You are on page 1of 7


Meat Science 76 (2007) 604–610

Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of grape seed
and bearberry extracts in raw and cooked pork
R. Carpenter, M.N. O’Grady, Y.C. O’Callaghan, N.M. O’Brien, J.P. Kerry *

Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Western Road, Cork, Ireland

Received 22 January 2007; accepted 25 January 2007


The effect of grape seed extract (GSE) and bearberry (BB), on lipid oxidation (TBARS, mg malondialdehyde (MDA)/kg muscle),
colour (CIE ‘a’ redness value), pH, microbial status (log10CFU colony forming units/g pork) and sensorial properties of cooked pork
patties was investigated. GSE (0–1000 lg/g muscle) and BB (0–1000 lg/g muscle) were added to raw pork (M. longissimus dorsi) patties
which were stored in modified atmosphere packs (MAP) (75% O2:25% CO2) for up to 12 days at 4 C. Cooked pork patties were stored in
MAP (70% N2:30% CO2) for up to 4 days at 4 C. Mesophilic plate counts and pork pH were unaffected by GSE and BB. GSE and BB
addition decreased (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation (TBARS) in raw pork patties on days 9 and 12 of storage, relative to controls. Antioxidant
activity of GSE and BB was observed in cooked pork patties demonstrating the thermal stability of GSE and BB. The ‘a’ redness values
of raw and cooked pork patties marginally increased with increasing GSE concentration. The sensory properties of cooked pork patties
were unaffected by GSE and BB addition. Results obtained demonstrate the potential for using health promoting nutraceuticals in meat
and meat products. 
2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Natural antioxidants; Grape seed extract; Bearberry extract; Lipid oxidation; Pork

1. Introduction Nutraceuticals are believed to modulate the aetiology of
many chronic diseases such as cancer (Gao et al., 2003;
In recent years, a greater emphasis has been placed on Higdon & Frei, 2003), coronary heart disease (Donaldson,
the link between diet and the prevention of chronic dis- 2004; Somova, Shode, Ramnanan, & Nadar, 2003), diabe-
eases. This ‘‘changing face’’ of food has given way to the tes (Maghrani et al., 2004), hypertension and osteoporosis
rise and development of novel functional foods (Hardy, (Position of the American Dietetic Association: functional
2000). The terms functional food and nutraceutical are foods, 2004). The present popularity of nutraceuticals has
used interchangeably and are defined as substances which prompted a surge of in vitro studies examining the protec-
may be considered a food, or part of a food, which pro- tive properties of physiologically active components
vides medicinal or health benefits, including the prevention against oxygen-induced damage. Carpenter, O’Callaghan,
and treatment of disease (Clydesdale, 1997). Nutraceuticals O’Grady, Kerry, and O’Brien (2006) investigated the anti-
represent the fastest growing segment of today’s food oxidant and genoprotective effects of a range of phyto-
industry with increases in both consumer demand and chemicals (resveratrol, citroflavan-3-ol) and plant extracts
development expanding at a rate of 12.8% per annum (grape seed, bearberry and olive leaf extracts, and Echina-
(Hasler, 2000). cea purpurea) under conditions of oxidative stress induced
by hydrogen peroxide and tert-butylhydroperoxide, in a
human monocytic cell line. Grape seed extract (GSE) and
Corresponding author. Tel.: +353 21 4903798; fax: +353 21 4270001. bearberry (BB) demonstrated the strongest antioxidant
E-mail address: (J.P. Kerry). properties.

