteristics separately recognizable by the
receiver. %
(c) Automatic shutdown of crane operation if the M3 to M4 25 150
secure signal is not identified by the receiver during M5 25 to 40 150 to 300
a period of 2 s. M6 40 300
(d) An emergency stop device. The system used for (c) M7 60 300
shall only be used for emergency stop where it introduces M8 60 300 to 600
no additionalinbuilt time delay.
(e) A carrying harness, belt, shoulder strapor lanyard, *The values given are based on the following formula:
on the transmitter. operating time X 100
cyclic duration factor =
NOTE 2. It is recommended that a device is fitted to the crane operating time +idle time
to give warning that the crane is under nontonductive control. applicable for durations not exceeding 10 min.
NOTE 3. Consideration should. be given to the need, for safety Where the use is outside these parameters, special consideration
reasons, to incorporate a limitedrange feature so that the crane should be given to heat dissipation.
will stop when the extent of that range is reached. The range
should be capable of being preset by means not available to the $The starting class (C) assumes numbers of complete starts,
jogging operations and electrical braking operations as follows:
operator. ..
NOTE 4. The transmitter should be constructed so that it is C=S+K,J-+K,B
capable o f withstanding rough handling. where
S is the number of complete starts:
32. Resistor rating J is the number of jogging operations;
Resistors shall be rated such that the temperature risedoes B is the number of electrical braking operations;
not exceed the limitsspecified in BS 587. The ratings shall K , is 0.1 for slip ring motors or 0.5 for squirrel cage motors;
be 5 min forgroups M3 to M5,lO min for group M6 and K, is 0.8 for slip ring motors or3.0 for squirrel cage motors.
not less than 10 minfor groups M7to M8, according to
service conditions.
34.2 Access. Means of access to enclosures containing
33. Motors for crane motion drives exposed equipment operatingat nominal voltages exceeding
115 V shall:
33.1 General. Motors shall comply with BS 5000 : Part 99
and with 33.2 and 33.3. Motors shall be capable of (a) be interlocked with their isolator operator devices;
withstanding a maximum speed of not less than 2.5 times the incoming terminalso f all supplies shallbe screened
rated speed or 2000 r/min, whichever is the lesser. to prevent accidental contact; or
33.2 Service conditions and rating. Motors shallbe suitable (b) require the use of a tool toopen them; or
for the normalservice conditions and any specialservice (c) require theuse of a key to open them, in which case
conditions advised by the purchaser in accordance with a warning notice complying with A.2.8 of BS 5378 :
clause 5. The rating of each motor shall be selected such Part 1 : 1980 shall be attached.
that the limits of temperature rise donot exceed those
given in BS 4999 : Part 32 forthe class of insulation 35. Brakes
employed. 35.1 Magnet and thrustor motor ratings. As a minimum
A duty type rating shall be determinedfor each motor with the ratings of brake magnets and thrustor motors shall
reference to BS 4999 : Part 30 by: be compatible with the associated drive motor ratings
(a) determining a duty cycle based on information as given in 33.2.
provided by the purchaser (see item 10(a) of 35.2 Brake magnet operating voltage. The brake shall
appendix A): or lift off when the voltage a t the coils is a minimum of
(b) an assessment based on the cyclic duration factor 85 % of rated voltage.
and the startingclass in accordance with table 1. 35.3 Connection of hoisting motion magnetic brake coils.
NOTE. Method (a) is the preferred method of determination. In the arrangementof connections t o the hoisting motion
brake coilsmeans shall be provided to ensure that when
33.3 Torque. The pull-out torqueof hoisting motors the associated drive motors are de-energized, the stored
supplied a t rated voltage and frequency shallbe not less electrical energy in theirmotors will be diverted away
than 2.25 times the rated torquefor slip ring motors and from the brake coils (e.g. into an energy dump) so as not
not less than two times the ratedtorque for squirrel cage to delay the application of thebrake.
motors.
36. Power supplies for auxiliary equipment
34. Enclosure$
36.1 General. Where required by the purchaser, provision
34.1 Protection. Enclosures shall be provided for all shall be made for the power supplies givenin 36.2 to 36.5.
electrical equipment. Theminimum degree of protection
36.2 Permanent lighting, heating and auxiliary circuits.
for enclosures shall be IP44 of BS 5490 with the exception
Permanent lighting, heating andauxiliary circuits shall
of motors which shallhave a minimum degree of protection
operate a t a nominal voltage not exceeding 250V.
of IP23 and resistors which shall have a minimum degree
Each circuit shall be controlled by a double pole switch,
of protection of IP21.

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BS 466 : 1984

36.3 Portable lighting. Hand lamps shall be operated a t Table 2. Uprating of cables for mechanism groups
not more than 25 V. The supply shall be taken via a fuse
from one end of the secondary winding ofa transformer, Mechanism circuit
Rotor
circuit
Stator
the other end of the secondarywinding being earthed. group
IEE rating IEE rating
36.4 Portable tools, Socket outletsfor portable electric multiply by: multiply by:
tools shall operatea t a nominal voltageof not more than
110 V. The supply shall be taken from the secondary M3 1.7 2. o
winding of a transformer, the centre tap of which shall M4 1.7 2.0
be earthed, Both ends of the secondary winding shall M5 1.7 2.0
be fused.
1.5 M6 1.4
36.5 Socket outlets. Socket outlets shall complywith 1.5 M7 1.4
BS 196 or BS 4343 and interchangeability between socket M8 1.o 1.o
outlets and plugs of different voltages shall be prevented
by positive means.

Section five. Protection and painting


37. Heaters
When provided, electric heaters shall be fixed and totally 40. Protection and painting of metalwork
enclosed to prevent contact with live electrical parts. Protection of metal work upto and including a primary
coat shall be in accordance with BS 5493 as a minimum
38, Radiointerference requirement.
If necessary, provision shall be made to prevent equipment NOTE. Where cranes are supplied for use in abnormal working
conditions, e.g. high humidity, low temperature,corrosive
causing radio interference. This provision shallbe in atmosphere, special protection may be necessary.
accordance with BS 800 and BS 833.
41. Surface condition of structural members
39. Cables and conductors 41.1 Structural members. Materials used in the
manufacture of structural members shall be free of
39.1 Protection of cables. Cables shall be enclosed, scale and surface corrosion.
positioned or constructed to protect them from mechanical
damage: 41.2 Protection of bolted (orriveted) joints. Where
surfaces are permanently joined together during assembly
(a) by running in conduit, trunking or on trays; or or erection, they shallbe treated up to the primarystage
(b) by being clippedto the crane structure in a position (see clause 40) before being brought together.
where they are protected from mechanical damage; or Where joints are fastened with frictiongrip bolts,
(c) by being of armoured construction. the surfaces shall be untreated beforeassembly unless
due allowance has been madein the design.
Trunking shall comply with BS 4678 : Part 1, If cables are
drawn into a steel tube, the tube shall be heavy gauge 42. Protection of machinery
welded or solid drawn in accordance with class B of BS 31 Machinery other thanbright or otherwise protected parts
or BS 4568. shall be treated up to the priming stage (see clause 40).
39.2 Conductors. Conductors shall be stranded or flexible. Unplated bright parts shall be protected with an
Single strand cables shall not be used. anti-corrosion treatment.
39.3 Minimum size. Conductors for power wiring to Areas that are inaccessible after assembly or erection shall
electric motors shallhave a sectional area not less than be treated before assembly or erection.
1.5 mm2, For control circuits and auxiliary wiring,
cables shall have a section area of not less than 1.O mm2.
39.4 Cable rating. The current carriedby the cables in
circuits related to mechanism group M8 shall be not greater Section six. Testing, marking and certification
than the appropriatevalues given in the Institution of
Electrical Engineers (IEE) Wiring Regulations with respect 43, Testing at manufacturer's works
to ambient temperature, type of excess current protection All electrical and mechanical equipment shallbe tested in
and volt drop. accordance with the appropriate British Standard a t the
NOTE. Cables in circuits related to mechanism groups below M8 crane or equipment manufacturer's works.
may be uprated in accordance with table 2, in which case the
voltage drop should be considered in accordance with the IEE
Wiring Regulations. 44. Testing after final assembly and before
39.5 Power pick-up conductors. Power pick-up conductors putting into service
shall be protected to prevent persons, including maintenance 44.1 General. Tests shall be carried out after final assembly
and inspection personnel, making accidental contactwith and before putting the crane into service in accordance
the conductors. with 44.2 to 44.7.
NOTE, Shrouding that prevents such accidental contact is NOTE. The provision of test weights at the purchaser's premises,
recommended as the minimum requirement for the protection unless otherwise agreed, should be the responsibility of the
of long travel conductors. purchaser.

