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Lecture Notes, Fall 2009

Ansgar Neuenhofer

**Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Engineering
**

California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Copyright © 2009 Ansgar Neuenhofer (photo by author)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 Review of Statics 1

1.1 Goal of structural analysis 1

1.2 Structural idealizations 1

1.3 Summary of properties of moment and shear force diagrams 2

1.4 Example 1.1 3

1.5 Frames 6

1.6 Example 1.2 9

1.7 Statical determinacy-Instability-Degree of indetermincay 10

Problems 14

**2 Principal of Virtual Forces 18
**

2.1 Introductory remarks 18

2.2 Virtual work-Principle of virtual forces 18

2.3 Procedure for analysis 19

2.4 Principle of virtual forces for trusses 19

2.5 Principle of virtual forces for beams 19

2.6 Principle of virtual forces for frames 19

2.7 Example 2.1 20

2.8 Example 2.2 22

2.9 Integration tables 23

2.10 Summary 25

2.11 Example 2.3 27

2.12 Example 2.4 28

2.13 Example 2.5 20

2.14 Example 2.6 32

2.15 Shear deformation 35

Problems 38

**3 The Force Method 49
**

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Discussion 49

3.3 Example 3.1 50

3.4 Example 3.2 53

3.5 Example 3.2 (Alternative) 55

3.6 Example 3.3 57

3.7 Example 3.4 60

3.8 Force method for arbitrary degree of statical indeterminacy 64

3.9 Maxwell's law 64

3.10 Summary of force method 65

3.11 Example 3.5 65

3.12 Example 3.6 70

3.13 Example 3.7 73

3.14 The force method for space frames 75

Problems 78

**4 The Slope-Deflection Method 88
**

4.1 General remarks 88

4.2 End moments for prismatic members 89

4.3 Example 4.1 93

4.4 Example 4.2 95

4.5 Example 4.3 97

4.6 Example 4.4 99

4.7 Summary of procedure 102

4.8 Comparison between slope-deflection and force methods 103

4.9 Fixed-end moments 104

Problems 106

**5 The Moment-Distribution Method 113
**

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 General description 113

5.3 Example 5.1 114

5.4 Example 5.2 116

5.5 Summary of steps 118

5.6 More discussion and illustration 119

5.7 Example 5.3 120

5.8 Summary 122

Problems 123

**6 Approximate analysis of building frames under lateral load 126
**

6.1 Introduction 126

6.2 Discussion 126

6.3 The Portal Method 128

6.4 The Cantilever Method 133

Problems 143

**7 Influence Lines 145
**

7.1 Introduction 145

7.2 Müller-Breslau principle 148

7.3 Use of influence lines 149

7.4 Example 150

7.5 Properties of influence lines of statically determinate structures 151

7.6 Influence lines of statically indeterminate structures 152

Problems 156

to a smaller extent. reinforced concrete. The results of structural analysis are the internal forces and deformations that form the basis for. Since the exact mechanical relations are extremely complicated. We have to always remember that the results of any structural analysis can never be better than the underlying model. in short garbage in-garbage out. shells) Ly requirement H Lx H Ly H Lx (c) 1-dimensional structural elements Structural elements whose two dimensions (width and height) are small compared to their length are commonly called truss (axial force response) or beam (bending moment response) elements. if not the most important. (a) 3-dimensional structural elements (rarely used in structural engineering) (b) 2-dimensional structural elements (plate. a fact we should always be aware of. With these approximations and simplifications we map the real structure onto our mechanical model. 1. A crude model remains a crude model and yields crude results. Thus we are omitting a very important step of en- gineering work. We use those to model plane (two-dimensional) structures and. space (three-dimensio- nal) structures. In this class. say.or two-dimensional idealizations of the real structure.2 Structural idealizations All structures are three-dimensional. 1 . We represent a frame element by its axis. After se- lecting an appropriate structural model. steel or timber design. beam and frame members) only. which is the connection of the centroids of the cross-sections. we will be dealing with one-dimensional structural elements (truss. In this class. no matter how many digits we include in our analysis. In this class we talk little about modeling but assume that we already have an appropriate mechanical representation of the real structure.1 Goal of structural analysis The objective of a structural analysis is to determine the force (stress) and displacement (strain) demand of structures using a mechanical model.1 Review of Statics 1. we rely on many approximations that are more or less accu- rate. we often use the term frame member or frame element to denote a combination of truss and beam elements. It is impor- tant that we are aware of these simplifications in order to judge whether or not certain models are appropriate. In structural analysis we usually work with one. The analysis must be both as economical as possible and as accurate as necessary. we analyze the model under the most unfavorable combination of loads.

The moment func- tion has a change in slope at that point but is continuous. the functions for the shear force and bending moment are of order n+1 and n+2 .3 Summary of Properties of Moment and Shear Force Diagrams In the following. the shear force is constant and the bending moment is linearly varying. • In regions with a uniformly distributed load the shear force varies linearly and the bending moment is a qua- dratic parabola.1. • An external moment causes a jump in the bending moment. It does not change the slope of the moment func- tion. nor does it affect the shear force at that location. Hence the moment function is one degree higher than the shear force function. the bending moment takes on its maximum. 2 . • In beam segments without distributed loading. When the shear force is zero.1 Properties of shear force and bending moment diagrams. we summarize key properties of shear force and bending moment diagrams. It “jumps“ upward or downward according to the direction of the force. w ML P A B L wL Ay + V =0 V By − P M ML linear linear + linear quadratic linear no change in slope M max change in slope no change in slope Fig. In general. if the distributed load is of order n . • The shear force is the derivative of the bending moment. • At points where a concentrated force (a reaction force or an externally applied force) is applied the shear force is discontinuous. respectively. 1.

00 6.3 Free-body diagram of whole structure.4.00 2.2 is a beam with two internal hinges. FF . We cut the beam at the internal hinges resulting in the three free-body diagrams in Fig. 3 . We have four unknown support reaction but only two equilibrium equations. 50 10 FA FB FC FC FD FD FE FF Fig. Shown in Figure 1. The consequence for calculating the support reactions is that we have to break the struc- ture apart and look at free-body diagram of individual parts. The first important observation is that this structure is not a single rigid body. We can easily see. The center portion CD of the beam contains only two unknown forces while the exterior portions contain three unknowns. 1. it ceases to be rigid. Hence 1 ∑ MC = 0 → FD = − 6 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 3 = −30 (1. we cannot calculate the support forces by looking at the structure as a whole because there are more unknown forces than there are equilibrium equations. If we remove the beam from its supports. 50 10 A B E F C D FA FB FE FF Fig.1: Beam with internal hinges 50 kN 10 kN/m [m] 5.00 Fig. 1. 1. 1. We now apply forces FC and FD to the exterior portions of the beam and solve for the support reactions FA . FB and FE .4 Free-body diagram of individual parts. Problem: Draw the bending moment and shear force diagrams for the beam in Fig.1. that we can rotate against because of the hinge.2 Beam with internal hinges. Applying the force to the left-hand portion of the beam is an alternative that would affect the results for FC but not the final results.4 Example 1. In applying the equilibrium equations to the free-body diagrams it is important to find the right starting point.1) ∑F y =0 → FC = 30 − 50 − 60 = −80 We have applied the 50-kN concentrated force to the center free-body diagram.00 2.2.00 5. Differently put. 1.

5). it is good practice to redraw the free-body diagrams and label all forces by their magnitude. Before drawing the shear force and bending moment diagrams. 1. Unlike the previous examples.2) ∑ MF = 0 → FE = 42 ∑ Fy = 0 → FF = −12 We have now calculated all support reactions. respectively. we now use our experience gained in previous examples and try to draw the internal force moment diagrams directly from the free-body diagrams in Fig. Applying the equilibrium equations to the free-body diagrams in Fig.1.7 Shear force and bending moment diagrams. 1. FA FB 80 30 FE FF Fig. 1.6. 4 . 50 10 32 112 80 80 30 30 42 12 Fig. we change the direction of the arrows representing these forces (see Fig. Caution: Since the numerical results for FC and FD are negative. 80 V [N] + 30 12 − 32 30 160 M [Nm] 60 − C A B + D E F 45 Fig.5 Free-body diagrams of exterior parts after calculating FC and FD .6 Free-body diagrams with all forces known. 1.5 yields ∑M A =0 → FB = 112 ∑F y =0 → FA = −32 (1. in which we wrote explicit equations for the shear force and bending moment variation. 1.

Hence the shear force jumps down by 32. This cause the shear force “to go down gradually” from 30 to 30-60=-30. (9) Nothing “happens” to the beam between supports E and F . 1. Can you explain? The shear force jumps at C but is continuous at D . Hence the shear force jumps from –30 to –30+42=12. we should try to distance ourselves from blind mathema- tics and adopt the approach followed in this example. Consequently. Remarks: The bending moment diagram changes its slope at C but does not change the slope at D . (5) At hinge C the applied force 50 acts down. The moment variation is a quadratic parabola whose maximum value is L2 62 M =w = 10 ⋅ = 45 kNm (1. Consequently. Hence the shear force jumps from –32 to –32+112=80. this force is uniformly dis- tributed. At hinge D the 30 force acts down. Note that the two 30 forces cancel when moving across hinge D . the moment has to linearly decrease from 60 at support E to zero at support F . At support F a 12-kN force acts down. (2) The beam segment CD is a simply supported beam under a uniformly distributed 10-kN/m load spanning from hinge C to hinge D . On the other hand it must be zero sat the internal hinge C . Since the force at D acts downward. 1. (3) We now turn to the left-hand segment of the beam. Since the support force at A acts downward (preventing uplift) it causes tension at the top and compression at the bottom of the beam. we check whether the shear force calculated between supports E and F is consistent with the support force at F . The ben- ding moment must not jump at support E . The bending moment is thus negative.6). (3) At support B a 112 force acts up. This force causes a linearly varying bending moment increasing from 0 at support A to 32 ⋅ 5=160 at support B . Hence the shear force is constant. Hence the shear force is constant. However. 5 . The bending moment is thus negative. As a quick check we argue along the same line starting from support F . (8) At support E the 42 force acts up. This is obviously the case. (7) Nothing “happens” to the beam between hinge D and support E . Hence the shear force is constant. Can you explain? Fig. Hence the shear force jumps from 80 to 80-50=30. Hence the shear force is constant. (4) Nothing “happens” to the beam between support B and hinge C . A total force 10 ⋅ 6 = 60 acts down. (10) Finally. Whenever experience and problem complexity permit.Shear force (1) At support A the 32 force acts down. Bending moment (1) At support A the 32 force acts down. On the other hand it must be zero at support F . Since the support force at A acts downward (preventing uplift) it causes tension at the top of the beam and the moment is negative. the moment has to linearly decrease from 160 at support B to zero at hinge C .8 Sketch of deflected shape. (2) Nothing “happens” to the beam between supports A and B . it causes tension at the top and compression at the bottom of the beam.3) 8 8 This moment is positive since it produces tension at the bottom of the beam. The bending moment must not jump at support B . This force causes a linearly varying bending moment increasing from 0 at support F to 12 ⋅ 5=60 at support E . (6) “A lot happens” between hinges C and D . Note that the two 80 forces cancel when moving across hinge C (see Fig. This force causes a linearly varying bending moment increasing from 0 at hinge D to 30 ⋅ 2=60 at support E .

9(a). 1. we first calculate the support reactions. 1. (a) system and loading. Solution: (1) As always.5 Frames We now apply the concepts learned before to find the internal force diagrams of frame structures. 1.10). We find the vertical reactions by looking at the structure as a whole (Fig. L L ∑ M B = 0 → Ay = w 2 ∑ Fy = 0 → By = w 2 ∑ Fx = 0 → Ax = Bx (1. 1. Equilibrium for the whole structure also requires that the horizontal support forces Ax and Bx are equal and opposite.4).9 Three-hinge frame. (1.1. Since there are four unknown reactions but only three equilibrium equations for the structure as a whole.10 at point C . we have to dismember the structure to find the reactions. axial force and bending moment diagrams for the frame in Fig. Cut at hinge to find horizontal reaction forces. (2) Next. 6 . Problem: Draw the shear force.5) due to Ay due to load Important: Since a hinge cannot transfer a moment. w w C C H H (a) (b) Ax Bx A B A B L Ay By L Fig.9b). we cut the structure at hinge C and formulate equilibrium for one of the two resulting free bodies (Fig 1.4) w w Cx Cx Cy Cy H Ax Bx A B L L w w 2 L/2 L/2 2 Fig. L L L L L2 L2 ∑ MC = 0 = w 2 ⋅ 2 − w 2 ⋅ 4 − Bx ⋅ H → Bx = w 8H → Ax = w 8H (1. 1. Also note that by selecting C as the moment reference point.10 Three-hinge frame. the two free-body diagrams in Fig. there is no internal moment in Fig. (b) free-body diagram of whole structure. 1.10 involve three un- known forces each. Since we know the vertical reaction force from Eq. we avoid referencing the forces C x and C y transferred though the hinge.

and the shear force in the column turns into an axial force in the girder. According to our sign convention. The bending moment in the columns varies linearly from zero at the pin supports to a certain value at the column-girder junction. 1. the columns are in compression.11 Three cuts for internal forces. we are now in the position to find the internal force variation by making cuts at arbi- trary locations along the girder and the two columns. the shear force is negative for the left column and positive for the right column. it is important to emphasize that we should consider the internal force diagrams as a proper connection of values calculated at specific locations rather than plots of mathematical relations. Hence 7 . We calculate this value by substituting x =H into the moment expression for sections I or III. Figure 1. Columns: The axial force in the columns is constant and equal to the vertical reaction forces. The shear force in the columns is also constant and equal to the horizontal reaction forces. (4) Before drawing the internal force diagrams. x M P P P V M M V V H L2 I L2 II L2 III x x w w w 8H 8H 8H L L L w w w 2 2 2 Fig. the axial force in the column turns into a shear force in the girder. Clearly. or x =0 into the moment expression or Section II.6) ⎛ ⎞⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎜ L2 L x 2 ⎟⎟ ∑ M = 0 → M = w ⎜⎜⎜ − 8 + 2 x − 2 ⎟⎟⎟⎟ N ⎜⎜due N N ⎟ ⎝ toAx due toAy due tow ⎠⎟⎟ Section III L2 L L2 ∑ Fx = 0 →V = w 8H ∑ Fy = 0 → P = −w 2 ∑ M = 0 → M = −w 8H x Note that because of the 90 degree angle at the column-girder junction. Equilibrium for the three sections requires Section I L2 L L2 ∑ Fx = 0 → V = −w 8H ∑ Fy = 0 → P = −w 2 ∑ M = 0 → M = −w 8H x Section II L2 L ∑ Fx = 0 → P = −w 8H ∑ Fy = 0 → V = w 2 − wx (1.11 shows the resulting free-body diagrams. (3) With reaction forces known.

Also note that the two portions of the girder rotate against each other at the hinge. The shear force in the girder at the column junction is equal to the axial force in the columns. P and deflected shape for three-hinge frame. 8 . Because of the uniformly distributed load acting on the girder. M . 1. We will discuss a method to calculate deflections in Chapter 2. We observe that both columns and girder bend (the deflected shape is curved).12 Internal force diagramsV . L2 L2 M = −w H =w (1.7) 8H 8 Girder: The axial force in the girder is constant and equal to the horizontal reaction forces. We include a sketch of the deflected shape of the frame for illustration. the shear force varies linearly and the bending moment varies quadratically and is zero at hinge C . L w 2 L2 L2 w w 8 8 + − − − − L − w w L2 − 2 + L2 M w 8H V 8H L2 w 8H − − − P L L w w 2 2 Fig. The properties just discussed lead directly to the internal force diagrams below. we conclude that the girder is in compression. By inspection.

14 Internal force diagrams and sketch of deflected shape. Problem: Find the three internal force diagrams for the frame structure shown. It is important to realize that we don’t have to set up equations describing the variations of the internal forces as a function of a local coordinate x. at the column-girder connections and the points of application of external forces) and then properly connect those points. 80 70 + 10 10 80 − 20 40 − 20 + 60 − M + V 40 − [kNm] [kN] 20 40 − − N + 70 [kN] sketch of deflected shape 10 Fig. 1.6 Example 1.g. All we need to do is determine the bending moment at selected locations (e.2 60 kN C 1m 60 kN 1m A 2m B 1m 1m 2m Fig. 1.13 Sample frame structure. Always remember: We want to do structural engineering with as little math as possible and as much experience and intuition as possible.1. 9 . Solution: We obtain the support reactions from the 3 global equilibrium conditions plus the condition that the bending moment is zero at hinge C (for parts AC or BC). This is what we did in introductory statics classes.

16(b) has more members than necessary for stability. 1. The truss in Fig. The truss is statically determinate. Both structures undergo excessive displacements without forces being applied to it. 1. We can remove one of the top three members without sacrificing the stability of the structure. 1. statically indeterminate.16 are statically indeterminate. if we remove one member from the structure it becomes unstable and collapses under applied loads.16 Statically indeterminate trusses. Figure 1.17 illustrates those displacement “modes”. 1. inspection.17 are unstable.17(a) is externally unstable because it has no support that resists horizontal movement (we would have to turn one roller support into a pin support to make the truss statically de- terminate). Figures 1.1. The structure in Fig. Fig. 10 . insight and experience.17(b) is internally unstable because it has too few members.17 depict examples for each of those properties. or unstable. Since in this case the indeterminacy is with regard to the numbers of members. Although we will discuss formulas to calculate the degree of indeterminacy and instability in subsequent classes. (a) (b) Fig. The trusses in Fig. The structure in Fig. We will learn how to analyze this type of trusses in subsequent sections of this chapter.15 is constructed by adding eight triangular panels. the truss is termed statically indeterminate exter- nally. the best method by far to assess those properties is to use intuition. i. 1.16(a) has one more support than necessary for stability. Analysis of indeterminate structures is beyond the scope of this class. the truss is called statically indeterminate internally.e. The structure in Fig.15 Statically determinate truss. The trusses in Fig. All members are necessary for stability of the truss.15-1. The structure in Fig.17 Unstable trusses with “collapse modes”. the square panel is unstable since it has no diagonal (we would have to add one diagonal to make the truss statically deter- minate). 1. 1. 1. (a) (b) Fig. More precisely.7 Statical Determinacy-Instability-Degree of Indetermincay Trusses We need to be able to identify whether a structure is statically determinate. Since the indeterminacy is with respect to the reactions. 1. 1.

n = 3 + 17 − 2 ⋅ 10 = 0 (statically determinate) n = 3 + 11 − 2 ⋅ 8 = −2 (unstable) n = 3 + 16 − 2 ⋅ 9 = 1 (statically indeterminate) Fig. indeterminate and unstable truss structures. indeterminate or unstable is by inspection. 11 . the best way of determining whether a structure is statically determinate.There are formulas for determining the degree of statical indeterminacy. 1.18 Statically determinate. the following equations are not foolproof since they constitute only a necessary but not a sufficient criterion for stability of the structure.8) nn : Number of nodes n: Degree of statical indeterminacy Note: Usually. Degree of statical indeterminacy for truss structures plane trusses n = s + m − 2nn s: Number of support reactions space trusses n = s + m − 3nn m: Number of truss members (1. Unfortunately.

indet. to 11th degree) 2 6 2 2 2 4 2 1 n = 3 + 18 + 0 − 3 ⋅ 7 = 0 (stat. indet. n = s + i + 3m − 3p s: Number of support reactions i: Number of internal forces at hinges m: Number of closed loops without hinge (1.9) p: Number of parts n: Degree of statical indeterminacy n = 5 + 0 + 0 − 3 ⋅1 = 2 (stat.Beams and frames Degree of statical indeterminacy for plane frame structures A formula similar to Eq. 12 . 1. (1. to 2nd degree) n = 5 + 4 + 0− 3⋅3 = 0 (!! unstable!! CAUTION) 2 2 1 n = 3 + 2 + 3 ⋅ 3 − 3 ⋅ 1 = 11 (stat. indeterminate and unstable frame structures.8) exists to calculate the degree of statical indeterminacy for beam and frame structures. det) 2 2 2 2 n = 4 + 4 + 3⋅1− 3⋅ 3 = 2 (!! unstable!!.19 Statically determinate. CAUTION) Fig.

For the 3-D frame above we obtain n = 24 + 0 + 6 ⋅ 1 − 6 ⋅ 1 = 24 (stat.20 Statically indeterminate three-dimensional frame.Degree of statical indeterminacy for space frame structures For three-dimensional structures the formula is n = s + i + 6m − 6p s: Number of support reactions i: Number of internal forces at hinges m: Number of closed loops without hinge (1.11) 13 .10) p: Number of members n: Degree of statical indeterminacy Example: Fig. 1. indeterminate to the 24th degree) (1.

shear force and axial force diagrams of the two structures for the loading shown.0 sketch of deflected shape 1.2 10 kN/m D E F 3m 50 kN 3m A B C 8m 4m (a) Show that the two structures above are statically determinate. 14 .8 40.Problems 1.25 − 20 + − 35.7 + V [kN] 28.6 41.0 + − 11.8 11. (b) Find the bending moment.1 10 kN/m C D E F G 6m A B 5m 3m 3m 4m Solution: 153 188 80 40.6 40.2 35 − − M + − N [kNm] 91.7 30.3 [kN] 30. Draw the bending moment diagram on the tension side of the member.

3 6m 6m (a) (b) 5m 3m 3m 4m 5m 3m 3m 4m 6m 6m (c) (d) 5m 3m 3m 4m 5m 3m 3m 4m (e) (f) 12 ft 12 ft 20 ft 20 ft 12 ft 12 ft (g) (h) 20 ft 20 ft Draw the bending moment diagrams of the above structures for the given loading. 15 . All applied forces. respectively.1. moments and distributed loads have unit magnitude and intensity.

00 m 3.00 m 3.00 m 3.00 m 2.00 m 3.00 m 1.00 m Find the shear force and bending moment diagrams of the beams for the given loading.00 m 1.00 m 1.00 m 2.00 m 2.00 m 3.00 m 3.4 10 kN/m 20 kN 20 kN (a) 1.00 m 1.1.00 m 2.00 m 2.00 m 3.00 m 1.00 m 1.00 m 25 kNm 20 kN 20 kN 25 kNm (c) 1.00 m 3.00 m 10 kN/m 10 kN/m 20 kN (b) 1. Sketch the deflected shape.00 m 1 kN/m 1 kN/m 10 kNm (f) (g)4.00 m 25 kNm 25 kNm 25 kNm (e) 1.00 m 1.00 m 2.00 m 1.00 m 1.00 m 2.00 m 4.00 m 3.00 m 3.00 m 2.00 m 1.00 m 2. 16 .00 m 1.00 m 10 kN/m (d) 1.00 m 2.00 m 2.00 m 1.00 m 1.00 m 1.00 m 1.00 m 2.

33 + (d) V − 10 21.5 2.5 1.5 25 1.67 25 25 M 5 − 5 + 20 (e) V − 6.667 20 25 25 20 20 M − 30 20 8.5 6.25 25 M 12.Solution: 20 20 + (a) V − 20 20 20 20 − M + 20 20 10 + 5 (b) V − 5 10 20 15 15 − M + 20 20 1.5 3.25 12.125 17 .5 + (f) V − 2.25 6.667 + (c) V 1.25 − + 6.125 5 − 2 M 2 + 5 3.

When applying the principle of virtual force. We assume that forces are applied slowly such that neither heat or kinetic energy is generated. 2.1) work as it moves through the real displacement Δ of the structure. Now we can use HOOKE’s law to express the real strains in terms of the corresponding real internal forces N (x ) M (x ) V (x ) ε(x ) = κ(x ) = γ(x ) = (2.4) where M ′.6) κ ε γ The factor k is a shape factor that accounts for the nonlinear distribution of shear stresses and shear strains (see ARCE 222. the internal virtual workWi ′ must be equal to the external virtual workWe′ . With the virtual force acting. The pro- duct of external loads and corresponding displacements is the external energy or external workWe imposed on the structure.5) EA EI GA and obtain M (x ) N (x ) V (x ) Δ= ∫ M ′(x ) N EI dx + ∫ N ′(x ) EA N dx + k ∫ V ′(x ) GA N dx (2. 2. we use the principle of virtual forces to calculate a specific displacement Δ (more precisely a single component of the displacement) or a rotation ϕ at any point on the structure. also called the internal energy or internal workWi .2) which is the work done by the internal virtual forces (virtual axial force N ′ . N ′ andV ′ are the internal virtual forces caused by a unit virtual force P ′ = 1 . The dummy load also does internal virtual work Wi ′ = ∫ M ′(x ) κ(x ) dx + ∫ N ′(x ) ε(x ) dx + ∫ V ′(x ) γ(x ) dx (2. Hence P ′Δ = ∫ M ′(x ) κ(x ) dx + ∫ N ′(x ) ε(x ) dx + ∫ V ′(x ) γ(x ) dx (2. energy principles are manna from heaven. Accordingly. τ = VQ / It ) across the section. The applied loads also cause internal forces and corresponding deformations (strains).2 Virtual work-Principle of virtual forces Virtual work is done by virtual (imagined) forces on actual (real) displacements or the work done by actual forces along virtual displacements. virtual shear forceV ′ and virtual bending moment M ′ along the strains (axial strain ε . if we let P ′ = 1 .3) It is important. we apply the real loading to the structure. The energy principle or law of conservation of energy states that the external energy is equal to the internal energy stored in the structure. In order for a system to be in equilibrium. For convenience. that the domain of integration is the entire structure and x is a coordinate along a structural member. We will take a closer look at the shape factor in Section 2. 18 . integrated over the entire structure is the strain energy stored in the structure. shear strain γ and curvature κ ) caused by the real loading.1 Introductory remarks If we apply external loads to a structure. we distinguish between the principle of virtual forces and the principle of virtual displacements. these loads cause external displacements at their point of application. The product of internal forces and corresponding deformations. Note that we denote virtual (dummy) quantities by the “prime”-symbol. In this class. we obtain Δ= ∫ M ′(x ) κ(x ) dx + ∫ N ′(x ) ε(x ) dx + ∫ V ′(x ) γ(x ) dx (2. the virtual force does external virtual We′ = P ′Δ (2. As the structure displaces under the real loading.15. we apply a virtual or dummy load P ′ at the point and in the direction of the desired displacement Δ or a dummy moment in the direction of a desired rotation ϕ .2 Principal of Virtual Forces If Newton’s laws are the salt of the earth.

