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system, the value to be obtained are usually the area of

heating surface in each effect, the kg of steam per hour to

be supplied, and the amount of vapor leaving each effect,

especially the last effect.

steam pressure to first effect, (2) final pressure in vapor

space of the last effect, (3) feed conditions and flow to first

effect, (4) the final concentration in the liquid leaving the

last effect, (5) physical properties such as enthalpies

and/or heat capacities of the liquid and vapors, and (6)

the overall heat-transfer coefficient in each effects.

balances, and the heat transfer rate equations q = U A T

for each effect.

Evaporators

1. From the known outlet concentration and pressure in

the last effect, determined the BP in the last effect.

2. Determine the total amount of vapor evaporated by an

overall mass balance. For this first trial apportion this

total amount of vapor among the three effects.

(Usually V1 = V2 = V3 is assumed for the first trial).

Make a total mass balance on effects 1, 2, 3 to obtain

L1, L2, and L3. Then calculate the solids concentration

in each effect by a solid balance on each effect.

3. Using equation

1/U1

T1 = T

1/U1 + 1/U2 + 1/U3

the three effects. Any effect that has an extra heating

load, such as cold feed, requires a proportionately

larger T. Then calculate the BP in each effect.

( If BPR is present, estimated the pressure in the effect

1 and 2 and determinated the BPR in each of the three

effect. Only a crude pressure estimated is needed since

BPR is almost independent of pressure. Then the T

available for heat transfer without the superheated is

obtained by subtracting the sum of all three BPRs

from overall T of TS T3. Using equation

1/U1

T1 = T

1/U1 + 1/U2 + 1/U3

each effect.)

4. Using energy and mass balances in each effect,

calculate the amount vaporized and the flows of liquid

in each effect. If the amounts vaporized differ

aprreciably from those assumed in step 2, then step 2,

3, 4 can be repeated using the amounts of evaporation

just calculated. (In step 2 only solid balance is

repeated.)

5. Calculate the value of q transffered in each effect.

Using the rate equation q = U A T for each effect,

calculate area A1, A2, A3. Then calculate the average

value Am by

Am = (A1 + A2 + A3)/3

If these A are reasonably close to each other, the

calculation are complete and second trial is not

needed. If these area are not nearly equal, a second

trial should be performed on each effect.

6. To start trial 2, use new values of L 1, L2, L3, V1, V2, and

V3 calculate the energy balances in step 4 and

calculate the new solids concentrations in each effect

by a solids balances on each effect.

7. Obtained new values of T1, T2, and T3 from

T1 A1 T1 A1

T1 = T2 =

Am Am

T1 A1

and T3 =

Am

T. If not, proportionately readjust all T value so

that this is so. Then calculate the BP in each effect.

( If BPR is present, then using the new concentrations

from step 6, determine the new BPRs in the three

effects. This gives new value of T available for

heat transfer by subtracting the sum of all of three

BPRs from overall T. Calculate the new of T by

equation

Ti Ai

Ti =

Am

8. Using the new T values from step 7, repeat the

calculations starting with step 4. Two trial are usually

sufficient so that the areas are reasonably close to

being equal.

Example

Evaporation of Sugar Solution in a Triple-Effect

Evaporator

A triple effect forward feed evaporator is being used to

evaporate a sugar solution containing 10 mass % solids

to a concentrated solution 50 mass %. The BPR os

solutions (independent pressure) can be estimated from

BPR 0C = 1.78 x + 6.22x2 where x is mass fraction of sugar

in solution. Saturated steam at 205.5 kPa (121.1 0C

saturation temperature) is being used. The pressure in

the vapor space of the third effect is 13.4 kPa. The feed

rate is 22680 kg/h at 26.7 0C. The heat capacity of the

liquid solutions is Cp = 4.19 2.35 x kJ/kg.0K. The heat

solution is considered to be negligible. The coefficients of

the heat transfer have been estimated as U 1 = 3123, U2 =

1987, and U3 = 1136 W/m2.0K. If each effect has the same

surface area, calculate the area, the steam rate used, and

the steam economy.