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BS 466 : 1984

44.2 Insulation tests. After completion of erection and 44.7 Performance tests. Performance tests shall be carried
before connection of the power supply, the insulation of out on each motion of the crane with the safe working
the electrical systems shall be tested. The voltage used shall load suspended to ensure that they are capable of meeting
be a d.c. voltage of not less than twice the ratedvoltage of the specified speeds of operation within a tolerance of
the system concerned andall phases shall be checked for plus or minus 10 % a t the designed supply voltage and
each crane motion or system. frequency. During these tests the correct functioning of
The insulation resistance of the systems tested shall be not the mechanism(s) and brake(s) shall be verified.
less than 0.5 ML?,. If necessary, it shall be permissible to During these tests the crane shall be operated in accordance
disconnect individual items of equipment to prevent damage with the manufacturer's instructions.
while making this test.
If a reading less than 0.5 ML?,is obtained, the systems under
test shall be subdivided. Each subdivision shall then show 45. Marking
a reading of not less than 0.5 ML?,. 45.1 Marking of safe working load (SWL). The crane bridge
44.3 Earth continuity. Earth continuity of the equipment structure shall bear a permanent inscription on each side,
shall be checked t o ensure that a t no point is this greater readily legible from ground level, stating the safe working
than 0.5 L?,. load(s) of the crane in tonnes (or inkilograms if it is less
than 1 t).
44.4 Functional tests. After the supply has been connected,
tests shall be carried out to ensure the correct operation of Where more than one lifting unitis fitted, the safe working
controls, switches, contactors, relays and other devices. load of each lifting unitshall be shown on the crane bridge
inscriptions.
The function and correct adjustment of brakes and limit
switches shall be checked andtests carried out to ensure Where safe working load is related to the speed of the
that primary safety and emergency systems areoperating lifting unit, this shall be indicated.
correctly. 45.2 Crane identification. The crane shall be prominently
The correct operation of each motion of the crane and permanently marked with the following information:
throughout i t s range of operation shall be checked. (a) the manufacturer's name or trademark;
44.5 Overload tests (b) the manufacturer's serial number;
44.5.1 General. The crane shall be tested such that each (c) the year of manufacture;
lifting unit, each crab andthe crane as a whole are (dl the crane classification with state ofioading and .
subjected to 125 % of their safe working load(s), class of utilization;
During the test(s) the crane motions shall be tested as (e) the classification of eachmechanism with state of
follows. class loading and of utilization;
(a) Lifting units, The liftingunit drum(s) shall be (f) a note stating:
rotated through one revolution such that all gear 'Any repairs or replacement components must
teeth are tested under overload conditions. be in accordance with the manufacturer's
(b) Crabs. Thecrab(s)
shall be
traversed from one end
recommendations'.
of the bridget o the other.
(c) Long travel. The crane shall be moved sufficiently
to ensure that eachgear tooth of the long travel motion 46. Technical information
is subjected to the overload condition. This t e s t shall The manufacturer shall provide the following technical
be repeated with the crab(s)a t each end of their
information priorto commissioning of the crane:
traverse.
NOTE. Full motionspeedsneednotbeattainedduringoverload (a) generalarrangementdrawingsshowing all leading
tests. and dimensions installation details;
44.5.2 Acceptancecriteria. The tests shall be considered (b)circuitwiring diagrams;
successful if no crack, permanent deformation, paint (c) operating and maintenance instructions.
flaking or damage that affects the function and safety of
the crane is visible and no connectionhas loosened or
been damaged.
44.6 Deflection test. A t e s t shall be carried out to verify 47- Test certificates
that the vertical deflection of the crane bridge does not Test certificates in accordance with relevant statutory
exceed that specified in clause 7. requirements shall be supplied to the purchaser.

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BS 466 : 1984

Appendix A

Information to be supplied with enquiry or order


The purchaser shall supplythe following informationwith the enquiry or order.

1.
Name ...........................................................................
2. Address.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. Telephone ............................... 4. Contact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5,Crane to be installed in. .......................... (town) ......................... (country)

6. Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7. Capacity (see B.1): main ........................... (tonnes)


aux. ........................... (tonnes)

8. Span, centre to centre of gantry rail(s). ................................................. mm

9.Type .............................................................................
and10. Classification
appliance of the its mechanisms.
(a) Where detailed information is available of the operationsthat the appliance is expected to perform and of the
a
individual loads t o be carried a t each stage of the operations, it should be provided as follows.

Utilization: Main hoist: av. lift ......................... m No, oflifts/h. ..................


.........................
Aux. hoist: av. lift m ..................
No. of lifts/h.
Traverse: av. movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m No. of moves/h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Travel: av. movement. ...................... m No. of moves/h . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . .
Crane operating hours per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
orpermonth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Loads: load if known . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Actual
or % of lifts withapproximate full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
% of lifts with approximate 75 % load .................................. including
lifting
% of lifts with approximate 50 % load................................... attachment
% of lifts withapproximate 25 % load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Weight of lifting attachment ....................................................


Intended design life:. ............................................................. years

(b) Where insufficient information is available of the operations that the appliance is expected to perform,
the purchaser should requestthe manufacturer to recommend the most suitable crane for the anticipatedduty.

11. Location: Indoor/outdoor/both .........................................................


12, Power supply a t the crane long travel collectors
V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(nominal) Phase .................... Hz .....................
Conductors. ................... Is there a neutral? ....................................
If so, is it earthed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13. Vertical movement of hook required (see B.2): above floor ( H 1 ) ................................ mm
below floor ( H z ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mm

14. Natureofload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15. Type of hook or lifting device ..........................................................


e
14 Standards
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and
Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 466 : 1984

* 16. Controls: whether control is from (a) cabin or (b) by pendants or (c) by non-conductive controls.

If (a): Position:oncrab ....................................


or on bridge ...................................
or a t end or mid span .............................
Type: open ......................................
glazed.....................................
Special features. ............................ i . ................................

..........................................................................
If (b): From fixed point on bridge ..............................
Fromcrab .........................................
Mobile onseparate track ................................
Any special control requirements ...................................................
..........................................................................
If (c): Is limited range feature required? ..........................
Is a warning device required on crane?........................