The vir- tual work equation becomes (analogous to Eq. N ′ andV ′ are the internal virtual forces caused by a virtual moment M L′ . We summarize: We use a virtual force to determine unknown displacements and a virtual moment to determine unknown rotations.5 Principle of virtual forces for beams Beams carry shear forces and bending moments such that Eq. 2.6) reduces to N (x ) Δ= ∫ N ′(x ) EA dx (2.15 of this chapter that the shear deformations are small for typical beams and frames whose section depth is small compared to the length. (3) Evaluate the strain energy integrals (internal virtual work).4 Principle of virtual forces for trusses Truss members carry axial force only such that Eq.6) and (2. we can drop the dependence on x and the above integral reduces to a summation n Ni Δ= ∑N′E A L i =1 i i (2.8) gives us the desired displacement or the desired rotation directly. N ′ andV ′ are the internal virtual forces caused by a unit virtual moment M L′ = 1 .12) 2.9) Furthermore since the axial force is constant in each member (except for the effect of self weight of the member which is typically small). Determine the internal force diagrams of the structure for the unit loading.6 Principle of virtual forces for frames Ignoring shear deformations.11) We will show in Section 2.10) i i where n is the number of members in the truss. With this approximation the virtual force expression for beams is simply M (x ) Δ= ∫ M ′(x ) EI dx (2.8) where M ′. Consequently. we will always neglect shear deformation in beams and frames unless otherwise noted. 2.Analogously. (2.6) reduces to M (x ) V (x ) Δ= ∫ M ′(x ) EI dx + k ∫ V ′(x ) GA dx (2. we let M L′ = 1 and obtain ϕ= ∫ M ′(x ) κ(x ) dx + ∫ N ′(x ) ε(x ) dx + ∫ V ′(x ) γ(x ) dx (2.3) M L′ϕ = ∫ M ′(x ) κ(x ) dx + ∫ N ′(x ) ε(x ) dx + ∫ V ′(x ) γ(x ) dx (2. 2. (2. the principle of virtual forces for frames (structure that carry both bending moments and axial forces) gives us M (x ) N (x ) Δ= ∫ M ′(x ) EI dx + ∫ N ′(x ) EA dx (2.7) where M ′. Again.13) 19 . in this class. we place a unit moment at that point. (2. we can use a unit virtual moment to calculate an unknown rotation ϕ at any point on the structure. 2. We use the index L to distinguish between the concentrated virtual moment that acts as a load on the left-hand side of the preceding equation and the inter- nal virtual moment on the right-hand side. which according to Eqs. in direction of the desired rotation).3 Procedure for analysis (1) Determine the internal force diagrams of the structure for the actual loading (2) Place a unit load on the structure at the point and in the direction of the desired displacement (if we want to deter- mine a rotation.

we apply in the vertical direction a unit virtual force at B and calculate the resulting member forces resulting from this load.601 0.333 4m 4m Fig. 0. Vertical displacement at B To find the vertical displacement at B .601 D E 0. 2.333 T T 0. 20 .1.0 T T 10. Member forces for real loading.01 C T T N [kN] 10.2. Problem: Find the vertical displacement at B and the horizontal displacement at E of the truss above for the given loading.601 0. 2. 13.667 C 0.3 C 18. 2. Member forces for virtual loading.0 Fig. 000 kN .2 Member forces for real loading.7 Example 2. Solution: 1.1 Example 2. We first find the member forces resulting for the given loading.601 C C 3m P′ = 1 N′ T T A C B 0.1 10 kN 10 kN D E 3m 10 kN A C B 4m 4m Fig.01 6. The axial stiffness is EA=10.0 C 6.3 Member forces for virtual loading (vertical displacement at B ). 2.0 18.

2 kNm ΔB = EA ∑ N ⋅N ′⋅L = 10.3 ∑ 166.601 0. Summation Since the truss structure has seven members.4 kNm ΔE = EA ∑ N ⋅N′⋅L = 10.017 m=17 mm ↓ (2.451 A C N′ B T 0.Horizontal displacement at E To find the horizontal displacement at E .2 13.451 3m T T 0.601 -0. 21 . The sign of the result automatically gives the correct direction of the displacement. we must include them in the summation.451 3.0 -0. real member force is compression and virtual member force is tension or vice versa.750 4. 000 kN = 0.0 0.33 30.77 7 EC -18.750 T 0.e.451 C 0.0 -0.451 3.14) i i The calculations are best arranged in tabular form: # Member N [kN] N ′ ( ΔB ) N ′ ( ΔE ) L [m] N ⋅ N ′ ⋅ L ( ΔB ) N ⋅ N ′ ⋅ L ( ΔE ) 1 AB 10.000 13. If either E or A varies.250 4.9 and 2.02 9. 2.0 3 DE -13. P′ = 1 D E 0.77 6 BE 6.0013 m=1.0 2 BC 10. Positive results obtained in this example for both displacements indicate that the displacements are in direction of the applied virtual force. • When the real and virtual member forces have different signs.6 4 AD -18. 3.01 0.500 4.33 10.4 The vertical displacement at B and the horizontal displacement at E are thus 1 166. 2.451 C 0.606 39.01 -29.667 0.15) 1 13.601 0. • We can select the direction of the virtual force arbitrarily.606 13.606 39. we have to include seven terms in the virtual work summation (see Eqs.000 13.3 mm → Note: • Since the cross-sectional area A and the modulus of elasticity E are constant throughout the structure.333 0.10) 7 N 1 N′ ⋅ Δ = P 1 ∫ N′ EA dx = ∑ E A ⋅N i =1 i ⋅ N i′ ⋅ Li (2. 000 kN = 0.47 -26. we can move the product of the two quantities (the axial stiffness EA ) out of the integral.01 29. the corresponding term in the summation is negative.451 3.451 3.333 0.601 -0.500 T 0.250 4m 4m Fig.3 5 DB 6.01 0.0 0. we apply in the horizontal direction a unit virtual force at E and calculate the resulting member forces resulting from this load.3 -0. i.4 Member forces for virtual loading (horizontal displacement at E ).000 35.606 13.02 -9.

Since we want to find the vertical displacement at midspan. We find the real moment diagram by simple statics.5 Deflected shape of truss. We find the virtual moment diagram by simple statics. Figure 2. Bending moment diagram for virtual loading. 2.5 shows the deflected shape of the truss structure. Bending moment diagram for real loading.12). w M L2 w 8 Fig.2. we apply at midspan a unit load in the vertical direction. 22 .8 Example 2. Problem: Find the midspan displacement for a simply supported beam of span L and flexural stiffness EI under a uniformly distributed load w . Note that the horizontal displacement of joint E is much smaller than the vertical displacement at joint B which is consistent with the analysis above. 1.6 Example 2.2 w EI L / 2 Δ=? L/2 Fig. 2. (2. 2. D E B A C Fig. P ′=1 M′ L 1⋅ 4 Fig. 2. 2.7 Moment diagram for real loading. Solution: To find a specific displacement of a beam we use Eq. 2.8 Moment diagram for virtual loading.

trapezoids and parabolas. from a mathematical viewpoint the above concept can be used whenever we have to integrate the product of two functions f1(x ) and f2 (x ) over a given interval (Fig. (2.17) 2w ⎛x 2 x 3 ⎞⎟ 2w ⎛⎜ L4 L4 ⎞⎟ 5wL4 = ∫ ⎜⎜⎜ L − ⎟ dx = ⎜ − ⎟= EI 0 ⎝4 4 ⎠⎟ EI ⎝⎜ 96 256 ⎠⎟ 384EI This is the same result derived in ARCE 223 either by double integration or the moment area method.16) 2 2 L /2 2 2 Integrating the product of the two moment functions in the preceding equation according to Eq.9 Integration Tables 2. Measuring a coordinate x from the left support. (2. we can write for the two bending moment diagrams wL wx 2 L/4 1 L M (x ) = x− 0≤x ≤L M ′(x ) = x= x 0≤x ≤ (2.1 Discussion We can write the integral that we need to evaluate when applying the principle of virtual work as n M 1 Δ= ∫ M ′ EI dx = ∑ (EI ) i =1 i ⋅ αi ⋅ M i′* ⋅ M i * ⋅ Li (summation over n segments of the beam) (2.3. 2.19) is the real internal force. that in order to find displacements or rotations at specific points using the principle of virtual forces we need to evaluate the integral of products of simple functions (shapes). we will learn how to evaluate these integrals without formally integrating. triangles. 2. In the following section.9). Problem: Find the factor α such that L ∫ f1(x ) f2 (x ) dx = α ⋅ F1 ⋅ F2 ⋅ L (2.19) 0 23 .2 Example As an example. rectangles.12) gives (because of symmetry.g. 2.9. the other represents the virtual internal force. Integration. Clearly. we only need to consider half the beam) L L /2 1 2 1 ⎛⎜ wL wx 2 ⎞⎟ Δ = EI ∫ M ′(x ) M (x ) dx = EI ∫ x⎜ 2 ⎜⎝ 2 x− 2 ⎠⎟ ⎟ dx 0 0 L /2 (2.18) where M ′* : typical value of virtual moment M ′ M* : typical value of virtual moment M α: tabulated integration factor depending on the shape of M and M ′ L: Length of beam segment EI : Flexural stiffness of beam segment Hence we can always evaluate the virtual work integrals by simple table look-up. we derive the α -factor for two linear functions (triangles) where the triangles have opposite orientation.9. We observe. Recall that in the context of the principal of virtual forces one factor in the integral of Eq. e.

24 . Writing the two triangular variations as functions of x gives F1 f1(x ) = (L − x ) (2.F1 f1(x ) x f2 (x ) F2 L Fig.10 Subdividing trapezoid into two triangles. subdividing a trapezoidal moment shape into two triangles.g. e. Factors for the most common internal force distri- butions are listed on the next page. a a b b = + L L L x x x a a + + = + − b − b L L L L1 L2 Fig.9 Integrating the product of two linear functions. 2. It is often necessary to split up the area under a moment diagram into several parts before applying the integration tables. the α -factor for two triangles with different orientation is 1/6.22) 1 = ⋅ F1 ⋅ F2 ⋅ L 6 Hence.20) L and F2 f2 (x ) = x (2.2 .10). 2.21) L Integrating the product of the two functions yields L L L L F2 F1 F2 F1 F1 F2 ⎛⎜ x 2 x 3 ⎞⎟ ∫ f1(x ) f2 (x ) dx = ∫ x (L − x ) dx = ∫ (Lx − x 2 ) dx = ⎜L − ⎟⎟ 0 0 L L 0 L L L L ⎜⎝ 2 3 ⎠0 (2. Note that it is unnecessary to find the two distances L1 and L2 when subdividing an internal force diagram that varies from a positive to a negative value (see Fig.

25 .11 Integrating the product of trapezoidal functions. b1 M1 a1 a2 b2 M2 L Fig. 2.24) over and over again. we will be using Eqs.24) Throughout this class. P′ = 1 P′ = 1 P′ = 1 Absolute displacement Relative displacement M′ = 1 M′ = 1 Relative rotation Absolute rotation (hinge rotation) Fig. The integral of the product of the two moment functions is 1 1 1 1 1 ∫ M (x )M (x ) dx = 6 a b L + 3 a a L + 6 b a L + 3 b b L = 6 ⎡⎣a 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 ⋅ (2a 2 + b2 ) + b1 (2b2 + a2 )⎤⎦ ⋅ L (2.23) If M 1 and M 2 are identical trapezoids (a1 = a 2 .10 Summary Before discussing more examples. 2. a case often encountered when analyzing a structure by the force method (Chapter 3).23) and (2. 2. the above formula reduces to 1 ∫ M (x )M (x ) dx = 3 (a ) 2 1 2 1 + b12 + a1b1 ⋅ L (2. (2. we summarize the principal of virtual forces to calculate displacements at specific locations in a structure. b1 = b2 ) .12 Principle of virtual force (basic cases).

Table 2.1: M i M k -Tables (α -values) Mi Mi Mi 1 1 Mk 1 2 2 1 1 1 Mk 2 3 4 1 1 1 Mk 2 6 4 Mk 1 1 1 2 4 3 2 1 5 S Mk 3 3 12 Mk 2 5 17 S 3 12 48 2 1 17 Mk S 3 4 48 L ∫ M (x )M (x ) dx = α ⋅ M i k i ⋅ Mk ⋅ L 0 Note : Curved functions are quadratic parabolas with horizontal slope @ S 26 .

To find the rotation ϕ .3. let’s apply the moment in the counterclockwise direction.13 and 2.26) 16EI 27 . a negative result indicates the sense of rotation is opposite to the applied moment. Since we want to find the rotation at support A . 2.13 Example 2. Integration. Solution: 1. Since we expect the rotation to be counterclockwise.2).15 Bending moment diagram for virtual loading. 2. 2. The direction of the unit virtual moment is arbitrary. The sign of the answer will indicate the correct sense of the rotation.1. Bending moment diagram for real loading. 2. A positive results means the rotation is in the direction of the applied dummy moment.25) The end rotation of a simply supported beam under a concentrated force at mid-span is thus PL2 ϕ= (2.2. 3. Simple statics gives M′ = 1 M′ 0.11 Example 2. P EI M + L/2 L/2 PL 4 Fig.3 P EI ϕ L/2 L/2 Fig.5 + 1 L/2 L/2 Fig.14 (same proce- dure as in Example 2. 2. The results should then be positive. we apply a virtual moment M ′ = 1 at that location. Hence 1 PL PL2 EI ϕ = ∫ M ′(x )M (x ) dx = 4 ⋅ 4 ⋅1⋅ L = 16 (2.14 Bending moment diagram for real loading. we have to integrate the product of the two moment functions in Fig. Using Table 2. Bending moment diagram for virtual loading. we find that the α -factor to integrate the product of two triangles shaped like those above is ¼. Problem: Find the rotation EI ϕ at the two supports for the simply-supported beam under a concentrated force at mid- span.

2.1). We consider the real moment diagram along segment AB as a superposition of a negative triangle of magnitude 8 and a positive parabola of magnitude 12. In order to find the rotation at C . Since we do not have a single integration factor α for the entire beam. we have to integrate segments AB and BC separately. 2. All integration factors are α = 1/ 3 (see Table 2. Bending moment diagram for real loading. Solution: 1. Bending moment diagram for virtual loading. we apply a virtual moment at C (direction is arbitrary). we apply a virtual force at C in the vertical direction (direction is arbitra- ry).5 42 8 1⋅ =2 − 8 M + [kNm] Fig.16 Example 2. M′ = 1 M′ 10 m 4m + 1 1 Fig. 2.16 to the virtual moment diagram in Fig. 2. We obtain the corresponding moment diagram by simple statics.4.19 Bending moment diagram for virtual loading M ′ = 1 . 3. We consider the real moment diagram along segment BC as a superposition of a negative triangle of magnitude 8 and a positive parabola of magnitude 2.18 Bending moment diagram for virtual loading P ′ = 1 . 4 P′ = 1 − − M′ 10 m 4m Fig. 28 . We obtain the corresponding moment diagram by simple statics.12 Example 2.4 w = 1 kN/m A C 10 m EI B 4m Fig. 2.17 Bending moment diagram for real loading. 102 8 1⋅ = 12. 2. In order to find the vertical displacement at C . 2. 2. Integration Displacement Δ We compare the real moment diagram in Fig.5. Problem: Use the principle of virtual forces to find the vertical displacement Δ and the rotation ϕ at C .17.

29 .16 to the virtual moment diagram in Fig. we consider the real moment diagram along segment AB a superposition of a negative triangle of magnitude 8 and a positive parabola of magnitude 12. 2. We consider the real moment diagram along segment BC a superposition of a negative triangle of mag- nitude 8 and a positive parabola of magnitude 2.27) 1 = (320 − 500 + 128 − 32) = −28 kNm 3 3 The negative answer indicates that the vertical displacement of point C is opposite to the direction of the applied virtual force.5 ⋅ 10 ) − ⋅ 1 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 4 + ⋅ 1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 4 = 4. EI ϕ = ∫ M (x ) M ′(x ) dx due to M ′ =1 1 1 2 (2.5 ⋅ 10 + 4 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 4 − 4 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 4 ⎟⎟⎟ due to P ′ =1 3 ⎜⎝ triangle x triangle triangle x parabola triangle x triangle triangle x parabola ⎠⎟ (2. . Point C thus moves up. 1⎛ ⎞ EI Δ = ∫ M (x ) M ′(x ) dx = ⎜⎜ 4 ⋅8 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⋅ 12.18. Again.33 kNm2 3 triangle x tringle 2 3 rectangle x tringle rectangle x parabola ϕ Δ Fig.28) = (−1 ⋅ 8 ⋅ 10 + 1 ⋅ 12. 2.5.20 Deflected shape with calculated displacement Δ and rotation ϕ . 2. Rotation ϕ We compare the real moment diagram in Fig.

667 − − 16. Since we ignore axial deformation.13). we do not have to include the virtual work done by the axial forces such that the integral is that of Eq.22 Reaction forces and moment diagram for real loading.22).667 − − M 4. we have to dismember the structure and take moments about hinge A . 30 .23). 2. Note that the direction of both the applied force and moment is arbitrary. (2. 2. Solution: The structure is a frame structure. Problem: Find the vertical displacement Δ and the hinge rotation (angle change) ϕ at A .12). 2. we apply a unit vertical force at A (see Fig. 1. Neglect axial deformation in all members.5: Sample structure and deflected shape (displacements vastly exaggerated). 10 16. (2.e.13 Example 2. After finding the reaction forces.167 5 5 Fig. Bending moment diagram for real loading. we apply a unit pair of moments at A (see Fig. i.5 F = 10 kN A 2m A Δ EI = 5000 kNm2 ϕ1 ϕ2 ϕ = ϕ1 + ϕ2 4m 5m 5m Fig. To find the vertical displacement at A . 2.21 Example 2. the member are subject to bending moment and axial force. To find the rotation hinge A . Note that in order to find the horizontal reaction forces.167 4. 2. Bending moment diagram(s) for virtual loading. To find a specific dis- placement of a frame by the principle of virtual forces we use Eq. drawing the real moment diagram is straightforward. 2.

Using the integration factors for triangles with equal and opposite orientation. it is not necessary to determine the real and virtual axial force and shear force diagrams.667 − − M′ 0.44 ϕ = = −0.667 ⋅ 0.667 M′ 0.0) ⋅ 2 + 5 ⎥⎥⎦ = −99. M′ = 1 1. • The negative answer for ϕ indicates that the change in angle is in the direction opposite to the applied virtual moment (compare the deflected shape in Fig. • Since we neglect axial and shear force deformation. we get ⎡1 1 ⎤ EI Δ = ∫ M ′ M dx = 2 ⋅ ⎢⎣⎢ 3 ⋅ 16.667 ⋅ 1. 2.035 m 5000 (2.” α -factor x real moment x virtual moment x member length ”.667 + 1.14D 5000 Remarks • Watch for the proper sign in the integral expression.417 0. When the real and virtual moment diagrams have opposite signs.667 ⋅ 1.80 ⎦⎥ 173.1667 0 0 Fig.8 Δ = = 0.44 2 EI ϕ = −99. 3.1667 0. • The positive answer for Δ indicates that the displacement is in direction of the applied virtual force (down). 31 . P′ = 1 1.667 ⋅ 4 + 6 ⋅ 16.5 0.23).23 Reaction forces and moment diagram for virtual loading P ′ = 1 .667 − − 1.667 0.29) ⎡1 1 2⎤ ∫ M ϕ′M dx = −2 ⋅ ⎢⎢⎣ 3 ⋅ 16.g. e. 2.020 rad= − 1.24 Reaction forces and moment diagram for virtual loading M ′ = 1 .667 ⋅ Δ 22 + 52 ⎥ = 173. Integration.5 Fig.667 ⋅ 4 + 3 ⋅ 16. • In order to avoid mistakes. we should select a certain order in the summation and stick with it in all our work. the corresponding contribution in the integral (summation) is negative.667 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 0. 2.20 to the applied virtual moment in Fig.417 0. 2.000 0.

C .0 − + M NCF =− 283. 2.3. We use the principal of virtual forces to calculate the deflection at locations A. 2.6 50 kN/m 100 kN A I I C D B EI = 10. they are obtained by elementary statics. B.2. D of the frame structure for the given loading.26 Bending moment diagram for real loading. D .C . 32 . we do not need the complete axial force diagrams (only the virtual axial force in member CF ). Like the real moment diagram. Since we consider axial de- formation only in member CF . The structure is statically determinate such that we obtain the bending moments by statics.C . Bending moment diagram for virtual loading.0 225. Again.25 Example 2.3 Fig. Solution: 1. B. D ) resulting in the four virtual moment diagrams shown in the figure below.3 kN − [kNm] 233. 000 kN E F 2m 6m 2m Fig.14 Example 2. 200. since we ignore axial deformation except in member CF . we do not have to draw a complete axial force diagram but use the bending moment dia- gram to show the axial force N in member CF . Neglect axial force deformation except in member CF . B. 2. Problem: Determine the vertical displacement at locations A. 000 kNm 2 4m 2I EA = 50. Hence we need to analyze four virtual load cases (unit force at A. Bending moment diagram for actual loading.

667 P′ = 1 4m N′ = 0 M′ − for ΔB 2m 6m 2m 2.667 2m 6m 2m Fig.333 + for ΔD 0. Perform integration For each of the four virtual bending moment diagrams we have to calculate the strain energy integral 1 1 Δ= EI ∫ M (x )M ′(x ) dx + EA ∫ N (x )N ′(x ) dx (2. 2.333 M′ − for ΔA 2m 6m 2m 2.000 P′ = 1 4m N ′ = −1 M′ for ΔC 2m 6m 2m 2. 3.30) The results are 33 .27 Virtual bending moment diagrams. 2.000 P′ = 1 − 4m M′ N ′ = −1.000 P′ = 1 − 4m N ′ = 0.

28 Sketch of deflected shape.33 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 4.33 ⋅ 0.33 ⋅ 4 = 22.31) 1 ΔC = ⋅ 1 ⋅ 283.8 mm 10000 2 3 (2.667 ⋅ 4.3 mm 50000 4.00 − ⋅ ⋅ 233.33 ⋅ 2.667 ⋅ 4.33 ⋅ 4 = −11.7 mm 50000 1 ⎡1 1 1 1 ⎤ ΔD = ⎢ ⋅ (200 − 225) ⋅ 2 ⋅ 6.472 = 34.00 + ⋅ ⋅ 233. 2.472⎥ 10000 ⎢⎣ 3 3 2 3 ⎥⎦ 1 + ⋅ 1.00 + ⋅ 200 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2.2 mm 50000 1 1 1 ΔB = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 233. 34 . Summary Fig.472⎥ ⎢ 10000 ⎣ 6 2 3 ⎥⎦ 1 − ⋅ 0.333 ⋅ 283.333 ⋅ 283.33 ⋅ 4 = 35. 1 ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ΔA = ⎢ ⋅ (200 − 2 ⋅ 225) ⋅ 2 ⋅ 6.

that occurs at the centroid of the cross section. N .15 Shear deformation 2.29 Shear stress distribution across rectangular section.1 Shape factor k If we include flexural. Selecting P ′ = 1 gives M N V Δ = Δflexural + Δaxial + Δshear = ∫ M ′ EI dx + ∫ N ′ EA dx + k ∫ V ′ GA dx (2.38) A V τ τ max = 1. we calculate the shape factor based on the requirement ⎛ τ ⎞ V ∫ ⎜⎝⎜∫ ∫ τ ′ G dA⎠⎟⎟ dx = k ∫ V ′ GA dx (2. as V τ max = 1. 2. Knowing that the shear stress is parabolically distributed across the section (see figure above).2.34) Since we don’t want to evaluate the volume integral in the previous equation in our displacement calculations. From the shear formula (see ARCE 222.33) The shape factor k accounts for the nonlinear shear stress and shear strain distriubution across the section. axial force and shear force.V are the internal bending moment. as if the shear stresses were uniformly distributed across the section. we can write for the shear stress variation across the section 35 . axial and shear virtual work.35) or τ V ∫ ∫ τ ′ G dA = kV ′ GA (2. 223) V ⋅Q τ= (2.5 A d ⎛ y2 ⎞ τ(y ) = τ max ⎜⎜1 − 4 2 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ d ⎠⎟ b Fig. the expression for a specific displacement in a frame structure is M N V P′ ⋅ Δ = ∫ M ′ EI dx + ∫ N ′ EA dx + k ∫ V ′ GA dx (2. Derivation of k for rectangular cross-section The internal virtual work done by virtual shear stresses τ ′ along real shear strains γ is Wi ′ = ∫ (∫ ∫ τ ′γ dA) dx (2. we derive the shape factor for a rectangular section. respectively.37) I ⋅t we calculate the maximum shear stress.5 (2. and the ”prime”-symbol denotes the corresponding virtual forces.15.32) where M .36) Calculating k based on the preceding equation allows us to perform the integration along the member. In what follows.

44) 2 (1 + υ) concrete/masonry 2 (1 + 0.40) G GA ⎝ d ⎠ 2 2 Replacing V byV ′ in Eq. 2. (2.36) yields d /2 2 −d / 2 V ⋅V ′ 9 ⎜⎛ y 2 ⎞⎟ V ⋅V ′ 9 ⎛ 2 4⎞ ⎜⎜1 − 8 y 2 + 16 y 4 ⎟⎟ dy ∫ τ ′(y ) ⋅ γ(y ) dA = ⋅ GA2 4 ⎜⎝ ⋅ ⎜1 − 4 2 ⎟ dA d ⎠⎟ = GA2 ⋅ b ⋅ 4 −∫ ⎝⎜ d d ⎠⎟ −d / 2 d /2 (2.42) V ⋅V ′ 9 8 6 V ⋅V ′ V ⋅V ′ = 2 ⋅b ⋅ ⋅ ⋅d = ⋅ =k⋅ GA 4 15 5 GA GA The shape factor for a rectangular section is thus k = 6 / 5 .29. (2.41).5 we obtain PL3 2.15.39) ⎜⎝ d ⎠ A ⎝⎜ d ⎠ 2 2 Using HOOKE’s law gives τ(y ) V ⎛⎜ y2 ⎞ d d γ(y ) = = 1.41) A⎝ d ⎠ Substituting the expressions for the real shear strains and the virtual shear stress in Eq. respectively into the integral in Eq.5 ⋅ PL 1 PL3 PL Δtotal = Δflex + Δshear = + 1.5 ⎜⎜1 − 4 2 ⎟⎟⎟ (2. 2.2 ⋅ = ⋅ + 3⋅ (2.5 ⎜⎜1 − 4 2 ⎟⎟⎟ − ≤y ≤ (2.40) and (2. We obtain the total displacement at the top by combining flexural and shear deformations M V PL3 PL Δtotal = Δflex + Δshear = ∫ M′ EI dx + k ∫ V ′ GA dx = 3EI + 1. The structure has uniform rectangular cross section d x b and is subject to a force P at the top.5 ⎜⎜1 − 4 2 ⎟⎟⎟ − ≤y ≤ (2.2 ⋅ GA (2.30 Cantilever structure subject to shear and bending. Using the relation between the modulus of elasticity and the shear modulus for concrete E E E G= = N = (2.43) P M V L PL P d Fig.25) 2.45) 3EI EA 3 EI EA 36 . Interest is in the relative contribution of shear and flexural displacements to the total displacement for varying aspect ratio L / d . ⎛ y2 ⎞ V⎛ y2 ⎞ d d τ(y ) = τ max ⎜⎜1 − 4 2 ⎟⎟⎟ = 1. (2.39) we obtain for the virtual shear stresses V ′ ⎛⎜ y2 ⎞ τ ′(y ) = 1. 2.2 Significance of shear deformation In order to shed some light on the significance of shear deformation we consider the cantilever structure in Fig.

