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LWT - Food Science and Technology 62 (2015) 294e300

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LWT - Food Science and Technology
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/lwt

Descriptive sensory analysis and consumers' preference for dietary
fibre- and polyphenol-enriched tomato purees obtained using winery
by-products
Luisa Torri a, *, Maria Piochi a, Vera Lavelli b, Erminio Monteleone c
a
University of Gastronomic Sciences, Piazza Vittorio Emanuele 9, 12060, Bra, CN, Italy
b
DeFENS, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Universita  degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133, Milano, Italy
c  degli Studi di Firenze, Via Donizetti 6, Firenze, 50144, Italy
Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The sensory profile and consumers' acceptability of fibre- and polyphenol-enriched functional tomato
Received 28 January 2014 purees were studied. Products were developed by incorporating different granulometric fractions of
Received in revised form grape skins (S  125 mm; 125 mm < M  250 mm; 250 mm < L  500 mm) in two tomato puree types (V
22 December 2014
and R). A significant increase in textural (crispiness, granularity) and odour (spicy, hay) attributes and a
Accepted 29 December 2014
Available online 6 January 2015
decrease in perceived homogeneity and astringency were observed as the particle size increased. Based
on consumer clustering, two drivers for product optimization were identified. Cluster 1 significantly
preferred the smoothest particle size, and the drivers of formulations that were preferred seemed to be
Keywords:
Grape skins
the flavour of processed tomato and homogeneity. By contrast, Cluster 2 preferred the coarsest particle
Dietary fibre size where the sensations of fresh tomato were enhanced as well as the sensations of crispiness, gran-
Polyphenols ularity and vegetable notes. The finest particle size was the most suitable when combined with the V
Descriptive analysis type, while the coarsest particle size performed best when combined with the R tomato type.
Consumer acceptability © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction obtain dried grape skins (GS), which are easily incorporated into
various solid and liquid food base-matrices. GS have been added to
Winemaking generates a substantial volume of grape pomace bread (Mildner-Szkudlarz, Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Szwengiel, &
(GP) (Choi, Chung, Choi, & Kang, 2010), that is normally handled as Pacyn ski, 2011), biscuits (Mildner-Szkudlarz, Bajerska, Zawirska-
waste. GP can be considered as a source of dietary fibre and poly- Wojtasiak, & Go recka, 2013), yogurt and salads dressing (Tseng &
phenols, showing a potential application as a functional ingredient. Zhao, 2013), tea infusions (Cheng, Bekhit, Sedcole, & Hamid,
GP is composed of up to 75% dietary fibre (Bravo & Saura-Calixto, 2010), fish (Sa nchez-Alonso, Jimenez-Escrig, Saura-Calixto, & Bor-
1998) and approximately 10e11% extractable phenolic antioxi- derías, 2007) and meat (Sa yago-Ayerdi, Brenes, & Gon ~ i, 2009).
dants in terms of dry weight (Makris, Boskou, & Andrikopoulos, However, little or no information has been collected about the
2007). The polyphenol composition of GP, its biological and func- sensory profiles and acceptability of newly developed functional
tional properties has been well studied (Yu & Ahmedna, 2013). In prototypes (Davidov-Pardo et al., 2012; Mildner-Szkudlarz et al.,
particular, the positive effect of GP on human health was recently 2013).