17. General state of atmosphere or climate. ....................................................

18. Average ambient temperature. ................................. OC


Maximum temperature .......................... O C

Minimum temperature ......................... .OC

19. Special service conditions


Specify any special serviceconditions thatapply typically.
(a) Handling molten metal.
(b) Use in hazardous gases, vapours, solids or volatile liquids.
(c) Use in mines and/or quarries.
(d) Certain processes, such as galvanizing, pickling and hot dipping.
(e) Use in saline atmospheres when the degree of exposure should be stated.
(f) The presence of any local heatsources, such as furnaces or radiant space heating panels.
(9) Theneed for special precautions against termites.
(h) Any physical obstructionsnot apparent from the dimensions providedfor clearances.
(il Inthe case of pedestrian controlled cranes, any differences in the operating floor level.
(i) Any variation in electrical supplygreater than k 6 % on thenominal voltage.
(k) Any particular requirements concerning headroomabove servicingplatforms and if the crane servicing platforms
are to be used for other activities. The need, if any, for fine mesh screens t o prevent:the dropping of articles from
the servicingareas.
(I) Wind loading.
(m) Any other conditions.

20. Gantry: existing or new. ..............................................................


21. Arelongtravelconductors to be included?YesINoLength .................................. m
Preferred type or make. ..............................................................
Are
existing
conductors to be used? YesINo Type .....................................
NOTE. Information regarding the type ofconductors is necessary to enable the crane manufacturer to provide suitable pick-up shoes.

22. Load and motion limiting devices and load indicating devices
..................................................................
Staterequirements
...............................................................................

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards 15


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 466 : 1984

23. Are platforms required on bridge?. .......................................................


Position of access point(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requirements for emergency escape ......................................................

24. Speeds of operation: Full speed Other speeds (if required)


(see B.3)
m/min m/min
hoist Main ................. ................
hoist Aux. ................. ................
Traverse ................. ................
Travel ................. ................
25. Is any special painting or protective finish required?. ...........................................
..................................................................................
26. Any special requirements, statutory or technical?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27. Are there any other cranes on gantry or in the vicinity? Yes/No

If so, advise whether


(a) special devices are required to prevent collision of the cranes or their loads;
(b) there is any provision to be made for cranes to be separated by a minimum distance in order not to overstress the
gantry structure;

28. Dimensions (see figure 3):


Craneno. orref. ........................... ..............................
BayorDept
Dimensions stated looking (N, S, E, W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S (span) ............................. mm (actualhominal)
A1 ................................ mm A2 ................................. mm
N1 ................................ mm Nz ................................. mm
D1 ................................ mm D2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mm
H1 ................................ mm Hz ................................. mm
Li ................................ mm Lz ................................. mm
M1 ................................ mm M2 ................................. mm
1 ................................ mm EZ ................................. mm
Tl ................................ mm Tz ................................. mm
P1 ................................ mm Pz ................................. mm
C ................................ mm
W ................................ mm X ................................. mm
Y ................................ mm Z ................................. mm

29. Portable lighting and tools


Advise whether provisionis to be made for:
(a) portable lighting;
(b) portable tools,

30, Advise whether cabin heating is required.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards


16
Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 466 : 1984

-
v)
d
+
a
L
L
O
i? O
c
c ="----.*
d
m .-
c
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O
W
L
c
c
W
U

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L
c
c
W
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d
rc

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c, e
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p.
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B
u.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards 17


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 466 : 1984

Appendix B 8.3 Preferred lifting heights. (R5 up to and including


16 m, R 10 above this figure.) The preferred lifting heights
Crane performance (in metres) are as follows.
8.1 General. To aid economic manufacture it is 2.5 10 25 50
recommended that thecrane parameters given in 8.2 4.0 16 32 63
to B.4 be selected from a progression based upon the 6.3 20 40 etc.
preferred numberseries given in BS 2045.
8.4 Preferred speeds of operation (full speeds). (R5 and
8.2 Preferred lifting capacities. ( R 1O up to and R 1O respectively,) The preferredspeeds of operation
including 125 t and R20 above.) The preferred lifting (in metres per minute) are as follows.
capacities (in tonnes) are as follows.
0.63. 1.6 4.0 10 25 63 160
1.0 3.2 10 32 100 225 400 0.8 2.0 5.0 12.5 32 80 200
1.25 4.0 12.5 40 125 250 450 1.0 2.5 6.3 16 40 100
1.6 5.0 16 50 140 280 500 1.25 3.2 8.0 20 50 125
2.0 6.3 20 63 160 320 560
Typical speeds relative to mechanism classifications are
2.5 8.0 25 80 200 360 etc.
shown in table 3.

Table 3. Typical full speeds relative to mechanism classification

working
Safe Motion
Typical
full speeds (m/min)
load (t)
Mechanism classification

M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8

Long
travel 16 to 80 32 to 50
125 to 200

Traverse 10 20
to 32 to3250 to 80

Up to and
including 5 2.5 to 12.5 10 16to 25 to 40

2 to 10.0 8.0 to 16 12.5 to 25

l o t o 16 I 2.0 to 8.0 6.3 to 12.5 ' 10 to 20

1- Hoist 2.0 to 6.3


I
I 5.0 to 10
I
I &Oto 16

3 2 t o 63 I 2.0 to 5.0 I 4.0 to 8.0 I 6.3 to i2.5

I 1.6 to 4 I 3.2 to 6.3 I 5.0to 10

125to160 I 1
-2I5 I ~ 2.0 to 4.0 3.2 to 6.3

1
160 plus 1.6 to 2 2.5to 3.2 to 5

NOTE. Long travel speeds In excess of 63 m/mln are not permitted forpendant controlled cranes
(see 31.6).

18
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards
Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 466 : 1984

Appendix C

Information tobe supplied by manufacturer


The following information shall be supplied by the manufacturer.

1. Enquiry ref. n o . .......................... 2. Tender ref.. .............................

3. Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Safe working load .........................

5. Span .................................. 6.Type ..................................

7. Foruse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Appliance classification.. ..............................................................
Group classificationof lifting unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Group classification of traverse mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Group classification travelmechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Details of motor
mlrnin kW (each) No. r/min TY Pe
hoisting
Main speed: full ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
other ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
Aux. hoisting speed: full ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
other ....... a . . - . , . ....... ..............
speed:
Traverse full ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
other ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
Travelling speed: full ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
other ....... ....... ....... ....... .......
9. Powel-supply for which crane is to be supplied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..................................................
IO. Type of speed control of various motions.
..................................................................................
11. Crane clearance diagramincluding the dimensions givenin figure 3, also details of any restrictions in platformand
walkway widths and headroom (see 16.4 and appendix H).

12. Type of main girder .................................................................


13. Crane control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14. Controlposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15. Maintenance platform(s) on the crane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -..............
16. Cross traverse electrical supply system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17. Long travel electrical supplysystem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18. Limiting devices: (a) motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


(b)load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19. Electrical equipment protection systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20. Crabhrolley gross weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21. Cranegross weight (including lifting unit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22. Wheelloadsandspacing: driven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . excluding impact


trailing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . excluding impact

23. Recommended gantry rail section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-7

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards 19


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BS 466 : 1984

24. Information for design of gantry end stops ..................................................


25. Operator's cabin access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 26. Emergency escape devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27. Additional safety features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

....................................................
28. Other information not scheduled above
..................................................................................