Solution

The process flow diagram is given in fig. Following the

eight step outlined, the calculation as follows.

Step 1.

For the 13.4 kPa, the saturation temperature is 51.67 0C

from the steam tables. Using the equation for BPR for

evaporator no. 3 with x = 0,5,

BPR3 = 1.78x + 6.22x2 = 1.78 (0.5) + 6.22 (0.5)2

= 2.450C

T3 = 51.67 + 2.45 = 54.120C

Step 2

Making an overall and a solids balance to calculate the

total amount vaporized (V1 + V2 + V3) and L3

F = 22.680 = L3 + (V1 + V2 + V3)

F xF = 22.680 (0.1) = L3 (0.5)

L3 = 4536 kg/h

(V1 + V2 + V3) = 22.680 - 4536 = 18.144 kg/h

Assuming equal amount vaporized in each effect, V1 =

V2 = V3 = 6048 kg/h

Making total mass balance on effect 1, 2, 3 and solving

(1) F = 22.680 = V1 + L1, L1 = 16.632 kg/h

(2) L1 = 16.632 = V2 + L2, L2 = 10.584 kg/h

(3) L2 = 10.584 = V3 + L3, L3 = 4536 kg/h

Making a solids balance on effect 1, 2, and 3 and solving

for x

(1) F xF = L1 x1, 22.680 (0.1) = 16.632 (x1)

x1 = 0.136

(2) L1 x1 = L2 x2, 16.632 (0.136) = 10.584 (x2)

x2 = 0.214

(3) L2 x2 = L3 x3, 10.584 (0.214) = 4536 (x3)

x2 = 0.50 (check balance)

Step 3

The BPR in each effect is calculated as follows:

(1) BPR1 = 1.78x + 6.22x2 = 1.78 (0.136) + 6.22 (0.136)2 =

0.360C

(2) BPR2 = 1.78x + 6.22x2 = 1.78 (0.214) + 6.22 (0.214)2 =

0.650C

(3) BPR3 = 1.78x + 6.22x2 = 1.78 (0.5) + 6.22 (0.5)2 =

2.450C

T available = TS1 T3 (saturation) (BPR1 + BPR2 +

BPR3) = 121.1 51.67 (0.36 + 0.65 + 2.45) = 65.970C

Using equation

1/U1

T1 = T

1/U1 + 1/U2 + 1/U3

65.97 (1/3132)

= = 12.400C

1/3132 + 1/1987 + 1/1136

1/U2

T2 = T

1/U1 + 1/U2 + 1/U3

65.97 (1/1987)

= = 19.500C

1/3132 + 1/1987 + 1/1136

1/U3

T3 = T

1/U1 + 1/U2 + 1/U3

65.97 (1/1136)

= = 34.070C

1/3132 + 1/1987 + 1/1136

However, since a cold feed enters effect no.1, this effect

requires more heat. Increased T1 and lowering T2

and T3 proportionately as a first estimate,

T1 = 15.560C

T2 = 18.340C

T3 = 32.070C

(1) T1 = TS1 - T1 = 121.1 15.56 = 105.540C

TS1 = 121.10C

(2) T2 = T1 BPR1 - T2 = 105.54 0.36 - 15.56 =

86.840C

TS2 = T1 BPR1 = 105.54 0.36 = 105.180C

(3) T3 = T2 BPR2 - T3 = 86.84 0.65 - 32.07 =

54.120C

TS3 = T2 BPR2 = 86.84 0.65 = 86.190C

The temperature in the three effect are as follows:

Effect 1 Effect 2 Effect 3

TS1 = 121.10C TS2 = 105.18 TS3 = 86.19 TS4 = 51.67

T1 = 105.540C T2 = 86.840C T3 = 54.120C

Step 4

The heat capacity of the liquid in each effect is calculated

from the equation Cp = 4.19 2.35 x.

F : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.1) = 3.955 kJ/kg.0K

L1 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.136) = 3.869 kJ/kg.0K

L2 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.214) = 3.684 kJ/kg.0K

L3 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.50) = 3.015 kJ/kg.0K

The value of the enthalpy H of the various vapor streams

relative to water at 00C as a datum are obtained from the

steam tables as follows:

Effect 1 :

T1 = 105.540C, TS2 = 105.180C, BPR1 = 0.36,

TS1 = 121.10C

H1 = HS2 (saturation enthalpy) + 1.884 (0.36) (superheat)

= 2684 + 1.884 (0.36) = 2685 kJ/kg

S1 = HS1 (vapor saturation enthalpy) - hS1 (liquid of

condensation).

Effect 2

T2 = 86.840C, TS3 = 105.180C, BPR2 = 0.65,

H2 = HS3 (saturation enthalpy) + 1.884 (0.65) (superheat)

= 2654 + 1.884 (0.36) = 2655 kJ/kg

S2 = H1 - hS2 = 2685 - 441 = 2244 kJ/kg (latent heat of

condensation).

Effect 3

T3 = 54.120C, TS4 = 51.670C, BPR3 = 2.45,

H3 = HS4 + 1.884 (2.45) = 2595 + 1.884 (2.45) = 2600

kJ/kg

S3 = H2 - hS3 = 2655 - 361 = 2294 kJ/kg (latent heat of

condensation).

V1 = 22.680 L1, V2 = L1 - L2, V3 = L2 - 4536

L3 = 4536

Write energy balance on each effect. Use 00C as a datum

since the value of H of the vapors are realtive to 0 0C and

note that (TF - 0)0C = (TF - 0)0K

(1) F Cp (TF 0) + S S = L1 Cp (T1 0) + V1 H1

22.680 (3.955) (26.7 0) + S (2200) = L 1 (3.869)

(105.54 0) + (22.680 L1) (2685)

(2) L1 Cp (T1 0) + V1 S2 = L2 Cp (T2 0) + V2 H2

L1 (3.869) (105.54 0) + (22.680 L1) (2244) = L2

(3.684) (86.84 0) + (L1 L2) (2655)

(3) L2 Cp (T2 0) + V2 S3 = L3 Cp (T3 0) + V3 H3

L2 (3.684) (86.84 0) + (L1 L2) (2294) = 4536

(3.015) (54.12 0) + (L2 4536) (2600)

Solving the last two equation simultaneously for L 1 and L2

and substituting into the first equation

L1 = 17078 kg/h, L2 = 11.068, L3 = 4536

S = 8936, V1 = 5602, V2 = 6010, V3 = 6532

Step 5

Solving for the values of q in each effect and area

q1 = S S1 = (8936/3600) (2200 x 1000) = 5.460 106 W

q2 = S S2 = (5602/3600) (2244 x 1000) = 3.492 106 W

q3 = S S3 = (6010/3600) (2294 x 1000) = 3.830 106 W

A1 = q1/U1 T1 = 5.460 106/3123 (15.56) = 112.4 m2

A2 = q2/U2 T2 = 3.492 106/1987 (18.34) = 95.8 m2

A3 = q3/U3 T3 = 3.830 106/1136 (32.07) = 105.1 m2

from the average value less than 10% and a second trial is

not really necessary. However, a second trial will be

methods use.

Step 6

Making a new solids balance on effects 1, 2, and 3 using

the new L1 = 17.078, L2 = 11.068, L3 = 4536 and solving

for x,

(1) 22.680 (0.1) = 17.078 (x1), x1 = 0.133

(2) 17.078 (0.133) = 11.068 (x2), x2 = 0.205

(3) 11.068 (0.205) = 4536 (x3), x3 = 0.50 (check balance)