reported in a study (Jime nez, Serrano, Tabernero, Arranz, Díaz- The addition of polyphenol compounds and fibre strongly im-
Rubio & García-Diz, 2008) that demonstrated that (1) the con- pacts both the sensory properties and acceptability of products, and
sumption of grape antioxidant dietary fibre reduced total and low- bitterness is one of the major problems when dealing with
density lipoprotein cholesterol; (2) the combined intake of grape polyphenol-enriched functional products (Axten, Wohlers, &
antioxidant dietary fibre and polyphenols significantly reduced the Wegrzyn, 2008). The use of grape by-products as a source of fibre
biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. GP is normally processed to also influences the mouthfeel and textural properties of functional
beverages and foods in terms of chalkiness, hardness and gummi-
ness (Jaeger, Axten, Wohlers, & Sun-Waterhouse, 2009; Mildner-
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ39 0172 458509; fax: þ39 0172 458500. Szkudlarz et al. 2011, 2013). The sensory characterization allows
E-mail address: l.torri@unisg.it (L. Torri). an observation of which properties most influence consumer

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.12.059
0023-6438/© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Torri. taste and colour (Tourila. which key attributes should drive purees and their combined formulations in terms of polyphenol product optimization.53% in the VM. During the dried and sieved to obtain the three fibrous fractions in the lab. and RL in the second session. The assessors had no tomato purees and the consumers' preference was explored.8 g of the V and R tomato purees.3. On .4. Some of them had previous experience in participating in descriptive analysis.Food Science and Technology 62 (2015) 294e300 295 acceptance and. leader with some standards and refined the list of words. carbohy. Taking into account above mentioned 17 attributes. 9 ¼ extremely intense).5%) and ducted under red light to mask the appearance of the samples. 2006). VM. drates. assessor performance. a score sheet was given to quantify the perceived mixtures (VS. Sciences of the University of Milan. 2. 2014). 2007). RM. Proanthocyanidins are not present in to.and/or insoluble 3 min. M and L fractions to 96. were expose the panellists to the entire range of the products. & Zeppa. which is Sixty minutes prior to each sensory evaluation. with three digit codes. Hence. A 30 s rest was enforced between samples.0 mm for V and R. each training session. the commercial name of the sample and meaning which it was possible to use actual physical objects as reference rough in Italian). Cups were codified compelling in the case of new prototypes. NE-1027.2. mean squared error) plot (Panel Check software. definitions and standards used for the final assess- size of the screen pulper/finisher used to remove seeds and skin ment of the samples are reported in Table 1. the panellists were provided by the panel puree samples were provided by an Italian tomato food company. presented in a balanced and randomized order within each repli- This concentration is particularly interesting because it allows for cate. (2009) for high polyphenol. Norway) to assess the panel calibration and particular. protein. history of disorders in oral perception. fat and ash contents) of the grape skins and tomato purees 2010). the impact of new ingredients and proanthocyanidin contents were reported. Descriptive analysis noids in the tomato formulations was two orders of magnitude The intensity data from the trained panel were analysed by lower than that of proanthocyanidins. RL) were prepared by adding 3. RS. In developed by incorporating three Chardonnay grape skin gran.4. voluntarily participated in the descriptive analysis at the Food and gated. RS. the panellists participated in four evaluation sessions using microwave heating. the (approximately 45 min each) and evaluated the intensity of the mixtures were cooled and stored at 5 ± 1  C.0. The training session. In general. & Tomic. A 10 min break was mato.7% in the L particle size complete psychological rest and concentration of the panellists fraction). upon GS addition. RS. 2. The final list of the process. (2014). while these compounds are present in GS (16. six enriched tomato purees were analysed in four replicates and tion was chosen to achieve 3% fibre content in the final product. preparation of mixtures are described by Lavelli et al. multi-block PCA (Tucker-1 Principal Component Analysis) and by unfortified and fortified tomato puree characteristics and the p-MSE (p-value vs.1. 2007). V and R were obtained with the same production standards or at least a precise written definition. In ver 1. the need to test the hedonic performance is more immediately served at the same temperature. Samples 2. The level of flavo. 