0309-1740/$ - see front matter  2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

coli and S. respectively (Shi. 300 lg/g muscle (GSE 300). aqueous extracts of BB have been shown to alter the ability of E.3. Materials and methods yphenol proanthocyanidins and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units. 2003). & Fernando. 85% oligopolysaccharides) and bearberry and gram negative bacteria has been reported previously (BB) extract (Uva Ursi. and meat products. 1999) and H. Co. hydrophila gissimus dorsi) was obtained from Ballyburden Meat Pro- in cooked ground beef (Ahn. 1999) to cause infection.1. The antioxidant activity of GSE has been reported in a variety of test systems (Jayap. GSE and BB. UK. Carpenter et al. GSE and BB were have been used in the treatment of bladder infections and dissolved in distilled water. colour. 100 g extract). GSE and BB were found to be most effective against oxi- Lipid oxidation is a major quality deteriorative process dative stress in vitro at concentrations of 50 lg/ml and in muscle foods resulting in a variety of breakdown 10 lg/ml. bated for 2 h at room temperature and the absorbance & Barl. on lipid purified into GSE which contains phenolic compounds oxidation.5%) was added to each tube. & Arak. was added. Amarowicz. pylori (Annuk et al. system. Ltd.. raw pork was assigned to derived from plant sources. After 5 mins. Rahimi-Moghaddam. Olsen. Pegg. Clonminam Industrial reduced the numbers of E. Valencia. 2003) arising from increased levels of pol. & Sakariah. UK and Rathburn Chemical Co. microbial status and organoleptic (Lau & King. is a member of the ever. quality and profile. Adeline. monocytogenes and A. were added to nesses. respectively (Carpenter et al. 2. the astringent leaves described by Singleton and Rossi (1965). 2004). were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) (g GAE/ teria when used in combination with nisin (Dykes. Scotland. Therefore the influence of selected nutraceuticals such as 400 lg/g muscle (GSE 400). Peableshire. pork plus increasing amounts of GSE: 50 lg to develop novel meat products with enhanced nutritional GSE/g muscle (GSE 50). 1999). 100 lg/g muscle (GSE 100). 2004) spectrophotometer. 2003). 2. USA) against are most likely attributed to the glycoside arbutin fraction a reagent blank at 740 nm. Grape seed The antimicrobial properties of GSE against gram positive extract (GSE. Yu. typhimurium and Estate. Mielnik. also known as Uva Ursi. & Weil. and health benefits. determined spectrophotometrically (DU 640 UV/Vis owicz. & Mustapha. The antioxidant properties of BB (Amar. investigation. Amar. the above stated values for GSE and BB. & Sakariah. The use of plant derived one of the following thirteen treatments: untreated pork nutraceuticals may afford meat processors the opportunity (control). 2. Total polyphenol content of GSE and BB tive agent (Shafiee. Ballincollig. & Pegg. and to 1 ml of sample. 1000 lg/g muscle (GSE . 2001) including cooked beef British Drug House. including tible to microbial contamination leading to foodborne ill. coli (Tu¨ri. & Leger. & Kakuda. The scientific literature Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (diluted 1:10 with distilled water) contains less information regarding the antioxidant poten. The tubes were incu- of BB has been reported in cooked pork (Pegg. BB extract displays potential was calculated using gallic acid as a standard and results antimicrobial benefits with respect to food-associated bac. Antioxidant addition and pork packaging Tu¨ri. 2006). CA. Lon- retarded growth of L. Co. dried and of health promoting plant extracts. Muscle foods are also suscep. there is a growing interest Spain) following the removal of all external fat and connec- in the use of natural antimicrobial agents and antioxidants tive tissue. BB was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method as green heath family.. extracted. 