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Calculation for Multiple Effect Evaporator

In doing calculation for a multiple effect evaporator


system, the value to be obtained are usually the area of
heating surface in each effect, the kg of steam per hour to
be supplied, and the amount of vapor leaving each effect,
especially the last effect.

The given or known value are usually as follows : (1)


steam pressure to first effect, (2) final pressure in vapor
space of the last effect, (3) feed conditions and flow to first
effect, (4) the final concentration in the liquid leaving the
last effect, (5) physical properties such as enthalpies
and/or heat capacities of the liquid and vapors, and (6)
the overall heat-transfer coefficient in each effects.

The calculation are done using mass balances, energy


balances, and the heat transfer rate equations q = U A T
for each effect.

Step-by-Step Calculation Methods for Triple Effect


Evaporators
1. From the known outlet concentration and pressure in
the last effect, determined the BP in the last effect.
2. Determine the total amount of vapor evaporated by an
overall mass balance. For this first trial apportion this
total amount of vapor among the three effects.
(Usually V1 = V2 = V3 is assumed for the first trial).
Make a total mass balance on effects 1, 2, 3 to obtain
L1, L2, and L3. Then calculate the solids concentration
in each effect by a solid balance on each effect.
3. Using equation
1/U1
T1 = T
1/U1 + 1/U2 + 1/U3

Estimate the temperature drops T1, T2, and T3 in


the three effects. Any effect that has an extra heating
load, such as cold feed, requires a proportionately
larger T. Then calculate the BP in each effect.
( If BPR is present, estimated the pressure in the effect
1 and 2 and determinated the BPR in each of the three
effect. Only a crude pressure estimated is needed since
BPR is almost independent of pressure. Then the T
available for heat transfer without the superheated is
obtained by subtracting the sum of all three BPRs
from overall T of TS T3. Using equation

1/U1
T1 = T
1/U1 + 1/U2 + 1/U3

estimate T1, T2, and T3. Then calculate the BP in


each effect.)
4. Using energy and mass balances in each effect,
calculate the amount vaporized and the flows of liquid
in each effect. If the amounts vaporized differ
aprreciably from those assumed in step 2, then step 2,
3, 4 can be repeated using the amounts of evaporation
just calculated. (In step 2 only solid balance is
repeated.)
5. Calculate the value of q transffered in each effect.
Using the rate equation q = U A T for each effect,
calculate area A1, A2, A3. Then calculate the average
value Am by
Am = (A1 + A2 + A3)/3
If these A are reasonably close to each other, the
calculation are complete and second trial is not
needed. If these area are not nearly equal, a second
trial should be performed on each effect.
6. To start trial 2, use new values of L 1, L2, L3, V1, V2, and
V3 calculate the energy balances in step 4 and
calculate the new solids concentrations in each effect
by a solids balances on each effect.
7. Obtained new values of T1, T2, and T3 from
T1 A1 T1 A1
T1 = T2 =
Am Am

T1 A1

and T3 =
Am

Then sum T1, T2, and T3 must equal the original


T. If not, proportionately readjust all T value so
that this is so. Then calculate the BP in each effect.
( If BPR is present, then using the new concentrations
from step 6, determine the new BPRs in the three
effects. This gives new value of T available for
heat transfer by subtracting the sum of all of three
BPRs from overall T. Calculate the new of T by
equation

Ti Ai

Ti =
Am

to obtained a better estimeted of the T


8. Using the new T values from step 7, repeat the
calculations starting with step 4. Two trial are usually
sufficient so that the areas are reasonably close to
being equal.