125 mm < M  250 mm. Torri et al.and polyphenol-enriched functional 2. incorporating the GS in two typologies of Eleven assessors (4 males.and polyphenol-enriched products The panellists participated in three 90-min training sessions. Italy) GS particle sizes on sensory attributes of prototypes was investi. first training session. L fractions. mean age of 22) commercially available tomato purees.2 g of intensity of the descriptors on a discrete nine-point scale the S.1. Nofima. Subjects products developed in our previous study (Lavelli. Sri Harsha. as crowave oven (Panasonic Corporation. the panellists spontaneously elicited attri- oratory of the Department of Food. All of the evaluations were con- the natural fibre content of the unfortified tomato puree (1. respectively (Naes. The panellists were required to rinse their mouths prior to the labelling of the fortified tomato purees as a “fibre source” each evaluation. consequently. Mixtures were then not compromise on flavour. / LWT .41% in the RL and VL formulations and 0. The relationship between the sensory profile of the enriched Wine Sensory Laboratory of the University. 20e24 years. respectively. Italy. the composition (moisture. The effect of three different recruited at the University of Gastronomic Sciences (Bra.4. VS and RS formulations. Japan) at 900 W for found by Jaeger et al. mouths with still water during this interval. the levels of total 2. and the according to the EU Regulation n.5 mm and 1. and RL in the third session) to Grape skins. the panellists selected the descriptors that were most suitable for commercial name of the sample meaning smooth in Italian) and R describing the sensory differences among the samples and for (for “Rustica”. the level of fibrous fraction addi. three of the six fortified samples were ulometric fractions (S  125 mm. The only process variable discriminating them was the 17 attributes. both as insoluble forms (84% of total proanthocyanidins until the end of the test. Brockhoff. The The two tomato purees were coded as V (for “Vellutata”.5%). Materials and methods rewarded for their participation with a prepaid grocery store card. VL. and VL in the first session. VM. stabilized in a thermostated incubator at 50 ± 1  C for 30 min and Indeed. alternatively presented (VS. Environmental and Nutritional butes and indicated the definitions that would be used in the study. provided by a winery located in northern Italy. After the training which were then transferred into glass bottles and pasteurized phase. Data analysis proanthocyanidins were 0. RM. fibre.6% in the S enforced between the third and fourth samples to promote the and M particle size fractions and 12. The two selected tomato In subsequent sessions. VM 250 mm < L  500 mm) in two tomato puree types were analysed. no cases of disagree- and the characterization of the S. RM. V and R tomato ment among the panellists were found for any of the attributes. Samples (20 g) were poured in plastic cups (38 ml) and fibre-content drinks. Regarding the panel performance. 60 ml of each considered to be the key ingredient to success (Tourila. L. are only solubilized after acid hydrolysis) and as soluble forms (the remaining 16%). From the second fragments: 0. (1 ¼ extremely weak. Even mixture was taken from the refrigerator and heated using a mi- if a lower acceptability is balanced by a perceived health benefit. More details on grape skins. needs to be assessed in terms of consumer acceptability. consumer demand for health benefits does hermetically sealed with a clear plastic lid. At the end of the heating cycle. M. The aim of the present work was to investigate the sensory properties of new fibre. 1924/2006 (European panellists were required to eat plain crackers and rinse their Commission. They were 2. Descriptive analysis Six samples of fibre. The of the fibrous fractions (50.

the consumption frequency of tomato puree (less than once a Intensity ratings for attributes evaluated in the Descriptive month.60 g black tea. Consumer test 3. sensation Texture Granularity Perception of particles in the mixture.0 g mix þ1.7 g white rough stone-milled maize flour (9 ¼ extremely intense). The chi-square distribution (c2. Results Liking data.05 (Systat Soft- the first two components. particle size). Sensory characteristics of the samples liking of colour and texture on a nine-point hedonic scale ranging from “dislike extremely” (1) to “like extremely” (9) (Peryam & The results of the mixed ANOVA model for the significant at- Pilgrim. 2005 (CAMO Software AS. France). The data were acquired using FIZZ ware Inc. Viscosity Perception of free water in mouth. gender. in solution. 1e2 times a month. a mix ¼ 50% V tomato puree þ50% R tomato puree. conducted on liking (overall. significant attribute (p < 0. respectively. Finely cut and mixed with 10 ml mixa. healthy. Taste Sweet Basic taste arising from the presence of sugars in solution. / LWT . all of the assessors were considered to compute the differences between clusters in demographic factors be reliable. 5.5 g/l) in mix. neutral. The mixture was cooked in microwave oven (10 s at 900 W). Retro-nasal Fresh tomato Flavour of fresh tomato. p  0. version 9. To assess the effect of the particle size and from PCA applied to the mean intensity data of significant attri- of the tomato type on they acceptability expressed by each previ. Tactile Astringency Sensation of dryness perceived in the oral cavity. 4. such as fructose. none of the subjects were excluded from further (age. sensations Finely cut and mixed with 10 ml mixa. Cooked tomato Flavour of cooked tomato. were further analysed in this paper. good. 4e5 times Analysis were submitted to a two-way ANOVA mixed model a week).05) was used to test the significance of the relative mean reason for buying tomato puree (I buy tomato puree because: 1. tomato leaf.0 g mix þ0. 