2.8 d L 0.6 L d d 0. 2.With 1 3 I 1 I = bd A = bd = d2 (2.46) 12 A 12 the ratio of flexural deformation to shear deformation becomes 2 Δflex L3A 12L2 ⎛L ⎞ = = = 1.2 Δtotal L 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 d Fig. 37 .47) Δshear 3I ⋅ 3L 9d 2 ⎝d ⎠ The relative contribution of shear and flexural deformation to the total deformation is then 2 2 ⎛L ⎞ ⎛L ⎞ 1. For an aspect ratio of L / d = 1 for example. the shear and flexural displacements are about 43% and 57%.5 d d d d Fig. L L L L =4 =2 =1 = 0.333 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ 3 + 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ 1 + 1.4 Δshear 0.32 Increasing shear deformation with decreasing aspect ratio L / d . Δflex Δtotal Δtotal Δtotal 1 L 0.333 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ (2.333 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ 3 + 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ ⎝d ⎠ ⎝d ⎠ ⎝d ⎠ ⎝d ⎠ Δflex Δshear .48) Δtotal ⎛L ⎞ ⎛L ⎞ Δtotal ⎛L ⎞ ⎛L ⎞ 1 + 1. The figure above plots the relative contribution of shear and flexural displacement to the total displacement.333 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ Δflex ⎝d ⎠ ⎝d ⎠ Δshear 1 3 = 2 = 2 = 2 = 2 (2.31 Relative contribution of shear and flexural deformations to total deformation. respectively.

5 10 –30 12 72 EI ϕB [k-ft2 ] 90 72 160 31.3 135 45 –45 90 315 EI ϕA [k-ft2 ] 90 72 160 40. Solution: a b c d e f g h EI Δ [k-ft3 ] 360 270 613.5 20 0 12 102 Note: Positive values for Δ : displacement is down Positive values for ϕA : rotation is clockwise Positive values for ϕB : rotation is counter-clockwise 38 . Problems 2.1 1 k/ft 10 k A B 6 ft 6 ft 12 ft (a) (b) 1 k/ft 10 k 10 k 4 ft 4 ft 4 ft 6 ft 6 ft (c) (d) 5 k ft 10 k ft 5 k ft 12 ft 12 ft (e) (f) 1 k/ft 1 k/ft 10 k ft 10 k ft 5 k ft 10 k ft 12 ft 12 ft (g) (h) Use the principle of virtual forces to calculate the midspan deflection EI Δ and the two end rotations EI ϕA and EI ϕB of the simple beams above for the given loading.

024 m = 0.8 " → ΔB = 0.94 " → ΔB = 0.1 " → 2.2 4 kN/m 10 kN B 3m (a) A 5 kN EI =20. 000 kN 6m Find the horizontal displacements at A and B for the frame shown. Solution: ΔA = 0.020 m = 0.2. 000 kNm2 3m EA=5. 000 kNm2 3m 6m Find the horizontal displacements at A and B for the frame shown. Solution: ΔA = 0.046 m = 1. Neglect axial deformation in the bending members. but consider axial deformation in the truss members.81 " → 39 .028 m = 1. Neglect axial deformation in all members.3 10 kN B 3m A 5 kN EI =20.

Solution: ΔA.034 ft = 0. find the horizontal and vertical displacement of point A .0336 ft=0. 000 k/ft2 .2. Solution: 40 . where ϕc is the angle change at hinge C due to the given loading.00 1.41 " → ΔA. The structure has uniform 3 ft x 3 ft square cross section.V = 0.00 1. The beam has constant flexural stiffnes EI .4 in →Δv = 0.00 2.3 in ↓ 2. Solution: Δh = 0. 000 k 8 ft For the simple truss shown.008 ft = 0.00 2. Use E =576.4 100 k 100 k A 10 k/ft 15 ft 6 ft Calculate the horizontal and vertical displacement at A .00 3. H = 0.00 Find EI ⋅ϕc .5 10 k 3 A 10 k 4 6 ft EA=10.0250 ft=0.6 50 kN 20 kN/m 20 kN/m A G C [m] D E B F 3.097 " ↓ 2.

EI ϕc = 21.5 ΔS [%] 1.2 27.5 2. find the relative con- tribution of bending and shear to the total displacement.3 60.8 72.6 kNm 2 2 kN/m F G 2.889 ⋅ 10−3 rad(cw) b =1 2. Solution: ΔE = 0. 5.7 39. Consider the three forces separately and ignore axial deformation.625E w d L The simply supported beam above has a rectangular cross section d x b . For L / d = 10.0107 m → ϕE = 0.5 5. 000 kNm2 A B 3m 3m 3m 3m Find the horizontal displacement and rotation of point E of the above frame structure ( EI =15. 2 and 1 .9 F1 F2 EI F3 A r Find the horizontal displacement at A for the semi-circular arch.8 G = 0.5 94. 000 kNm2 ). Neglect axial deformation. Solution: r3 πr 3 πr 3 due to F1 : ΔA = F1 → due to F2 : ΔA = F2 → due to F3 : ΔA = F3 → 2EI 4EI 2EI 41 . Solution: L /d 10 5 2 1 ΔF [%] 98.7 4m C D E 4m EI =15.

2. .0 T 19.00 2.00 2.57 C 5C 18 10.50 C .55 C C 35 10.00 2.0 C T 18.0 T 82.3 C .00 5.1 113 C 8. 10.C and D of the given frame structure. 10.50 C 5C 40 34.0 T 157 C C 183 C 186 C 202 C Calculate the vertical displacement of joint 8 of the truss structure above ( EA=100 MN ).1 C 7. The joints of the bottom chord lie on a quadratic parabola with zero slope at node 12.3 mm ↓ ΔB = 6.0 5.0 C T 24. All applied forces have mag- nitude 10 kN and the resulting member forces are provided by the figure above (forces in kN).0 C 0 33 T 50.0 C .00 2.7 T 82.00 EI = 10. 000 kN [m] 2.4 155 C 13.00 m 19.50 m 12 13 14 15 3.0 50. Solution: ΔA = 26.00 2.8 87.2 mm ↓ ΔC = 6.7 mm 42 .7 T 133 T 133 T 162 T 162 T 178 T 178 T 21.4 mm ↓ ΔD = 28.00 Calculate the vertical displacement at locations A.4 mm ↓ 2.0 C 9T 2. 000 kNm2 EA = 20.10 10 kN/m 20 kN 20 kN A B C C′ B′ A′ D 4.00 m 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 10 @1. B. Neglect axial force deforma- tion in the girder ADA′ .4 T 0 .11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0. Solution: Δ8 =9.4 25 112 C C 10.

13 10 kN/m A C ϕC 4m B 4m ΔB ϕB Using the principle of virtual forces. (b) hinge rotation at B . 2.12 F F F L F L EA F F L The 3-D truss structure above (in ARCE circles known as the 12-node model) has square roof and wall panels of dimen- sion L . find the vertical displacement of the tip of the cantilever for the two loading conditions. The beam has constant flexural stiffness EI . i.075 m ↓ (b) ϕB = 0. (c) rotation at C .14 (a) w w (b) L L Using the principle of virtual forces. 000 kNm2 Solution: (a) ΔB = 0. The flexural stiffness is EI = 10. Hint: First analyze the roof plane as a plane truss with roller supports representing the wall diagonals and find the reaction forces at the roller supports. all angels are either 45 or 90 degrees. find the: (a) vertical displacement at B . EA and L ).e. Solution: 11 wL4 1 wL4 (a) Δ = (b) Δ = 120 EI 30 EI 43 .0213 ccw 2. 2. Find the horizontal and vertical displacements of points A and B (in terms of F .0427 (c) ϕC = 0.

Solution: ΔA = 0. find the vertical displacement of point A of the cantilever beam above.15 0. α .00 m E = 30.16 10 kN/m A B C D 3. The beams have uniform flexural stiffness EI . derive a parameter k such that P = k ⋅ Δ . Δ 2.00 m 3. (a) For given values E . (b) Find the angle α that maximizes k . A L rigid α A tension rod stabilizes a rigid post as shown.2.00 m Using the principle of virtual forces. Solution: 236.0102 m 2.00 m 3.00 m Using the principle of virtual forces.50 m A 2.1 MN/m 0. Solution: EA (a) k = cos2 α sin α (b) α ≈ 35D L 44 . Subdivide the beam into 10 segments and use the SIMPSON integration rule to evaluate the virtual force integral numerically. L. The bottom face of the beam is a quadratic parabola with zero slope at A . A.17 E.0 ΔAB = ↓ ΔCD = ↓ EI EI P.2 135. 000 MN/m2 b = 1m 8. find the midspan vertical displacement for spans AB and CD above. The beam has uniform modulus of elasticity E and width b .

For the ten designs.19 1k 2k 2k 2k 4k 1k 1k 4k 2k 2k 2k 1k The 12-node truss structure shown above is loaded by a uniformly distributed load acting on the roof. acting on the truss joints. use the principle of virtual forces to calculate the vertical displacement of point A for the given loading. Columns are removed and replaced by trusses as shown on the next two pages.18 Two brackets support shelves of length L as shown in the picture. 45 . 2 k or 4 k point loads. 2. (1) Where must the brackets be placed such that middle and end deflections are equal? (2) Where must the brackets be placed such that the stresses in the shelves at the location of the bracket and in the middle are equal? Consider the loading of the shelves uniform. Using the concept of tributary area we have determined the corresponding 1 k. All members of the truss have axial stiffness EA .2. Note that for clarity the following structural elements are not included in the diagrams: (a) diagonals in the wall planes (b) diagonals in the roof plane (except for designs "Skewed" and "Ooo-La-La") where the roof diagonals also act as the chords of the trusses (c) the out-of-plane bracing of the truss joints below the roof plane.

Same Old Saturday Night Skewed 3' 12 ' A A 12 ' 12 ' 12 ' 12 ' 12 ' Ooo-La-La Longey A A T-Bone Corner Delight A A 46 .

Professor Emeritus of Architectural Engineering 47 . Double Trouble Baseball Cap A A Storefront Drive Thru A A Designs by Jake Feldman.

The girders have uniform flexural stiffness EI .20 A A Longey Same Old Saturday Night A B A B Double Trouble T-Bone A A B Storefront Corner Delight A B B Baseball Cap A Drive Thru A combined dead and live load of 36 psf acts on the eight 36 ft x 24 ft x 12 ft structures shown above. Use the principal of virtual forces to find the vertical displacement of point A or points A and B of the structures.2. 48 . The load is transferred from the joists through the girders into the columns (one-way). Lateral force resisting structural elements are not shown. Neglect axial deformation in the columns.

1 Sample system to illustrate force method. which results in a set of compatibility equations (mathemati- cally. Redundant forces are forces that we can remove from the structure without sacrificing stability of the structure. means preventing rigid-body displacements un- der any loading condition. For analysis if indeterminate structures we thus need to develop additional equations. the principle of superposition holds which can be stated as follows: The combined effect of any number of loads can be obtained by adding the effects of each individual load separately.1 has one more constraint than necessary for stability. By compatibility we mean that the structure must fit together and the deflected shape is consistent with the boundary conditions imposed by the supports. 3. Knowing the internal forces. since the pin at A and the roller at C are sufficient to prevent all motions. Since this structure in Fig. As we will de- monstrate in the next section. We discuss the main feature of the force method by the two-span continuous beam in Fig. For a statically determinate structure. the equilibrium conditions do not suffice to cal- culate the support forces and internal forces. we have to write a compatibility equation. also referred to as primary struc- ture.1. two at pin A and one each at rollers B and C . 3. The number of redundant forces is equal to the degree of statical indeterminacy. We designate one of the three reaction forces. Thus there is one redundant reaction force.e. we discuss the force method. (2) Displacements are small compared to the dimensions of the structure. The number of constraints to be removed is equal to the degree n of statical indeterminacy. we learned that three constraints are sufficient for stability of a single member in two dimensions.1 Introduction The structures analyzed so far have all been statically determinate. force and displacement (stress and strain) are linearly related.1 Redundant F A B EI C L/2 L/2 L Fig. the principle of superposition forms the basis for the force method. In this chapter. (3) Equilibrium is formulated for the undeformed structure. Based on the assumptions above. provided the three constraints do not constitute a parallel or concurrent force system. 3.3 The Force Method of Structural Analysis 3.2. 3. we choose redundant forces as unknowns and employ additional conditions of compatibility to obtain sufficient equations to solve the problem. They may be external (reaction forces) or in- ternal forces (member forces). In the force method. a set of linear algebraic equations) that we have to solve simultaneously. we recall. we can deter- mine the reactions and internal forces of the structure using equilibrium equations alone.2 Discussion 3. Note that the reaction at B could as well be considered a redundant. Stability. Two fundamental procedures are available to analyze statically indeterminate structures: The force or flexibility method and the displacement or stiffness method. (1) Hooke’s law is valid. In previous classes. For statically indeterminate structures. it is stati- cally indeterminate to the first degree.2. we make use of the following assumptions. Since the above structure is statically indeterminate to the first degree 49 . For each redundant force. say C as the redundant force. we can apply the principle of virtual forces (Chapter 2) to find displacements provided the material and section proper- ties for the members are known. The structure consists of a single member and has four constraints. the oldest of the two analysis me- thods.2 Statically determinate base structure and compatibility The first step in the force method is to select a statically determinate base structure. 3. by removing redundant forces from the original indeterminate structure. In this chapter. i.

2 Principle of superposition in force method. the base structure with the second redundant force applied as the “2-structure” and so on. We refer to the base structure with external loads applied as the “0-structure”. This procedure generates a set of n compatibility equations. The sum of these displacements is then equal to the known value of the displacement at the location of the redun- dant force. For each of the n + 1 load cases applied to the base structure we calculate the displacements at each location where a redundant force acts. For the example above. 3. 50 . the sum of the displacements for the base structure will be zero.1. The original indeterminate structure is thus a superposition of two separate load cases applied to the base structure (see Fig. Problem: Find the bending moment diagram for the two-span continuous beam above. F A B EI C − + M (a) = = = F ΔC 0 + M0 (b) + + + − C ΔC 1 (c) MC Fig.3 Example 3.2).1) superposition roller at C 3.we have to remove one constraint. We next analyze the determinate structure separately for the external loads and the redundant forces. such that the base structure is a simple statically determinate beam with cantilever. the base structure with the first redundant force applied as the “1-structure”. we remove the roller support at C. Both the given loading and the redundant force (magnitude is unknown) are now applied to the base structure.3 Example 3. the compatibility equation is ΔC = ΔC 0 + ΔC 1 = 0 (3. As mentioned above.1 F A B EI C L/2 L/2 L Fig. Statically determinate base structure We remove the support reaction at C to create a statically determinate base structure that we can analyze by statics. 3. Solution: We apply the procedure described in the previous section. 1. 3. If we select a reaction force at a roller as redundant.

4 illustrates the analysis of the base structure for the external loading whose magnitude is known.We repeat that the selection of a redundant is arbitrary because we can always select the base structure in several diffe- rent ways. Since the real support force is unknown. We will address different options for selecting the base structure later. Instead of removing a vertical support we can remove the resistance to bending at the middle support. Figure 3.2). 3. which is location where we apply the redundant force one. The applied fore F causes the displacement Δ10 at C . We always denote the displacements for the base structure by two subscripts.2) Δ11 51 . or short location “1” (since the structure is indeterminate to the first degree. the displacement Δ10 violates the prescribed boundary condition. the sum of the two displacements must be zero and we can write the compatibility equation Δ1 = x 1 δ11 + Δ10 = 0 (3. the second subscript (0=external loads) indicates the force that causes the displacement. Clearly. The first subscript (1) indicates the location of the displacement. Selecting a force of unit magnitude is only for a convenience. 3. Next. (b) redundant loading Next we look at the displacement caused by the support force C. Compatibility equation Since the statically indeterminate structure is the sum of the two determinate structures in Fig. there is only one redundant force). 3.5 Deflected shape and moments of base structure for unit value of redundant (“1”-structure).2. The direction of the redun- dant force is arbitrary (since the applied force F has the tendency to lift the beam up from support C . Since the principle of superposition holds. Moment diagrams and displacements for base structure (a) external loading F Δ10 A B EI C + M0 " 0 " -structure L/4 Fig. which requires that Δ1 = 0 . The displacement δ11 is the displacement at the location where we apply the redundant force one (first index=1) caused by a unit force for redundant one (second index=1). we apply the re- dundant force downward and expect a positive result). In that case. L − A B EI C 1 δ11 " 1" -structure M1 Fig. the force of yet unknown magnitude x 1 causes the displacement Δ11 = x 1δ11 . the original statically indeterminate can be viewed as the superposition of two load cases acting on the statically determinate base structure: (0) the external load and (1) the (yet unknown) support force acting at C (see Fig. 3. The unit force acting at location “1” causes a displacement δ11 . 3. we analyze the base structure for those two load cases: 2. the base structure would consist of two simply supported beams. By superposition (the material is linearly elastic). The displacement δ11 is termed flexibility coefficient (displacement at the location and in direction of a unit force). we apply a force x 1 =1 of unit value at C.4 Deflected shape and moments of base structure for given external load (“0”-structure).

R1 is the values of that response quantity for the primary structure due to unit value of the redundant force x 1 .5AB =F + F ⋅ ⎜⎜− ⎟⎟⎟ = FL (3. 3.2.Solving the compatibility equation yields Δ10 x1 = − (3.9) where R is any desired response quantity of the original statically indeterminate structure. (3. 3. 52 . 4. (3.6) From Figs.4). Final moment diagram by superposition Applying the concept illustrated in Fig.6.6 Deflected shape and moments of indeterminate structure. we obtain the final moment diagram by linear superposition M = M 0 + x 1M 1 (3. Substituting in Eq. we do not need the shear force diagramsV0 andV1 to calculate the displacements for the base structure. 3.5 we obtain the moment at support B of the continuous two-span beam 3 3 MB = 0 + F ⋅ (−L ) = − FL (3. (3.3) δ11 Using the principle of virtual forces learned in Chapter 2 to calculate the “delta”-values gives 3 1 1 1 1 2 L δ11 = EI ∫ M 1 ⋅ M 1′ dx = EI ∫ M 1 ⋅ M 1 dx = ⋅ ⋅ L ⋅ L ⋅ 2L EI 3 = 3 EI 3 (3. 3.8) 4 32 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 64 M0 x1 M1 Connecting these two points with M = 0 at the external supports gives us the bending moment diagram.3) we obtain Δ10 3 x1 = − = F (3. 3.5) δ11 32 Note: • The sign convention for the “delta” values is that displacements are positive if they are in direction of the applied redundant.4). • Since we neglect shear deformation in Eq.6) in a more general form R = R0 + x 1R1 (3. R0 is the value of that re- sponse quantity for the primary structure due to the given load. 3 FL 32 F A B EI C − L L + M 13 FL Fig.4 and 3.4) 1 1 1 1 FL 1 L Δ10 = EI ∫ M 0 ⋅ M 1′ dx = EI ∫ M 0 ⋅ M 1 dx = − ⋅ ⋅ EI 4 4 ⋅L⋅L = − F 16 EI Note that we can view the moment diagram M 1 as both the real and the virtual moment diagram ( M 1 = M 1′ ).7) M0 32 M 32 x1 1 For the moment in span AB we obtain L 3 ⎛ L ⎞ 13 M 0. 64 We can write Eq. Since the redundant is applied downward and the base structure moves up at the location of the redundant. Δ10 is negative (see Fig. shown in Fig.

8.4 T 212. 3.2 3m 50 kN D B 3m 100 kN A C 6m 6m Fig.3.2: Indeterminate truss. 3. 53 .7 is indeterminate to the first degree.7 Example 3. we form a determinate base structure by releasing one redundant force.4 Example 3. 3. Solution: 1.8 Statically determinate base structure.7 Δ10 (< 0) N0 Fig. 3. The structure has constant axial stiffness EA . We select the horizontal reaction force at C .0 C T T 167. Problem: Find the member forces of the truss above for the given loading. 50 kN D D 3m 3m B B 3m 3m 100 kN x1 = 1 A C A C 6m 6m 6m 6m Fig. Statically determinate base structure Since the truss structure in Fig. Member forces for base structure 141. 3.1 C 250.7 167. 2. The base structure is shown in Fig.9 Member forces and deflected shape of base structure for external load (“0”-structure).

7 -2.414 8.236 6. 2.35 54 .414 8.708 -2515 33.7 -2.236 -45.236 C C N1 T T δ11 1.236 6. we organize the calculations in a table: # Member N 0 [kN] N1 L [m] N1 ⋅ N 0 ⋅ L N1 ⋅ N1 ⋅ L 1 AB 167.485 -2545 16.02 4.32 5 DB 250.1 1.54 2 BC 167.414 1.97 4 DC -212.000 -1500 12.236 -45. Final member forces by superposition We obtain the final member forces by superposition # Member N 0 [kN] N1 N = N 0 + x 1N 1 1 AB 167.7 -2.7 -2.0 -2.97 5 DB 250.44 3 AD -141.708 -2515 33.61 4 DC -212.1 1. Compatibility equation The displacements of the base structure are N0 1 5 Δ10 = ∫N 1 EA dx =∑ N ⋅ N 0i ⋅ Li EA i =1 1i (3.32 kN (3.10) N 1 5 δ10 = ∫ N 1 1 dx = EA ∑ N ⋅ N 1i ⋅ Li EA i =1 1i As in Chapter 2.000 59.00 ∑ -10774 113.414 Fig.10 Member forces and deflected shape of base structure for unit value of redundant force (“1”-structure).414 -6. 3.44 2 BC 167.02 The redundant force (the horizontal reaction at C ) is thus Δ10 −10774 x1 = − =− = 95.4 1. 3.54 3 AD -141.0 -2.414 -77.236 2.000 C 2.11) δ11 113.000 3.485 -1697 16.4 1.

32 T C 6. 2. 3. load case 1 is a unit force in member BD . we present an alternative analysis of the previous example by considering the force in member BD as the redundant. The redundant force is now an internal force.2 (Alternative) 1.44 C 45.44 59. the remaining members and the two pin supports at A and C are sufficient to ensure stability of the structure (we can view the base structure as two independent two-member trusses).61 C 45.5 Example 3. Since the redundant force is the force in member BD . 50 kN D 3m x1 = 1 B 3m 100 kN A C 6m 6m Fig. 3.11 Final member forces and deflected shape. we have to analyze the determinate base structure for two load cases: Load case 0 is the two external forces applied to the base structure and load case 1 is a unit value of the redundant x 1 applied to the base structure. 3. C 77.35 N Δ=0 Fig. Member forces for base structure As in the previous examples.12 Statically determinate base structure. 55 . When we release the axial force in this member (internal re- lease). We can view this release as a sleeve-like mecha- nism. Statically determinate base structure In this section. Member BD retains its position in the structure but is unable to transmit an axial force.

485 212.35 -0.5 8.35 0 T C 1. The displacement δ11 is the overlap in the axial force release in member BD .8 1.707 T C 35.385 2 BC -111.35 35.385 3 AD 35. Figure 3. This overlap is the relative displacement between B and D (the amount by which joints B and D approach each other due to x 1 = 1 which is sum of virtual work of members 1 through 4 in column 7) plus the axial deformation within member BD (member 5 in column 7). D D D D x1 = 1 δ11 Δ10 B 0 B B B Fig.8 111.000 ∑ -1677 28.1 4. Likewise.118 1.35 kN (3. 3.000 3.35 -0.25 As expected.708 -838. 3.707 8.8 N0 T N1 T 1.118 6.000 C C C 111.118 Fig. the displacement Δ10 is the relative displacement between joints B and D due to external loading.485 -212.12) δ11 28.13 Member forces of base structure for external load (“0”-structure) and unit redundant force (“1-structure”). 0. 56 .25 The redundant force (the force in member BD ) is thus Δ10 −1677 x1 = − =− = 59.243 5 DB 0 1. 3.118 6.707 0. the answer for the redundant force matches the final force in member BC of the first solution strategy. Compatibility equation As before.5 8.14 Illustration of displacements δ11 and Δ10 .708 -838.000 0 3. Since the external load causes joints B and D to move away from each other (in the direction opposite to that of x 1 ). we calculate the displacements of the base structure in a table: # Member N 0 [kN] N1 L [m] N1 ⋅ N 0 ⋅ L N1 ⋅ N1 ⋅ L 1 AB -111.707 8.1 4. Δ10 is negative.14 illustrates the two displacements for the base structure.8 1.243 4 DC -35.

16 shows the original structure (the two-span continuous beam) as a superposition of two load cases acting on the base structure.3 w L L Fig. Final member forces by superposition We obtain the final member forces by superposition.e. # Member N 0 [kN] N1 N = N 0 + x 1N 1 1 AB -111.000 59.15 Example 3. Problem: Find the bending moment and shear force diagrams for the two-span continuous beam above. Instead of selecting a reaction force as redundant (see Example 3.32 5 DB 0 1.118 -45.707 -6. the results match those obtained before. 3. Select the moment at the mid-support as redundant (internal release).707 -77.8 1.35 3. w A B C L L = w + MB Fig.118 -45. Figure 3. 57 .3. i. Statically determinate base structure The two-span continuous beam is indeterminate to the first degree.4.1) we now consider the internal moment at B the redundant. inserting a hinge at B .44 3 AD 35. Solution: 1.6 Example 3.35 -0. Thus we obtain the statically determinate base structure by removing the resistance to the bending moment at the middle support.8 1.44 2 BC -111.61 4 DC -35.16 Statically indeterminate structure as superposition of two load cases for the statically determinate base struc- ture.35 -0. The resul- ting base structure consists of two simply supported beams AB and BC . 3.