.Appendix D Table 4. Class of utilization forthe crane


as a whole
Classification of cranes and crane mechanisms NOTE. The number of cycles used in selecting the class of
D.1 Classification of the crane as a whole utilization is a figure used only for classification purposes
and as a design parameter. It does not imply aguaranteed life.
D.l.l General. To provide a rational and uniform basis
for certain aspects of the design of the crane structure,
a group classification for the crane as a whole in the range
of A I to A8 (see table 6) shall be established in accordance

'l : 1
with D.1.2 to D.1,4.
NOTE. The group classification of the crane as a whole provides

;;
a framework of reference between purchaser and manufacturer for u2 6.3 X io4 Infrequent use
contractual and technical purposes by means of which a crane ~~~

may be matched to the service for which it is required. It also


enables a fatigue analysis of the design to be based on the ~ ~ 2 5 :
specified life and conditions of service.
Cranes shall be classified into groups according to: 2.5 X 105 Fairly frequent use
(a) the class of utilization, as determined from the u5 Frequent use
required number of operating cycles for the crane,
in accordance with D.1.2; U6 1 x106 frequent
Very use
(b) the state of loading, as determined from the
conditions of loading to which the crane will be u7 2 x IO6
subjected, in accordance with D.1.3.
D.1.2 Class of utilization U8 4 x IO6 Continuous
or near
D.1.2.1 General. The class of utilization of the crane shall continuous use
be determined from i t s assumed total number of all u9 Greater
than
operating cycles duringi t s intended life. For the purposes 4 x IO6
of classification, an operating cycle shall be considered to
commence whena load is picked upand end a t the moment D.1.3 State of loading and nominal load spectrum factor
when the craneis ready to pick up thenext load. D.1.3.1 General. The state of loading of the crane and the
D.1.2.2 Determining theclass of utilization corresponding nominal load spectrum factor shall charac-
D.1.2.2.1 Where sufficient information is available, terize the extent to which the crane lifts the maximum
the number of operating cycles shallbe calculated from a permitted load for the configuration, orsmaller loads.
knowledge of the dutiesthat the crane will be expected to NOTE l . They depend both on themagnitudes of the lifted loads
relative to the maximum permitted load, and on the number of
perform, e.g. for a crane performing part ofa continuous, cycles in which each is lifted relative to the total number of cycles.
repetitive process, the number can readily be derived from
Assessment of the state of loading shall be based on the
the number of operating cycles per hour and the total
number of working hurs during the intendedlife. same cycles as are used in D.1.2.2 t o determine the class
of utilization. Also, the weight of the lifted load shall
The class of utilizationof the crane shall then be selected include the weightof any lifting attachment, such as
from table 4 according to the tabulated numberof bucket, grab, magnet or lifting beam, whether permanently
operating cyclesthat is nearest to, but notless than, fitted or detachable, and the weightsof other suspended
the number calculated by the procedure previously outlined. components, such as the bottom block, hook and hoist
D.1.2.2.2 Where insufficient information is available for rope that are lifted together with the load. The maximum
calculating the total number of operating cycles,as may permitted load is thus the specifiedsafe working load plus
be the case when thecrane is used for a variety of duties, the weights of any such lifted components or attachments
a suitable value, estimated on the basis of experience, that are not included in the specified safe working load.
shall beused. Where there isdifficulty inassigning a suitable NOTE 2. Typical states of loading normally associated with
value, the next highest figure in table 4 shall be taken. particular types of crane and crane applications are given in
NOTE. Typical classes of utilization normally associated with tables 7 to 10.
particular types of crane and crane applications are given in
tables 7 to 1O.

20Standards
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BS 466 : 1984

D.1.3.2 Determining the load spectrum factor Table 5. State of loading for the crane as a whole
D.1.3.2.1 Where details are available of the magnitudes of
the loads andthe number of timeseach will be lifted during State of Nominal
load Descriptive definition
loading spectrum
the intended life of the crane, the load spectrum factor,Kp, factor, K i
shall be calculated as follows:
Let: QI Light O. 5 Cranes that
hoist
the safe
working load very rarely
Pi be the magnitudes of the individual lifted loads and, normally, light loads
characteristic of the duty of the crane (.e. P i ,
Pz! P3, -r P,,);
Q2 Moderate 0.63 Cranes that hoistthe safe
PmaX be the maximum permitted load (see D.1.3.1); working load fairly
C; be the estimated number of cycles which occur frequently and, normally,
a t the individual load level Pi (.e. Cl,C,, C3, moderate loads
r Cn);
~

s.

O3 Heavy 0.8 Cranes that hoist thesafe


C, be the total number of all the individual cycles working load frequently
a t all load levels
and, normally, heavy loads
=CC~= (C,+ C, t c3 +. . .+ C,)
0 4 Very 1.o Cranes that are normally
heavy loaded close to safe
working load
For the purposeof classification of the crane as a whole,
m =3.
Expanded, the above equation becomes:
used to assist the selection of an appropriate state of
loading and corresponding nominal load spectrum factor.
Where there is doubt inthe selection of appropriate values,
the nexthighest figure in table 5 shall be used.

0.1.4 Determination of group classification of the crane.


The group classificationof the crane shall be determined
The state of loading shallbe selected from table 5 according from table 6 using the class of utilization and state of
to the tabulated value of nominal load spectrumfactor loading obtainedin accordance with 0.1.2 and D.1.3.
Kp that is the nearest to, but not less than, the calculated No change in the group classificationof a crane, or in its
value of Kb. combination of state of loading and class of utilization
D.1.3.2.2 Where details of the numbers and weights of within the same group classification, shall be made without
the lifted loads during the intended life of the crane are reference to the manufacturer or havinga thorough design
not known, the descriptive definitions in table 5 shall be check carried out by a competent person.

Table 6. Group classification for the crane as a whole

State of
loading

QI Light
Q2 Moderate
0 3 Heavy

Q4 Very 1.0 A3 A4 A5 A8 A6
A8 A7
A8 A8
heavy

NOTE. The group classifications resulting from the classes of utilization and the states of loading normally associated with particular types
of crane and crane applications are given in tables 7 to 10.
The lists of crane types and applications are not comprehensive. Full account should be taken of any particular requirements when
determining the appropriategroup classifications.

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BS 466 : 1984

Table 7. Typical classification for overhead travelling industrialtype cranes (O.T.C.)


I i i
Type andlor applications

~~~
I Class of
utilization
State of
loading
Group
classification

Power stations U2toU4 QI A l to A3

Light work shop duty (maintenance, repairs, assembly, etc.) U2 to U4 QI toQ2 Al toA4

Light stores duty U2 to U4 Q I to Q2 A2 to A4

Medium and heavy duty (workshop, warehouse and general hook service) U4 to U6 QI toQ3 A4 to A6

Crane for grabbing work U5toU8 Q4 A7 to A8

Ladle cranefor foundry work U4 to U5 Q3 to Q4 A6 toA7

Magnet crane for stockyard work U5 to U6 Q2 t o 0 3 A6 to A7

Magnet crane for scrapyard work U5 to U6 Q3 to Q4 A6 to A8

Process crane U6 to U7 0 2 to Q3 A6 to A8

Shipyard crane U5 to U6 02 to 03 A5 to A7

Table 8. Typical classification for overhead travelling steelworks cranes

Type and/or application Class of State


Group of

I I I

Ladle crane U 5 t o U7 Q4 A7 to A8

I I Q4
~~~~~~ ~

Pighrap breaking crane U6 t o U 8 I A8


Ingot stripper
Soaking pit mould handling crane U6toU8 Q4 A8
Vertical ingot charger
____

Furnace charging crane U6toU8 04 A8

Forging crane U6 to U9 Q3 to Q4 A7 to A8

I I Q3toQ4 I
~~~~~~

Process crane: on line U6toU8 A7 t o A 8

Process
crane: off line I U 5 t o U6 I Q2toQ3 I A5toA7

Heavy mill service crane I U6toU8 I Q2toQ3 A6 to A8

I I Q1 toQ2 I A3 t o A 5
~~~~ ~ ~

Serviceand
maintenancecrane U4 to U5

Table 9. Typical classification for transporters

Type and/or application Group Class of State of


utilization loading classification

Medium duty: general use . U5 to U6 02 to 03 A5 to A6

Heavy duty: intermittentgrabbing and magnet work U6 to U7 Q3 to 0 4 A7 to A8

Extra heavy duty: continuous grabbingand magnet work U8 to U9 0 3 t oQ4 A8

22 Standards
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Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 466 : 1984