1. chamomile. colour. butes is shown in Fig. tributes (p < 0. Green Odour of fresh bell pepper. version 2. Homogeneity Perception of a homogeneous mass in the mouth. it is long storable.2. sub. 20 g cherry-tomatoes (variety: Pachino) þ 20 g salad tomatoes. A sample effect was ject. once a week. for 85% and 10%. 40 ml mix þ 0.46A (Biosyste mes.2.0 g/l) in mix. Cooked tomato Odour of cooked tomato and/or concentrated tomato paste. Spicy Odour of tea. The perceptive map obtained of the involved subjects. 2.and three-way ANOVA and linear regressions were per- full cross validation was computed to validate the interpretation of formed using the Systat13 software.05) are reported in Table 2. with PC1 and PC2 accounting. Umami Basic taste arising from the presence of glutamic acid Glutamic acid (2. The effect of interaction sample*. Small granular: 30.0 g/l) in mix. judge: random factor). The Two. Caffeine (1. version 13.296 L. 2e3 times a week.Food Science and Technology 62 (2015) 294e300 Table 1 Attributes used for Descriptive Analysis by a panel of 11 trained judges of six fibre. The total variance explained for the sensory ously identified cluster of consumers. Bitter Basic taste arising from the presence of bitter compounds. Green Flavour of fresh bell pepper. USA). 20 g concentrated tomato in 20 ml mix. with their definitions and reference formulations.. A 2-way ANOVA fixed model (factors: type. while PCAs were performed using the Acquisition software. the basis of the p-MSE plots. Hay Odour characteristic of hay. such as caffeine. random factor: subject) were separately 95%. 1957). thus. The differences among the samples from versatile).4. texture) of each cluster Samples were spread over the whole defined sensory space. A PCR regression was conducted on the mean values of the descriptive analysis were studied by means of Principal the overall liking data expressed by the two defined clusters of Component Analysis (PCA) computed on the panel averages of each consumers (X-matrix) and on descriptive data (Y-matrix). Unscrambler® software. not healthy. Courtenon. 0. preliminarily reported by Lavelli et al. it is judge was also calculated.0 g soft wheat (1 ¼ extremely weak). Consumers rated overall liking and 3. Non-significant attributes were tomato puree type (V. 0. Sucrose (30 g/l) in mix. extremely healthy) and main test (p < 0. nationality) and in responses given for the following: data analysis. 20 g concentrated tomato in 20 ml mix. 20 g cherry-tomatoes (variety: Pachino) þ 20 g salad tomatoes. The mixture was cooked in microwave oven (5 min at 900 W).30 g dried oregano. (2014). mixed 2-way ANOVA models attributes (X) based on the first two significant dimensions was (fixed factor: particle size. indi- considering the six enriched prototypes (two samples for each cating a neat sensory variability among the fortified tomato purees. it is cheap.30 g black pepper. (acids) in solution. tomato leaf. Torri et al. R) on the overall liking expressed by the sum excluded from further data analyses. 3. A Fisher LSD post hoc healthy. interaction type*subject) was applied to assess the effect of the found for 11 out of 17 attributes.. Sour Basic taste arising from the presence of sour substances Tartaric acid (2. 0. Norway). Modality Attribute Definition Reference Odour Fresh tomato Odour of fresh tomato.40 g chamomile powder.05) was used to Products prepared with the two selected tomato purees types were . 2. Crispiness Perception of crispy elements when pressing the samples between the teeth. Large granular: 30. The mixture was cooked in microwave oven (5 min at 900 W). perceived degree of healthiness of tomato puree (not at all (sample: fixed factor.1. it is healthy.05) arising from the ANOVA model.and polyphenol-enriched tomato puree samples. various spices. it is differences among the samples.00.

29bc 5.30c 5. 250 mm < L  500 mm).26bc 5.35 0.41 ± 0.30d 3.29bc 3.29a 29.02 ± 0. with PC1 and PC2 explaining 61% and 12%.05 ± 0.64 ± 0.34bc 6.75 ± 0.05 ± 0. p < 0.0001 f-cooked tomato 7.36 ± 0.27a 4.66 ± 0. Moreover.18 ± 0. 2. The total explained variance accounted for 73%. products tended to be distributed as a function of the tomato puree type.25bc 6. The perception of umami taste discriminated samples in relation to the obtained liking data were partially analysed.17a 5.27abc 1.323.34ab 10.07 ± 0.39 ± 0.25bc 3.32bc 3. sations.82 ± 0.27 0.20 ± 0.27a 5. Attributes Fibre.26cd 5. The two groups showed opposite prefer- (extremely intense).32a 22. we further analysed the liking data. Results of a descriptive analysis performed by a panel of 11 trained judges using an evaluation scale ranging from 1 (extremely weak) to 9 (extremely intense). and F and p values. S.34 ± 0.30cd 4.66 ± 0.93 ± 0.33c 4.31ab 4. / LWT . S.29c 3.23 ± 0. and homogenous the strongest differences in terms of characteristic attributes and with bitter and umami taste.09 ± 0.22ab 6.Food Science and Technology 62 (2015) 294e300 297 Table 2 Perceived intensity of the sensory attributes in six fibre.45 ± 0.11 ± 0.28b 3. The effects of the particle size and of the tomato type on liking of prototypes of the two clusters were separately calculated by two fixed 2-way ANOVA models (factors: particle size. distributed according to the increasing particle size of the added fibrous fractions.27a 5. p < 0. resulting in significantly higher crispness and less homogeneity.5%). Cluster 1 tended to prefer pro- totypes prepared with V tomato type.12d 4.27bc 6.80 ± 0.27bc 6. conversely Cl2 clearly .26cd 5.41 ± 0.70 0.35a 3.87 <0.66 ± 0.54 <0.81 0.0001 crispiness 1. respectively. showing an effect of the pulping phase of the except for bitter taste and vegetable notes o-spicy and o-hay.and polyphenol-enriched tomato puree samples: the mean ratings.33b 3.32 ± 0.and f-are the abbreviations for odour and flavour. o.31ab 5.0140 bitter 3. 