Step 7

The new BPR in each effect is then

(1) BPR1 = 1.78 x1 + 6.22 x12 = 1.78 (0.133) + 6.22 (0.133)2

= 0.350C

(2) BPR2 = 1.78 x2 + 6.22 x22 = 1.78 (0.205) + 6.22 (0.205)2

= 0.630C

(3) BPR3 = 1.78 x3 + 6.22 x32 = 1.78 (0.50) + 6.22 (0.50)2

= 2.450C

T available = 121.1 51.67 (0.35 + 0.63 + 2.45) =

66.00C

The new values for T are obtained using equation

Ti Ai

Ti =

Am

T1 A1 15.56 (112.4)

T1 = = = 16.770K = 16.770C

Am 104.4

T2 A2 18.34 (95.8)

T2 = = = 16.860K = 16.860C

Am 104.4

T3 A3 32.07 (105.1)

T3 = = = 32.340K = 32.340C

Am 104.4

T2 = 16.87, T3 = 32.36.

T = 16.77 + 16.87 + 32.36 = 66.00C

To calculate the actual boiling point of the solution in each

effect

(1) T1 = TS1 - T1 = 121.1 16.67 = 104.330C

(2) T2 = T1 BPR1 - T2 = 104.33 0.35 - 16.87 =

87.110C

TS2 = T1 BPR1 = 104.33 0.35 = 103.980C

(3) T3 = T2 BPR2 - T3 = 87.11 0.63 - 32.36 =

54.120C

TS3 = T2 BPR2 = 87.11 0.63 = 86.480C

Step 8

Following step 4, the heat capacity of the liquid is C p =

4.19 2.35 x

F : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.1) = 3.955 kJ/kg.0K

L1 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.133) = 3.877 kJ/kg.0K

L2 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.205) = 3.708 kJ/kg.0K

L3 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.50) = 3.015 kJ/kg.0K

(1) H1 = HS2 + 1.884 (0C superheat)

= 2682 + 1.884 (0.35) = 2683 kJ/kg

S1 = HS1 - hS1 = 2708 508 = 2200 kJ/kg

(2) H2 = HS3 + 1.884 (0.63) = 2654 + 1.884 (0.63) =

2655 kJ/kg

S2 = H1 - hS2 = 2683 - 440 = 2243 kJ/kg

(3) H3 = HS4 + 1.884 (2.45) = 2595 + 1.884 (2.45) =

2600 kJ/kg

S3 = H2 - hS3 = 2655 - 361 = 2294 kJ/kg

(1) F Cp (TF 0) + S S = L1 Cp (T1 0) + V1 H1

22.680 (3.955) (26.7 0) + S (2200) = L 1 (3.877)

(104.33 0) + (22.680 L1) (2683)

(2) L1 Cp (T1 0) + V1 S2 = L2 Cp (T2 0) + V2 H2

L1 (3.877) (104.33 0) + (22.680 L1) (2243) = L2

(3.708) (87.11 0) + (L1 L2) (2655)

(3) L2 Cp (T2 0) + V2 S3 = L3 Cp (T3 0) + V3 H3

L2 (3.708) (87.11 0) + (L1 L2) (2293) = 4536

(3.015) (54.12 0) + (L2 4536) (2600)

Solving,

L1 = 17.005 kg/h, L2 = 10.952 kg/h, L3 = 4536 kg/h,

S = 8960 kg/h, V1 = 5675 kg/h, V2 = 6053 kg/h,

V3 = 6416 kg/h.

Following step 5, and solving for q in each effect and A

q1 = S S1 = (8960/3600) (2200 x 1000) = 5.476 106 W

q2 = V1 S2 = (5675/3600) (2243 x 1000) = 3.539 106 W

q1 = V2 S3 = (6053/3600) (2293 x 1000) = 3.855 106 W

A1 = q1/U1 T1 = 5.476 106/3123 (16.77) = 104.6 m2

A2 = q2/U2 T2 = 3.539 106/1987 (16.87) = 105.6 m2

A3 = q3/U3 T3 = 3.855 106/1136 (32.36) = 104.9 m2

The average area Am = 105.0 m2 to use in each effect.

V1 + V2 + V3

Steam Economy =

S

5675 + 6053 + 6416

Steam Economy = = 2.025

8960

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