Table 10. Typical classification for freight container cranes

Type andlor application Class of State of Group


utilization loading classification

Freight container transporter U5 to U7 Q2 A5 to A7

Goliath orbridge cranefor container handlingduty U4toU7 Q2 A4 toA7

D.2 Classification of mechanisms D.2.3 State of loading


D.2.1 General. Mechanisms shall be classified into groups D.2.3.1 The state of loading characterizesthe extentto
according to their desired service life and the conditions of which a mechanism is subjected to i t s maximum loading
loading to which theyare subjected. and to smaller loadings.
NOTE. The purposes of such classification is to provide a rational D.2.3.2 Where details are available of the loading that the
and uniform basis for the design of mechanisms and their
components that takes account of these considerations. It also
mechanism will experience, the nominal load spectrum
provides a framework of reference between the purchaser and the factor, K m ,and correspondingstate of loading shall be
manufacturer. determined as follows.
The two factors consideredin determining the group to Let:
which a mechanism belongs shall be i t s class of utilization Pi be the individual loadmagnitudes(loading levels)
and i t s state of loading. characteristic of the duty ofthe mechanism
D.2.2 Class of utilization. The class of utilization fora (.e. Pl, P 2 , P 3 , . . . , P n ) ;
mechanism shall be determined from i t s assumed service P, be the maximum loading applied to the
life in hours. This is the total number of hoursfor which mechanism;
the mechanism will be in motion. Where the applianceof
ti be the individual durations of use of a mechanism
which themechanism is part has known duties, such as
a t the individual loading levels Pl, P z , Pa, etc.,
would be the case where it performed part of a continuous,
repetitive process, the service life shall be calculated from
..
(that is t l , t 2 ,t a , . ,t,,);
the actual daily utilization time for the mechanism, T be the total duration of use a t all loading levels
the number of working days per year and the number of = ( t l + t 2 + t3 + . . . , t n ) ;
years of expected service. In the absence of such then the spectrum factor, K L , is given by the formula
information regarding the duty of the appliance,
an assumed daily utilization timeshall be used.
The class of utilization shall be selected according to the
value of service life given in table I l that is nearest to,
but not less than, the assumed service life determined by The nominal load spectrumfactor and the corresponding
the procedure previously outlined. state of loading are obtained from table 12 by selecting
the value of Km that is nearestto, but notless than,
Table 11. Classes of utilization for mechanisms the calculated value of,K L .
D.2.3.3 When details of the loadingto which themechanism
Class of Service life Remarks will be subjected are not known, an appropriate nominal
utilization state of loading shallbe selected and the descriptive remarks
in table 12 used to assist in such cases.
h NOTE. Typical states of loading of mechanisms normally associated
with particular types of cranes and crane applications are given in
TI 400 Irregular use
tables 14 to 17.
T2 800
T3 1 600 D.2.4 Determination of group classification. When the
class of utilizationand the state of loading have been
T4 3 200 Regular light use determined in accordance with D.2.2 and D.2.3, the group
classification of a mechanism shall be determined from
T5 6 300 Regular intermittent use table ?3.
T6 12 O00 Regular intensive use No change in the group classificationof a mechanism, or in
its combination ofstate of loading and class ofutilization
T7 25 O00 Continuous intensive use within thesame group classification shallbe made without
T8 50 O00 reference to the manufacturer or havinga thorough design
T9 50 O00 check carriedout by a competent person.

NOTE. Typical classes of utilization of mechanisms normally


associated with particular types ofcrane and crane applications
are given in tables 14 to 17.

COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards 23


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~-
B S I BSm'lbb 8 4 W 3 6 2 4 b b 90 3 4 6 8 7 0 b

BS 466 : 1984

Table 12. S tes of loading for mechanisms Table 13. Group classificationfor mechanisms

States of Nominal load Remarks State of Classes of utilization,


loadino spectrum loading
factor, Km Tl T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9

L1 Light Mechanisms
0.50 subjected
very L1 M3 M3 M3 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8
rarely to their maximum L2 M3 M3 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M8
load and, normally, to L3 M3 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M8 M8
very light loads L4 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M8 M8 M8

Mechanisms
L2 Moderate occasionally
0.63 NOTE. The mechanism classificationsresulting from the classes of
subjected to their maximum utilization and the states of loading normally associated with
load, but, normally, to particular types of crane and craneapplications are given in
rather light loads tables 14 to 17.
The lists of crane types andapplications are not comprehensive.
Full account should be taken of any particular requirements when
L3 Heavy 030 Mechanisms frequently determining the appropriate mechanism classifications.
subjected to their maximum
load and, normally, to
loads of medium magnitude

L4 Very 1.o0 Mechanisms regularly


subjected
heavy to their maximum
loads

.
24Standards
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and
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BS 466 : 1984

Table 14. Typical classification for overhead travelling industrialtype crane (O.T.C.) mechanisms

Type of crane r Class of State of Group of


utilization loading mechanism

Power stations Hoist and aux. hoist T3 L1 to L2 M3


Cross traverse T3 L1 to L2 M3
Long travel T3 L2 M3

Light workshop duty (maintenance, repairs, Hoist and aux. hoist T3 L1 to L2 M3


assembly, etc.) Cross traverse T3 L1 to L2 M3
Long travel T3 L2 M3

Light stores duty Hoist and aux. hoist T3 L1 to L2 M3


Cross traverse T3 L1 LO L2 M3
Long travel T3 L2 to L3 M4

Medium and heavy duty (workshop, warehouse Hoist and aux. hoist T4 to T5 L1 to L2 M3 to M5
and general hook service) Cross traverse -r4 to~5 L I t oL2 M3 to M5
Long travel T4 L2 toL3 M4 to M5

Crane for grabbing work Hoist T5 to T7 L3 M6 to M8


Closing motion T5 to T7 L3 M6 to M8
Cross traverse T5 to T7 L3 M6 to M8
Long travel T5 to T6 L3 M6 to M7

Ladle cranefor foundry work Hoist T5 to T6 L2 to L3 M5 to M7


Cross traverse T5 to T6 L2 toL3 M5 to M7
Long travel T5 L3 M6
~ ~~

Magnet cranefor stockyard work Hoist T5 to T6 L3 M6 to M7


Cross traverse T5 to T6 L3 M6 to M7
Long travel T5 L3 M6

Magnet cranefor scrapyard work Hoist and aux. hoist T5 to T6 L3 M6 to M7


Cross traverse T5 to T6 L3 M6 to M7
Long travel T5 L3 M6

Process crane Hoist T6 toT7 L2 to L3 M6 to M8


Cross traverse T5 L3 M6
Long travel T6 L3 M7

Shipyard crane Hoist T5 to T6 L3 M6 to M7


Cross traverse T5 to T6 L3 M6 to M7
Long travel T5 to T6 L3 M6 to M7

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BS 466 : 1984

Table 15. Typical classification for overhead travelling steelworks crane


mechanisms
Type of crane Motion r Mectianism classification

Class of State of Group of


utilization loading mechanism

Ladle crane Hoist and aux. hoist T6 to T7 L4 M8


Cross traverse T5 to T6 L4 M7 to M8
Aux. traverse T5 to T6 L3 M6 to M7
Long travel T6 toT7 L4 M8

Piglscrap breaking crane Hoist T5 to T6 L4 M7 to M8


Cross traverse T5 to T6 L4 M7 to M8
Long travel T5 L3 M6

Ingot stripper Hoist T7 to T8 L3 M8


Soaking pit mould handling crane Aux. hoist T5 to T6 L2 M5 to M6
Vertical ingotcharger Cross traverse T6 to T8 L4 M8
Long travel T6 to T7 L4 M8
Slewing T6 to T7 L3 M7 to M8
Closing tongmotion T6 to T7 L4 M8