125 mm < M  250 mm. the fortified samples were perceptible intensities. and correlation with PC1 gradually increased from 3.05).30a 4.36b 4. o.43 ± 0.20 ± 0.0125 o-spicy 4. The results of the ANOVA fixed model applied to assess the ef- fect of the tomato puree type on the overall liking expressed by the 86 consumers revealed that the tomato type (V.05) for the six fibre.33ab 5.0001 homogeneity 8.36ab 4.71.0003 o-hay 4. L and S samples showed intense processed tomato flavour.23bc 3.27a 5. while Cluster 2 showed preferences towards the R tomato type.33b 4. clearly discriminated.34 ± 0. consumers who were characterized by different preferences (in ences were found for this attribute among the samples prepared terms of overall liking) for the fortified tomato purees were iden- with the same tomato type. Different letters within a row indicate significant different mean values for each considered attribute (p < 0. 1.and f-are the abbreviations for odour and flavour.13a 7.32b 4. R) had a significant effect on liking (F ¼ 14.68 ± 0.25a 4.73 ± 0. Along the PC2.98 ± 0. V and R identify the two types of tomato puree at which the fibrous fractions were added. and two groups of tomato type.27 ± 0.75 ± 0. 125 mm < M  250 mm.59 ± 0.0027 astringency 4.25d 43. with the Smooth tomato type strongly Fig.77 ± 0. Cl1 tions added to the tomato purees (S  125 mm.27c 3. In summary. astringent.27ab 3. M and L identify the particle size of the fibrous fractions added to the tomato purees (S  125 mm.34 ± 0.50 <0. M and L identify the particle size of the fibrous frac- ences towards the use of GS with different particle sizes.02 ± 0.41 ± 0.27 ± 0.27 ± 0.86 ± 0.11 ± 0.32bc 5.59 ± 0.30bc 4.34b 3.and polyphenols preferred.11 <0.27ab 2. characterizing the V samples.80 ± 0.09 ± 0. fortification on consumer liking tributes of hay and spicy odour discriminated samples in relation to the particle size and resulted in significantly more intensity in In our previous paper (Lavelli et al.50 ± 0. Effect of the sensory properties of fibre.11 ± 0.5%).and polyphenol- L.98 ± 0. A significant effect of particle size was found for overall liking trained judges using an evaluation scale ranging from 1 (extremely weak) to 9 in Cl1 and Cl2 (Table 3).25 ± 0. with the former lated to PC1 and were generally described with fresh tomato sen.08d 2. Results of a descriptive analysis performed by a panel of 11 Cl2.0090 granularity 1.29bc 5. and their relationship samples differed for the perceived intensities of all of the attributes. the perceived at the highest intensity in the VS sample. disliked the coarsest GS particle sizes L.23 ± 0. the acceptability of prototypes prepared with the coarsest particle size (Table 2). A significant effect of the tomato type on liking was found for Cl1 (F ¼ 44. The Internal Preference Map obtained for the two identified clusters is shown in Fig.09 ± 0. Differences second group (Cl2) consisted of 40 subjects (46. while no effect of tomato type on liking was found for enriched tomato purees.55 ± 0.28b 5. standard deviations.0110 umami 6.59 ± 0. The the fortified tomato purees by 86 consumers was assessed.33a 3.84 ± 0. L.34b 3. in both tomato types.2.75 ± 0.30ab 2.93 ± 0. Bitterness and astringency were tified: the first group (Cl1) consisted of 46 subjects (53.14 ± 0.34a 4.20 0.. R). significantly preferred the finest GS particle sizes (S and M) and 250 mm < L  500 mm). The at.21c 2.93 ± 0.0001 V and R identify the two types of tomato purees in which the fibrous fractions were added.61 ± 0. Dif- processing technology. to M and S samples in both tomato puree types (V.28d 5. No significant differ.27bc 2. In the present between VS and VM were only found for astringency.14 ± 0.01). tomato type).95 ± 0.57 ± 0.30c 5.and polyphenol-enriched tomato puree samples F p VS VM VL RS RM RL o-fresh tomato 3. crispiness and granularity.23 ± 0.33b 6.84 ± 0. R samples tended to be negatively corre. VS sand RS work. 2014). Torri et al.17a 6.25d 3. V samples were positively with a higher f-fresh tomato sensation and umami taste than the correlated to PC1 and generally described as mixtures with an latter.33a 3. ferences were evident between RL and VL. with the descriptive data was investigated. The fortified samples obtained by the same matrix were discriminated along PC1 according to the particle size of the fibrous fraction added. PCA for significant attributes (p < 0.84 ± 0.001) and that V-samples were significantly generally preferred to R samples.06d 1.32a 3.28ab 4.24 0.34 ± 0.48 0.80 ± 0.0003 f-fresh tomato 2.