2003.2. Pork samples were minced twice through a factor influencing the quality and acceptability of meat plate with 4 mm holes (Model P114L. Currently. Poole. 2003). 5 ml of other afflictions of the urinary tract. Talsa. 2003). 1996). Gru¨n. colour changes are also an important minced pork. Carbonneau. Poole. however antioxidant activity tion (7. 1990). Barl. 2001). / Meat Science 76 (2007) 604–610 605 Flavonoids are the most abundant and potent group of GSE and BB on meat quality parameters merits plant phenolic compounds and act as antioxidants (Rice. Following mincing. 20% arbutin) were obtained from (Jayaprakasha. cessors. GSE has been shown to act as a anticarcinogenic (Roy et al. Grape seeds from grape juice and The objective of the present study was to assess the effect wine processing can be separated. All chemicals used were ‘AnalaR’ grade obtained from rakasha. Co. owicz. Beckman Coulter. Clinical data has shown that the anti. 2006). Dorset. greater than vitamins E and C. The concentration of phenolic compounds in GSE and BB. Fresh pork (M. Poh- orly. Urban. & Skrede. Dorset. Therefore products which produce off-odours and flavours in order to evaluate the effects of GSE and BB in a meat (Faustman & Cassens. especially catechin and epicatechin present in GSE 2. 4 ml of a sodium carbonate solu- tial of BB compared to GSE. Portlaoise. Selvi. Ireland. properties of raw and cooked pork patties during chilled oxidant potential of grape seed is twenty and fifty fold storage. 2002) and turkey (Lau et al. 2002) and cardio-protec. The total polyphenol content present (Annuk et al.. Ireland. 2007). Reagents (Yilmaz & Toledo. GSE effectively Guinness Chemical (Ireland) Ltd. Vogt. Cork. Walkerburn.. 200 lg/g muscle (GSE 200). Sigma Chemical (Ahn. Traditionally. Furthermore. Laois. Descomps. Anuuk. Ltd. a range of increasing concentrations. improved shelf-life. Evans & Miller. Singh. R. Gru¨n. pH.. In addition. From a health perspective.

. Pork samples (10 g) were transferred into stomacher bags. Linke. diluted with 90 ml of ringers solution and stomached 2. GSE and BB were measured at equipped with a gas mixer (Witt-Gasetechnik GmbH and 20 C using a pHm 201 portable pH meter (Radiometer. Cooking and packaging for 2 min in a Stomacher-400 (Steward Stomacher 400 Lab Blender. 3. and Nash 2. London. / Meat Science 76 (2007) 604–610 1000). 6. evaluated cooked pork patties after 0. or increasing amounts of to determine mesophilic counts on days 0. The concentration assigned to the pork patties represented the ‘‘between-subjects’’ factor. 6. 6. (10 g) were dissolved in 90 ml distilled water. into 8 pieces. placed in low oxy. packs were flushed with 70% N2: 30% Cork. Co. 12 for raw pork samples and on days 0. cooked patties were packaged ment of Food and Nutritional Sciences.. The effect of 2. Following cooling.5. Colour determination time was measured using the ‘‘within-subjects’’ factor. Witten. The chroma meter was calibrated on the CIE colour space 60 lg/g muscle (BB 60). IL. agar (PCA). Statistical analysis (1977). KG. The plates were incubated at 30 C for 48 h 1000 lg/g muscle (GSE 1000). Conegliano. juiciness and off-flavours on a 10-point descriptive hedonic scale ranging from extremely desirable Lipid oxidation was measured by the 2-thiobarbituric (1) to undesirable (10). Germany) the pork homogenates. KG. The analysis was carried out CR-300 Chroma Meter (Minolta Co. pork plus increasing from each dilution were plated onto standard plate count amounts of GSE: 400 lg GSE/g muscle (GSE 400). Ltd. 20 lg/g muscle (BB 20). 