Furnace charging crane Hoist and aux. hoist T7 to T8 L3 M8


Cross traverse T7 to T8 L3 M8
Aux. traverse T5 to T6 L2 M5 to M6
Long travel T7 to T8 L3 M8

Forging crane Hoist T6 to T8 L3 M7 to M8


Cross traverse T5 to T6 L3 M6 to M7
Long travel T6 to T8 L3 M7 to M8

Process crane: on line Hoist T7 L3 M8


Cross traverse T5 L3 M6
Long travel T6 L3 M7

Process crane: off line Hoist T6 to T7 L2 M6 to M7


Cross traverse T5 L2 M5
Long travel T6 L2 M6

Heavy mill service crane Hoist T5 to T6 L2 M5 to M6


Aux. hoist T4 L2 M4
Cross traverse T5 L2 M5
Long travel T5 to T6 L2 M5 to M6

Service and maintenance crane Hoist and aux. hoist T4 to T5 L1 to L2 M3 to M5


Cross traverse T4 to T5 L1 to L2 M3 to M5
Long travel T4 L2 to L3 M4 to M5

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BS 466 : 1984

Table 16. Typical classification for transporter mechanisms

Type of crane Motion Mechanism classification

Class of Group of State of


utilization loading mechanism

Medium duty: general use Hoist T5 L2 to L3 M5 to M6


Cross traverse T5 L2 to L3 M5 to M6
Long travel T5 L2 to L3 M5 to M6
Boom hoist T4 L1 M3

Heavy duty: Hoist (holdand close) T7 to L4 T6 M7


to to M8 L3
intermittent grabbing and magnetwork Cross traverse to L4 T6 M7
to toT7
M8 L3
Long travel- T6 L2 to L3 M6 to M7
Boom hoist T4 L1 M3

Extra heavy duty continuous grabbing Hoist (holdand close) T8 to T9 L4 M8


and magnet work Cross traverse T7 to T8 L4 M8
Long travel L3 T7 M8
Boom hoist T4 L1 M3
I I I I

Table 17. Typical classification for freightcontainer crane mechanisms

Type ofcrane Motion Mechanism classification

Class of Group of State of


utilization loading mechanism

Freight container transporter Hoist T5 to T7 L2 to L3 M5 to M8


Traverse T5 to T7 L2 to L3 M5 to M8
Travel T5 to T7 L2 toL3 M5 to M8
Boom hoist T2 L3 M3
~~

Goliath or bridge cranefor container handling duty Hoist T5 to T7 L2 to L3 M5 to M8


Traverse T5 to T7 L2 toL3 M5 to M8
Travel T5 to T7 L2 to L3 M5 to M8
i

Appendix E

Noise
E.1- General. Noise emitted froma crane that is likely to exposure of employed persons to noise'". In addition,
be injurious t o hearing should be reduced to the lowest crane designers should take into account the recommenda-
level reamiably practicable. Noiseemitted.from a crane tions contained in HSE's Technical Data Note No. 12
should not cause:unreasonable annoyanceto persons entitled 'Notes for the guidance of designers on the
working.in.or.resident in the vicinity ofthe crane. reduction of machinery noise't. Crane manufacturers
E.2 Crarie'&lstruction and operationf cranes should be should ascertainthe levels and doses of noise produced
constructedandoperated, so far as is rFaionbly practicable, by their cranes; HSE's Guidance Note EH14 entitled
in accordance with the relevant recommendations 'Level of training fortechnicians making noise surveys'*
contained in HSE's 'Code of practice for reducing the may be of assistance.

*Obtainable from Her.Majesty's Stationery Office, Atlantic House., Holborn Viaduct, EC.lP 1 EN.
tobtainable from the Healthand Safety Executive.

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BS 466 : 1984

Appendix F for deflectionof the supporting structure from which the tracks
are suspended.

Crane gantries F.2.2 Tolerance on span. The tolerance onspan should be


as follows (see figure 4):
F.l Track joints, wheel running and guidance surfaces.
Any misalignment of running faces or gaps occurring AS<3mmwhereS<15m
between sections of track will have an adverse effect on dS<3t0.25(S-15)mmwhereS>15m
the performance and life ofthe crane. AS max. = 15 mm
Joint arrangemen't should ensure accuracy in the alignment F.2.3 Misalignment of track running surfaces in the
of running faces or guidance faces to,provide a smooth vertical plane, The tolerance on track misalignment should
transition path for the wheel between sections of track. be as follows (see figure 4):
Track running and guidance faces should be free of
A H 0.001 S
obstruction and should be left unpainted. These faces
should also be free from damage and pitting or other A H max. = 10 mm
surface defects. F.2.4 Tolerance on track width (underslung only).
F.2 Dimensional and geometrical tolerances of tracksfor The tolerance on trackwidth (underslung only) should be as
top running and underslung cranes follows (see figure 4):
F.2.1 General. Tracks should be within the tolerances AW = 0.025 W
given in F.2.2 to F.2.5 when not supporting thecrane. F.2.5 Track straightness tolerances
NOTE. The tolerances shownfor underslung cranes apply to F.2.5.1 Permissible deviation in the lateralplane. For the
single span only, .e. running on one pair of tracks.
total length of track, the maximum lateral deviationfrom
Multiple span cranes running on three or more tracksrequire special
the straight line mean datum should not exceed 10 mm
consideration, and tolerances and levels for them should be subject
to negotiation between crane manufacturer and supplierof the (see figure 5).
tracks. For example, on multiple span cranes it may be beneficial
to install inner tracks a t different levels from outer tracks, to allow

(a) Top running cranes

(b) Underslung cranes

Figure 4. Tolerances on crane tracks

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BSI BSmltbb BLJ W LbZLJbb7 014bB75 5 W
BS 466 : 1984

The straight line mean datum is the line about which legislation, applicablea t the date of publication of this
deviations of track on each side will be equal, when sum- standard, applies to cranes covered by this standard,
mated over the whole length of track. dependent uponthe circumstances of use.
Local lateral deviationa t any point of the track should The Factories Act 1961
not be greater than L/2000, measured over a length of The Electricity (Factories Act) Special Regulations
not less than 2 m on a line parallel to the straight line 1908 and 1944
mean datum.
The Construction (General Provisions) Regulations1961
F.2.5.2 Permissible deviation in the verticalplane. For the
The Construction (Lifting Operations) Regulations 1961
total length of the track, the maximum vertical deviation
from the theoretical datum line should not exceed 10 mm The Construction (Working Places) Regulations 1966
(see figure 6). The theoretical datum line maybe the true The Docks Regulations 1934
horizontal line or a theoretical camber line. The Mines and QuarriesAct 1954 and General
Local vertical deviationa t any point of the track should Regulations made thereunder
not be greater than L/2000, measured over a length of The Shipbuilding and Ship-repairing Regulations 1960
not less than 2 m on a line parallel to the theoretical
datum. Orders have been made in pursuance of the above acts and
regulations covering prescribed particulars, registers, reports
F.2.6 Running surface permissible traverse inclination and certificates. Correspondingacts and regulations apply
from the horizontal datum position. The maximum in Northern Ireland.
permissible traverse inclination from thehorizontal datum
position should be as shown in figure 7. G.1.2 Supplier. The following legislation is of particular
F.3 Measurement of crane tracks. When measuring crane relevance for the supplier of a crane.
tracks, calibrated steel measuring tapes should be used. Section 6 of The Health and Safety a t Work etc. Act 1974
It is important that thereadings obtained are corrected Section 17 of The Factories Act 1961
t o allow for sag in the tape andfor temperature variation.
The supplier should also take into consideration the
All track measurements for a particular crane should be
responsibilities of the crane user.
made with the same measuring tape andthe same applied
tension force. G.1.3 User. The following legislation is of particular
relevance for the user of a crane.
Appendix G Section 2 of Th Health and Safety a t Work etc.
Act 1974
United Kingdom and EEC legislation relating Sections 12 to 16 and 26 to 29 of The Factories
to power drivenoverhead travelling cranes Act 1961 (or corresponding legislationfor users of
cranes other than in factories).
G.1 United Kingdom
G.l.l General. In addition to the general requirements of
The Electricity (Factories Act) Special Regulations
1908 and 1944
the Health and Safety a t Work etc. Act 1974, the following
NOTE. Use of the crane includes maintenance, inspection and
examination of the crane.