80 2. the tomato puree type did not play a sig. 2. Internal Preference Map of two groups of consumers (cluster 1.045). Table 3 Effect of the particle size of grape skin fibrous fractions on overall liking. one of the most important terized by intense textural sensations (crispiness. GS fineness significantly affected the sensory properties of newly Considering the demographic factors. the addition significant effect of particle size was found on liking for colour. p ¼ 0. in both to- Texture cluster 1 5. Torri et al.86 5. and it is proportional to the par- Colour cluster 1 5.423 0. / LWT .15c 19. n ¼ 46.32 ± 1. with agreement with the results found for whole grain products. clusters tended to signif. cluster 2. while those prepared presence of GS in mixtures. umami and homogeneity. Regarding the non-sensory factors.57 5. the comparable.298 L. Tomato puree was perceived as healthy/very healthy by 45. granularity with the coarsest granularity were strongly disliked. n ¼ 40) using an depending on the base matrix that GS were added to.93b 14. For Cl2. Two texture evaluation scale ranging from 1 (dislike extremely) to 9 (like extremely). (2009). gender (c2 ¼ 0. 125 mm < M  250 mm. On the contrary. the number of choices for the hedonic dimension (I buy tomato puree because it is good) was significantly higher than those found for Cl2 (c2 ¼ 2. colour and liking for texture of six fibre. the consumption frequency (c2 ¼ 1.066). This result could be partially explained by the hy- significant effects of particle size were found on liking of colour and pothesis that phenolic-Maillard products have an effect on the texture. for Cl2. o. However. flavour of cantly differ from acceptability expressed for V-samples.60 ± 1.83a 5.042).81 5. such as spicy and hay odour.29 ± 1. Samples prepared with strictly pertain to tomato sauce but were rather contributed by the the finest granularity were clearly preferred. Two mixed descriptors were related to the presence of perceptible particles in 2-way ANOVA models (fixed factor: products. Newly developed pro- preferred the coarsest particle size.75 ± 2. such as puree type (V.131 0.54 ± 1. of polyphenols-extracts to fruit-based beverages increased the .000 cluster 2 5.03 ± 1. while the second attribute pertains to the degree of resis- Overall cluster 1 5. of GS induced the elicitation of some sensory attributes that did not while a strong effect was found for texture. the mouth: granularity and crispiness. M and L identify the particle size of the fibrous fractions added The fortification of commercial tomato purees with Chardonnay to the tomato purees (S  125 mm. new developed products in terms of orto.141. Conversely. in Cl2. the perception of crispiness was found to be the greatest when combining the coarsest granularity with the Rough S.023 0. p ¼ 0. Zhang & Moore.605) did not discriminate between the clusters.85a 4. M and L identify the particle size of the fibrous fractions added to the tomato purees (S  125 mm. M. 1996).05 ± 2. p ¼ 0.05). such as hay and spicy odour. taste.75 ± 1.5% of the subjects in Cl1 and by 50. A Different letters within a row indicate significant different mean values for each similar result was found in Jaegar et al. type. liking totypes were described with some attributes characteristic of expressed for samples prepared with the M-size did not signifi.70 ± 2.and polyphenols enriched tomato 4. 1999). p ¼ 0..258.Food Science and Technology 62 (2015) 294e300 Cl1 having more non-Italian consumers (22%) than Cl2 (8%). did not turn out to be significant in sensitive to the matrix type and strongly preferred the V products. whereas Cl2 textural attributes turned out to be crucial in the discrimination of tended to prefer more unrefined prototypes (RL and VL) charac. 125 mm < M  250 mm. while granularity was not affected by tomato puree type.82b 4.565.868) and the perceived degree of healthiness of tomato puree (c2 ¼ 2.023 teeth during the chewing phase. cluster 2.381. Singh.0% of the subjects in Cl2.81a 5.and polyphenol-enriched tomato purees The particle size differently affected textural properties expressed by two groups of consumers (cluster 1. the newly developed products. where the addition considered attribute (p < 0. development of new vegetal flavours (Jiang & Peterson. n ¼ 40) who rated the overall liking for six fibre. 250 mm < L  500 mm). Beside the influence that the particle size exerts on the bio- nificant role and the acceptability for the two matrices was accessibility of nutritional compounds (Moelants et al.082 ticle size. p ¼ 0. umami and homogeneity.269) did not discriminate between the clusters.14 ± 2.935. large granu- S M L larity).723. with a number of choices significantly higher than those found in Cl1 (c2 ¼ 4. 