3.0 for Windows (SPSS. 9 and 12 of storage. interactions. IKA-Labortechnik.6. 6. USA) consisted of a measuring head (CR-300). Tukey’s test was used to adjust for multiple comparisons Surface colour measurements were determined using a between treatment means. Minced pork containing GSE or BB was formed into 2. The ‘L’ value represents lightness 1000 lg/g muscle (BB 1000). described above and cooked in a fan-assisted oven (Model 10 GN1/1. The pH of Gustav Mu¨ller and Co. Denmark). O. time and their for cooked pork samples. Measurement of lipid oxidation vour. Pork samples (10 g) were homogenised (1 min. GSE and BB 75% O2: 25% CO2 using a vacuum-sealing unit (VS 100. and a data processor (DP-301). GSE and BB were added to and ‘a’ and ‘b’ values represent redness and yellowness. TBARS values were measured on days repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate 0. Watts. atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology. fla- 2. Serial dilutions were prepared and 0.7. Ackman. Also. .606 R. Each of the 5 patties were sliced conditions (approximately 660 lx) at 4 C. Depart- 8 min. or increasing amounts of BB: 10 lg BB/g muscle diameter measuring area. Osaka. pH measurements patties (80 g portions) using a meat former (Ministeak bur- ger maker. and Youna- than (1960) as modified by Ke.8. immediately added for cooked pork samples. Staufen. A full (MDA)/kg muscle. 2 and 4 dissolved in distilled water (5% v/w). to raw minced pork and mixed vigorously.9.10.000 rpm) in 90 ml distilled water using an Ultra Turrax ethylvinylalcohol/polyethylene trays and using modified T25 homogeniser (Janke and Kunkel. Panelists were asked to evaluate sample colour. acid distillation method of Tarladgis. Italy). Carpenter et al. Bad Homburg.. 80 lg/g muscle (BB 80) and system using a white tile. flushed with GmbH and Co. Samples were formed into 80 g pork patties as forming units)/g pork. Zanussi Professional. 9 and 12 BB: 80 lg BB/g muscle (BB 80) and 1000 lg/g muscle of storage. Results were expressed as 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in mg malondialdehyde All analyses were performed in duplicate. gen permeable (<1 cm3/m2/24 h/atSTP) polystyrene/ 24. (BB 10). Germany). Germany). University College as described above. 24 h/atSTP) laminated barrier film with a polyolefin heat sealable layer. levels exerted any pro-oxidant activity.1 ml aliquots treatments: untreated pork (control). Japan) which using SPSS 11. with an 8 mm software package. Chicago. 40 lg/g muscle (BB 40). Colour measurements were made on days 0. 2 and 4 the effects of antioxidant concentration. The pH of the raw pork samples heat-sealed using a low oxygen permeable (3 cm3/m2/ was recorded on days 0. Sensory evaluation 180 C until an internal meat temperature of 72 C was reached and subsequently held at 180 C for a further A trained sensory panel of 8–10 researchers. Italy) at 2. UK) resulting in a 10 1 dilution used for Minced pork was assigned to one of the following five analysis. raw pork samples at 1000 lg/g pork to determine if such respectively. 9 and 12 for raw pork samples and days 0. Results were expressed as log10CFU (colony (BB 1000). texture. Microbiological analysis days under fluorescent lighting conditions (approximately 660 lx) at 4 C. All MAP samples were stored for up to 12 2. GSE and BB were 3. 3. Trays were covered and Copenhagen.4. placed on paper plates and served to panel- ists. 9.L Smith Co. 2 and 4 days CO2 and stored for up to 4 days under fluorescent lighting of chilled storage at 4 C.