3. the displacements Δ10 and δ11 are rotations.2). 3. 3. the base structure violates this requirement by producing slope discontinuities at B (see Figs. the moment diagram M 1 serves as both real moment diagram for unit redundant and virtual moment diagram) 1 wL2 wL3 EI Δ10 = ∫ M 0M 1 d x = 3 ⋅1⋅ 8 L= 24 (3. we obtain the “delta”-values (as in the previous examples. When the external load acts on the primary structure.17 Deflected shape and moment diagram of base structure for external load (“0”-structure). To restore compatibility we apply a unit value of the redun- dant moment to the base structure.1 and 3.17 and 3. Using the principle of virtual forces. 3. we need to analyze the base structure for two load cases: (0) the external load w and (1) the unit redundant moment x 1 =1 acting at the middle support. These rotations are the sum of the rotations at B of the two simply supported beams BA and BC (see Figs. base structure under external load (“0”-structure) Figure 3.18). Clearly. Displacement values and compatibility equation For the two-span continuous beam in this example we must have slope continuity at B .18 Deflected shape and moment diagram of base structure for unit redundant (“1”-structure). 3. w Δ10 M0 + wL 2 wL2 8 8 Fig. there may not be a change in slope at the middle support. Clearly. Again we use the subscript 1 to indicate that the displace- ment is at the location where redundant 1 acts and the subscript 0 to indicate that the cause of the displacement is the gi- ven external load. Since the compatibility requirement is that of a rotation. X1 = 1 δ11 M1 + 1 Fig. a slope discontinuity (angle change) Δ10 occurs at support B . which causes slope discontinuity δ11 . base structure under unit value of redundant (“1”-structure) Figure 3.18 shows the deflected shape and the moment diagram for the base structure under unit value of the redundant force x 1 =1 . i.17 and 3. the slope discontinuity at B violates the internal compatibility requirement of continuity such that the redundant moment must restore compatibility at B .13) 58 . Moment diagrams and displacements for base structure As before (Examples 3.2.e.17 shows the deflected shape and the moment diagram for the base structure under given external load w .18).

we cannot obtain the shear forces for the indeter- minate system by superposition. The term V * is the “static“ shear force.V * = 0 . i. 5.19 Bending moment diagram for two-span continuous beam under uniformly distributed load. Thus wL2 wL2 − −0 − −0 w ⋅L 8 w ⋅L 8 VAB = + = 0.15) princ. The ne- gative sign is indicating that the moment acts in the direction opposite (tension at the top) to that assumed (tension at the bottom).625wl VCB =− + = −0. The shear forces are most easily determined directly from the moment diagram for the indeterminate structure using the statics-relation Mr − Ml Mr − Ml Vl = +V * Vr = −V * (3.17) wL2 8 _ M + wL2 wL2 8 8 Fig.14) 3 3 Slope continuity requires Δ1 = x 1 δ11 + Δ10 = 0 (3. of superposition slope is continuous Δ11 Note that Δ1 is the slope discontinuity at B which must be zero because of the continuity of the beam at B .18) L L where M r and M l are the bending moments at the right and left member ends.e. The redundant moment is Δ10 3wL3 wL2 x1 = − =− =− (3. For a member with zero span loading.16) δ11 24L 8 The support moment of a two-span continuous beam under uniformly distributed load is thus M B = −wL2 / 8 .and 1 2 1 ∫ M ′M dx = ∫ M 2 EI δ11 = 1 1 1 dx = ⋅1 ⋅ L = L (3.375wl VBA =− + = 0. Shear force diagram Since we didn‘t draw the shear force diagram for the primary structure.375wl 2 L 2 L 59 . Final moment diagram by superposition With the compatibility equation solved we obtain the bending moments of the indeterminate system by superposition M = M 0 + x 1M 1 (3. 4.19) ⎛ wL2 ⎞⎟ ⎛ wL2 ⎞⎟ 0 − ⎜⎜− ⎟ 0 − ⎜⎜− ⎟ w ⋅L ⎜⎝ 8 ⎟⎠ w ⋅L ⎜⎝ 8 ⎟⎠ VBC = + = 0. respectively. the support reaction for a simply supported beam.625wl 2 L 2 L (3. 3.

Statically determinate base structure The structure is statically indeterminate to the second degree and therefore two compatibility equations are needed for the solution. This is because the virtual work integrals take on a particularly simple form. As mentioned before we usually have several alternatives of selecting the base structure.4 w A L B L C L D Fig. Problem: Find the bending moment and shear force diagrams for the three-span continuous beam above. w A L B L C L D x1 x2 x1 x2 x2 x1 Fig.7 Example 3. 3. 3.20 Shear force diagram for two-span continuous beam under uniformly distributed load. in which the redundant forces are the two support moments.21 Three-span continuous beam.22 Various statically determinate base structures. 0. The figure below depicts some possible base structures with the two redundant forces either being support reactions or internal bending moments. Solution: 1. We will observe in homework assignments that Case 2. 60 . 3.625wL Fig. 3. yields the least computational effort.375wL + _ V 0.

61 .23 shows the original indeterminate structure as a superposition of three load cases acting on the determinate base structure: (0) external load. w A B C D L L L = w + M B = x1 + MC = x 2 Fig. Figure 3. Moment diagrams and displacements for base structure w Δ20 Δ10 M0 wL2 wL2 + 8 8 Fig. 3. (1) redundant (yet to be determined) moment at A and (2) redundant (yet to be determined) moment at B.24 Deflected shape and moment diagram of base structure for external load (“0”-structure).23 Principle of superposition for three-span beam. resulting in the stati- cally determinate base structure below. The deflections of the statically determinate base structure along with the moment diagrams for the three loading conditions are shown below. 3. 2.We choose the two support moments as redundant forces and introduce the corresponding hinges.

X1 = 1

δ21

δ11

M1

+ 1

Fig. 3.25 Deflected shape and moment diagram of base structure for unit redundant 1 (“1”-structure).

X2 = 1

δ12

δ22

M2

+ 1

Fig. 3.26 Deflected shape and moment diagram of base structure for unit redundant 2 (“2”-structure).

**3. Displacement values and compatibility equations
**

The slope discontinuity at supports A and B must be zero for the original (statically indeterminate) structure. Since

the statically indeterminate structure is the sum of three loading conditions acting on the statically determinate structure,

this condition can be expressed as follows:

(1) The slope discontinuity at A (location of redundant one) due to the external loading plus the slope discontinuity at

A due to the support moment MA plus the slope discontinuity at A due to the support moment MB is zero.

(2) The slope discontinuity at B (location of redundant two) due to the external loading plus the slope discontinuity at

B due to the support moment MA plus the slope discontinuity at B due to the support moment MB is zero.

This is the essence of the force method for higher degree of statical indeterminacy. Recasting (1) and (2) from English

into Math leads to the set of compatibility equations

Δ1 = Δ10 + x 1δ11 + x 2δ12 = 0

(3.20)

Δ2 = Δ20 + x 1δ21 + x 2δ22 = 0

**or in matrix form
**

⎡δ11 δ12 ⎤ ⎡x 1 ⎤ ⎡Δ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = − ⎢ 10 ⎥

⎢δ ⎥ x ⎢Δ ⎥ (3.21)

⎢⎣ 21 δ22 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 20 ⎥⎦

The square and symmetrical matrix of flexibility coefficients δij is called the flexibility matrix. Note that the first index

of a flexibility coefficient δij describes the location of the deformation, the kind of deformation (displacement or rotation)

62

and the direction of the deformation. The second index indicates the cause of the displacement (see Figs. 3.24, 3.25,

3.26). For example δ12 is the angular (since redundant 1 is a moment) displacement at location 1 (the location where the

first redundant acts) in direction of redundant 1due to a unit redundant acting at location 2.

With the bending moment diagrams in Figs. 3.24-3.26 we are able to determine the six “delta”-values needed in the

compatibility equations (3.20).

1 2

EI δ11 = ∫M 1

⋅ M 1 dx =

3

⋅2⋅L =

3

L

2

EI δ22 = ∫M 2

⋅ M 2 dx =

3

L

1

EI δ12 = ∫M 1

⋅ M 2 dx =

6

L

(3.22)

1

EI δ21 = ∫ M 2 ⋅ M 1 dx =

6

L

1 wL2 wL3

EI Δ10 = ∫M 1

⋅ M 0 dx = 2 ⋅

3 8

L =

12

1 wL2 wL3

EI Δ20 = ∫ M 2 ⋅ M 0 dx = ⋅

3 8

L =

24

Canceling out EI , we can write the two compatibility equations as

⎡ 0.6667 0.1667 ⎤ ⎡x 1 ⎤ ⎡ 0.0833 ⎤

⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2

⎢ 0.1667 0.6667 ⎥ ⎢x 2 ⎥ = − ⎢ 0.04217 ⎥ wL (3.23)

⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦

**Solving simultaneously gives
**

7 2

x1 = − wL2 x2 = − wL2 (3.24)

60 60

Both unknown moments have negative value indicating that they act opposite (tension at top) to the applied unit moment

(tension at bottom).

**4. Final moment diagram by superposition
**

With the two support moments calculated, the bending moment diagram for the statically indeterminate structure is

M = M 0 + x 1M 1 + x 2M 2 (3.25)

7

wL2

60

1

wL2

wL 2 wL2 30

_

8 8

M

+

Fig. 3.27 Moment diagram for indeterminate structure.

63

**5. Final shear force diagram
**

As before, considering moment equilibrium for the individual spans gives the shear force diagram

0.583wL

0.383wL

+ +

0.033wL

− V

_

0.417wL

0.617wL

Fig. 3.28 Shear force diagram for indeterminate structure.

**3.8 Force Method for arbitrary degree of statical indeterminacy
**

For more redundant forces, we follow the procedure of the previous example. For a structure that is statically indetermi-

nate to degree n we need to remove n redundant forces, i.e. we need to remove n constraints in order to form a statically

determinate base structure. For each of the n redundant force we write a corresponding compatibility equation leading to

a set of compatibility equations.

x 1δ11 +x 2δ12 + … + x n δ1n + Δ10 = 0

x 1δ21 +x 2δ22 + … + x n δ2n + Δ20 = 0

(3.26)

x 1δn 1 +x 2δn 2 + … + x n δnn + Δn 0 = 0

Solving these equations gives as the magnitude of the redundant forces and we obtain the final solution for any response

quantity R by superimposing the n + 1 load cases analyzed for the base structure ( n unit redundant load cases plus the

given load).

R = R0 + x 1R1 + … + x n Rn (3.27)

**As we see from Eq. (3.26) the computational effort increases rapidly with increasing degree of indeterminacy. For a
**

structure that is indeterminate to degree n we have to calculate n(n + 1) ”delta”-values. If we use the symmetry of the

flexibility matrix ( δij = δji ), we can realize some computational savings. We can show that the number of displacement

values needed is then n / 2 ⋅ (n + 3) . The symmetry of the flexibility matrix is a result of MAXWELL’s law.

3.9 Maxwell’s law

The displacement of a point A on a structure due to a unit force at point B is equal to the displacement of point B due to a

unit force at point A.

The rotation of a point A on a structure due to a unit moment at point B is equal to the rotation of point B due to a unit

moment at point A.

The rotation of a point A on a structure due to a unit force at point B is equal to the displacement of point B due to a unit

moment at point A.

As a consequence of this theorem, the flexibility coefficients are symmetric, i.e. we obtain the same value when switch-

ing the indizes ( δij = δ ji ).

64

Note that a negative value for a redundant indicates the redundant acts opposite to the corresponding unit force or moment. Solution: The structure is statically indeterminate to the second degree such that we need two compatibility equations for the solution. Draw the statically determinate base system and show the exter- nal forces and all redundant forces (redundant forces are reactions and/or member forces). (2) Draw the internal force diagram(s) of the statically determinate base system for both the external forces and all re- dundant forces (one at a time).1).29 Example 3. (3) Determine all necessary displacement values Δi 0 and δij using the tables of α-values (Table 2.10 Summary of force method (1) Determine the number of degrees n to which the structure is statically indeterminate and remove n redundant forces or moments to make the structure statically determinate. Also find the horizontal displacement at joint C .3. it is generally unnecessary to do so when solving problems. Problem: Find the bending moment. Neglect axial deformation in the frame members but consider it in the two-force (truss) member AD . 65 . set up the compatibility equations and solve for the unknown redundant forces.11 Example 3. 3.5. shear force and axial force diagrams for the frame structure above.5 20 kN 10 kN I D C I I 6m A I = 2 m2 A A B 4m 4m Fig. (4) Determine the moment diagram for the indeterminate structure using the principle of superposition. 3. While it was essential to sketch the deflected shape of the base structure to understand the concept of the force method. (5) Determine the shear force and axial force diagrams for the indeterminate structure using statics.

20 kN 10 kN I D C I x1 = 1 I 6 m A I = 2 m2 A A x2 = 1 B 4m 4m Fig. 3. Thus one redundant is an external force. The base structure with external and unit redundant loading applied is shown below. the other an internal force and the statically determinate base structure is a single unit supported by a pin at A and a roller at B .30 Statically determinate base structure. 66 . Statically determinate base structure We select the horizontal reaction at B and the force AD as redundant forces.1.

8 ⋅ 8 − ⋅ 40 ⋅ 4.2.8 ⋅ 6 − ⋅ 60 ⋅ 4. Moment diagrams and displacements for base structure 60 + 70 = 30 + 40 + M0 4.29) 3 2 1 1 1 EI Δ10 = − ⋅ 60 ⋅ 4.5 3 1 EI δ22 = ⋅ 62 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 2 + 62 ⋅ 8 = 432. 1. 2”-structures).82 ⋅ (6 + 8) + 2 ⋅ 12 ⋅ 10 = 127. 3.28) The displacements for the base structure are 1 EI δ11 = ⋅ 4.8 − − M1 in AD: N 1 = 1 6 + 6 + + M2 Fig.31 Deflected shape and moment diagram of base structure for external load and unit values of redundant forces (“0. 3.8 4.8 ⋅ 8 = −1728 3 3 4 1 1 EI Δ20 = ⋅ 60 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 6 + ⋅ (60 + 40) ⋅ 6 ⋅ 8 = 3120 3 2 67 .8 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 8 = −172.0 3 1 1 EI δ21 = − ⋅ 4. Displacement values and compatibility equations The two compatibility equations are x 1δ11 + x 2δ12 + Δ10 = 0 x1δ21 + x 2δ22 + Δ20 = 0 (3.8 (3.8 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 6 − ⋅ 4.

5 0. we can calculate the virtual moment diagram for any statically determinate structure that is obtained from the original indeterminate struc- ture by removing constraints. 3. It can be shown (the proof is beyond the scope of this class) that it is not necessary to find the virtual moment diagram M ′ for the original indeterminate structure.30) −172. We solve 127.93 8.32 Final internal force diagrams and deflected shape.8 x 2 = 1728 (3.7 deflected shape M [kNm] 7. removing supports or introducing hinges.5). We call such a structure a reduced struc- ture.g. Hence I EI ΔC = ∫ M ⋅ M ′ dx + A ∫ N ⋅ N ′ d x (3.5 x 1 − 172. Final shear and axial force diagrams from statics 3.Note that it is a popular mistake to ignore the axial deformation in member AD when calculating the displace- ment δ11 (see Section 3. we use the principle of virtual forces. Final moment diagram by superposition M = M 0 + x 1M 1 + x 2M 2 5.31) 4. Horizontal displacement at C To find the horizontal displacement at C . Instead.8 x 1 + 432 x 2 = −3120 and obtain x 1 = 8.22 kN x 2 = −3.32 and M ′ is a virtual moment diagram obtained from applying a virtual force in the horizontal direction at C . For example.5 − 3.22 N [kN] Fig. The big advantage of using a statically determinate structure for the virtual moment diagram is that we don’t have to go through a complete indeterminate analysis again just to find the virtual moment diagram.6 + − 26.04 − 23. 6.5 12. e. 3. we can se- 68 .6 − V [kN] + + 17.93 kN (3.32) where M is the final moment diagram shown in Fig.43 + − − 10.

69 . we just have a single term in the virtual work integral in Eq.33) Note that the preceding equation contains no axial force deformation since all members of the reduced structure are assumed axially rigid.33 Reduced structure for virtual loading and corresponding moment diagram.04 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 6 + (− 3 ⋅ 3.25 M′ = 0 8m Fig.34). (3.25 ⋅ 10 = 206 kNm 3 (3. No virtual moments exist. 1 1 1 1 ∫ M ⋅ M ′ dx = − 3 ⋅ 3.04 − 6 ⋅ 23. Since we ignore axial deformation in all members except member AD .58 + 4 ⋅ 40. 3.lect as the reduced structure the determinate base structure of the previous analysis for which the moment diagram is particularly simple. I A∫ EI ΔC = N ⋅ N ′ dx = 2 ⋅ 8. 3.0) ⋅ 6 ⋅ 8 = 206 kNm 3 EI ΔC = (3. An alternative and may be even simpler reduced structure is the determinate truss shown in Fig.34 obtained from the original structure by releasing the moment connections at joints C and D . P′ = 1 D 6 C + + 6m M′ A B 8m Fig.00 − P′ = 1 D 0.22 ⋅ 1.34) Note that the preceding equation contains no flexural deformation since all members of the reduced structure are truss members. 3.75 C N′ 6m − + A B 1. 1.34 Reduced structure for virtual loading and corresponding virtual axial force diagram.

Neglect axial force deformation except in member CG.6: Structure and statically determinate base structure.00 Fig.e.00 [m] A B 4.3. Since the structure has three external constraints.35 Example 3. 3. we may not select any reaction forces as a re- dundant force. Problem: Find the bending moment.00 4. Statically determinate base structure We first determine the degree of statical indeterminacy. Recognizing that there are no reaction forces due to the redundant loading. Figure 3. two internal forces at C and F and four internal forces at D and G and consists of 4 parts n = 3 + 2 + 2 + 4 + 4 − 4 ⋅ 3 = 15 − 12 = 3 (3. Solution: 1. shear force and axial force diagrams for the structure above. Since the structure is externally statically determinate.35. there are three reaction forces and all reactions are given by statics.35) Hence the structure is statically indeterminate to the third degree. 70 .5 m2 A X3 = 1 C D E X2 = 1 5. Here we chose as redundant forces the force in member CG and the shear force and axial force in mem- ber DE. 3.00 X1 = 1 I = 0.6 kN 10 m F G 3. Hence we need three releases with corresponding re- dundant forces to create the statically determinate base system. The statically determinate base system is shown in Fig.36 plots the bending moments for the base structure. drawing the moment diagrams should not pose a mayor problem. i.12 Example 3.

00 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 80 + 40) = −2453 (3.00 + − − − 4.00 4. 3.00 = 256.00 − ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4.00 5.00 = 283.0 − 2.3 (3.40 − 80.00 = 245.37) 3 6 6 1 1 EI Δ30 = ⋅ 5 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 5.00 5.42 ⋅ (3.94 3 1 EI δ22 = ⋅ 42 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4.36) 3 1 EI δ12 = − ⋅ 4 ⋅ 2.0 3 1 1 1 EI Δ20 = − ⋅ 4 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 4.0 20.00 + ⋅ 40 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4.4 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 4.00 M3 M2 4.2.0 N1 = 1 80. Moment diagrams for base structure + 20.0 − 4.3 3 1 EI δ33 = ⋅ 52 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 5.00 = −12.00 + ⋅ 5 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 8.00 + 4.00 4.00 = 2600 2 2 The set of compatibility equations is 71 .00 − 4 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 5.5 ⋅ 12 ⋅ 5.00 = 15.00) + 0.00 + 52 ⋅ 8.00 4.00 Fig.40 M0 M1 − [kNm] 80.00 5.80 3 EI δ13 = EI δ23 = EI δ31 = EI δ32 =0 1 EI Δ10 = ⋅ 2.00 4.0 − 2.4 ⋅ 4.00 − 5.36 Moment diagrams for base structure.00 + 42 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 5. Displacement values and compatibility equations From the moment diagrams and the axial force in member CG we obtain the displacement values 1 EI δ11 = ⋅ 2. 3.

80 ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 12.13 + 0. ⎡ 0 ⎥⎤ ⎡x ⎤ ⎢⎡−256.6 − − M V − + [kNm] [kN] 9.7 20.36 x 2 = 9.0 21.0 + + − 20.4 7.0 − − 15.2 9.4 − − 9.56 x 3 = −9.0 + 20.38) ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 283.2 N − − [kN] 30.2 Fig. 20.6 + 9.37 Internal force diagrams and deflected shape for Example 3. 72 .1 − + 5.41) L The axial forces N are then obtained from equilibrium at the joints. hence Mr − Ml V = ±V * (3.18 (3. Final moment diagram After solving for the redundant forces the bending moments are readily available from the principle of superposition M = M 0 + x1M 1 + x 2M 2 + x 3M 3 (3.4 9.4 − 9.3 0 ⎥ ⎢x 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 2453 ⎥ (3. 3.8 20.3 ⎥ ⎢x 3 ⎥ ⎢ −2600 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ has the solution x 1 = −8.80 245.2 4.63 + 6.39) 4.7 6.94 12.3 41.40) We obtain the shear forces from the bending moments using the moment equilibrium for the member.0 8.6.0⎥⎤ ⎢15.7 − − 38.

i. We select as redundants the force in member BE and the moment at B. there are several possible base structures. shear force and axial force diagrams for the structure above. Problem: Find the bending moment.7 10 kN/m E F D I 3m = 2 m2 A x2 = 1 3m x1 = 1 A B C 8m 4m Fig.13 Example 3. 3.33 + Fig.42) Hence the structure is statically indeterminate to the second degree and we need two releases with corresponding redun- dant forces to create the statically determinate base system.7: Structure and statically determinate base structure. Since the structure has four external constraints. there are four reaction forces and all reactions are given by statics. As already observed for other structures. Moment diagrams for base structure + 60 45 M0 [kNm] − 180 − 3.39 Bending moments for base structure.38 Example 3. 73 . Since the structure is externally statically determinate.33 180 − N2 = 1 M1 M2 + + 1.00 + 3. we may not select any reaction forces as a redundant force.3. Neglect axial force deformation except for member BF . 3. two internal forces at B. We determine the internal forces for the base structure by statics and drawing the diagrams should be relatively effortless. D and E and four internal forces at F and consists of 4 parts n = 4 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 4 − 4 ⋅ 3 = 14 − 12 = 2 (3. Statically determinate base structure We first determine the degree of statical indeterminacy. 2.e. 1.

328 ⋅ 8.00) − 45 ⋅ 6.00 + 2 ⋅ 8.0 M + [kNm] − 47.0 − + 45.00 + 8. The figure above shows two examples. In the example on the right-hand side. Moments for indeterminate structure 11.45) 4.00 19.00 = 12.40 Bending moment diagram for indeterminate structure.97 110.44) ⎣⎢ ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣⎢ ⎥⎦ and solve for x 1 = 46.0 − Fig.00 + 8.00 + ⋅ 1 ⋅ 3.00 ⋅ 2 + 12 ⋅ 8. 3. 3. The same holds for the horizontal reaction force.00 ⋅ (45 − 180) − ⋅ 1 ⋅ 180 ⋅ 8.3282 ⋅ (6. 74 .00) + 180 ⋅ (6.00 = −990. the vertical reaction force must not be selected as a re- dundant since it is given by statics.42⎥ ⎢x 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 3295⎥ (3.3.328 ⋅ [60 ⋅ (4.43) 3 2 1 1 EI Δ10 = ⋅ 1 ⋅ 6.97 (3.328 ⋅ 6. Displacement values and compatibility equations From the internal forces we obtain the flexibility coefficients δ and the right-hand side Δ 1 2 EI δ11 = ⋅ 1 ⋅ 6.42 3 1 1 EI δ12 = ⋅ 1 ⋅ 3.00] = −3295 3 set up the compatibility equations ⎡12. which is zero by statics.41 Incorrect base structures. The structure on the left-hand side collapses because the moment at E caused by axial force in member BF cannot be resisted because of the release at E. Under no circumstances may we select base structures that are unstable.00 + 4.00 3 1 EI δ22 = ⋅ 3.00 = 19.0 62.98 kNm x 2 = 21.34 kN (3.00) + 2 ⋅ 12 ⋅ 52 = 110.97 ⎤ ⎡x 1 ⎤ ⎡ 990 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢19. Don’ts x1 F D E x2 A x2 B C x1 Fig.0 3 2 1 EI Δ20 = − ⋅ 3.

75 . 000 kNm2 4m 3m Fig.60 m E A 3. two shear forces in and two ben- ding moments about the principle axes of the cross-section (subsequently denoted strong and weak axes) and the torsio- nal moment. As for plane frame structures. Using the principle of vir- tual forces. 000 kNm2 3m GJ = 500. The structure is thus statically indeterminate to the first degree. C C B B Dx F D Dy = 1 F Dz 24 kN D E Ax A 3. Problem: Find the three bending moment diagrams (strong and weak axis bending and torsion) of the space frame above for the given loading. These are the axial force. the displacements for the statically determinate base structure are then 3. cannot be found from the equations of equilibrium.14. we typically neglect shear and axial deformation. Statically determinate base structure We can determine the support reactions in the x and z -directions by statics.2 Example 3.8.60 m FG y 4m EI S = 600. Neglect axial force deformation.14 The force method for space frames 3.3. 3.60 m Az 4m G Gx 4m G 3m 4m Gz x1 = 1 3m 3m 4m 3m Fig. 1. The y -component of the support forces at D and G .43 Statically determinate base structure for “0” and “1” loading. 3.14. The flexural stiffness about the principal axes and the torsional stiffness as well as the orientation of the principal axes are given in the table above.1 Discussion Members of space frames are subject to six internal forces. however. AB is a two-force member. 000 kNm2 G EI W = 400.8 C z B y x P = 24 kN Member strong axis (S) BC y D F CD y BE x EF y E A 3.42 Example 3.

**2. Moment diagrams for base structure
**

For the “0” loading we can find the support forces

3

∑M DG = 0 → Az = 12 → Ax = Az

3.6

= 10 ∑M AD = 0 → Gz = 12

∑V = 0 → Dz = 0 ∑M CD = 0 → Gx = 0 (3.46)

∑H = 0 → Dx = Ax = 10

For the “1” loading, all reaction forces except the y -components at D and G are zero. Figure 3.44 plots the correspon-

ding moment diagrams (three for each load case) .

36

− 3.6 3.6

+ 36 3.6

3.6

+

MT ,0 MT ,1

36

3.6

− 36

−

− 3.6

+

48

+

M S,0 M S ,1

36

3.6

3 − −

3

−

M W,0 = 0

3.6

− −

3 3

M W,1

Fig. 3.44 Moments (bending and torsional) for base structure.