2010). p ¼ 0.59 ± 1. S. 4. For Cl1.67 1. This was in icantly differ for the country of origin (c2 ¼ 3. R) and GS particle size (S. thus showing a positive healthy perception in both groups. developed products for both tomato typologies. In both clusters.26a 4.72 5. Effect of tomato puree fortification on sensory properties purees using an evaluation scale ranging from 1 (dislike extremely) to 9 (like extremely).000 tance elicited by particles when pressing the samples between the cluster 2 4. Cl1 strongly preferred the VS sample. The first attribute is linked to the ability of panellists to perceive external bodies in the mixture Liking Particle size of the fibrous fractions F p and to discriminate between particle sizes (small vs. GS with different particle sizes affected the sensory properties of and f-are the abbreviations for odour and flavour. Differences were found for the main reason of buying tomato puree: in Cl1.851 0. V and R identify the two types of tomato puree at which the fibrous fractions were added.and retro-nasal sensa- tions.1. On the contrary. Viscosity.21 ± 2.530 0. Cl1 was more (Thakur.40 ± 1. & Duizer. Seetharaman.39 0. the main reason for buying tomato puree was versatility (I buy tomato puree because it is versatile). no processed tomato. All of the elicited processed tomato flavour. n ¼ 46. discrimination of samples. tactile sensation and texture.42a 5. 250 mm < L  500 mm).03 ± 2. Discussion Fig.271 with greater perception of granularity and crispiness. L).96 ± 1. where the bran particle size had a great effect on sensory properties and on baking performance (Challacombe.58 ± 2. Even though the coarsest particle size was associated cluster 2 5. which was Samples were mainly discriminated according to both tomato characterized by typical processed tomato sensations.001. random factor: judges) were sepa- rately conducted on liking expressed by each cluster considering the particle size.28 5. p ¼ 0.72 ± 1. & Nelson.877 mato puree types.03 ± 1.00b 3. granularity) and attributes in the initial measure of processed tomato quality by vegetable notes. no and crispiness. tomato sauce.976) and age (c2 ¼ 3. such as odour and flavour of fresh tomato. In summary. 2012).28 5.312 0. liking for 2011.

.e. In our case. the number was Acknowledgements comparable and we considered it worthy to investigate the behaviour of both groups to determine potential differences in This research was supported by AGER (contract number liking that can drive future product optimization.. By contrast. In our study. the study of Challacombe clear decrease in the sensation of homogeneity. On the contrary. A. Journal of Food Science. 73. astringency and characteristic flavour of antioxidant extracts. The modifications were related to fibrous fraction particle size. 871e878. The same effect of white grape pomace flour. respectively). R. This result is in geneous dispersions obtained using the more unrefined R matrix. Axten. In fact. D. Using phytochemicals to liking. crispiness. Torri et al. M.0) was reached for all of the crispiness. In this case. The interaction of GS particle size with the matrix was different Challacombe. The use of the coarsest granularity significantly enhanced result could be partially explained by considering that the less the perception of odour sensations related to the presence of the relevant colour and texture change occurred in the more inhomo- vegetable fraction (spicy odour. and the formulations driving liking liking seemed to be the flavour of processed tomato and homoge- neity. (2010). C. The different tomato types (V. opposing results exist in the literature. The number of subjects found in Cl1 and Cl2 was not high (46 and 40. the coarsest GS particle sizes performed best The new functional prototypes showed a satisfactory sensory when combined with the Rough tomato type. Food homogeneity and flavour of processed tomato being the drivers of Research International. which likely increased the extraction 5. and perceived crispiness and granularity. C. but was rather associated with the tomato puree three different particle sizes. in agreement with Lee. with the bitterness. depending on the GS particle size. This flavour. The perceived in. addition of GS with different particle sizes in the Rough tomato We also found that particle size influenced the perception of puree did not influence the colour and texture acceptability. increased exposure to the water phase of tomato). Sensory characteristics in the V and in the R tomato purees. 76. However. due to the increased surface/solvent ratio (i. The finest GS particle sizes were the most suitable 4. (2013) reported sumers segments. 2001). seedy. American Journal of Enology and Viticul- seemed to be the preference drivers.. Seetharaman. the results show that. Luna-Guzma n. W. new products.. when combined with the coarsest particle sizes. This was an encouraging result This study highlighted the importance of sensory characteriza- considering that we dealt with prototypes at a very preliminary tion during the phase of new functional product development. samples.Food Science and Technology 62 (2015) 294e300 299 perceived intensity of chalkiness. aside from yielding a better performance for all considered sensory Barrett. This phenomenon induced a bioactive functionality information on the acceptability of tea infusions made different perceptible texture and colour change in the final from wine by-products. 