Straight Line 10
mean datum 1 I
I I

L
4 c 10
Dimensions are in millimetres.
Figure 5. Permissible deviationof track straightness in lateral (horizontal) plane

IO
4

Dimensions are in millimetres.


* L D
LI2000
t
10
Figure 6. Permissible deviationQ f trackstraightness in vertical plane

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BS 466 : 1984 '

11' 300

I f t
(a) Top-running
W (b) Underslung
Datum pos tion

Figure 7. Permissible transverseinclination of tracks

G.1.4 References. Further information is available from Appendix H


the following references.
Health and SafetySeries Booklet HS (R) 6 'A guide
Headroom clearances, platform and
t o the HSW Act'. walkway widths
Guidance Note GS 8 from the Health and Safety It is recommended that headroom clearances, platform and
Commission 'Articles and substances for use a t work'. walkway widths should complywith the following.
Health and Safety Executive BookletSHW 928 (a) Platforms and walkways should have a clear
'Memorandum on the Electricity Regulations'. headroom of 2.0 m.
Health and Safety Executive Publications Catalogue (b) The vertical distance from the top of any guard rail
(available from Her Majesty's Stationery Office). on the bridge of thecrane to the lowest roof member
or other obstruction under which the crane passes
6.2 EEC requirements. No EEC Council Directive on
should be not less than 630 mm.
the approximation of the laws of the Member States
relating to requirements for electric overhead travelling (c) The vertical clearance betweer, the top of any part
cranes has been adopted or indeed proposed a t the time of the crane and the lowest roof member or other
of publication of this standard. obstruction under which the crane passes should be not
less than 75 mm for floor operated cranes of up to 10 t
A Council Directive on the harmonization of the laws of
safe working load and with no platforms or walkways
Member States relating to electrical equipment, designed
on the bridge, and not less than 150 mmfor other cranes.
for use within certain voltage limits (73/23/EEC) was
adopted on I 9 February 1973 commonly referredto as (d) Platforms should be a t least 600 mm wide and
the 'Low Voltage Directive', This Directive requires, walkways a t least 430 mm wide.
inter alia, that the Members States shall take all appropriate (e) Platforms and walkways wherelive conductors are
measures to ensure that electrical equipment may be. exposed during maintenance and testing shouldbe a t
placed on the marketonly if, having been constructed in least ,920 mm wide.
accordance with good engineering practicein safety matters (f) Where an electrical switchboard is installed inside
in force in the Community, it does not endanger the safety a crane bridge, access should be provided from both
of persons, domestic animals or property when properly ends of the switchboard.
installed and maintained andused in applications for
Where these requirements cannotbe achieved due to
which it was made.
restrictions of space or obstructions, the manufacturer
should agree alternative requirementswith the purchaser.

30
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BS 466 : 1984

Appendix J

List of British Standardsfor materials and equipment suitablefor use in the manufacture of cranes

Crane detail ES No. Title

1. Permissible
stresses
2573"
Rules for
the design of cranes
Part 1 Specification for classification, stress calculations and design
criteria for structures
Part 2 Specification for classification stress calculations anddesign
criteria for mechanisms

2. Materials
Castings, iron 2789 Iron castings with spheroidalornodulargraphite
grey Specification
1452 for grey iron castings
malleable blackheart 310 Blackheartmalleable iron castings
malleable whiteheart 309 Whiteheartmalleable iron castings
castings, steel 3100 Specification for steelcastings for generalengineeringpurposes
Castings, copper and alloys 1400 Copper alloy ingotsandcopper alloy castings
Steel, structural 4360Specification for weldable structural steels
Rivet materials 4620 Rivets for generalengineeringpurposes
Steel bars for machined parts, 970 Specification for wrought steels for mechanicaland
shafts and axles allied engineering purposes
Springs, coil and spiral 24Railway rolling stockmaterial
Part 3B Helical and volute springs and spring steels
5216Patented cold drawn steel wire for mechanicalsprings
1429 Specification for annealed steel wire for general engineering springs

3. Structural details, etc.


Bolts and nuts 916 Black bolts, screws and nuts
1083 Precision hexagon bolts, screws andnuts (BSW and BSF threads)
1768 Unified precision hexagon bolts, scress and nuts (UNC and UNF threads).
Normal series
3139 High strengthfriction grip bolts for structuralengineering
3294 The use of high strength friction grip bolts in structural steelwork
341O Metal washers for engineering purposes
3692 I S 0 metric precision hexagon bolts,screws and nuts
4190 I S 0 metric black hexagon bolts, scress and nuts
4395 High strengthfriction grip bolts and associated nuts and washers for
structural engineering
4604 The use of high strength friction grip bolts in structural steelwork.
Metric series
Rivets (dimensions) 275 Dimensions of rivets (% in to1% in diameter)
4620 Rivets for general engineering purposes
Tyres 3037 Tyres for crane rail wheels
Welding
Metal-arc
5135
welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels

4. Machinery and machinery details


Bearings, ball and roller 292 Rolling bearings; ball bearings, cylindrical and
spherical roller bearings
3134Metric tapered roller bearings
OilPlain
retaining
4480 bearings, metric series
Part 1 Sintered bronze bushes
Chains
and
chain
wheels
228
Transmission
precision roller chains
and
chainwheels
spur
Gearing, andSpur436 helical gears
Part 1 Basic rack form, pitches and accuracy (diametralpitch series)
Part 2 Basic rack form, modules and accuracy (1 to50 metric module)
bevel 545 Specification for bevel gears (machine cut)
worm Worm gearing

*Referred t o in the text.

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Crane detail BS No. Title

Keys and keyways 46 Keys and keyways and taper pins


Part 1 Keys and keyways
4235 Metric keys and keyways
Part 1 Parallel and taper keys
Limits and f i t s 1916 Limits and fits forengineering
4500 IS0 limits and fits
Lubricating nipples 1486* Lubricating nipples
Part 1 Lubricating nipplesand adaptors for use on machinery and vehicles
Part 2 Heavy duty lubricating nipples
Screw 1580 Unified screw threads
3643 I S 0 metric screw threads
serrations
and
Splines 2059* Straight-sided splines and serrations
3550' Involute splines
Taper
and
sold
pins split 46 Keys and keyways and taper pins
Part 3 Solid andsplit taper pins

5. Electrical machineryand equipment


Cables 6004 PVC-insulatedcables (non-armoured)for electric power and lighting
6007 Rubber-insulated cables for electric power and lighting
623 1 Specification for PVC-insulatedcables for switchgear and
controlgear wiring
6346 PVC-insulatedcables for electricity supply
23 Copper and copper cadmiumtrolley and contact wirefor electric traction
Circuit breakers 4752 Specification for switchgear and controlgear for voltages up to
and including 1O00 V a.c. and 1200 V d.c.
Part 1 Circuit-breakers
Conduit 31* Steel conduit and fittings for electrical wiring
Controllers and resistors 587' Motor starters and controllers
Hand lamps 4533 Luminaires
Section 2.3 Electric hand-lamps
Motors 5000* Rotating electricalmachines of particular types orfor
particular applications
Part 99 Machines for miscellaneous applications
Transformers 3535* Safety isolating transformersfor industrial and domestic purposes
Contactors 5424* Specification for controlgear for voltages up to and including 1000 V a.c.
and 1200 V d.c.
Part 1 Contactors