76

**3. Displacement values and compatibility equations
**

As for plane structures, we obtain the displacement values directly from the moment diagrams using the principle of

virtual work

1 1 1

δ 11 =

EI S ∫ M S1 (x ) ⋅ M S1 (x )dx +

EI W ∫ MW 1 (x ) ⋅ M W1 (x )dx +

GJ ∫

MT 1 (x ) ⋅ M T1 (x ) dx

(3.47)

1 1 1

Δ10 =

EI S ∫ M S1 (x ) ⋅ M S0 (x ) dx +

EI W ∫ MW 1 (x ) ⋅ M W0 (x ) dx +

GJ ∫

MT 1 (x ) ⋅ M T0 (x ) dx

Doing the numbers for our example gives

600 600 2 2

EI Sδ 11 = ⋅ 3.62 ⋅ 6.00 + 3.62 ⋅ 8.00 + ⋅ ( ⋅ 3.63 + ⋅ 3.03 + 32 ⋅ 8.00) = 378.6

500 400 3 3

1

EI Sδ 10 = − ⋅ 3.6 ⋅ 48 ⋅ 8.00 = −691.2 (3.48)

2

−691.2

→ x1 =− = 1.82 kN

378.6

4. Moments for indeterminate structure

We obtain the final moment diagrams by superposition

M S = M S1 + x 1 ⋅ M S1 M W = M W1 + x 1 ⋅ M W1 M T = M T1 + x 1 ⋅ M T1 (3.49)

36

36 36

6.6

6.6

36 6.6

6.6

41.4

MT [kNm] MS

36

[kNm]

6.6

5.5

5.5 MW [kNm]

6.6

5.5 5.5

sketch of deflected shape

Fig. 3.45 Moment diagrams (bending and torsional) and deflected shape for indeterminate structure.

77

Problems

3.1

40 k

2 k/ft

B C D

A

20 ft 7 ft 7 ft

Use the force method to find the bending moment and shear force diagrams for the two-span beam above (constant EI ).

(1) The redundant is the support reaction at B . (2) The redundant is the support reaction at D .

(3) The redundant is the bending moment at B . (4) The redundant is the bending moment at C .

Solution:

Strategy Δ10 δ11 x1

1 ± 40267 768.6 ± 52.4

2 ± 28233 2222 ± 12.7

3 ± 1157 11.33 ± 102

4 ± 4033 45.33 ± 89.0

± depending on assumed direction of x 1

102 27.3

14.9

+

100

− +

+ + − −

12.7

M [k-ft] V [k]

89.0 25.1

3.2 2 k/ft

EI = const.

10 ft

20 ft

Use the force method to find the bending moment, shear force and axial force diagrams for the two-hinge frame above

(constant EI ). Neglect axial force deformation.

(1) The redundant is the horizontal support reaction.

(2) The redundant is the bending moment at girder mid-span.

(3) The redundant is the bending moment at the column-girder junction.

78

Solution: Member AB BC DE CE AD BE BD Force [kN] 24. Draw the bending moment diagram. ). Solution: FBD = 14.72 k-ft 79 .7 T 98.8 C 54.3 D E 3m A B C 100 kN 4m 4m Use the force method to determine the member forces of the above truss structure ( EA=const.3 T 54.67 ± 50 3 ± 1333 26.4 1 k/ft A C B EA = 4 k EI = 1 k-ft2 9 ft D 12 ft 12 ft Three truss members support beam AC as shown.Solution: Strategy Δ10 δ11 x1 1 ± 13333 2667 ±5 2 ± 1333 26.8 C 59.3 C 40. Neglect axial deformation in the beam.3 C 67.8 T 3. Calculate the force in truss member BD and the moment in the beam at B . but not in the truss members.67 ± 50 ± depending on assumed direction of x 1 3.62 k (C) M B = −15.

3. Neglect axial deformation except for member BF . 80 . shear force and axial force diagrams of the structure for the gi- ven loading. apply the redundant forces and draw the bending moment dia- grams M 0 and M i .00 3.0 M + [kNm] 3m A − 47. 3.5 141. Neglect axial deformation.00 [m] A B 2.0 − Use the force method to determine the bending moment diagram of the structure for the given loading.00 Use the force method to determine the bending moment. 3. (b) Select a statically determinate base structure.42 45 3m 4m 3m 4m (a) Determine the degree n of statical indeterminacy of the structure above. The structure has constant flexural stiffness.0 B C 8m 4m 62. The structure has constant flexural stiffness.6 10 kN/m G F 2.0 10 kN/m E F − D I 3m = 2 m2 + A 45.7 11.00 20 kN C D E 4. i = 1 … n.

0 ft Use the force method to determine the bending moment diagram of the structure for the given loading. The beam has constant flexural stiffness.16 8 − M + + + 39.8 5 k/ft 50 k A B C D E 20 ft 20 ft 7.C .16 8 3.5 − 250 − 35. Solution: 221 79. Discuss two solution strategies regarding their computational effort: (a) Redundants are the moments at A.C .98 − − + M 9.83 + − 7. B.3.6 90 62 5⋅ =22.57 26.52 5⋅ =35.8 7.5 ft 7. D .17 7.5 ft 6.83 2. (b) redundants are the vertical reaction forces at B.17 V 81 . Then analyze the structure using the more economical strategy.9 172 10 k A I B 2I C 9 ft 6 ft 9 ft Use the force method to determine the bending moment and shear force diagrams of the structure for the given loading.55 2.89 37. Solution: 15.

3.10

5 kN B C D E

2.00

15 kN/m

[m] G

F I

= 2 m2

2.00

A

A H

4.00 4.00 4.00

(1) Determine the degree of statical indeterminacy. (2) Use the force method to calculate the bending moment, shear

force and axial force diagrams. (3) Calculate the horizontal displacement at location B. Neglect axial force deformation

except for member EH.

3.11

10 kN/ m

B D

C

I

= 0.5 m2

6m

A

F E

A 3m 5m 5m 3m

(1) Determine the degree of statical indeterminacy of the above frame structure. (2) Use the force method to calculate

the bending moment diagram for the given loading. (3) Calculate the rotation at hinge A. Neglect axial force deformation

except for member CF.

Solution:

5.67

19.0 19.0

− −

−

+ 31.2 31.2 + −

M

[kNm]

82

3.12

100 kN

B C D E

F

6m

EI =const.

G

A

5m 3m 3m 4m

Calculate the bending moment diagram of the above frame structure for the given loading. Neglect axial deformation.

Solution: 400

196

266 330

−

− 70

241 70

− −

+ M

[kNm]

3.13

20 k

EI =const.

12 ft

Calculate the bending moment diagram of the above semi-circular arch for the given loading (ordinates every 30

degrees). Neglect axial deformation.

Solution:

6.1 6.1

+

− −

22.1 22.1

M 43.6

[k-ft]

83

3.14

D E

4m

A B C

100 kN

4m 4m

Use the force method to determine the member forces of the above truss structure ( EA=const. ).

Solution:

Member AB BC DE CE AD BE BD

Force [kN] 36.0 C 36.0 T 61.3 C 76.7 C 54.0 C 46.0 T 90.0 T

3.15

4 k/ft

40 k

2I

10 ft

I I

20 ft

Use the force method to determine the bending moment, shear force and axial force diagrams. Neglect axial deformation

in all members.

84

3.16

P1 A 17.7

17.7 −

+

−

3m

P2 27.3

12.3

14.9 −

+ 12.3 − 14.9

EI =1000 kNm2 27.3 M

3m

[kNm]

− +

30.1 30.1

5m

Two lateral forces P1 and P2 act on a two-story frame. The moment diagram corresponding to this loading is given.

(a) Find the forces P1 and P2 applied to the frame. (b) Use the principal of virtual work to find the horizontal displacement

of A .

Solution:

(a) P1 = 20 kN, P2 = 10 kN (b) ΔA = 0.147 m

3.17

20 k

EI =const.

12 ft

Calculate the bending moment diagram of the above semi-circular arch for the given loading (ordinates every 30

degrees). Neglect axial deformation.

Solution:

8.88 8.88

+

− −

12.47 36.35 12.47

M

[k-ft]

+ +

26.54 26.54

85

5 m 2.0417 0.538 0.121 0.826 0. Assume uniform flexural stiffness EI and neglect axial deformation.909 EI m 3 Deflected shape (for illustration only): (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 86 . Solution: Structure (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) k 1 [ ] 0.3.5 m For each of the frame structures shown.5 m 2. calculate the stiffness k of the frame in the direction of the force.5 m 2.5 m 2.5 m 2.385 0.18 3m 3m 3m (a) (b) (c) 5m 5m 5m 3m 3m 3m (d) (e) (f) 2.

weak axis bending and torsion) of the space frame. 000 kNm2 GJ = 2. 500 kNm2 For (a) P1 and (b) P2 .19 I P2 = 100 kN H P1 = 50 kN D G Member strong axis AB x C BC x CD x z B DE x J 5m FG x y B GH x x HI x IJ x CH y E F 2. 000 kNm2 EI strong = 30. 000 k-ft2 Draw the three moment diagrams (strong axis bending. 87 . 000 k-ft2 GJ = 120. weak axis bending and torsion) of the space frame for the given loading.50 m 3.3. draw the three moment diagrams (strong axis bending.00 m 2. 000 k-ft2 EI strong = 600. 3.20 E 2 k/ft 2 k/ft D Member strong axis F AD y z BE y CF x y B 12 ft x DE y EF x A C 16 ft 16 ft EI weak = 200. The above table provides the orientation of the frame members with respect to the global coordinate system.00 m A EI weak = 10.50 m 3. The above table provides the orientation of the frame members with respect to the global coordinate system.

joints A and C are fixed both against translation and rotation and joint B is fixed against translation. the degree of statical indeterminacy is irrelevant.1 Deflected shape and bending moment for (a) original structure. The chord rotation is the relative displacement of the member ends divided by the length of the member. 88 . we use expressions that relate the moment at each end of the member to two types of ro- tations. To become familiar with the main features of the slope-deflection method.4 The Slope-Deflection Method 4. the higher the degree of indeterminacy the more advantageous the slope-deflection method becomes. The beam considered here has one degree of freedom. As we will learn in this chapter. the slope-deflection method works in the exact opposite manner as the force method. we can’t apply the method to analyze trusses. In the structure be- low. since we have to neglect axial and shear deformation. then solve for the rotations and derive the bending moments from the rotations. This is because the slope-deflection method is “displacement driven” and focuses on unknown displacements and rotations of the struc- ture rather than unknown forces. The slope-deflection method is thus called a displacement method. Therefore only one unknown displacement exists. It is kinemati- cally indeterminate to the first degree. (c) for joint rotation. If we desire to find the bending moment diagram with the force method we would have to analyze a system that is statically indetermi- nate to the third degree. 4.1 General Remarks Like the force method. (b) fixed-end condition (kinematically determi- nate). we consider the beam below. the slope-deflection method is a classical procedure to analyze statically indeterminate beams and frames. The slope-deflection method is less general than the force method. which is the rotation ϕB at joint B . M AB M BA = M BC ϕB A F B C − EI MCB (a) + L L = 0 0 M AB =? M BA =? F ϕB = 0 (b) + M =? 0 M BA ϕB M =? (c) M =? M =? Fig. the member end rotation and the chord rotation. We then formulate equations whose unknowns are the joint and chord rota- tions. In the slope deflection methods unknown rota- tions are often referred to as degrees of freedom. Since we ignore axial deformation in the slope-deflection method. In fact. In the slope-deflection method. In the slope-deflection method.

We will refer to the two sign conventions as the “slope-deflection” and “statics” sign conventions. however. a member end moment that acts counterclockwise is positive.2.2 End moments due to end rotation The objective of this section is to derive the relationship between member end moments M ij and M ji and member end rotations ϕi and ϕ j (counterclockwise positive). we need this relationship to formulate the joint equilibrium equations.2. 4. 4. respectively. As illustrated in the introduction to this chapter. We can calculate fixed-end moments for different loading conditions (uniformly distributed load.1 Fixed-end moments In the slope-deflection method.2 End moments for prismatic members ( I =const. 4. 4.1c) by an amount ϕB “until” moment equilibrium ∑M B = M BA + M BC = 0 (4. The results are widely tabulated (see Figs. P ) (4. concentrated force) and support conditions (fixed-fixed or fixed-pinned) using the force method. 4. Hence M BA = f (ϕB . The kinematically determinate structure.1(b) may not jump at B (In the force method we violate compatibility for the base structure).24 and 4. we express the member end moments in terms of the unknown rotations and the applied loads. assuming that both member ends are fixed against translation and rotation. ) 4. These member end mo- ments are termed fixed-end moments. but clockwise at the left end of the member or left cut section (see Fig. 4. when drawing a bending moment diagram a positive moment acts counter clockwise at the right end of the member or the right cut section. we must start the analysis by transforming a member loading into equivalent moments acting at the joints. ϕi M ij =? EI i j M ji = ? L Fig. we derive the slope-deflection equations.1) at joint B is satisfied (in the force method. 4. Important note: In order to formulate moment equilibrium at the joints. 4. We now release the artificially restrained beam and joint B rotates (see Fig. we write compatibility equations to calculate the redundant forces). we must adopt a different sign convention than that used so far when drawing bending moment diagrams. In the slope-deflection method.2) In what follows. 4. violates equilibrium. slope deflection statics (design) +M +M Fig. since the two member-end moments at joint B are not the same (the bending moment in Fig. The preceding equations expresses equilibrium at joint B with respect to the two member end moments M BA and M BC acting at B . P ).25). 89 .In Fig.1(b) we form a kinematically determinate base structure by restraining the joint rotation at B (in the force method we form a statically determinate base structure by releasing redundant forces). triangular load.2). In contrast. In the slope deflection method. M BC = f (ϕB . more precisely the moment-rotation relation for a flexural member of uniform cross-section.2 Sign convention: slope-deflection method and conventional statics (design).3 Objective: Find member end moment caused by member end rotation (only joint rotation ϕi shown).

M ij − M0 M1 + 1 Fig. 4. The displacements for the base structure are 1 1 1 EI δ11 = L EI Δ10 = − M ij L → x1 = M (4. To find the desired end rotation we use the principle of virtual forces and apply a virtual moment M ′ = 1 at joint i . 4. for an end rotation ϕ j the results are 90 . We use a simply supported structure for the virtual moment diagram (reduced structure). (3) Calculate the end rotation using the principle of virtual forces.4 shows the moments for the base structure.4 Moments for base structure.5) L i 2 L L i Clearly.6 Real and virtual moment diagram to find ϕi due to applied M ij . After releasing the rotation and one end of the member and applying a moment. Since we have learned how to calculate rotations from given moment diagrams (principle of virtual forces). (4) Invert the result of (3) to obtain the desired moment-rotation relation. we use the following procedure to calculate moments due to given rotations.5M ij Fig. We select as the base structure a simply supported beam. 4. the structure in Fig.3 is statically in- determinate to the first degree. 1 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ L ϕi = EI ∫ M M ′dx = 6 M ij ⎜⎝⎜2 ⋅ 1 − 2 ⋅ 1⎠⎟⎟⎟ L = M ij 4EI (4.3) 3 6 2 ij The moment diagram is thus M ij − M + 0. We thus have to use the force method to find the moment diagram.4) Solving the preceding equation for M ij gives the desired moment-rotation relation 4EI 1 4EI 2EI M ij = ϕ M ji = ⋅ = ϕ (4. (2) Calculate the moment diagram. M ij 11 − − M M′ + 0.5M ij Fig. 4.5 Moment diagram for applied end moment M ij (far end j fixed). Figure 4. (1) Apply a moment at one end of the member and hold the far end fixed.

EI M ji = L (2ϕi + 4ϕj ) = 0 ⇔ ϕj = − 21 ϕi (4.8 Moments due to member end rotation ϕi for j -end pinned. If one of the member ends is pinned.7) L L 4EI M ij = ϕ L i ϕi EI i j L 2EI M ji = ϕ L i 2EI M ij = ϕ L j EI i ϕj j L 4EI Fig. 2EI 4EI M ij = ϕ M ji = ϕ (4. Substituting the result of Eq. (4. (4.7 Moments due to member end rotation. (4. 4.7) set to zero.6) L j L j Combining the results we find the desired relation between end rotations ϕi and ϕ j and end moments M ij and M ji EI EI M ij = (4 ϕi + 2ϕj ) M ji = (2ϕi + 4ϕj ) (4. say joint j .7) gives the modified moment-rotation relation (with ϕ j eliminated) ⎛ ⎞ M ij = EI ⎜⎜4ϕ + 2 ⎛⎜− 1 ϕ ⎟⎞⎟⎟⎟ = EI 3ϕ (4.9) L ⎜⎝ i ⎜⎝ 2 i ⎠⎟⎠⎟ L i EI M ij = 3ϕi L EI M i j L Fig. we can eliminate ϕ j using the information M ji = 0 (zero moment transfer at node j ). 4.8) Note that the preceding equation is the second equation of Eq.8) into the first equation of Eq. 91 . M ji = ϕ L j So far we have assumed moment transfer at both ends of the member.

"=" EI ϕi EI i j i ϕj j Δi L ψij = ψji cw + Δ j − Δi ψij = Δj L L Fig. the member end joints i and j do not only rotate but also displace relative to each other.3 End Moments due to chord rotation In general. fixed-fixed fixed-pinned EI EI M ij = M ij0 + L (4ϕi + 2ϕj + 6ψij ) M ij = M ij0 + L (3ϕi + 3ψij ) (4. 4.10) L L 4. 4.4 Summary To obtain the complete relation for the member end moments we add the three effects of fixed-end moment.2.2. moment due to joint rotation and moment due to chord rotation.11) EI M ji = M j0i + L (2ϕi + 4ϕj + 6ψij ) M ji =0 EI EI i j i j L L 92 . The easiest way to derive the effect of a cord rotation ψij = ψji (we measure ψ clockwise positive) on the member end moments is to recognize that the effects of a chord rotation on moment and curvature are equivalent to those of two simultaneous nodal rotations (see Fig.4. 4. EI M ij = 6 ψij L ϕi = ψij EI i ϕ j = ψij j L EI M ji = 6 ψij L Fig.9 Chord rotation viewed as two simultaneous joint rotations (scale exaggerated). The two end moments M ji and M ij due to a chord rotation are thus EI EI M ij = M ji = (4 + 2)ψij = 6ψij (4.10 Moments due to chord rotation. so that the cord of the member rotates.9).

14) wL2 EI ∑ MC = MCB + MCD =− 12 + L (2ϕB + 7ϕC ) = 0 We can write the two equations in matrix form ⎡ wL2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ EI ⎡⎢7 2⎤⎥ ⎡⎢ϕB ⎤⎥ ⎢ 24 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ (4. Fixed-end moments The fixed-end moments for the above structure and loading are 0 wL2 0 wL2 wL2 M BA =− M BC = MCB = − (4.13) 2 4EI 2EI wL EI MCB 0 = MCB + L C ϕ + L B ϕ =− 12 + L (2ϕB + 4ϕC ) EI EI MCD = 3ϕC = ⋅ 3ϕC L L 3. Three-span continuous beam. and then require moment equilibrium at B and C to solve for the two unknowns. ϕB .3 Example 4. ϕC = `(4.1. 4. We first find the fixed-end moments.4. Problem: Use the slope deflection method to find the member end moments for the three-span continuous beam and draw the bending moment and shear force diagrams. ϕC and ϕD . we can eliminate joint rotations ϕA and ϕD according to Eq.11 Example 4.9). Hence we have to work with unknown joint rotations ϕB and ϕC only. since we know that the bending moment is zero at joints A and D . then write expressions for the member end moments in term of the unknown joint rotations. Finally. 1. Solution: The continuous beam has four unknown joint rotations ϕA .1 w A D B C L L L Fig. However. Member end moments in terms of ϕB and ϕC 0 EI wL2 M BA = M BA + 3ϕB =− + 3ϕB L 8 EI EI wL2 EI 0 M BC = M BC + L 4ϕB + L 2ϕC = 12 + L (4ϕB + 2ϕC ) (4. we substitute the numerical values for the joint rotations into the expressions for the end moments.12) 8 12 12 2.8) by conside- ring member AB pinned at A and fixed at B and member CD fixed at C and pinned at D (see Eq. Equilibrium equations Summing moments at nodes B and C gives wL2 EI ∑M B = M BA + M BC = − 24 + L (7ϕB + 2ϕC ) = 0 (4.16) 360EI 360EI 93 .15) L ⎢⎣⎢2 7 ⎥⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ϕC ⎥⎦ ⎢ wL2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎢ 12 ⎦⎥ The solution for the joint rotations is wL3 4wL3 ϕB = . (4. 4.

4.13 Shear force diagram for three-span continuous beam.617wL Fig. We observe that the joint rotations depend on the flexural stiffness EI .13) we obtain wL2 EI wL3 7 2 M BA = − + ⋅ 3⋅ = − wL 8 L 360EI 60 wL2 EI ⎛⎜ wL3 4wL3 ⎞⎟ 7 M BC = + ⋅ ⎜4 ⋅ + 2⋅ ⎟= wL2 12 L ⎜⎝ 360EI 360EI ⎠⎟ 60 (4.4. 4. are independent of EI . 6. 4wL3 3 ϕC = wL 360EI ϕB = 360EI ϕB ϕC Fig. Shear force diagram From the moment diagram we find the shear force diagram by simple statics. 7 wL2 60 1 wL2 wL2 wL2 30 _ 8 8 M + Fig. 5. (4. Member end moments Substituting the values for the joint rotations into the expressions for the member end moments in Eq. Bending moment diagram All we need to draw the bending moment diagram is to connect the member end moments and add the static moment wL2 / 8 for the loaded spans AB and BC . however.417wL 0.383wL + + 0.12 Bending moment diagram for three-span continuous beam.14 Deflected shape with calculated joint rotations. 94 . 0.17) wL 2 EI ⎛ wL 3 4wL 3 ⎞⎟ 1 MCB = − + ⋅ ⎜⎜2 ⋅ + 4⋅ ⎟ = − wL2 12 L ⎜⎝ 360 360 ⎟⎠ 30 EI 4wL3 1 MCD = ⋅3⋅ = wL2 L 360 30 Note that we have satisfied moment equilibrium at joints B and C and the bending moments are the same as those calcu- lated in Chapter 3 using the force method. the member end moments.583wL 0. 4.033wL − V _ 0.

EI = 140 .8) to eliminate the rotation at these joints. The fixed-end moments for the above structure and loading are (see Fig.75 MCB = −43. Hence.4 Example 4. 4.75 + 160ϕB + 80ϕC 7 (4.18) 8 2. we can select an arbitrary value that is convenient in the moment expressions.75 (4.19) 280 MCB = −43. Equilibrium equations Summing moments at nodes B and C gives 95 . chord rotations do not exist. 1.2 50 kN 2I B C 3. Fixed-end moments. 140 M AB = ⋅ 2ϕB = 70ϕB 4 140 M BA = ⋅ 4ϕB = 140ϕB 4 280 M BC = 43. Member end moments in terms of ϕB and ϕC Since the internal forces are independent of the true value of the flexural stiffness EI . Solution: The structure is non-sway since the joint displacements are all zero (remember that we neglect axial deforma- tion in the slop-deflection method). Problem: Use the slope-deflection method to find the member end moments of the structure above.2: Non-sway structure with two unknown joint rotations. Note that we don‘t have to find the rotations at joint D and E since we can use Eq.g. The unknowns are the rotations at joints B and C . shear force and axial force diagrams.4.75 + ⋅ (4ϕB + 2ϕC ) = 43. (4.5 m 4m I I I A D E 4m 3m 3m Fig. e.15 Example 4. 4.75 + 80ϕB + 160ϕC 7 140 MCD = ⋅ 3ϕC = 84ϕC 5 140 MCE = ⋅ 3ϕC = 84ϕC 5 3. Draw the bending moment.75 + ⋅ (2ϕB + 4ϕC ) = −43.24) 0 7 0 M BC = 50 ⋅ = 43.

16 M BC = 43.75 + 80ϕB + 160ϕC = −43.16 15.18 + − − 25.25) MCB = −43.58 M BA = 140ϕB = −140 ⋅ 0. ∑M B = 0 =140ϕB + 43. (4.16 140 25.23) EI EI EI EI 4.1940 = −27. 27.18 5.36 27.30 / EI − − − + 15.1940 = −13.46 − − − − 3.75 − 160 ⋅ 0.75 − 80 ⋅ 0.75 + 80ϕB + 160ϕC + 84ϕC + 84ϕC ⇔ 80ϕB + 328ϕC = 43. Internal force diagrams and deflected shape.18 58.16 30.1807 = −30.75⎤ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 80 328⎥ ⎢ϕC ⎥ = ⎢ 43.1940 ϕC = 0. Member end moments Substituting the values for the joint rotations into the expressions for the member end moments in Eq.03 10.1940 + 80 ⋅ 0. 4.16 (4.47 Fig.1807 = 27.19) we obtain ` M AB = 70ϕB = −70 ⋅ 0.03 3.1807 (4.1940 + 160 ⋅ 0.75 ⎥ (4.20) ∑M C = 0 = −43.75 We can write the two equations in matrix form ⎡ 300 80 ⎤ ⎡ϕB ⎤ ⎡−43.74 M [kNm] 13.16 Internal force diagrams and deflected shape for frame structure.22) Since we have selected an arbitrary flexural stiffness of EI =140 . the joint rotations expressed in terms of EI are 140 27.1807 = 15.36 MCD = 84ϕC = 84 ⋅ 0.16 / EI ϕC =25.18 MCE = 84ϕC = 84 ⋅ 0.75 (4.21) ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ The solution for the nodal rotations is ϕB = −0.18 ϕB =− 27.1807 = 15.1807 ⋅ = (4.18 24.54 20.58 24.1940 ⋅ =− ϕC = 0.75 + 160ϕB + 80ϕC ⇔ 300ϕB + 80ϕC = −43. 96 .54 N [kN] V [kN] 10.75 + 160ϕB + 80ϕC = 43.35 11.30 ϕB = −0.

26) 20 20 MCB = (4ϕC + 2ϕB ) = 16ϕC + 8ϕB MCD = (4ϕC + 6ψCD ) = 20ϕC + 30ψ 5 4 20 M DC = (2ϕC + 6ψCD ) = 10ϕC + 30ψ 4 3. Δ Δ 10 kN B C 4m ψAB ψCD EI = const. The girder displaces in the horizontal direction. this is no longer the case. The deflected shape of the structure and the internal forces are a function of the joint rotations only. The additional equation needed to solve for the unknowns is a force equilibrium equation as illus- trated by the example below. no fixed-end moments exist. Problem: Use the slope deflection method to find the member end moments of the frame structure above and draw the bending moment diagram. 1. selecting a reference flexural stiffness of EI = 20 . For the frame below subject to la- teral loading.10). This lateral displacement causes chord rotations in the columns AB and CD. We must therefore consider the column chord rotation as an additional unknown in the ex- pressions for the member end moments and the moment equilibrium equations for the nodes are no longer sufficient to solve the problem. Moment equilibrium equations Summing up moments at joints B and C gives 97 . the joint rotations ϕB and ϕC and the chord rotation ψAB = ψCD = ψ . assuming the members to be axially rigid leads to zero chord rotation in the girder BC ( ψBC = 0 ). (4. points B and C deflect by the same amount Δ such that the two column chord rotations ψAB and ψCD are equal.4. Also.3: Simple sway structure. we write 20 M AB = (2ϕB + 6ψAB ) = 10ϕB + 30ψ 4 20 20 M BA = (4ϕB + 6ψAB ) = 20ϕB + 30ψ M BC = (4ϕB + 2ϕC ) = 16ϕB + 8ϕc 4 5 (4. A D 5m Fig. Member end moments in terms of ϕB . ϕC and ψ Using the expressions for the member end moments derived before.17 Example 4. the chord rotation of a member has an effect on the end moments of the member. Note that since we ignore axial deformation.3 In the previous examples. Fixed-end moments Since the loads are applied to the joints. As derived in Eq.5 Example 4. Solution: An analysis of the frame with the slope-deflection method involves three degrees of freedom. 2. 4. the joints of the structure have not experienced any translational displacements. and knowing that ϕA = ϕD = 0 .