Example
Evaporation of Sugar Solution in a Triple-Effect
Evaporator
A triple effect forward feed evaporator is being used to
evaporate a sugar solution containing 10 mass % solids
to a concentrated solution 50 mass %. The BPR os
solutions (independent pressure) can be estimated from
BPR 0C = 1.78 x + 6.22x2 where x is mass fraction of sugar
in solution. Saturated steam at 205.5 kPa (121.1 0C
saturation temperature) is being used. The pressure in
the vapor space of the third effect is 13.4 kPa. The feed
rate is 22680 kg/h at 26.7 0C. The heat capacity of the
liquid solutions is Cp = 4.19 2.35 x kJ/kg.0K. The heat
solution is considered to be negligible. The coefficients of
the heat transfer have been estimated as U 1 = 3123, U2 =
1987, and U3 = 1136 W/m2.0K. If each effect has the same
surface area, calculate the area, the steam rate used, and
the steam economy.
Solution
The process flow diagram is given in fig. Following the
eight step outlined, the calculation as follows.
Step 1.
For the 13.4 kPa, the saturation temperature is 51.67 0C
from the steam tables. Using the equation for BPR for
evaporator no. 3 with x = 0,5,
BPR3 = 1.78x + 6.22x2 = 1.78 (0.5) + 6.22 (0.5)2
= 2.450C
T3 = 51.67 + 2.45 = 54.120C

Step 2
Making an overall and a solids balance to calculate the
total amount vaporized (V1 + V2 + V3) and L3
F = 22.680 = L3 + (V1 + V2 + V3)
F xF = 22.680 (0.1) = L3 (0.5)
L3 = 4536 kg/h
(V1 + V2 + V3) = 22.680 - 4536 = 18.144 kg/h
Assuming equal amount vaporized in each effect, V1 =
V2 = V3 = 6048 kg/h
Making total mass balance on effect 1, 2, 3 and solving
(1) F = 22.680 = V1 + L1, L1 = 16.632 kg/h
(2) L1 = 16.632 = V2 + L2, L2 = 10.584 kg/h
(3) L2 = 10.584 = V3 + L3, L3 = 4536 kg/h
Making a solids balance on effect 1, 2, and 3 and solving
for x
(1) F xF = L1 x1, 22.680 (0.1) = 16.632 (x1)
x1 = 0.136
(2) L1 x1 = L2 x2, 16.632 (0.136) = 10.584 (x2)
x2 = 0.214
(3) L2 x2 = L3 x3, 10.584 (0.214) = 4536 (x3)
x2 = 0.50 (check balance)

Step 3
The BPR in each effect is calculated as follows:
(1) BPR1 = 1.78x + 6.22x2 = 1.78 (0.136) + 6.22 (0.136)2 =
0.360C
(2) BPR2 = 1.78x + 6.22x2 = 1.78 (0.214) + 6.22 (0.214)2 =
0.650C
(3) BPR3 = 1.78x + 6.22x2 = 1.78 (0.5) + 6.22 (0.5)2 =
2.450C
T available = TS1 T3 (saturation) (BPR1 + BPR2 +
BPR3) = 121.1 51.67 (0.36 + 0.65 + 2.45) = 65.970C
Using equation
1/U1
T1 = T
1/U1 + 1/U2 + 1/U3
65.97 (1/3132)
= = 12.400C
1/3132 + 1/1987 + 1/1136

1/U2
T2 = T
1/U1 + 1/U2 + 1/U3
65.97 (1/1987)
= = 19.500C
1/3132 + 1/1987 + 1/1136

1/U3
T3 = T
1/U1 + 1/U2 + 1/U3
65.97 (1/1136)
= = 34.070C
1/3132 + 1/1987 + 1/1136
However, since a cold feed enters effect no.1, this effect
requires more heat. Increased T1 and lowering T2
and T3 proportionately as a first estimate,
T1 = 15.560C
T2 = 18.340C
T3 = 32.070C

To calculate the actual BP of the solution in each effect,


(1) T1 = TS1 - T1 = 121.1 15.56 = 105.540C
TS1 = 121.10C
(2) T2 = T1 BPR1 - T2 = 105.54 0.36 - 15.56 =
86.840C
TS2 = T1 BPR1 = 105.54 0.36 = 105.180C
(3) T3 = T2 BPR2 - T3 = 86.84 0.65 - 32.07 =
54.120C
TS3 = T2 BPR2 = 86.84 0.65 = 86.190C
The temperature in the three effect are as follows:
Effect 1 Effect 2 Effect 3
TS1 = 121.10C TS2 = 105.18 TS3 = 86.19 TS4 = 51.67
T1 = 105.540C T2 = 86.840C T3 = 54.120C

