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The Tiruray, or Teduray in their own language, is cultural minority residing in

the southern part of the Philippines.
The word Tiruray come from tiru, signifying place of origin, birth, or
residence, and ray from daya, meaning upper part of a stream or river.
The Tiruray call themselves etew teduray or Tiduray people.
Classification according to geographic location:
- etew rotor, mountain people;
- etew dogot, coastal people;
- etew teran, Tran people; and
- etew awang, Awang people;
- or etew uf, Upi people.
The Tiruray can be divided into three groups based on subsistence orientation:
- riverine,
- coastal, and
- the numerous mountain
They may be classified into the acculturated and the traditional.
- The first refers to those who live in the northernmost areas of the
mountains, and who have had close contact with Christian and Muslim
lowland peasants, as well as with Americans since the beginning of the
- The second refers to Tiruray who have survived deep in the tropical
forest region of the Cotabato Cordillera, and have retained a traditional
mode of production and value system.

Nomadic, surviving with hunting, fishing and gathering.
Teduray, which is derived from the word demurai meaning fishing with
hook and line.

Religious Beliefs and Practices____

Beliyanor shaman, the second major leader of a Tiruray community.
Sigayanfirst Christianized Tiruray, christened as Jose Tenorio
Etewmeans people
Keilawanvisible ones, human beings
Meginalewinvisible ones, spirits
Busawevil spirits, a tribe of creatures living in caves
Tuluscreator of the universe and the greatest authority over all spirits.
Telakimessengers, very much like angels in Christian faith
Tiyawanperformed by beliyan to seek spirits out and find the offended spirit
and discuss with it the proper way to settle the matter.
The swidden activities, that is the cycle of slash-and-burn, is timed with
reference to Tiruray constellations.
Kanduliseries of communal sacred meals.
o The kanduli rituals are called, respectively, the:
1. Maras or the marking festival which is held on the night of the
last full moon before the marking of the swidden sites,
2. Retus Kama or the festival of the first fruits of the corn which is
held on the following night of the first harvest of the
neighborhood corn.
3. Retus Farey or the festival of the first fruits of the rice which is
held on the night following the day of the harvest of rice, and
4. Matun Tunda or the harvest festival which is held on the night
of the first full moon when the rice harvest from all the
settlements have been collected. The shaman stores the ritual
rice in a small house called the teninees.
There are four good directions:
1. selat (front),
2. fereneken (45 degrees left),
3. lekas takes (45 degrees right), and
4. rotor (directly overhead).
Ungittalisman made from mystical powerful leaves and grasses wrapped in
cloth and bound with vine lashing.
Narakahell like place, but this was for the Maguindanao, because their god
is a different one.

Adatcustom law
Kefeduwanlegal and moral authority is exercised by an an acknowledged
expert in custom law called kefeduwan
Tiyawanwhere kefeduwan resides, where they settle disputes and discusses

Households and Societal Customs

Tiruray communities are organized in settlements of 5 to 20 families called
The largest social unit is the inged, which usually comprises several
The Tiruray word for family is kureng, which means pot; i.e., a family is
deemed as a group of persons living together and eating from the same pot.
The kinship terms used are
- eboh, father;
- ideng, mother;
- ofo, older sibling;
- tuwarey, younger sibling;
- and eya, child.
In Tiruray society, marriage takes place when the mans relatives have
succeeded in accumulating the bride-price, called tamuk.
- During marriage, relatives of the groom are called upon to contribute
their share of items making up the bride-price.
- Consisting of animals, valuables, and other articles, it is delivered to
the parents of the bride.
- Marrying inside your own kin is considered incest or sumbang and
is deeply frowned at in Tiruray society.
Prostitution and adultery is not accepted and is gravely punished when

Tiruray House
The traditional Tiruray house is roughly only 3x5 meters, clearly intended for
a single nuclear family.
The houses, built up on posts that are about 2 meters off the ground, are
made of bamboo and wood with roofs of grass and a ladder that is pulled in
from the inside for security during the night.
The middle post holding the house up is decorated with various ornaments
toward of evil spirits.
There are no walls, only vine hangings of rattan. This is used as a defense so
people can attack from the inside the enemy when they raided using a bow
and arrow.