135e141. which are strongly associated with fibre (Ruperez & Saura-Calixto. this study finest GS particle sizes were perceived as more astringent. 49. Barreiro.. This effect was probably properties of new developed breads. resulting in the most intense sensations. Wohlers.and polyphenol-rich granulometric fractions obtained from different polyphenol extracts were described as extremely bitter Chardonnay GS were considered. spices. N. 1998). et al. K. granularity and vegetable notes. (2009). A. & Gambaro. phase of development. with Cl1 preferring the finest particle sizes and. enhanced malty and fruity-acidic flavours in biscuits fortified with in contrast. Cheng. A. & Saura-Calixto. The fortification generally induced a clear increase in et al. where the sensations performance. 2011).. segmentation into two clusters according to preference revealed differences that were not detectable when considering the mean References values of all consumers. agreement with Davidov-Pardo et al. 75. Sedcole. L. (2011) showed that the fineness of bran did not significantly tensity of astringency sensation increased with the decrease of the affect the acceptability while it strongly affected the sensory particle size in both tomato puree types. In fact. F. Journal of Food Science. / LWT . 42.. as confirmed by Ares. S337eS346. (2008). (2011).. Barreiro. M. H122eH126. R. G.. and Mildner-Szkudlarz et al. where the sensa. (1998). (2008). Chang. probably due to the low water solubility of grape skin sensory properties and the acceptability of the developed tomato phenolics and their strong association with dietary fibre (Bravo purees. spicy and hay. granularity and vegetable note Bravo. the subject 2010e2222).. The V tomato puree (with a and consumer acceptance of bread and cracker products made from red or very thin pulp) promoted a homogeneous dispersion of the fibrous white wheat. (2012) who found higher Considering the effect of the particle size on the acceptability of perceived intensities for the sensations of nutty. properties. & Wegrzyn. In contrast. except for sample RL. Alternatives to reduce the liking scores when added to the finest fibrous fraction. and Guinard (1999). This result differs from that found winery by-products. and astringent. of fresh tomato were enhanced. such as intensity of astringency.2. where samples of UHT milk combined with fibre. the and gumminess (Mildner-Szkudlarz et al. where bread was added with wheat bran at particle size. V. On the contrary. . Journal of Food Science. Cl2 preferring the coarsest fraction. In our study. J. The samples prepared with the Within the framework of new product development. & Hamid. the Rough tomato puree type performed better enhance health benefits of milk: Impact of polyphenols on flavour profile. G.. a decrease in the perceived Gambaro (2009). The results showed that the addition of GS to two different these peculiar polyphenol-associated sensations were never pre. V and R tomato purees fortified with dietary by Axten et al. Characterization of dietary fibre and the in vitro indigestible fraction of grape pomace. but they contributes to the investigation on functional foods obtained from never reached high intensities. Effect of the sensory properties of fortified tomato purees on when combined with the V type. the finest particle sizes also performed better in terms Our results showed that the increase of GS particle size. L. hay odour). Deliza. Moreover.. & Duizer. dietary fibre significantly reduces the perceived homogeneity and contributed some vegetable odour notes. S167eS172. Deliza.. processing modality. The impact of grape skin fractions in the tomato puree.. along with the sensations of sumers. acceptability (overall liking ¼ 5. caused a of overall acceptability. commercially purchased tomato types significantly influenced the dominant. tion of fresh tomato. Considering the mean hedonic responses of 86 con. ture. breads fortified with products and consequently influenced the liking of colour and grape pomace flour showed an increase in the perceived hardness texture. T. L. Conclusions efficiency of phenols. toasted and whole flour flavours in cookies fortified with grape the effect of particle size did affect the acceptability of both con- seed extracts. Bekhit. L. R) per- formed differently when added with GS: the V type obtained higher Ares. the degree of perceived the particle size on acceptability was found in the study of Zhang freshness in tomato puree did not turn out to be associated with GS and Moore (1999).

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