Step 4
The heat capacity of the liquid in each effect is calculated
from the equation Cp = 4.19 2.35 x.
F : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.1) = 3.955 kJ/kg.0K
L1 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.136) = 3.869 kJ/kg.0K
L2 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.214) = 3.684 kJ/kg.0K
L3 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.50) = 3.015 kJ/kg.0K
The value of the enthalpy H of the various vapor streams
relative to water at 00C as a datum are obtained from the
steam tables as follows:
Effect 1 :
T1 = 105.540C, TS2 = 105.180C, BPR1 = 0.36,
TS1 = 121.10C
H1 = HS2 (saturation enthalpy) + 1.884 (0.36) (superheat)
= 2684 + 1.884 (0.36) = 2685 kJ/kg
S1 = HS1 (vapor saturation enthalpy) - hS1 (liquid of
condensation).
Effect 2
T2 = 86.840C, TS3 = 105.180C, BPR2 = 0.65,
H2 = HS3 (saturation enthalpy) + 1.884 (0.65) (superheat)
= 2654 + 1.884 (0.36) = 2655 kJ/kg
S2 = H1 - hS2 = 2685 - 441 = 2244 kJ/kg (latent heat of
condensation).
Effect 3
T3 = 54.120C, TS4 = 51.670C, BPR3 = 2.45,
H3 = HS4 + 1.884 (2.45) = 2595 + 1.884 (2.45) = 2600
kJ/kg
S3 = H2 - hS3 = 2655 - 361 = 2294 kJ/kg (latent heat of
condensation).

Flow relation to be used in energy balances are


V1 = 22.680 L1, V2 = L1 - L2, V3 = L2 - 4536
L3 = 4536
Write energy balance on each effect. Use 00C as a datum
since the value of H of the vapors are realtive to 0 0C and
note that (TF - 0)0C = (TF - 0)0K
(1) F Cp (TF 0) + S S = L1 Cp (T1 0) + V1 H1
22.680 (3.955) (26.7 0) + S (2200) = L 1 (3.869)
(105.54 0) + (22.680 L1) (2685)
(2) L1 Cp (T1 0) + V1 S2 = L2 Cp (T2 0) + V2 H2
L1 (3.869) (105.54 0) + (22.680 L1) (2244) = L2
(3.684) (86.84 0) + (L1 L2) (2655)
(3) L2 Cp (T2 0) + V2 S3 = L3 Cp (T3 0) + V3 H3
L2 (3.684) (86.84 0) + (L1 L2) (2294) = 4536
(3.015) (54.12 0) + (L2 4536) (2600)
Solving the last two equation simultaneously for L 1 and L2
and substituting into the first equation
L1 = 17078 kg/h, L2 = 11.068, L3 = 4536
S = 8936, V1 = 5602, V2 = 6010, V3 = 6532

Step 5
Solving for the values of q in each effect and area
q1 = S S1 = (8936/3600) (2200 x 1000) = 5.460 106 W
q2 = S S2 = (5602/3600) (2244 x 1000) = 3.492 106 W
q3 = S S3 = (6010/3600) (2294 x 1000) = 3.830 106 W
A1 = q1/U1 T1 = 5.460 106/3123 (15.56) = 112.4 m2
A2 = q2/U2 T2 = 3.492 106/1987 (18.34) = 95.8 m2
A3 = q3/U3 T3 = 3.830 106/1136 (32.07) = 105.1 m2

The average area Am = 104.4 m2. The areas differ from


from the average value less than 10% and a second trial is
not really necessary. However, a second trial will be
methods use.

Step 6
Making a new solids balance on effects 1, 2, and 3 using
the new L1 = 17.078, L2 = 11.068, L3 = 4536 and solving
for x,
(1) 22.680 (0.1) = 17.078 (x1), x1 = 0.133
(2) 17.078 (0.133) = 11.068 (x2), x2 = 0.205
(3) 11.068 (0.205) = 4536 (x3), x3 = 0.50 (check balance)

Step 7
The new BPR in each effect is then
(1) BPR1 = 1.78 x1 + 6.22 x12 = 1.78 (0.133) + 6.22 (0.133)2
= 0.350C
(2) BPR2 = 1.78 x2 + 6.22 x22 = 1.78 (0.205) + 6.22 (0.205)2
= 0.630C
(3) BPR3 = 1.78 x3 + 6.22 x32 = 1.78 (0.50) + 6.22 (0.50)2
= 2.450C
T available = 121.1 51.67 (0.35 + 0.63 + 2.45) =
66.00C
The new values for T are obtained using equation
Ti Ai