Force equilibrium equation 10 VBA VCD 5m Fig.5ϕB − 7.28) We can now relate the shear forces to the internal moments by M BA + M AB 1 VBA = = (20ϕB + 30ψ + 10ϕB + 30ψ) = 7. The minus changes into a plus because of the sign convention for the ben- ding moments used in the slope-deflection method. Hence the force equilibrium equation expressed in terms of the three unknowns is ∑F x = −7.5ϕC − 30ψ + 10 = 0 (4.32) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ψ ⎥ ⎢ 0.5057 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ ⎥⎦ into the expression for the end moments yields (slope-deflection signs) 98 .∑M B = M BA + M BC = 36ϕB + 8ϕC + 30ψ = 0 (4.18 Force equilibrium. ∑F x = 10 −VCD −VBA = 0 (4.5ϕC + 15ψ LCD 4 Note that this is the same relation we frequently use to derive the shear force diagram from the moment diagram (“Mo- ment right minus moment left over L ”). In order to formulate a third equation we con- sider equilibrium in the horizontal direction.27) ∑M C = MCB + MCD = 8ϕB + 36ϕC + 30ψ = 0 4.31) ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢7. The two moment equilibrium equations above contain three unknowns. Member end moments Substituting the solution ⎡ ⎤ ⎡−0.5 7.5 30⎥ ⎢ ψ ⎥ ⎢10⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 5.3448 ⎥ (4.29) M DC + MCD 1 VCD = = (10ϕC + 30ψ + 20ϕC + 30ψ) = 7.3448⎤ ⎢ϕB ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ϕ ⎢ C⎥ ⎢= −0.30) and the three equations we have to solve simultaneously are ⎡ 36 8 30⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ϕB ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 8 36 30⎥ ⎢ϕC ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥ (4.5ϕB + 15ψ LAB 4 (4. 4.

4.3448 − 8 ⋅ 0.27 MCD = −20 ⋅ 0. 4.M AB = −10 ⋅ 0.5057 = 11.3448 = −8.27 (4.27 M BC = −16 ⋅ 0.3 − 8.27 M DC = −10 ⋅ 0.6 Example 4.7 11. 4.72 6.3448 + 30 ⋅ 0. Problem: Use the slope deflection method to find the member end moments of the frame structure above and draw the bending moment diagram.72 M BA = −20 ⋅ 0.20 Example 4.3448 + 30 ⋅ 0.3 + − M − + [kNm] 11. The frame has constant flexural stiffness EI . To draw the bending moment diagram. Bending moment diagram.5057 = 8.5057 = −8.4 10 kN/m 15 kN 10 kN A B C 4m E 2m D 2m 8m Fig.3448 + 30 ⋅ 0.33) MCB = −16 ⋅ 0. we convert the signs to conventional statics.19 Bending moment diagram for simple sway frame. 8.7 Fig. 99 . Solution: For an analysis by the slope deflection method the unknowns are the two joint rotations ϕB and ϕC and one unknown chord rotation ψ .3448 = −8.5057 = 11.3448 − 8 ⋅ 0.4.3448 + 30 ⋅ 0.

33 (1) (4.36) 2.5ψ (4.39) ∑M C = 0 = −53.33 + 24ϕB + 12ϕC EI 48 (4. Δ Δ ψCE 4m ψBD 2m Fig.33 + 24ϕB + 12ϕC ⇔ 56ϕB + 12ϕC + 48ψ = −23. Moment equilibrium equations ∑M B = 0 = −30 + 32ϕB + 48ψ + 53.5ψBD (4.33 12 12 3.35) Selecting ψBD as the unknown chord rotation.37) M BC = = 53.33 + 12ϕB + 24ϕC + 36ϕC + 54ψ ⇔ 12ϕB + 60ϕC + 54ψ = 53.33 (2) 100 . End moments in terms of ϕ and ψ M BA = −30 EI ⎛ ⎞⎟ 48 ⎜ M BD = ⋅ ⎜⎜4ϕB + 2 ϕD + 6ψBD ⎟⎟⎟ = ⋅ (4ϕB + 6ψ ) = 32ϕB + 48ψ LBD ⎜⎝ N ⎠⎟ 6 0 EI 48 M BC 0 = M BC + LBC ( 4ϕB + 2ϕC + 6 ⋅ 0) = 53.33 + 8 (2ϕB + 4ϕC ) = −53.34) such that ψCE = 1. we thus have ψBD = ψ ψCE = 1.00 0 10 ⋅ 8 2 0 10 ⋅ 82 (4. 4.38) 0 MCB = MCB + LBC (2ϕB + 4ϕC ) = −53. Chord rotations Neglecting axial force deformation and assuming that the chord rotations are small we have (Fig. 4. Fixed-end moments 0 M BA = M BA = −15 ⋅ 2 = −30.33 + (4ϕB + 2ϕC ) 8 = 53.21) Δ = ψBD ⋅ 6 = ψCE ⋅ 4 (4.21 Chord rotations. 1.33 + 12ϕB + 24ϕC EI 48 ⎛ 3 ⎞ MCE = ⋅ (3ϕC + 3ψCE ) = ⋅ ⎜3ϕ + 3 ⋅ ψ⎟⎟ = 36ϕC + 54ψ LCE 4 ⎜⎝ C 2 ⎠ EI ⎛ ⎞⎟ 48 ⎜ M DB = ⋅ ⎜⎜4 ϕD + 2ϕB + 6ψBD ⎟⎟⎟ = ⋅ (2ϕB + 6ψ ) = 16ϕB + 48ψ LBD ⎜⎝ N 0 ⎠⎟ 6 4.33 MCB =− = −53.

7 41. 101 .0632.42) MCB = −53. Member end moments M BA = = −30 M BD = 32ϕB + 48ψ = 32 ⋅ (−0.5 Fig.7 MCE = 36ϕC + 54ψ = 36 ⋅ 1.0632) + 12 ⋅ 1.0632) + 48 ⋅ (−0. 29.33 + 24 ⋅ (−0. 5.333⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢12 60 54 ⎥ ⎢ϕC ⎥ = ⎢ 53.8228) = −41.22 Deflected shape and bending moment diagram for simple sway frame.8228) = −40.8228) = 14. Force equilibrium equation ∑F x = 0 = −VBD −VCE − 10 M BD + M DB 32ϕB + 48ψ + (16ϕB + 48ψ ) VBD = = = 8ϕB + 16ψ LBD 6 M EC + MCE 0 + MCE 0 + (36ϕC + 54ψ ) VCE = = = = 9ϕC + 13.41) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎢ 8 9.33 + 24ϕB + 12ϕC = 53.5 (4.40) LCE 4 4 8ϕB + 9ϕC + 29.5 7.5 + − M [kNm] + 40.6420 + 54 ⋅ (−0.642 = 71.0632) + 24 ⋅ 1.5 M BC = 53.5ψ = −10 (3) We solve ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎢56 12 48 ⎥ ⎢ϕB ⎥ ⎢−23.0632) + 48 ⋅ (−0.7 M DB = 16ϕB + 48ψ = 16 ⋅ (−0.642.5 30 − 14. Bending moment diagram 71. 4.33 ⎥ → ϕB = −0.6420 = −14.00 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣⎢ ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 6.8228 (4.5⎥⎥ ⎢ ψ ⎥ ⎢ −10.33 + 12 ⋅ (−0. ϕC = 1.5ψ (4. ψ = −0.

If the structure in (II) is statically determinate. the original structure is non-sway and we skip steps 4 to 7. G H H2 C D E F H1 I II A B L1 L2 ψ1 III IV ψ2 ψ3 V VI Fig. the degree of instability is equal to the number of sway degrees of freedom of the original structure. 4.7 Summary of procedure We summarize the slope-deflection method for sway structures by the frame below.43) Hence it takes three additional constraints to properly constrain the structure in (II). (1) Denote all structure nodes by numbers or letters (I).4. (3) Determine degree m of sway using the same formula that we use to calculate the degree of statical indetermi- nacy. For the frame above we obtain m = 4 + 14 − 3 ⋅ 7 = 18 − 21 = −3 (4. 102 .23 Independent sway states. If the structure in (II) is unstable. (2) Replace all moment connections with hinge connections (II).

e.e.44) L ψED = − 1 ψ2 L2 ψAC = ψBE = ψ3 (8) Write all member end moments as a function of the nodal rotations ϕ and chord rotations ψ . (2) Create mechanisms to form a statically determinate base structure. 103 . (3) Determine displacements at the releases due to given external loading. in the slope deflection method. For the chord rotations. (11) Solve the linear set of equations.e. i.44). (4) Determine the stiffness coefficients. the displacements at the releases due to unit value of the redundant forces. In the force method. (6) Use kinematics to express all other chord rotations in terms of ψ1 (7) Repeat steps 5 and 6 for the other sway states (V and VI) and express the chord rotation in each member by a linear combination of the individual cord rotation. 4. the results are H1 ψCG = ψDH = ψ1 − ψ3 H2 ψGH = ψCD = ψ2 (4. add the static moment (if the member has a span loading) and draw the bending moment diagram. (2) Fix all degrees of freedom to create a kinematically determinate structure. 4. the number of degrees of freedom. (5) Select 1st sway state by displacing one roller and denote by ψ1 the chord rotation in a selected member. the degree of statical indeterminacy. Slope-deflection method (1) Identify the number of unknown displacements. i. For the above frame. (5) Solve the equilibrium equations. The equations consist of k nodal and m force equilibrium equations. (4) Determine the flexibility coefficients. use the results in Eq. (9) Write the moment equilibrium equation for all nodes where at least two members are moment-connected. the moments at the joints due to a unit rotation (Eq.11).8 Comparison between the slope-deflection and the force methods We can recognize at this stage that the slope-deflection method works the opposite way of the force method. Force method (1) Identify the number of unknown (redundant) forces. (3) Determine fixed-end forces due to given external loading. we calculate unknown forces (moments) based on compatibility requirements. we calculate displacements (rotations) based on equilibrium requirements. (10) Write m force equilibrium equations at selected locations in the structure.(4) Convert sway structure into non-sway structure by adding m roller supports (III). i. (12) Calculate the member end moments M ij .e. (13) Change the signs of the member end moments to reflect conventional statics sign convention. (4. i. (5) Solve the compatibility equations.

4.1 Fixed-fixed condition P 1 1 PL PL 8 8 L/2 L/2 w 1 1 wL2 wL2 12 12 L Pab 2 Pa 2b L2 L2 a b w 2 wa ⎡ wa 3 2L (3L − 4a ) + 3a 2 ⎤⎦ (4L − 3a ) 12L2 ⎣ 12L2 a b w1 w2 L2 L2 (3w1 + 2w2 ) (2w1 + 3w2 ) 60 60 L w 5 5 wL2 wL2 96 96 L/2 L/2 Fig. 104 .24 Fixed-end moments for “fixed-fixed” condition.9.9 Fixed-end moments 4.4.

25 Fixed-end moments for “fixed-pinned” condition.2 Fixed-pinned condition P P 3 3 PL PL 16 16 L/2 L/2 L/2 L/2 w w 1 2 1 2 wL wL 8 8 L L P P Pab Pab (L + a ) (L + b ) 2L2 2L2 a b a b w w wa 2 ⎛⎜ a2 ⎞ wa 2 ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟⎟⎟ 2 (L + b ) 4 ⎝ 2L ⎠ 8L2 a b a b w1 w2 w1 w2 L2 L2 (7w1 + 8w2 ) (8w1 + 7w2 ) L 120 120 L w w 5 5 wL2 wL2 64 64 L/2 L/2 L/2 L/2 P P 1 1 Pa Pa 2 2 a a CAUTION: CAUTION: Tension at bottom Tension at bottom Fig. 4.9. 105 .4.

M BA = wL2 (cw) 250 125 12 12 1 (c): M AB = wL2 (ccw).2727 4.3 i EI 2EI j L/2 L/2 For the member with non-uniform flexural stiffness above: Find the moment. M BA = PL (cw) (b) M AB = wL2 (ccw).joint rotation relation EI EI M ij = (k ϕ + k2ϕj ) L 1 i M ji = (k ϕ + k4ϕj ) L 3 i using the force method.Problems 4.32M (cw). 4. find the bending moment and shear force diagrams of the continuous beam above for the two load cases.12M (cw) 8 4.6L 0.00 4.1 i EI j L Derive the moment-joint rotation relation of the slope-deflection method in Eq. The beam has uniform flexural stiffness EI .00 5. (4.00 5.9091 k 4 = 7. Solution: k1 = 4.6L 0.4L L w M (c) (d) L 0.7) using the force method.3636 k2 = k 3 = 2. Draw the bending moment diagrams. M BA = 0.00 4. Solution: 24 18 1 1 (a): M AB = PL (ccw).4 10 kN/m 10 kN/m 10 kN/m B C D E A 4. Select a cantilever as the base structure. 106 .00 5.2 w P A B (a) (b) 0. M BA = 0 (d) M AB = 0.00 Load case 1 Load case 2 Using the slope-deflection method.4L Calculate the fixed-end moments for the given loading conditions.00 4. The member has uniform flexural stiffness EI .00 5.

5 m A 4m 4m Show that the structure above is non-sway and use the slope-deflection method to find the bending moment.59 ϕC = 0.11 22.5 100 kN A B C D E 5m 5m 5m 2m (a) Using the slope deflection method. Start by calculating the fixed-end moment MCD caused by the force at E .6 F 1. ϕD = − ccw+ EI EI EI EI 4. The beam has uniform flexural stiffness EI .14 24.4. Solution: 16. ϕC and ϕD ).5 m 20 kN 1. (b) Using the slope deflection method. ϕC = . find the bending moment and shear force diagrams (calculate only joint rotations 0 ϕB and ϕC ).5 m 15 kN/m D E 3. ϕB = − . ϕB .0 m B C 1. ϕE = ccw+ EI EI 107 . Solution: 11. find the bending moment and shear force diagrams (calculate joint rotations ϕA . ϕD = − .5 m 20 kN 1.9 ϕA = .22 77. shear force and axial force diagrams of the above structure for the given loading.78 288.

(c) Using the slope deflection method.00 2. ). (d) Find the member end moments and draw the bending moment diagram.00 2.7 100 kN 100 kN F B I D E 2I 6m I I A C 2m 8m 2m (a) Show that the structure above is non-sway.8 76. Solution: 29.00 2. 200 200 Solution: 36. 4. (b) Using the slope deflection method.6 + − + M [kNm] + − 32. (b) Determine the degree of statical indeterminacy.8 10 kN/m 20 kN 20 kN A B C C′ B′ A′ [m] 4. ϕC = 46. ϕC = − ccw+ EI EI 108 . D D′ 2.47 .00 2. find the joint rotations ϕB and ϕC ( E =const.00 (a) Determine the degree of statical indeterminacy of the above frame structure. find the joint rotations ϕB and ϕC .00 5.00 EI =const.9 (c) ϕB = 98.05 17. Use symmetry.07 (b) ϕB = .4 − EI EI 65.7 4.00 2.62 − 97. (c) Find the member end moments and draw the bending moment diagram.

4. B and C . 4. 109 . (b) Using the slope deflection method.10 20 kN D E 4m 50 kN 10 kN/m 20 kN A C B 4m F G H 2m 6m 6m (a) Determine the degree of statical indeterminacy and the degree of sway of the above frame structure. (c) Find the member end moments and draw the bending moment diagram. (d) Comment on the effect of the point load at D on the bending moments. (b) Using the slope deflection method find the bending moment diagram of the structure. find the rotations at joints A. The structure has uniform flexural stiffness EI .9 150 kN D 5m 20 kN/m C C′ B 8m A A′ 10 kN/m 4m 4m 10 kN/m (a) Determine the degree of statical indeterminacy of the above frame structure. (c) Repeat (b) using the force method. The structure has uniform flexural stiffness EI . Use symmetry.

98 − − + M [k-ft] 9.83 + − 7. Make use of anti-symmetry.83 2.17 7.55 2. (b) by the slope-deflec- tion method. shear force and axial force diagrams for the frame struc- ture above. E =const. 4. Solution: 15.89 37. (c) Use the principle of virtual forces to verify the joint and chord rotations found in (b).17 V [k] 110 .57 26.11 20 kN C F EI = const.12 10 k A I B 2I C 9 ft 6 ft 9 ft Find the bending moment and shear force diagrams of the beam above: (a) by the force method. 3m 10 kN B E 3m A D 5m Use the slope-deflection method to find the bending moment.4.

(d) Find the forces P1 and P2 applied to the frame. MCB = M FE = 37.4. M BE = M EB = −92. (c) Find the member end moments of the frame and draw the bending moment diagram. ϕC = − ccw+ ψAB = ψCD = . which cause the structure to deflect as shown. (a) Determine the degree of statical indeterminacy.13 ⋅ 10−3 M AB = M DE = 115. Solution: (b) ϕB = −7. ψBC = 0 cw+ EI EI EI 111 .6 ccw+ [kNm] (d) P1 = 30 kN. Make use of anti-symmetry.08042 m P1 C F 3m P2 B E 5m EI =10.17 (a) ϕA = ϕD = 0. MCF = M FC = −37.67 ⋅ 10−3 .06084 m Two lateral forces are applied to a two-story frame (axially rigid). ϕB = −ϕC = − ccw+ ψAB = ψCD = ψBC = 0 EI 11. (a) (b) A D A D 15 ft 15 ft Use the slope-deflection method to calculate all joint and chord rotations of the frame structure for loading conditions (a) and (b) and draw the bending moment diagram.6. ϕC = −3. ϕB = − . 000 kNm2 deflected shape not to scale A D 5m 0. Solution: 40.68 48.13 0.6. EI =const. M BA = M ED = 84.97 37.38.14 1 k/ft 1 k/ft B C B C 12 ft 12 ft EI =const. P2 = 50 kN 4.41 (b) ϕA = ϕD = 0. (b) Using the slope deflection method find the joint rotations ϕB and ϕC .0 (c) M BC = M EF = 7.

16 26.18 50 kN D C E 3m 200 kN EI =const. ϕC = − ϕD = − ccw+ ψAB = ψCD = .5 ϕA = − .5 EI EI 42. Solution: MCA = −67.17 12 kN/m A C 5m B 2m Use the slope-deflection method to calculate the rotations at joints A and B .5 22.5 348. M DC = −100.52 113.14 assuming the columns pinned at the base. MCD = 67. Solution: 24.2 Calculate the member end moments by the slope-deflection method and draw the bending moment diagram. ϕB = −ϕC = − .91 (a) ϕA = −ϕD = . Solution: 42.3 B 26.5 EI EI 4. ccw+ ψAB = ψCD = ψBC = 0 EI EI 407. ϕB = ccw+ 22. ϕB = − .9.3 − M 16 kN/m − [kNm] 3m I 2I + Solution: A C + 4m 13.46 48. ψBC = 0 cw+ EI EI EI EI EI 4.4.15 Repeat Problem 4.7 66.3 270 (b) ϕA = − . M DE = 100 [kNm] ccw+ 112 . Draw the bending moment diagram. 3m A B 8m 2m Use the slope-deflection method to calculate the member end moments of the above frame. 4.9.

support settlement or other causes) when the member ends are fixed against displacement and rotation (same as in the slope-deflection me- thod). The sum of the distribution factors for any joint is equal to unity. the underlying principles of the moment distribution method can be quite useful in understanding and solving many problems faced in everyday structural engineering practice. we solve the equilibrium equations directly by solving a system of linear algebraic equations. we use the moment-distribution method to calculate the member end moments of planar structures whose members act prima- rily in flexure. (d) Carry-over factor C ij : the ratio of the moment produced at the far end j to the moment applied at the near end i of member ij . An iterative solution is a procedure in which each step improves the re- sults from the previous step. Nevertheless.2 General Description Before presenting examples of the method. its modulus of elasticity and its end conditions.5 The Moment-Distribution Method 5. 5. We use the same sign convention used for the slope-deflection method. In the moment distribution method. If we perform enough steps.1) ∑k i where ki is the stiffness of the particular member and ∑ ki is the sum of all member stiffnesses framing into the joint. (b) Member stiffness factor ki : The moment required at end i (end i is fixed against translation) to produce unit rotation at end i when end j is fixed against rotation and translation. we obtain a solution that is sufficiently accurate for enginee- ring purposes. Fixed-end moments are widely tabulated (see Chapter 4). In this class. we solve the equilibrium equations iteratively. (a) Fixed-end moment M ij0 : The moment developed at end i of member ij (due to loads. we neglect axial and shear deformations in the analysis. we must define some terminology. While the end result of the moment distribution method is that of the slope-deflection method (the member end moments) the procedure is en- tirely different. we use the equilibrium equations to find the axial and shear forces and the reactions at the supports. Since many frame structural analysis programs are available. we probably should avoid using the moment distribution method (or any other hand calculation procedure) to perform an “exact” analysis of a large building frame. Moment distribution methods exist for both non-sway and sway structures. Hence ki γi = (5.1 Introduction In the 1930s. Professor Hardy Cross developed the moment-distribution method. As the slope-deflection method. we only discuss the moment distribution method applied to non-sway structures. Thus. 113 . Stiffness factors (the same as those used in the slope-deflec- tion method) are physical constants that depend only on the dimensions of the member. A moment acting on the end of a member is positive when counterclockwise and negative when clockwise. temperature. whose unknowns are the joint and chord rotations. by contrast. (c) Distribution factor γi : The fraction of the total moment applied to a joint. (e) Sign convention. With the member end moments known. which is distributed to a particular member framing into the joint. In the slope-deflection method.

Member stiffnesses and distribution factors 0 Since the fixed-end condition violates equilibrium. Problem: Use the moment distribution method to find the member end moments of the beam and draw the bending moment diagram ( EI =const).5.1 Example 5.3 Example 5.3) LAB 10 where we have used an arbitrary flexural stiffness of EI = 20 . We consider span BC fixed- pinned such that the fixed-end moment is 0 10 ⋅ 82 M BC = = 80. The moment M BC applied to joint B distributes to the two members BA and BC . Fixed-end moments As in the slope-deflection method. 10 k/ft A B C 10 ft 8 ft = 0 M BC 10 ft 8 ft + 0 M BC 10 ft 8 ft Fig. 1. the member stiffness is thus 3EI 60 kBC = = = 7.2 Superposition of fixed-end condition and moment applied to the joint.5 (5. 5. the first step is to determine the fixed-end moment. we calculate the distribution factor γ for each member.4) LBC 8 114 . Since the far-end of member BA is fixed. In order to find the portion of the total unbalanced moment that each of the two members receives.1 10 k/ft A B C 10 ft 8 ft Fig. the member stiffness is thus 4EI 80 kBA = = =8 (5. 5. Since the far-end of member BC is pinned.2) 8 2.1.00 (5. we need to unlock joint B and apply the unbalanced moment M BC to 0 the joint in order to restore equilibrium.

Note that the carryover moment has the same sign as the distributed end moment. Joint A B Member AB BA BC γ 0.65 −41.5 = 0.5161 γBC = 0. Note that the absolute stiffness of each member is irrelevant.09375 ∑ k = 0.5.4839 M ij0 80. The final step is to add the distributed moment to the fixed-end moment for member BC . Moment distribution As mentioned above.29 41.29 115 .65 Final Moments –20.1 0.4839 ∑ γ = 1(ok) 3.29/2 = −41. 1 1 0. the sum of the distribution factors at each joint must equal 1.4839 ∑ γ = 1(ok) (5.19375 = 0.5161 = −41. Moreover.29 is causing a moment M AB = 0.09375 γBA = 0. the sign convention is the same as that used in the slope-deflection method.29 −38.19375 = 0.6% of the moment applied to joint B while member BC receives the remaining 48.19735 (5.6) The preceding equation shows that member BA is somewhat stiffer than member BC and hence attracts 51.5 γBA = 15. Table 5-1 Moment-distribution for Example 5.5) The distribution factors for the two members framing into join B are then 8 7.75 0.5 ⋅ M BA at the far-end of the member.5 = 15.5161 γBC = 15.71 –20. All that matters is the relative stiffness.1. Since member BA is a little stiffer than member BC . The distributed end moments are calculated by multiplying the unba- lanced moment by the distribution factor of each member. Note that the sign of the distributed end moments is opposite to that of the unbalanced moment. In all moment distribution cal- culations. AB “gets“ a little more of the unbalanced moment. that is end moments are positive in the counterclockwise direction.5 (5.00 –41. The distributed end moment M BA = −80 ⋅ 0.1 kBC = LBC = 8 = 0.4%.We now add the stiffnesses of the two members framing into joint B to obtain ∑k B = kBA + kBC = 8 + 7. It is always a good idea to organize the moment distribution calculations in a table.5161 0.7) 0.75 kBA = LAB = 10 = 0. We say the moment M BA is carried over to the other end of the member with a carryover factor of 0.5 = 0. we now apply the unbalanced moment (the fixed-end moment) to joint B and distribute the mo- ment to the two members framing into joint B .

2. Moment diagram With known end moments. we are able to draw the bending moment diagram.50 m Fig.9) L21 5 L23 5 The distribution factors for the two members framing into to joint 2 are thus k21 1 k23 1 γ21 = = = 0.4 Example 5.10) k21 + k23 2 k21 + k23 2 Joint 3 For joint 3.4 Example 5.4. Turning moment distribution/slope-de- flection signs back into “statics signs” we obtain 41. Fixed-end moments The fixed-end moments are the same as those calculated in the slope-deflection method.5 (5.50 m 2.5 γ23 = = = 0. 5.6 [k-ft] Fig. Problem: Use the moment distribution method to find the member end moments of the beam and draw the bending mo- ment and shear force diagrams ( EI =const).1.2 80 kN 80 kN [m] 1 2 3 4 2.50 m 2. 1. PL 80 ⋅ 5 3PL 3 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 5 M 120 = −M 210 = = = 50 M 340 = = = 75 (5.50 m 5. we have the member stiffnesses 116 . 2. 5.8) 8 8 16 16 We write the fixed-end moments at the appropriate location in the table.3 Bending moment diagram for Example 5. Solution: The fundamental difference to the previous example is that we now have two joints (joints 2 and 3) at which we need to perform a moment distribution (an analysis by the slope-deflection method would involve unknown rotations at joints 2 and 3).3 − + M + 20.00 m 2. Member stiffnesses and distribution factors Joint 2 The member stiffnesses for joint 2 are EI 5 EI 5 k21 = = =1 k23 = = =1 (5. 5.