6. Lifting equipment
Hooks 2903* Specification for higher tensile steel hooks for chains, slings, blocks
and general engineering purposes
Shackles 3032" Higher tensile steel shackles
3551* Alloy steel shackles
Wire ropes 302' Wireropes for cranes,excavatorsandgeneralengineeringpurposes .
Wire rope fittings 46 1 Bordeaux connections
462 Specification for wire rope grips
463 Sockets for wire ropes
Part 1 Inch units
Part 2Metric units
464 Thimbles for wire ropes

7. Protection
Paint 2523 Lead-based priming paints
3698 Calcium plumbate priming paint
4652 Metallic zinc-rich priming paint(organic media)
Surface preparation 4232 Surface finish of blast-cleaned steel for painting
CP 3012 Cleaning and preparationof metal surfaces

*Referred to in the text.

. .
32
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Publicationsreferred to
BS 31 Steel conduit and fittings for electrical wiring
BS 196 Protected-typenon-reversible plugs, socket-outlets, cable-couplers and appliance couplers, with earthing contacts for
single phase a.c. circuits up to 250 volts
BS 302 Wireropes for cranes,excavatorsandgeneralengineeringpurposes
BS 449 The use of structural steel in building
BS 587 Motor startersand controllers
BS 800 Specification for radio interference limits and measurements for household appliances, portable toolsand other electrical
equipment causing similar types of interference
BS 833 Radio interference limits and measurements for the electrical ignition systems of internal combustion engines
BS 1486 Lubricating nipples
BS 2045 Preferrednumbers
BS 2059 Straight-sidedsplinesandserrations
BS 2573 Rules for the design of cranes
Part 1 Specification for classification, stress calculations and designcriteria for structures
Part 2 Specification for classification, stress calculations and design for mechanisms
BS 2853' The design and testing of steel overhead runway beams
BS 2903 Specification for higher tensile steel hooks for chains, slings, blocks and general engineering purposes
BS 3017 Mild steel forgedramshornhooks
BS 3032 Highertensile steel shackles
BS 3530 Small wire ropes
BS 3535 Safety isolating transformersfor industrial and domestic purposes
BS 3550 Involute splines
BS 3551 Alloy steel shackles
BS 421 1 Steel ladders for permanent access
BS 4235 Metric keysandkeyways
BS 4343 Industrial plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for a.c. and d c . supplies
BS 4568 Steel conduit and fittings with metric heads of I S 0 form for electrical installations
BS 4678 Cable trunking
Part 1 Steel surface trunking
BS 4999 General requirements for rotating electrical machines
Part 30 Duty and rating
Part 32 Limits of temperature rise and methodsof temperature measurement
BS 5304 Code of practice for safeguarding of machinery
BS 5345 Code of practice for the selection, installation and maintenanceof electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive
atmospheres (other than mining applications or explosive processing andmanufacture)
BS 5378 Safety signsend colours
Part 1 Specification for colour and design
BS 6395 Code of practice for stairs
BS 5419 Specification for air-break switches, air-break disconnectors, air-break switch disconnectors and fusecombination units
for voltages up to and including 1000 V a.c. and 1200 V d.c.
BS 5424 Specification for controlgear for voltages up to and including 1000 V a.c. and 1200 V dc.
BS 5490 Specification for degrees of protection provided by enclosures
BS 5493 Code of practice for protective coating of iron and steel structures against corrosion
BS 5744 Code of practice for safe use of cranes (overheadlunderhung travelling and goliath cranes, high pedestal and portal jib
dockside cranes, manually-operatedand light cranes, container handling cranes and rail-mounted low carriage cranes)
DD 32 Guide to the evaluation of humanexposure to whole-body vibration
I S 0 2408 Steel wire ropes for general purposes - Characteristics
I S 0 4301 Lifting appliances - Classification

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This British Standard, havingbeen prepared under thedirection of implementing thestandard, of necessary details such as symbols and
the Mechanical Engineering Standards Committee,was published size, type or grade designations. Enquiries shouldbe addressed to
under the euthority of the Board of BSI and comesInto effect on the Publications Manager, BSI, Linford Wood, Milton Keynes
29 June 1984. MK14 6LE. The numberfor telephone enquiriesis 0908 220022
O British Standards Institution, 1984 and for telex 825777..
First published October1932 Contract requirements. A British Standard does not purport t o
First revision September 1947 include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users of British
, . Standards are responsible for their correct application.
Second revision December 1960
Third revision June 1984
ISBN O 580 13889 5 Revision of British Standards. British Standards are revised, when
necessary, by the issue either of amendments or of revised editions.
It is important thatusers of British Standards should ascertainthat
British Standards Institution. Incorporated.by Royal Charter, BSI is
the independent national bodyfor the preparation of British they are in possessionof the latest amendments or editions.
Standards. It is the UK member of the International Organization Automatic updating service. BSI provides an economic, individual
for Standardization andUK sponsor of the British National and automatic standards updating service called PLUS. Details are
Committee of the International Electrotechnical Commission. available from BSI Enquiry Section a t Milton Keynes, telephone
In addition to the preparationand promulgation of standards, BSI 0908 221 166, telex 825777.
offers specialist services including the provisionof information
through the BSI Library and Standardline Database; Technical Help Information on all BSI publications is in the BSI Catalogue,
to Exporters; and otherservices. Advice can be obtained from the supplemented each month byBSI News which is available to
Enquiry Section, BSI, Milton Keynes MK14 6LE. telephone subscribing members of BSI andgives details of new publications,
0908 221
166,
telex825577. , revisions, amendments andwithdrawn standards..Any person who,
Copyright. Usersof British Standards are reminded that copyright when making use of a British Standard, encounters an inaccuracy or
subsists in all BSI publications.No part of this publication may be ambiguity, is requested to notify BSI without delay in order that
reproduced in any form without the prior permission in writingof the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken. _-
BSI. This doesnot preclude the free use, in the course of The following BSI referencesrelate t o the.work onth& siandard:
Committee reference MEEI41 Draft for kmment80/78528 DC

Committees responsiblefor this British Standard


The preparation of this British Standardwas entrusted by the Engineering Equipment and MaterialsUsers Association
Mechanical Engineering Standards Committee(MEEI-) t o Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors
Technical Comqittee MEE/41 upon which thefollowing bodies Federation of Manufacturers of Construction Equipment andCranes
were represented: Federation of Wire Rope Manufacturersof Great Britain
Associated Offices Technical Committee Gambica (BEAMA Ltd.)
Association of Consulting Engineers HealthandSafetyExecutive .
British Constructional Steelwork Association Independent Engineering Insurers Committee
British Ports Association andThe National Association of Ports Institute of Materials Handling
Employers Institution of Mechanical Engineers
British Transport Docks Board Institution of Production Engineers-
Bureau of Engineer Surveyors Institution of Structural Engineers
Construction Plant-hire Association Mechanical Handling Engineers Association
Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations Ministry of Defence
Department of the Environment (Building Research-Establishment) National Federation of Building Trades Employers
Department of the Environment (PropertyServices Agency) Welding Institute
Department of Trade end Industry (Mechanical and Electrical Coopted member
Engineering Division)

Amendments issued since publication

Amd. No. of issue Text affected Date

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8709-8 -0.6k-B MEE/41

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