The mesophilic plate counts ran. mg malondialdehyde/kg muscle.23 ± 0. Total polyphenol content of GSE and BB 3. Results and discussion pathogens such as E.03 0.3.04ad 0.30 ± 0.. Overall. Conversely.11b BB 20 0. Meso.01 0. Carpenter et al. Lee.17 ± 0.07 0.14 ± 0. 1998).11 ± 0.16 ± 0.14 ± 0.32 ± 0. Eikelenboom.13 ± 0. 1990).05) lipid oxidation on days 9 and the polyphenol content of GSE used in the present study.71.01bd GSE 200 0.03 0.32 log10 cfu/g to 3.04 0. (2003) reported antioxidant activity of GSE at a concentra- 3.21 ± 0.5 exert any pro-oxidant activity in raw pork and was shown over the 12 day storage period and were unaffected by to be four times more effective in reducing lipid oxidation the addition of GSE and BB whose pH values were 3.29 ± 0.15 GAE/100 g and 57.03 0.17 ± 0. while at lower concentrations ged from 3. 1999).02b BB 1000 0. This Perez-Vendrell. Although an antioxidant effect was evident patties relative to the controls (data not shown).13* 0.29 ± 0.04b BB 80 0.03 0. and Lacroix (2006) reported The presence of GSE and BB in raw pork patties signif- that GSE contained 80.04 0.06 0. the scientific literature contained no data referring icant (P < 0.08 0.01cd GSE 300 0.02b GSE 100 0.07 0. an antioxi- values for raw pork (Houben.05* 0.28 ± 0.8) for post-mortem muscle ously reported study. R.31 ± 0.1. Plant-extracted may be partly due to the antimicrobial effect of carbon antioxidants can exhibit pro-oxidant activity at low con- dioxide (25%) in the modified atmosphere packs.27 ± 0. Caillet.09 ± 0.05) antioxidant concentration · time interac- to the polyphenol content of BB extract.11 ± 0. coli and H.01b BB 40 0. & Mustapha.02 0.10 ± 0.4–5.61 log10 cfu/g.02e GSE 1000 0. Table 1 Effect of grape seed extract (GSE) and bearberry (BB) on lipid oxidation (TBARS) in raw pork patties stored in modified atmosphere packs (75% O2: 25% CO2) at 4 C Treatment1 Day 0 Day 3 Day 6 Day 9 Day 12 * * * a Control 0.07 ± 0. This is in at 400 lg GSE/g muscle and 80 lg BB/g muscle. abcde Within each day (each antioxidant type compared to the control) mean values (± SEM) in the same column bearing different superscripts are significantly different.02b 0. lipid stability increased with aqueous infusion) exhibited protection against food increasing concentrations of GSE and BB.46 ± 0.22 ± 0.10 ± 0. The highest concentration of GSE and BB employed in our study (1000 lg/g) did not The pH of raw pork patties decreased from 5. tion was observed for both GSE and BB.. 1998).03 0.03b 0.04b 0. respectively. This pH range is comparable to that muscle and 20 lg BB/g muscle). 3. & Esteve-Garcıa.33 ± 0.03bcd 0.05.29 ± 0.01 0.01a GSE 50 0.16 ± 0.05* 0. / Meat Science 76 (2007) 604–610 607 3.58 ± 0.24 ± 0.16 ± 0.05 0.91 ± 0.12 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.05.43 ±0. dant effect at low concentrations and pro-oxidant activity Bolink.03 0.02 0.04b 0. the use of contrast to previous reports where the antimicrobial 1000 lg/g muscle of each extract did not offer any further properties of GSE were demonstrated in ground beef protection against lipid oxidation compared to the lower (Ahn.17 ± 0.09 ± 0. 1 GSE or BB.23 ± 0.02 0.01 0.03b TBARS.04 0.11 ± 0.33 ± 0.40 ± 0.11 ± 0.16 ± 0.2. Lipid stability of raw pork patties containing added GSE The total polyphenol content of GSE and BB was and BB 86.03b BB 60 0.02 0. & Hoving. pylori (Annuk et al.02 0.17 ± 0. significantly effect or improve the microbial status of pork & Eskin.35 ± 0. Graded addition of GSE and BB did not at higher concentrations can also occur (Pryzbylski.19 ± 0.17 ± 0.12 0.7 g GAE/100 g which is similar to icantly decreased (P < 0. and did not (10 lg/g) acted as an antioxidant in broiler meat (Ruiz.38 ± 0.14 ± 0.09 ± 0.19 ± 0.12 0.05bcd 0. A signif- To date. .26 ± 0. * No significance.10 ± 0. Gru¨n. By contrast. significantly increase over the 12 day storage period.02bcd 0. P > 0. 1998). 2004) and extracts of BB (1:10 levels (Table 1).10 ± 0.36 ± 0.05b 0.01 0.03 0.09 0. pH and microbial status of raw pork patties containing tion of 1000 lg/g (GSE polyphenol content of 85.16 ± 0.09 ± 0. respectively.22 ± 0.01b 0.09 ± 0.05 0. 1999).15 ± 0. P < 0.01 0.06 0. Lau et al.01cd GSE 400 0.01 0.37 ± 0.01 0.31 ± 0.01 0. 12 of storage compared to the controls (Table 1).09 0.03 0.01bcd 0.19 ± 0.24 ± 0.7 to 5. lg/g muscle.31 ± 0.10 ± 0.04 0. Salmie´ri.5 g ± 1. b-carotene demonstrated a pro-oxi- (Faustman et al.11ac 0. centrations and antioxidant activity above a certain level philic counts obtained are similar to previously reported (Wanasundara & Shahidi. dant effect at 50 lg/g.84 when compared to lower concentrations (50 lg GSE/g and 4.73 GAE/100 g.4 g GAE/ added GSE and BB 100 g) in uncooked poultry.4 g ± 1. in a previ- previously reported (5.01e BB 10 0.14 ± 0.