27 –0. Joint 3 is now in equilibrium. The unbalanced moment at joint 2 is −50 − 21.86 = −21.43 . Moment and shear force diagrams We obtain the final moments by adding all moments in a column including the fixed-end moments. and so on.5000 0.43 ← –42. We continue by releasing joint 3 again. Since members 21 and 23 have the same stiffness.43 = −71.4286 M ij0 50 –50 75 –21. The mo- ment distribution at joint 3 is complete and we lock joint 3 again. The sign of the carryover moment is the same as that of the distributed end moment.71 → 17.4286 ⋅ 75 = −32.54 Final Moments 69.71 = 17.75 (5.5714 + 0.4 + 100 = 59.4286 = 1.4286 (0. We re- lease joint 3 and distribute the unbalanced moment of 75 at joint 3 to the two member ends 34 and 32 according to the distribution factors calculated earlier ( −0.43 = 35.86. − 0.55 2.75 3. The unbalanced moments become smaller and smaller such that the total moments obtained by adding all incremental moments converge to the correct solution.66 1.5714 k 32 + k 34 1. the two members equally share the unbalance ( 0.86 35.13) 1 80 ⋅ 5 M 3 = − ⋅ 34.5 ⋅ 71.86 –5.11) L32 5 L34 5 The distribution factors for the two members framing into to joint 3 are thus k 32 1 γ 32 = = = 0. The distributed moment at end 32 is carried over to member end 23 ( −0.75 γ – 0. when the solution is accurate enough. Joint 1 2 3 Member 12 21 23 32 34 k 1 1 1 0.7 2 4 117 . we connect the member end moments by a straight line.75 (5. If a span has no load (span 2).6 2 4 (5. All that is needed to draw the bending moment diagram is to account for the static sign convention and properly connect the calculated mem- ber end moments.14) .75 γ 34 = = = 0. Moment distribution It is common practice to start the distribution process at the joint with the largest unbalanced moment. i. The span moments in spans 1 and 3 are thus 1 80 ⋅ 5 M 1 = − (69.55 → 1. Next. (Strictly speaking. we release joint 2 and distribute the unbalanced moment.000 ok) k 32 + k 34 1.5714 0.14 17. The sign of the distributed end moments is opposite to that of the unbalanced moment.73 –34.73 11.7 + = −17.28 2. i. Table 5-2 Moment-distribution for Example 2. when the unbalanced moments are sufficiently small (when the unbalanced moment is within a few percent of the initial unbalance or within a few percent of the current total moments).e.5 ⋅ 35.75EI 0. EI 5 0.3 + 100 = 82. Otherwise we add the static moment. The moment distribution at joint 2 is complete and we lock joint 2 again.10 ← –10.e. joint 3.86 ).7) + = −40.12) k 34 0.73 –0.1 + 11.5 ⋅ 42.86 –32. we have to apply a moment equal and opposite to the unbalanced moment in order to enforce equilibrium at joint 3). We terminate the distribution process.20 –7.75 ⋅ 5 k 32 = = =1 k 34 = = = 0. The distributed moment at end 21 is carried over to member end 12 ( 0.13 –11.5000 0.43 ).5714 ⋅ 75 = −42.71 ).66 4.71 35.66 34.

69. 3. which are the final member end-moments. 118 .7 − − M + + [kNm] 59.5 − 33.6 82. 9.14) Lij Lij whereVij* is the static shear force.6 28.1 34. Sum the moments to get the total moments.2.6 11. Calculate carry-over moments at the far ends of the members 6.6 Shear force diagram for Example 5. Calculate the shear forces from the end-moment by statics.2. 5. 5. 51.7 Fig. Relock joint and repeat steps 4 and 5 going from joint to joint until unbalanced moments at all joints are negligible.5 Summary of steps 1.5 + 46.1 − [kN] Fig. Set up tabular solution and calculate the stiffness k . For span without applied loadsVij* = 0 . Change the sign of the member end-moments from moment distribution sign convention to statics sign convention. the distribution factors and the carry-over factors c . 5. Calculate the fixed-end moments M ij0 for all members. add the static moment and draw shear and moment diagrams. Lock all joints against rotation. 4. As always. 7. 5. 2. Select joint to be unlocked first. we obtain the shear force diagram from the moment diagram by M ji − M ij M ji − M ij Vij = +Vij* Vji = −Vji* (5.9 + V − 4. Calculate the unbalanced moment at the joint and then release the joint and distribute the moment to the near end of all members framing into the joint according to their distribution factors to bring the moment on the joints into balance. 8.5 Bending moment diagram for Example 5.

7 Illustration of moment-distribution method. Since the moment diagram is dis- continuous at joints 2 and 3. 2 Fixed. There are fixed-end moments M 120 . no fixed-end moments are generated. The events correspond to those of step 2 and result in a small unbalance at joint 2. M 210 and M 340 . 2 Fixed. this iterative process leads to acceptably small moment unbalances at the joints and can be terminated. Analogous to step 2. the so-called carry-over moment. The resulting moments M 0 are the fixed-end moments. 3 Fixed. The deflected shape shows this unbalance in form of a curvature change. 5. Unbalance at 2 Moment Distribution at 3. Unbalance at 3 Moment Distribution at 3. 3 Fixed. the carry-over moment increases the unbalance at joint 2. Unbalance at 3 Moment Distribution at 2. 2 Fixed.5. Eventually. For this example. Unbalance at 2 Moment Distribution at 2. The moment diagram is now continuous at joint 2 ( M 23 = M 21 ) and the curvatures at the right and left-hand sides of joint 2 are equal. Step 2: Joint 3 is released. Step 1: The moment distribution process starts by fixing joints 2 and 3 resulting in zero slope of the deflected shape at these locations. i. Now joint 2 rotates counterclockwise until the moment unbalance produced by the fixed-end moment M 230 and the carry-over moment of step 2 disappears. Joint 3 rotates clockwise until the moment un- balance disappears. the rotation of joint 2 affects the moment M 32 through the carry- over effect such that the moment balance at joint 3 achieved in step 2 is destroyed. Step 4: The new unbalance at joint 3 is corrected by releasing joint 3 a second time. The rotation of joint 3 not only causes a moment M 32 but also a moment M 23 . i. We can restore equilibrium at joint 2 by releasing joint 2 again causing an even smaller unbalance at joint 3. Unbalance at 2 Moment Distribution at 3.6 More discussion and illustration Fixed−End Condition Fixed−End Condition 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Moment Distribution at 3. it is allowed to rotate while joint 2 is fixed. equilibrium is violated at these locations. This first step is entirely identical to the first step in the slope-deflection method.e. 119 .e. Unbalance at 2 Moment Diagram Deflected shape Fig. an unbalanced moment exists. it is allowed to rotate. Step 3: Joint 3 is fixed at its current rotation and joint 2 is released. 2 Fixed. The moment diagram is now continuous at joint 3 ( M 32 = M 34 ) and the curvature at the right and left-hand sides of joint 3 are equal. Since the center span 23 has no load on it.

16) 0. The total unbalanced moment of 225+50=275 is the negative sum of the two fixed-end moments acting at C . Member stiffnesses and distribution factors 0. Draw the bending moment diagram.5.4286 M0 –225. Solution: 5.09375 kCA = 6 = 0. however.1 Preferred Approach Since we know the moment at joint D .4286 γCA = = 0. Fixed-end moments 0 50 ⋅ 2 0 3 MCD =− = −50. 1.9 Important: Before we distribute the moment at joint C .13 117.87 ∑M –67.00 (5. 120 .7.3 50 kN D C E 3m 200 kN EI =const.75 0.8 Example 5.1250 γCD = = 0. we do not have to distribute the moment at D . we have to calculate the total unbalanced moment at that joint.21875 (5.00 –50.00 MCA =− ⋅ 200 ⋅ 6 = −225.00 M 157.7 Example 5.21875 0.15) 2 16 2. 5.3. We have to use caution. when we calculate the fixed-end moments.21875 3.5714 0.1250 ∑ k = 0. Thus the only joint at which to distribute the moment is joint C .3 (preferred approach) Joint C Member CA CD γ 0.75 kCD = 8 = 0. We have to consider member CD fixed-pinned. Moment distribution Table 5-3 Moment-distribution for Example 5. Since we do not distribute the moment at D . we have to account for the effects of the cantilever loading by a fixed-end moment at C produced by the 50 kN force acting at E .9 67.5714 0.09375 0. 3m A B 8m 2m Fig. Problem: Use the moment distribution method to find the member end moments of the frame structure above.

44 0.75 kCD = 8 = 0.9 67.5000 1 0 M0 –225.22 ← –2.2500 3.25 –78.30 –0.5.15 ← –0.5000 0.1250 γCD = = 0.07 0.9 Moment diagram and deflected shape for Example 5.2 Alternative Approach We distribute the moment at joints C and D .07 ∑M –67.9 −s 266 + M [kNm] Fig. The effect of the canti- 0 lever is now a moment M DE = M DE = 50 ⋅ 2 = 100 1. Moment distribution Table 5-4 Moment-distribution for Example 5. Thus we have to consider member CD fixed-fixed.1250 ∑ k = 0.1250 kCA = 6 = 0.7.53 –9. 121 .25 39.3 (alternative approach) Joint C D Member CA CD DC DE γ 0.9 –100 100 Clearly. 5.50 112. However.06 → 19.125 ← –156.06 39.53 4. we should well understand the differences between the two strategies (highlighted in red).5000 γCA = = 0.1250 0.88 4.88 → 2. we prefer approach 1 since it does not require iteration (repeated locking and unlocking at joints). 100 67.00 (5.61 → 0.44 –1.30 0.61 0.00 MCA =− ⋅ 200 ⋅ 6 = −225.2500 0.5000 0.18) 0.50 → 56.00 100 112.3. Member stiffnesses and distribution factors 1 0.77 ← –19.2500 (5. Fixed-end moments 0 0 3 M DE = 100.17) 16 2.

8 Summary In closing. Some examples M 1 M EI 2 − + 1 L /2 L /2 M 2 1 M M 3 EI − + L/3 2L / 3 2 M 3 3 2 M M 7 M 7 EI − − L /2 L /2 + 4 M 7 M 2 EI 2EI M − 3 + L /2 L /2 1 M 3 Fig.10 Key concept of moment distribution method. 5. we reemphasize the key idea behind the moment distribution method: A moment applied to a joint (joint must be fixed against translation) is distributed to the connecting members according to the relative stiffness of the members.5. 122 .

0 [kNm] ccw+ 123 .4 M ED = −125 M EB = 125.5 ft 6. shear force and axial force diagram. Solution: Joint A B C Member AB BA BF BD BC CB CD M [kNm] 32.00 2.39 76.8 5.C and D . Draw the bending moment diagram ( E =const. (a) Distribute the moments at joints B.8 –76.00 4.Problems 5.94 97.7 M DA = −93. (b) Distribute the moment at joints B and C only. 5.5 ft 7.3 50 200 200 200 [kN] C D E EI =const 3.84 65.00 4.1 5 k/ft 50 k A B C D E 20 ft 20 ft 7. Draw the bending moment and shear force diagrams. Draw the bending moment.2 100 kN 100 kN F B I D E 2I I 6m I A C 2m 8m 2m Use the moment distribution method to find the member end moments of the frame structure above.68 –200 36.00 [m] A B 2.4 M DC = −100 M DE = 193.00 Use the moment distribution method to find the member end moments of the frame structure above. ).0 ft Use the moment distribution method to find the member end moments of the beam above. Solution: M AD = −46.

5 150 kN D 5m 20 kN/m C C′ B 8m A A′ 10 kN/m 4m 4m 10 kN/m Use the moment distribution method to find the member end moments of the frame structure above. Draw the bending moment diagram.78 kNm MCB = M EB = MGB = M IB = 1. Draw the bending moment diagram.19 M AB = 23.81 kNm 5.38 kNm M BD = M BF = M BH = 1. 124 . Use symmetry.88 kNm M BC = M BE = M BG = M BI = 2.4 C E I2 I1 I2 I2 =5 10 kN/m I2 I2 A F I1 B I2 I2 I2 I G H 5m 2. Solution: M BA = −14. D 5.5 m Use the moment distribution method to find the member end moments of the frame structure above.

Note that the structure in non-sway due to symmetry. c ji = 0.667.7 i EI 2EI j L /2 L /2 For the member with non-uniform flexural stiffness above: Find the carry-over factors cij and c ji . 5. Solution: cij = 0.400 125 . Draw the bending moment diagram.6 10 kN/m C 3I F 3m I I 50 kN B E 3I I I 3m A D 5m Use the moment distribution method to find the member end moments of the frame structure above.5.

Each hinge. particularly if the structure is highly indeterminate. Those sim- plifications render the structure determinate such that we can analyze it by applying the equilibrium equations only. 6.6 Approximate analysis of building frames under lateral load 6.2 Deflected shape and moment diagram of single-story frame. We have observed that an exact analysis can be quite time-consuming. the introduction of three hinges has rendered the frame statically determinate and we can analyze the frame by statics. Approximate methods are also helpful in the preliminary design phase when the exact structure configuration and member sizes are still unknown. approximately by making a few simplifying assumptions.2 Discussion We will begin our discussion of approximate methods with a simple single-story single-bay frame with columns fixed at the base.1 Single-story frame. The central idea behind approximate methods for lateral loads is to approximate the deflected shape by assuming the inflection points to be located at mid-height of the columns and mid-span of the girders. In this chapter. Also shown by blue dots are the three inflection points of the frame which are located no too far from the midpoiint of the members. 6. Thus we can consider a point of inflection as if there was a hinge at that location. 6. 126 . usually due to wind or seismic excitation. Figure 6.1 Introduction Thus far we have used exact procedures to calculate the internal force distribution and displacements of statically inde- terminate structures. Inflection points are points of zero curvature and hence zero bending moment. Since the frame is indeterminate to degree three. reduces the degree of statical indeterminacy by one. however. we will learn how to estimate the force demand in building frames under lateral forces. The frame is indeterminate to the third degree. F M = point of inflection Fig. F H L Fig.2 qualitatively shows the deflected shape and the bending moment diagram of the frame for a lateral load. The main purpose for learning approximate methods is to verify the results of an exact analysis often performed by com- puter.

This is because the points of inflection in an exact analysis are located well above mid- height (see blue lines in Fig.3 Frame with stiff girder. 6.5). 6.6). approximate approximate exact exact IG ⋅ H IG ⋅ H large large IC ⋅ L IC ⋅ L Fig. the approximation of assuming hinges at mid-height of the columns.4 Deflected shape and moment diagram for frame with stiff girder. We now examine how well the results of an approximate analysis match those of an exact analysis of the indeterminate structure. 6. 6. 6. IG F IC IC H L Fig.4 shows that exact and approximate locations of inflection points are close. the approximate analysis overestimates the moments in the girder and underestimates those in the columns (Fig.6a). 6. 6. The inflection points in the columns for an exact analysis are only slightly above mid-height such that the deflec- ted shapes and the moment diagrams corresponding to the exact and approximate analyses are virtual identical (Fig. If the columns are stiff with respect to the girder (Fig. Consequently. 6.5 Frame with stiff columns. 127 . we examine two cases: (1) a frame in which the girder is significantly stiffer than the columns and (2) a frame in which the columns are significantly stiffer than the girder. Figure 6. does not work as well. 6.3) the approximation works well.6).4). Since the location of the point of inflection in the column depends on the relative stiffness of girder and co- lumn. In situations where the girder is stiff relative to the column (Fig. IG F IC IC H L Fig. We can also notice the poor approximation in this case in the erroneous slope discontinuity that exists in the deflected shape (red line in Fig.

7 Single-story multi-bay frame. a result verified by the formula of Chapter 1 to calculate n .F approximate approximate exact exact IG ⋅ H IG ⋅ H small small IC ⋅ L IC ⋅ L (a) (b) Fig.3. 6.1 Approximations of the portal method F Fig. 6. which is indeterminate to the 12th degree.7). we thus need another simplifying assumption. 6. 6. The interior columns then repre- sent the columns of two portals and thus carry twice the shear as the exterior columns.8. Structure. we can assume the inflection points to be located at the center of each girder and at the center of each column. deflected shape and moment diagram. the frame is still statically indeterminate to the third degree. Before we can use statics to analyze the multi-bay frame. 6. Consider the four-bay frame above (Fig. Those assumptions lead to the approximate structure in Fig. 6. Since we have introduced only nine releases (hinges).8 Single-story multi-bay frame with hinges at mid-height and mid-span (indeterminate to the third degree).9) and each portal carries one fourth of the lateral force applied to the frame. 128 . 6. n = 5 ⋅ 3 + 9 ⋅ 2 − 10 ⋅ 3 = 3 (6. A further appro- ximation that renders the structure statically determinate is that each of the four bents of the frame is composed of a por- tal (Fig.3 The Portal Method 6. As for single bay frames.6 Deflected shape and moment diagram for frame with stiff columns.1) P Fig.

P /4 P /4 P /4 P /4 V V V V V V V V Fig. 6.10): (1) We place a hinge at the center of each girder and thus have point of zero moment at those locations. we apply the assumptions regarding the distribution of the column shear forces to each story. 6.9 Single-story multi-bay frame considered a series of portals. the shear forces in the two exterior columns (subscript e ) and the interior column (subscript i ) are P1 + P2 + P3 P1 + P2 P1 V1e = V2e = V3e = (6. For multi-story frames. In summary.11 Multi-story multi-bay frame. P1 P2 P3 Fig.2) 4 4 4 and P1 + P2 + P3 P1 + P2 P1 V1i = V2i = V3i = (6. P V 2V 2V 2V V Fig. 6.3) 2 2 2 respectively (first subscript denotes story). 6. (3) The interior columns carry twice as much shear as the exterior columns. 129 . For the three-story frame in Fig. (2) We place a hinge at the center of each column and thus have point of zero moment at those locations.11.10 Single-story multi-bay frame (portal method approximations). the portal method is based on the following assumptions (see Fig. 6.

1 30 k D H L P 12 ft 20 k C G K O 12 ft 10 k B F J N 12 ft A E I M 14 ft 20 ft 14 ft Fig. Column shear forces Assuming that interior column carry twice the shear as the exterior columns. Problem: Analyze the frame by the portal method and (a) find the reactions at supports A and E .67 k (6.00 k 6 2.00 = 10.1:Three-story three-bay frame. (b) draw the bending moment diagram for the frame. 130 .6. 6.33 k VFG = VJK = 2 ⋅ 8.3.33 = 16.00 k VEF = VIJ = 2 ⋅ 10 = 20.4) 6 30 VCD = VOP = = 5.2 Example 6. Bending moments Once we have calculated the shear force in the columns. we find for the shear force in the columns 10 + 20 + 30 VAB = VMN = = 10.00 k 6 20 + 30 VBC = VNO = = 8. Solution: 1. we find the approximate magnitude of the column end- moments by statics (see Fig 6.00 k VGH = VKL = 2 ⋅ 5. 6.13 Free-body diagram for half column.13) H M =V ⋅ (6.5) 2 V H/2 M V Fig.12 Example 6.

14 Moment equilibrium at joints (for half structure).13). 6. 131 .15 Approximate moment diagram (approximate analysis by portal method). 30 30 60 30 30 80 50 100 30 60 80 80 110 60 120 50 100 110 110 M [k-ft] 60 120 Fig. D H 30 30 30 30 60 30 60 G C 80 80 80 50 100 50 100 F B 110 110 110 60 120 Fig.We next find the moments in the girder by considering moment equilibrium of the joints (see Fig 6. 6.

00 25.67 G 10.29 3.00 10.00 5. For example. Doing so. M E = 120 k-ft(ccw) (6.29 4.29 1.42 11.33 16.71 4.00 6 ft 6 ft 10.16 Equilibrium of segments between hinges (for half structure).71 7 ft 7 ft 10 ft 15.29 1.3.00 6 ft 6 ft 20 C 16.43 7 ft 7 ft 10 ft Fig.42 8.00 6 ft 6 ft 5. 6. 30 D 25.67 15.00 20.00 11.29 10.67 16. we only need to apply two equations of equilibrium to the segments between hinges.71 11.00 4. if we analyze the frame in order DCBHGF (other sequences work as well). The results are shown below. we have no more than three unknown forces for each free-body diagram. we can establish equilibrium for two or three-hinge substructures to find the axial force in the columns and the shear and axial force in the girders.29 7 ft 7 ft 10 ft 4. Ey = 9. An alternative would be to first calculate the girder shear from the girder moments.43 k ↑.33 16.00 6 ft 6 ft 8.42 9. Equilibrium of segments between hinges With the column shear forces known.71 8.00 H 15.42 k ↓.00 4.71 4. M A = 60 k-ft(ccw) E x = 20 k ←.00 31. Ay = 31.71 15.6) 132 . The reactions at A and E are thus Ax = 10 k ←.67 6 ft 6 ft 10 B 8.00 15.33 F 5.33 8.

like those in a beam.3 will present how to proceed using the techniques learned in ARCE 222. start at an exterior joint so that the corresponding free-body diagram does not involve more than three unknown forces. For any horizontal section through the buil- ding. i. As in the portal method. 6.2 Analysis procedure (1) Consider free bodies obtained by a cut through the hinges in each story. H B Fig. (2) Considering equilibrium at the joints (Fig. we assume points of inflection to be located at mid-height of the columns and mid-span of the girders. linearly distributed across the section. Example2 6. The cross- sectional areas of the columns form the cross section of the imaginary beam. we consider the stresses in the columns.1 Approximations of the cantilever method The portal method usually works well for structures with small to average aspect ratio H / B .16.e. In summary. 6. passes through the centroid of the cross section (see Fig 6. 6. (3) Calculate the bending moments M g in the girders and the bending moments M c in the columns by L M g = Vg ⋅ (6. the force in a column is also proportional to its distance from the centroid of the co- lumn areas. the cantilever method is based on the following assumptions (see Fig. 6. For tall and slender struc- tures (large aspect ratio) it is appropriate to assume that the building frame behaves like a cantilever beam.18). As in the portal method.17): (1) We place a hinge at the center of each girder and thus have point of zero moment at those locations (2) We place a hinge at the center of each column and thus have point of zero moment at those locations (3) The axial stress in each column is proportional to its distance from the centroid of the column areas.17 Approximations of the cantilever method. If the columns have uniform cross-sectional areas. Calculate the axial force in each column by equating the external overturning moment produced by the lateral forces above the cut to the internal moment produced by the column axial forces (Fig.17). For lateral loading the cantilever experiences only bending but no resultant axial force such that the neutral axis. the axis of zero stress.6.2 and 6. 6.7) 2 and 133 .4. The forces in the columns resulting from these stresses constitute the resisting moment that balances the overturning moment due to the lateral loads.4. same as in portal method) to calculate the shear forces in girders and columns and the axial forces in the girders.4 The Cantilever Method 6.

134 .18 Free-body diagram to calculate axial forces in columns.8) 2 respectively. P7 P6 P5 P4 P3 P2 P1 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 Fig. 6. H M c = Vc ⋅ (6.

43 k FEF = FIJ = 0.88 k 3rd story: M = 30 ⋅ 6 = 180 k-ft FCD = FOP = 0. 6.007396 ⋅ 1320 = 9.01775 ⋅ 1320 = 23.18) and then substituting M in Eq.01775 ⋅ 660 = 11.007396 ⋅ 660 = 4.2) using the cantilever method. L M .33 k We should note that finding the axial stresses and axial forces in the columns involves exactly the same procedure as fin- ding the stresses in cross-section of a beam (see Fig. 6.2 Problem: Reanalyze Example 6. B.4. (6.11) 1353A 1353A We obtain the column axial forces in each story be calculating the overturning moment M for each story about the hinge in that story (see Fig. 1st story: M = 30 ⋅ 30 + 20 ⋅ 18 + 10 ⋅ 6 = 1320 k-ft FAB = FMN = 0.3.76 k 2nd story: M = 30 ⋅ 18 + 20 ⋅ 6 = 660 k-ft (6. H I . Solution: 1.01775 ⋅ M FEFGH = ⋅ 10A = 0.3 Example 6.J .20 k FGH = FKL = 0. P Area A Area A Area A Area A 14 ft 10 ft 10 ft 14 ft Fig. we should recall that the moment of inertia I and the flexure formula Eq. We then multiply by the area A to obtain the axial force in the columns.10) I i to calculate the stress σi in column i where x i is the distance from the centroid of the column layout to a column i . In particular.G .01775 ⋅ 180 = 3. N . Section 6.10) we introduced in ARCE 222 is the result of two assumptions: (1) stress distribution across the section is linear and (2) moment equilibrium of the section (internal moment equals moment produced by the stresses).6.11). O.4. K.007396 ⋅ M (6.19) is (parallel axis theorem) I = 2 ⋅ (102 + 242 ) ⋅ A = 1353 A (6. Column axial forces The moment of inertia of the cross section formed by the columns (see Fig. 6.9) Since we assume the axial stresses in the columns to be linearly distributed across the section (recall that the section depth is the width of the building) we can use the flexure formula M σi = x (6. 6.007396 ⋅ 180 = 1.1 (Section 6.72 k FFG = FJK = 0. (6. The column axial forces expressed in terms of the overturning moment M are thus M M FABCD = ⋅ 24A = 0.18). Assume uniform cross-sectional area A for all columns.12) FBC = FNO = 0. F .4 presents a more detailed example on how to estimate the axial forces in the columns.19 Cross section of beam formed by column areas.C . 135 . Columns Columns Columns Columns A. D E .

19 3.79 11.88 7 ft 7 ft 10 ft 11.00 3.54 23.51 G 10.4 k ↓.20 Equilibrium of segments between hinges (cantilever method).21 18. Ey = 9.60 6 ft 6 ft 7.53 6 ft 6 ft 3.73 11.27 H 15. M A = 44.33 3.76 k ↓.27 6 ft 6 ft 20 C 17.27 3.19 1.72 4.19 4.5 k ←.00 8.00 10 11.76 8.52 8.72 16.51 17. The reactions at A and E are thus Ax = 7.76 7 ft 7 ft 10 ft Fig.79 6 ft 6 ft B 8.46 22.52 12.72 4.73 11.21 18. Ay = 23. Equilibrium of segments between hinges 30 D 26.46 k ←.88 6.2.27 26. M E = 135 k-ft(ccw) 136 .33 7 ft 7 ft 10 ft 3.76 F 5.8 k-ft(ccw) E x = 22.72 11. 6.43 9.19 G 1.07 6 ft 6 ft 6.