Ti =
Am

T1 A1 15.56 (112.4)
T1 = = = 16.770K = 16.770C

Am 104.4
T2 A2 18.34 (95.8)
T2 = = = 16.860K = 16.860C

Am 104.4
T3 A3 32.07 (105.1)
T3 = = = 32.340K = 32.340C

Am 104.4

T = 16.77 + 16.86 + 32.34) = 65.970C

These T values are readjusted so that T1 = 16.77,


T2 = 16.87, T3 = 32.36.
T = 16.77 + 16.87 + 32.36 = 66.00C
To calculate the actual boiling point of the solution in each
effect
(1) T1 = TS1 - T1 = 121.1 16.67 = 104.330C
(2) T2 = T1 BPR1 - T2 = 104.33 0.35 - 16.87 =
87.110C
TS2 = T1 BPR1 = 104.33 0.35 = 103.980C
(3) T3 = T2 BPR2 - T3 = 87.11 0.63 - 32.36 =
54.120C
TS3 = T2 BPR2 = 87.11 0.63 = 86.480C

Step 8
Following step 4, the heat capacity of the liquid is C p =
4.19 2.35 x
F : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.1) = 3.955 kJ/kg.0K
L1 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.133) = 3.877 kJ/kg.0K
L2 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.205) = 3.708 kJ/kg.0K
L3 : Cp = 4.19 2.35 (0.50) = 3.015 kJ/kg.0K

The new enthalpy H are as follows in each effect.


(1) H1 = HS2 + 1.884 (0C superheat)
= 2682 + 1.884 (0.35) = 2683 kJ/kg
S1 = HS1 - hS1 = 2708 508 = 2200 kJ/kg
(2) H2 = HS3 + 1.884 (0.63) = 2654 + 1.884 (0.63) =
2655 kJ/kg
S2 = H1 - hS2 = 2683 - 440 = 2243 kJ/kg
(3) H3 = HS4 + 1.884 (2.45) = 2595 + 1.884 (2.45) =
2600 kJ/kg
S3 = H2 - hS3 = 2655 - 361 = 2294 kJ/kg

Writing the energy balance on each effect,


(1) F Cp (TF 0) + S S = L1 Cp (T1 0) + V1 H1
22.680 (3.955) (26.7 0) + S (2200) = L 1 (3.877)
(104.33 0) + (22.680 L1) (2683)
(2) L1 Cp (T1 0) + V1 S2 = L2 Cp (T2 0) + V2 H2
L1 (3.877) (104.33 0) + (22.680 L1) (2243) = L2
(3.708) (87.11 0) + (L1 L2) (2655)
(3) L2 Cp (T2 0) + V2 S3 = L3 Cp (T3 0) + V3 H3
L2 (3.708) (87.11 0) + (L1 L2) (2293) = 4536
(3.015) (54.12 0) + (L2 4536) (2600)
Solving,
L1 = 17.005 kg/h, L2 = 10.952 kg/h, L3 = 4536 kg/h,
S = 8960 kg/h, V1 = 5675 kg/h, V2 = 6053 kg/h,
V3 = 6416 kg/h.
Following step 5, and solving for q in each effect and A
q1 = S S1 = (8960/3600) (2200 x 1000) = 5.476 106 W
q2 = V1 S2 = (5675/3600) (2243 x 1000) = 3.539 106 W
q1 = V2 S3 = (6053/3600) (2293 x 1000) = 3.855 106 W
A1 = q1/U1 T1 = 5.476 106/3123 (16.77) = 104.6 m2
A2 = q2/U2 T2 = 3.539 106/1987 (16.87) = 105.6 m2
A3 = q3/U3 T3 = 3.855 106/1136 (32.36) = 104.9 m2
The average area Am = 105.0 m2 to use in each effect.
V1 + V2 + V3
Steam Economy =
S
5675 + 6053 + 6416
Steam Economy = = 2.025
8960