03 ± 0.005c 0.12 9. such as catechin and epicatechin (Yilmaz the oxidative stability of cooked turkey meat.77 ± 0. phenolcarboxylic acids (Annuk et al.13 ± 0. BB is cooked ground beef (200.37 ± 0.003b 0. Colour stability of raw pork patties containing added and BB concentration (Table 2).52 7.5. * No significance. triterpenes and (P < 0.42 7.84 ± 0.56 ± 0.05) with increasing GSE 3.05) TBARS forma.53 7.24 8. Mielnik et al.99 ± 0.75 7.31 8. Similarly.65 ± 0. at the upper limit the additive and synergistic effects of the individual com- of 1000 lg/g.34 ± 0.90 ± 0.35 ± 0.49 GSE 200 11. Colour is an values (± SEM) in the same column bearing different superscripts are important visual cue involved in consumer perception of significantly different.25 ± 0.45 ± 0.11 ± 0.25 9.90 ± 0. et al.30 9.011b 0.73 ± 0. The ‘a’ red- (TBARS) in cooked pork patties stored in modified atmosphere packs (70% N2: 30% CO2) at 4 C ness values in raw pork patties decreased over the 12-day storage period (Table 3).23 BB 1000 10.89 ± 0.13 ± 0.29 BB 80 10.003a 0.05.11 ± 0.40 ± 0.78 ± 0.62 ± 0.28 9.19 ± 0.34 GSE 1000 11.008c iod.45* 8. 2 and 4 days of refrigerated storage.95 ± 0.03 ± 0.24 BB 10 11.44 8.19 ± 0.54 GSE 100 11.04 ± 0.34 8.41 9.50 ± 0.. Carpenter et al.23 ± 0.40 8.04 ± 0.05.12 ± 0.81 ± 0. Since a number of polyphenolic com- et al.. 1 GSE or BB.54 8.74 ± 0.50 7.12 ± 0.. GSE and GSE and BB GSE and BB addition did not alter the ‘L’ lightness and Table 2 ‘b’ yellowness values of raw pork patties and no obvious Effect of grape seed extract (GSE) and bearberry (BB) on lipid oxidation data trends were observed (data not shown).28 ± 0.21 8.4.25 9.33 8.84 ± 0. The tion.41 ± 0.74 ± 0.30 ± 0. lg/g muscle.22 ± 0.20 9. is pos- TBARS.012a up to 1000 lg/g. The addition of BB (80 lg/g. 800 and 1600 lg/g) significantly improved procyanidins.38 ± 0. In addition.74 ± 0. acceptable meat quality (Faustman et al.003c 0.08 ± 0.05) reduced lipid oxidation in cooked pork patties.004c 0.36 ± 0.20 CIE ‘a’ redness value (mean ± SEM).08 10.26 8.12 9.608 R. lg/g muscle..04 ± 0.30 9.16 9.24 7.81 ± 0. 2004). Lipid stability of cooked pork patties containing added BB reduced lipid oxidation during the cooking process GSE and BB (day 0 TBARS).19 9.25 9. 1990) and GSE 1 GSE or BB.30 ± 0.95 ± 0. in cooked pork patties held mechanism of the protective effect of GSE on lipid oxida- in MAP (Table 2). 