21 Moment diagram (approximate analysis by cantilever method).0 135 166 M [k-ft] 44.6 113 121 82.3 59.0 37. Moment diagram 22.4 45. 6.3.4 67.7 113 82.22 Moment diagrams for approximate and exact methods (exact analysis is for IC =IG ) 137 .7 135 Fig. 6. portal method exact indeterminate analysis cantilever method Fig.3 44.3 37.4 67.6 59.6 22.6 22.

C . Col. L. N .G.67)2 ⋅ 20 + (12 − 22. Problem: Using the cantilever method. Col.672 ⋅ 10 + 5.332 ⋅ 20 (6. E F . B.3 40 k E J O T 12 ft 30 k D I N S 12 ft 20 k C H M R 12 ft 10 k B G L Q 12 ft A = 20 in2 A = 10 in2 A = 10 in2 A = 20 in2 A F K P 12 ft 16 ft 20 ft Fig.24) xc = ∑x A i i = 0 ⋅ 20 + 12 ⋅ 10 + 28 ⋅ 10 + 48 ⋅ 20 = 22.4.6.24 Cross section (non-symmetrical) of beam formed by column areas.O P. 6.67)2 ⋅ 20 = 22.14) = 24533 ft2 in2 22.Q. Col. M . I .67 ft (6.67 ft A =20 in2 A =10 in2 A =10 in2 A =20 in2 Col.332 ⋅ 10 + 25. R.4 Example 6.13) ∑A i 60 The moment of inertia of the cross section formed by the columns is (parallel axis theorem) I = (0 − 22. we first need to find the centroid of the section composed by the four columns (see Fig. A.67)2 ⋅ 10 + (28 − 22. Solution: Since the columns have different spacing and different cross-sectional area. S . estimate the column axial forces of the frame above.67)2 ⋅ 10 + (48 − 22. D.3: Estimating axial forces for cantilever method. J K . 6.672 ⋅ 20 + 10. H .T 12 ft 16 ft 20 ft Fig. 6. 138 .23 Example 6.

5 + 30 ⋅ 2.16). the overturning moment is (see Fig.04 k (T) 24533 ft in 24533 ft2 in2 (6. 6.67 ft 5.17) 40 k E J O T 12 ft 30 k D I N S 12 ft 20 k C H M R 12 ft 10 k B G L Q 6 ft Ax Fx Kx Px A′ Ay Fy Ky Py 12 ft 16 ft 20 ft 22.96 k (C) 24533 ft2 in2 24533 ft2 in2 139 .67 ft ⋅ 10 in = 13.16) I i i For a cut through the hinges in the first story. (6.33 ft ⋅ 20 in = 61.33 ft ⋅ 10 in = 6.15) I i to calculate the stress σi in column i where x i is the distance from the centroid of the column layout to a column i .Since we assume the axial stresses in the columns to be linearly distributed across the section (recall that the section is the width of the building) we can use the flexure formula M σi = x (6. The axial force N i in column i is then M N i = σi ⋅ Ai = x ⋅A (6.5) ⋅ 12 = 3000 k-ft (6.25 Free-body diagram for first story column axial forces.18) 3000 k-ft 3000 k-ft Ky = ⋅ 5. 6. the axial forces in the columns of the first story are 3000 k-ft 3000 k-ft Ay = 2 2 ⋅ 22.44 k (T) Fy = ⋅ 10.33 ft 25. Using Eq.67 ft ⋅ 20 in = 55.25) M = (40 ⋅ 3.5 + 10 ⋅ 0.52 k (C) Py = ⋅ 25.67 ft 10.33 ft Fig.5 + 20 ⋅ 1.

67 ft 10. we obtain for the overturning moment of the second story (see Fig.33 ft 25.19) The column forces are 1860 k-ft By = ⋅ 22.33 ft Fig.4 k (T) 24533 ft2 in2 1860 k-ft Gy = ⋅ 10. 40 k E J O T 12 ft 30 k D I N S 12 ft 20 k C H M R 6 ft Bx Gx Lx Qx By Gy Ly Qy 12 ft 16 ft 20 ft 22. Likewise.5) ⋅ 12 = 1860 k-ft (6.26 Free-body diagram for second story column axial forces.09 k (T) 24533 ft2 in2 (6.67 ft ⋅ 10 in = 8. 6.33 ft ⋅ 20 in = 38.26) M = (40 ⋅ 2.20) 1860 k-ft Ly = ⋅ 5.33 ft ⋅ 10 in = 4. 6.67 ft 5.67 ft ⋅ 20 in = 34.5 + 30 ⋅ 1.5 + 20 ⋅ 0.4 k (C) 24533 ft2 in2 140 .04 k (C) 24533 ft2 in2 1860 k-ft Qy = ⋅ 25.

33 ft 25. 141 .6 k (T) 24533 ft2 in2 900 k-ft Hy = ⋅ 10.67 ft ⋅ 10 in2 = 3.33 ft ⋅ 10 in = 1.21) The column forces are 900 k-ft Cy = ⋅ 22.6 k (C) 24533 ft2 in2 40 k E J O T 12 ft 30 k D I N S 6 ft Cx Hx Mx Rx Cy Hy My Ry 12 ft 16 ft 20 ft 22. 6.92 k (T) 24533 ft2 in2 (6.33 ft Fig. 6.5) ⋅ 12 = 900 k-ft (6.33 ft ⋅ 20 in2 = 18.67 ft 5.96 k (C) 24533 ft2 in2 900 k-ft Ry = ⋅ 25.5 + 30 ⋅ 0.27) M = (40 ⋅ 1.The overturning moment for the third story is (see Fig.67 ft 10.27 Free-body diagram for third story column axial forces.22) 900 k-ft 2 My = ⋅ 5.67 ft ⋅ 20 in2 = 16.

67 ft ⋅ 10 in2 = 1.e. the overturning moment for the fourth story is (see Fig.5 ⋅ 12 = 240 k-ft (6.04 k (T) 24533 ft2 in2 (6.67 ft 10.43 k (T) 24533 ft2 in2 240 k-ft Iy = ⋅ 10.23) The column forces are 240 k-ft Dy = ⋅ 22.33 ft Fig.67 ft 5.33 ft ⋅ 20 in2 = 4.28 Free-body diagram for fourth story column axial forces. 6.28) M = 40 ⋅ 0.52 k (C) 24533 ft2 in2 240 k-ft Sy = ⋅ 25. 6. Finally. does not change over the height of the building.24) 240 k-ft 2 Ny = ⋅ 5. i. the ratio of the column axial forces.33 ft 25. 40 k E J O T 6 ft Dx Ix Nx Sx Dy Iy Ny Sy 12 ft 16 ft 20 ft 22.96 k (C) 24533 ft2 in2 Note that the relative magnitude.33 ft ⋅ 10 in = 0. 142 .67 ft ⋅ 20 in2 = 4.

Problems 6. 6.1 50 k C F I L 12 ft 25 k B E H K 15 ft A D G J 15 ft 20 ft 15 ft Use the portal method to approximately analyze the frame structure above. Draw the bending moment. shear force and axial force diagrams. 143 .2 30 k E J O 12 ft 30 k D I N 12 ft 25 k C H M 12 ft 20 k B G L 16 ft A F K 20 ft 20 ft Use the cantilever method to approximately analyze the frame structure above. Draw the bending moment. shear force and axial force diagrams.

00 4.00 4. Also find the bending moment in column D .00 4.00 8.00 D 4. B and C of the ten-story building (clearly indicate tension or compression).8(ans ) 144 .6. Solution FA = 265(T) FB = 44 (T) FC = 309(C) (ans ) M D = 34.00 A B C 5.00 4.00 4.3 100 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 Use the cantilever method to estimate the axial forces in columns A.

compression 0 max. tension Fig. 7.7 Influence Lines 7.1 Illustration of influence line and internal force diagram. 145 .1 Introduction max.

Throughout this chapter. we are considering an internal force diagram.3 Free-body diagrams to calculate internal forcesV and M .1. displacements. etc.2 Beam with cantilever (internal force diagrams revisited).1. Figure 7. in contrast. Figure 7. the result of that analysis is the influence line for that member force. An influence line is defined as a diagram that describes the variation of a load effect as a concentrated force of unit mag- nitude moves across the structure. In this class. In many cases. we look at one specific member of the truss and investigate how its force varies with the position of the truck.1 General Remarks When designing structures. we have to determine the most unfavorable set of internal design forces due to all possible external design loads or load combinations. 7. w P A L a Fig. In these cases. Internal force diagrams.2 Internal Force Diagram Revisited Let us first recall the idea of an internal force diagram and look for the bending moment diagram M of the beam with cantilever shown in Fig. 7. we have to consider movable loads whose most unfavorable positions cannot be readily determined. w P M M A x1 V V x2 Fig. We can determine influence lines for all possible load effects like internal forces. 7.2.1 helps us distinguish between the concepts of influence lines and internal force diagram. stresses.3 shows the two free-body diagrams. we define the bending moment as positive when it causes tension at the bottom of the beam. axial force or shear force diagrams show the value of an internal force at several. we have to strongly differentiate between influence lines for an internal force and internal force diagrams. we focus on influence lines for internal forces in beams. like moment. An influence line. shows the variation of an internal force at one particular location say at location r as a function of the position of a unit load.1 and look at all the member forces that this load position causes. 7. If we fix position of the truck in Fig. We find the shear force and bending moment by cutting the beam at an arbitrary section x and considering equilibrium of the portion of the beam on one side of the section. As always. influence lines help us to determine the load positions for maximum effects. If. usually all locations in the structure due to a stationary loading. strains. 7. on the other hand. 7.1) wL a V (x1 ) =A 0 ≤ x1 ≤ L V (x 2 ) = P 0 ≤ x2 ≤ a with A = −P 2 L 146 . Applying the equations of equilibrium gives x12 M (x1 ) = Ax1 − w 0 ≤ x1 ≤ L M (x 2 ) = −Px 2 0 ≤ x2 ≤ a 2 (7.

7. we can determine influence lines directly.4 Moment and shear force diagrams for beam with cantilever.4 shows the shear force and bending moment diagrams. let us determine the influence line for the bending moment M r and the shear forceVr at midspan. Equilibrium for Case 1 gives L L L −x L L x L Mr = A⋅ − 1⋅ ( − x) = ⋅ − 1⋅ ( − x) = 0≤x ≤ 2 2 L 2 2 2 2 (7.2) x L Vr = A−1 = − 0≤x ≤ L 2 Equilibrium for Case 2 gives L L −x L 1 L Mr = A⋅ = ⋅ = (L − x ) < x ≤ L +a 2 L 2 2 2 (7. 7. case 1 is for the unit load acting at the left-hand side of locations r and case 2 for the unit load acting at the right-hand side of location r .6 Free-body diagrams to find influence lines "M r " and "Vr " by statics. Fig.5 Find influence lines for overhanging beam. For the beam with cantilever considered above. Thus we need to deter- mine M r andVr as a function of the position x of a unit load F = 1 (see Fig. 7. 7. 7. Obviously. x r F =1 L /2 L /2 a Fig.3) L −x L Vr =A= < x ≤ L +a L 2 147 . By plotting the preceding equations. 7. P + A + V − wL − A Pa wL2 / 8 − − + M Fig.3 Influence Line by statics For simple structures. x F =1 r r Mr Mr L L A Case 1: x ≤ Vr A Case 2: x > Vr 2 2 L/2 L/2 Fig.5).1. The figure below shows the free-body diagrams correspon- ding to the two cases. we need to consider two cases.

If we let Fm = 1 . 7. We illustrate the procedure using the same sample structure as before (see Fig. i.e.5 and 7. we equate internal and external work. we remove the resistance of the beam against bend- ing at that section.e. 7. It is important to note that the coordinate x in Figs. A general method to determine influence lines can be derived from the principle of virtual displacements. We then impose a rotation at that section and set up the virtual work equation.8 illustrates the procedure.Plotting the above equations gives us the two desired influence lines. 7.2 and 7.4) where M r is the bending moment at location r due to F at location m and vm′ is the deflection at m due to the imposed de- formation ϕr′ . (7. Hence " M r " = v(x ) (7. 7.7 Influence lines "M r " and "Vr " for overhanging beam. But the moment at r due to a unit load acting at an arbitrary location x is by definition the influence line for the moment at r . In order to clearly distinguish between force diagram and influence line it is helpful to use quotes to denote influence lines.5) Hence the bending moment at r due to a unit load is equal to the displacement at the location of the load due to a unit ro- tation at r . 148 . Figure 7. a − 2 "M r " + L 4 1 a − 2 + L "Vr " 1 + 2 L /2 L /2 a Fig. The result is the same as that obtained by the direct method (see Fig.1). We obtain M r ⋅ ϕr′ + F ⋅ vm′ = 0 (7. 7. 7. To find the influence line for the bending moment M r .2 Influence lines by kinematics-Müller-Breslau principle The direct method of determining influence lines (see previous section) is limited to simple structures. drop the ”prime”-symbol and consider a variable location m we can write M r = vm = v(x ) (7.3 denotes the location of the load and not that of the bending moment or the shear force as in Eq.5). ϕr′ = −1 .6 as well as Eqs. we create a mechanism at the section r where the influence line is desired. i.6) due to ϕr = −1 .7).

In the same manner we can determine influence lines for a shear force V . that is a vertical deformation of unit magnitude in the direction opposite to the po- sitive sign of that force (see Fig.9). Note that the above equation is based on the principle of superposition. respectively. We need to remove the resistance to the shear force and introduce a complementary. 7. negative unit deformation. The result is the same as that of "Vr " in Fig.3 Use of Influence Lines 7. 7.9 Positive internal forces. 7. We recall that the ordinate of the influence line at a point is the value of the load effect due to a unit load acting at that point. In summary. 7.8 Influence line "M r " = deflected shape due to ϕr = −1 . 149 . Vr Mr r r Δvr = −1 r r Δϕr = −1 Fig. which states that the forces in an elastic structure are proportional to the magnitude of the applied loads. For an arbitrary load effect Sr we thus have Sr = ∑ Pi ηi + ∫ w(x ) η(x ) dx (7. the Müller-Breslau principle states: The influence line for an internal force at location r is the deflected shape of the structure produced by removing at r the capacity with respect to the force and then introducing a (negative) unit displacement that corresponds to the restraint removed.7) i where Pi and w(x ) are concentrated forces and distributed loads. 7. all we need to do is sum all the loads times their corresponding ordi- nate η of the influence line.3. The desired influence line is then the deflected shape resulting from the imposed deformation.1 General Remarks Once influence lines have been determined it is straightforward to use them in order to determine the corresponding load effect under any loading condition. r F =1 m L /2 L /2 a Mr F =1 a − 2 "M r " L vm + 4 ϕr = −1 Fig. Thus.7. The idea of finding influence lines as deflected shapes was developed by Müller-Breslau in 1886.

w P A L a a r − 2 "M r " + L η 4 Fig. 7. We obtain the influence line for the bending moment at r by first removing the capacity of the section to transmit a ben- ding moment (but not axial force or shear force) and then introducing a unit rotation in the direction opposite to the posi- tive direction of the bending moment.Example: Find the value of the bending moment at midspan of the beam in Fig.10 Influence line and loading.1 1m 100 kN 100 kN 10 kN/m r 3m 3m 4m 5m Fig. Applying Eq.8) 4 2 2 8 2 7.11 Example 7. 7. 7. Note that we obtain all influence ordinates by simple proportions (similar triangles).1 Problem: (a) Draw the influence lines for the shear force and bending moment at location r of the beam above. The relative position of the two concentrated forces is fixed. Again.10 (7. (7.2) under the loading shown. 150 .7) gives L 1 a L2 a M r = w⋅ L ⋅ ⋅ − P⋅ = w − P⋅ (7. we obtain all influence ordinates by simple proportions (similar triangles). Solution: (a) We obtain the influence line for the shear force at r by first removing the capacity of the section to transmit shear (but not axial force or bending moment) and then introducing a unit displacement in the direction opposite to the positive di- rection of the shear force.4 Example 7. (b) Calculate the maximum and minimum values of the shear force and the bending moment due to the uniformly distri- buted load (dead load) and the moving loads shown.

1.33 = 53. Finding the controlling position for moving loads.5 + 0.533) max min 0. hence Vr = −0.5 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 0. 0.500) − − "M r " + 1.5 + 1) ⋅ 100 = 250 kNm Combining dead load and live load gives minVr = −30 − 120 = −150 kN maxVr = −30 + 83.12 Influence lines for shear force and bending moment. sometimes involves some trial and error. (b) Distributed load (dead load) The value for the shear force and moment at location r due to the distributed load is the area under the influence line multiplied by the magnitude of the load. This is because the induced deformation does not cause any internal forces or curvatures in the beam.600) max min 2.00 (1.9) Moving load To calculate the maximum shear force and bending moment due to the moving load. 7.667.33 kN (7.000.5 Properties of influence lines of statically determinate structures Influence lines of statically determinate structures are always piecewise linear. We obtain minVr = −(0.500.50 [m] Fig. Consequently. we can obtain the influence lines for stati- cally determinate structures by simple geometry.10) min M r = −(2 + 1.33 kN (7. To calculate the minimum shear force and bending moment (or maximum nega- tive values) due to the moving load.533) ⋅ 100 = −120 kN maxVr = (0. 151 .11) min M r = −45 − 360 = −405 kNm max M r = −45 + 250 = 205 kNm 7.333) ⋅ 100 = 83.5 [−] (2.5 ⋅ (1. we position the two forces such that the combined influence is maximized.5 ⋅ 6 − 2 ⋅ 9) ⋅ 10 = −45 kNm (7. 0.667 + 0. one of the concentrated forces is always placed at the maximum ordinates of the influence line. (0. we position the two forces such that the combined influence is minimized.000.5 − − "Vr " + 0.1.6) ⋅ 100 = −360 kNm max M r = (1.6667 0. For influence lines that are piecewise linear as is the case for statically determinate structures.333) (0.6667 ⋅ 10 = −30 kN M r = 0.

We obtain the influence line for the span moment M 2 correspondingly. curvature and/or axial strains. however. we first remove the capacity with respect to bending at that location.7. (2) sketch influence lines for internal forces of continuous beams. We may use influence lines to identify the portions of a structure that we should load to maximize the design force at critical section. The resulting deflected shape is equal to the influence line (Fig. We generate the influence line for the support force at A (equal to the shear force at A ) by first removing the vertical support at A and then introducing a vertical displacement. According to the Müller-Breslau principle. As a first example.13 Influence Line for span moment of two-span continuous beam. 7.6 Influence Lines of Statically Indeterminate Structures 7.13). is that statically indeterminate structures offer resistance to the imposed deformation. 7. 7. such that the segments of the influence lines are generally curved. (3) establish live load patterns to produce maximum effects in continuous beams. 7. i. 152 .2 Live load patterns to maximize forces in multi-span beams (Skip Loading) Building codes require that we vary the position of the live loads to maximize a certain force at a particular section. place a hinge at midspan AB . That is we find influence lines for statically indeterminate structures by imposing a negative unit complementary deformation at the location where the influence line is desired. we find the largest live loads effects by placing the live load on certain portions of the structure but not on others.e. 7. we consider the two-span continuous beam in Fig. We obtain the influence line "MC " for the support moment at C by first introducing a hinge at that location and then rotating the two member ends relative to each other. The analytical treatment of influence lines for statically indeterminate structures is thus beyond the scope of this class. A B C L /2 L /2 L − "M B " + ϕ =1 Fig.4 holds irrespective of whether the structure is statically determinate or indeterminate. Our main objectives regarding influence lines for indeterminate structures are: (1) become familiar with the shape of influence lines for internal forces of continuous beams. 7.1 General remarks It can be shown that Eq. In most cases.14 are examples of influence lines for a four-span continuous beam.e. That resistance causes deformations. Shown in Fig.13 and consider the influence line for the ben- ding moment at midspan AB . The fundamental difference.6. and then introduce a relative rotation of unit magnitude at the hinge.6. i.

14. i. 7.16 shows the shear fore and bending moment envelope diagrams. we must include the dead load forces in the envelope dia- grams. i − 2.. This live load pattern also yields the absolute maximum values of the shear for- ces at this support and the maximum support force. To further illustrate the above rules. (3) We obtain the minimum support moment (maximum negative value) by loading the two spans adjacent to the sup- port and every other span next to those. (4) We obtain the maximum support moment and the minimum support reaction force by a live load pattern that is oppo- site to (3).. Figure 7.... i + 1.14 Influence lines for four-span continuous beam. we can derive the following rules regarding live load effects (1) We obtain the maximum moment in span i by loading spans . 7.15. we look at a five-span continuous beam in Fig. i + 2. From Fig. Case 0) and each live load pattern are plot- ted in Fig.15. 7.. 153 . An envelope is a plot of the maximum and minimum forces (for beams these are shear force and bending moment) that can occur at any given sec- tion accounting for different positions of the live load. Shown are all relevant live load patterns and the corresponding design forces associated with each loading pattern... Clearly. Qualitative bending moment and shear force diagrams due to dead load (uniformly distributed across all spans. (2) We obtain the minimum moment in span i by loading spans . 7. i − 1.... A B C D E 2 L L L L − − ϕ =1 "M C " + + − − "M 2 " + + ϕ =1 − "VA " + 1 − "VCB " + + 1 Fig..

max A.15 Live load patterns for five-span continuous beam. minVFE . maxVEF . max C max MC 6 maxVCB . minVBC . 154 . min M 5 minVAB . maxVDE . min M 4 1 2 3 4 5 maxVAB . max E max M E 10 maxVED . min M 3 . minVCD . max M 1. min E Fig. max M 5 1 min M 2 . max B max M B 4 maxVBA . minVDE . min A. minVEF . maxVFE . maxVBC . max D max M D 8 maxVDC . min B min MC 5 minVCB . min C min M D 7 minVDC . max M 4 2 min M 1. max F A B C D E F max M 2 . min D min M E 9 minVED . maxVCD . min F min M B 3 minVBA . 7. max M 3 .

17 Moment and shear force envelope diagrams for five-span continuous beam. 7. 7.16 Moment and shear force diagrams for dead load (Case 0) and different live load patterns (Cases 1-10). max M min M A − F M B C D E + maxV minV + V − Fig. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 M V Fig. 155 .

2 1m 50 kN 50 kN 5 kN/m A 6m B 4m C 2m (1) Find the influence line for (a) the moment at A .5 kN max C = 137. Solution: (2) max M A = 137. calculate the maximum and minimum values resulting from a uniformly distributed load of magnitude 5 kN/m (dead load across the entire beam) and two moving live loads.75 k max M B = 68.75 k maxVC = 5 k minVC = −13. (g) moment at C of the beam above. whose relative position is fixed. (f) moment at B .Problems 7.5 k-ft min M A = −150 k-ft max A = 20 k min A = −13. (2) Using the influence lines of (1).75 k-ft min M B = −68. Solution: (2) due to w = 5 kN/m M A = −135 kNm A = 37. (b) reaction force at A .75 k-ft max MC = 20 k-ft min MC = −55 k-ft 7. (c) reaction force at D .5 kN minVB = −37.1 A 5 ft 10 k 10 k A B C D min max 5 ft 5 ft 4 ft10. (c) the shear force at B .75 k min D = −7.5 kN due to P = 50 kN max M A = 225 kNm min M A = −550 kNm maxVA = 100 kN minVA = −37. calculate the maximum and minimum values resulting from two moving live loads.5 kN min C = 0 156 . (d) the reaction force at C of the beam above.75 (1) Find the influence line for the (a) moment at A .5 kN VB = 7.5 kN C = 22. (e) shear force at C . (3) Repeat (2) considering the distributed load a live load of variable length. (b) the shear force at A .5 kN maxVB = 87.75 k max D = 33.5 k maxVB = 20 k minVB = −13. (2) Using the influence lines of (1).00 4 ft 8 ft 8 ft 3 ft 3. (d) shear force at B . whose relative position is fixed.

Check your result by using the “fixed-end moment table”.3 P w A C B 5. For simplicity. calculate by integration the support moment M B for a uniformly distributed load applied to both spans. The beam has constant flexural stiffness. 157 .7.5 k/ft are applied to the six-span continuous beam shown.125w (ans ) 100 (2) x 0 = = 2.4 A B C D E F G 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 ft 20 ft 25 ft 25 ft 20 ft 15 ft A dead load of wD =1k/ft and a live load of wL =1. support moments.00 m 5. Use skip- loading for the live load and find (electronically) the maximum and minimum design forces (dead load plus live load) for the span moments.00 m − − " M B " [m] x x The influence line " M B " for the support moment at B of a two-span continuous beam is given by the function 1 1 3 " MB " = − x + x 0≤x ≤5 4 100 (1) Using the above expression for the influence line. assume that the maximum span moments occur at midspan.4811P (ans ) 12 7. Solution: (1) M B = 3.8867 m (ans ) M B = −0. support reactions and the shear forces at the supports. Use symmetry to mini- mize the number of live load patterns you need to analyze. (2) At what location must a concentrated force P be placed to produce minimum M B ? What is the value for min M B ? (3) Place P at the location found in (2) and verify the value for min M B using the force method of structural analysis.

74 2.672 0.6 w live = 3 k/ft B C A D 20 ft 1 20 ft 2 20 ft 3 0.342 0.56 1.714 0.00 m − − " MB " [m] x x x0 1.00 m 5.04 1.342 0.5 5 kN/m A C B 5.04 0. 158 .5 A live load of intensity w live = 3 k/ft acts on a three-span continuous beam whose influence line for the bending moment at mid-span 2 is given (ordinates every 2 ft).46 3. calculate by integration the support moment M B due to the triangu- lar load shown.546 0.00 m P P 5.714 0.75 0.768 0.576 0.546 0.74 1.75 − − "M 2 " [ft] + 0. You may assume a linear variation of the influence line between given ordinates.576 0.00 m 5.46 1.198 0. (2) At what location x 0 must two concentrated forces P be placed to produce minimum M B ? What is the value for min M B ? 7.384 0.00 m The influence line " M B " for the support moment at B of a two-span continuous beam is given by the function 1 1 3 " MB " = − x + x 0≤x ≤5 4 100 (1) Using the above expression for the influence line.768 0.198 0.7.384 0.672 0.56 2. Use the influence line and the principle of skip loading to find the minimum and maximum moments at mid-span of span 2.

6 1.384 0.98 0.79 2.256 0.5 A live load of intensity w live = 3 k/ft acts on a three-span continuous beam whose influence line for the bending moment at support B is given (ordinates every 2 ft).5 0.0 1.476 0.54 1.364 0.02 1.512 0.64 2.7 w live = 3 k/ft B C A D 20 ft 1 20 ft 2 20 ft 3 0.448 0.28 1.228 0.7.28 0. You may assume a linear variation of the influence line between given ordinates.528 0.05 1.9 1.78 1.912 1. 159 .132 0.54 0.46 1. Use the influence line and the principle of skip loading to find the minimum and maximum moments at support B .3 − − "M B " [ft] + 0.

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