1999) which confer These findings are in agreement with a similar study (Pegg antioxidant activity. in addition Table 3 Effect of grape seed extract (GSE) and bearberry (BB) on the surface redness (‘a’ value) of raw pork patties stored in modified atmosphere packs (75% O2: 25% CO2) at 4 C Treatment1 Day 0 Day 3 Day 6 Day 9 Day 12 * * * * Control 11. effect in raw and cooked pork during chilled storage.49* 7.35* 8.002b 0. 2001) whereby. in contrast to BB. Addition of GSE resulted in minor increases in ‘a’ red- ness values of raw pork patties. which possess a greater antioxidant potential the antioxidant effect of GSE was also demonstrated in than monomer components (Llopiz et al. P > 0. 400.31 ± 0. .37 9.11 10.001c 9 and 12 days of refrigerated storage at 4 C. (2006) reported that tion may be due to the presence of a number of oligomer GSE (0.62 9. the antioxidant poten- lipid oxidation in cooked minced pork at levels of 100.39 ± 0.96 ± 0.97 ± 0.11 ± 0. GSE GSE and BB demonstrated a pronounced antioxidant (400 lg/g.15 ± 0.29 9.018b BB 1000 0.45 ± 0.19 ± 0.56 ± 0. / Meat Science 76 (2007) 604–610 3. BB 80 0.88 ± 0.009c 0.003bc GSE 1000 0..63 7.25 ± 0.003b 0.54 ± 0.73 ± 0.65 ± 0. 1000 lg/g) inhibited (P < 0.16 10.52 7.65 ± 0.13 ± 0. The marginal colour enhancing effects of GSE.48 7. at concentrations greater than 1000 lg/g. GSE and BB addition.49* GSE 50 11. such as arbutin. after 6.68 ± 0.21 9.44 8.09 ± 0. BB was shown to protect against pounds are present in GSE and BB.09 ± 0. as a result of GSE and BB addition at levels Control 0.23 ± 0. mg malondialdehyde/kg muscle.28 GSE 400 11. After 0.39 ± 0.90 ± 0.26 8.69 ± 0. 1000 lg/g) significantly tives.50 7. No significant differences in ‘a’ Treatment1 Day 0 Day 2 Day 4 redness values.20 9. were observed over the 12 day storage per- GSE 400 0.002a 0.49 8.35 9.28 9. These results demonstrate the thermal sta- bility of GSE and BB. tannins.20 ± 0.34 9.85 ± 0.37 GSE 300 11.52* BB 20 11. 500 and 1000 lg/g) (Ahn et al. may..54 ± 0.98 ± 0. abc Within each day (each antioxidant type compared to the control) mean sibly due to the red colour of the GSE itself.52 7.10 ± 0.34 BB 40 11.65 7. tial demonstrated in the present study may also be due to 200 and 500 lg/g. flavonoids.39 ± 0. resulted in a 5-fold (day 2) and 9-fold (day 4) pounds present.55 7. P < 0. compared to controls.57* 10. reported to contain a vast array of hydroquinone deriva- 2002).09 ± 0.24 BB 60 10.14 ± 0. relative to controls.04 ± 0. 2004). decrease in lipid oxidation compared to controls and anti- oxidant potency increased (P < 0.

20 ± 0. H. M. (2002).. cooked pork patties. Arak.80 ± 0. G. M.96 ± 0. M. The addition of GSE resulted in minor increases in Effect of grape seed extract (GSE) and bearberry (BB) on the surface the surface colour of raw and cooked pork. as safe. B. & Fernando. P.03c 4. in the present study.04 3.03a natural. period for parameters such as colour (5. (2000). Jayaprakasha. R. 1. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Kerry.. R. I. (2004). O’Grady. Evaluation of free radical- storage period (Table 4). J. Journal of Muscle Foods. Food Chemistry.04b 4. observed. Houben. K.39 ± 0. 265–273. 48. & Hoving-Bolink. GSE and BB may prove useful. Journal of tea catechins (200 or 400 lg/g) resulted in discoloration of Medicinal Food. H. 413–422. flavour et al. Salmie´ri. Food Microbiology. Monomeric phenolic Clydesdale. U.03b 3. Further research is necessary to examine the function- ality of GSE and BB in additional meats and meat BB 80 3. R. colour enhancers of red meat and meat products.. H. Amarowicz. 217–243. Journal of Food Science. No antimicrobial effect of GSE or BB was observed activity of grape seed (Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models under the experimental conditions employed in the present in vitro. Anitbacterial and antioxidant activities of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extracts. 2427–2435. Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of selected plant species from the Canadian prairies. Antioxidant pork. 117–122. 1364–1369. K. The eating redness (‘a’ value) of cooked pork patties stored in modified atmosphere packs (70% N2: 30% CO2) at 4 C quality of cooked pork was unaffected by GSE and BB. R. & Pegg. B.. Turi. 89–143. Effect on cell surface hydrophobicity and susceptibility of for up to 4 days at 4 C. 172. By contrast. C. N. Ahn. Barl. & Cassens. Singh. to antioxidant properties. 3. tenderness (5.0). Selvi. A.. M.04a GSE 1000 4. sensory scores assigned discoloration in fresh meat: a review.1–4. G. This increase in colour was not scavenging properties of commercial grape phenol extracts by a fast colorimetric method. Effects of plant extracts on microbial growth. 148–155.6. 7–14. and antioxidant functions. The biochemical basis for tested (data not shown). 499 S–506S.01b 4. Sim... The addition of GSE exerted a greater effect. bit potent lipid antioxidant activity in raw and cooked Jayaprakasha. F. Helicobacter pylori to medicinal plant extracts. 9.. Meat Science. (2003). R. minced pork. & Wadstrom. sig. J. Chapman. 43.. perceived as negative by the in-house sensory panel with Carpenter.9–3. S. & Lacroix. & Frei..05. 67. Nutrition. J. P < 0. E. B. Due to concerns regarding the safety and toxicity of syn- Treatment1 Day 0 Day 2 Day 4 thetic antioxidants. Journal of the 1. abc References Within each day (each antioxidant type compared to the control) mean values (± SEM) in the same column bearing different superscripts are significantly different. Gru¨n... A. E. M.50 ± 0. natural plant extracts containing polyphenolic compounds in cooked ground beef.8–3. Y... Addition of GSE (1000 lg/g). M. 36. A. A. (2004). S. (2007). R.79 ± 0. Ahn. (2006). metabolism. P. T. lg/g muscle. N. Gru¨n. J. (1998). citroflavan-3- O’Grady. J. K. Colour stability and sensory evaluation of cooked pork Amarowicz.. Anitoxidant properties of 1 GSE or BB. R. Sensory scores for off-flavours ranged from Hasler. R. (1997). 19.9) and juiciness (8. how. A proposal for the establishment of scientific compounds such as catechins and epicatechin are present criteria for health claims for functional foods. (2006). Kerry. in GSE however their concentration may not be sufficiently Donaldson.15 ± 0... 1–8. S..60 ± 0. for an anti-cancer diet.. Addition of GSE (400 and 1000 lg/g) and BB (80 and Dykes. have potential to act as natural Journal of Food Protection. K. R. (2004). C. .. (1999). tion of GSE and BB did not adversely affect the sensorial Higdon. I.. Mitsumoto. L. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of natural extracts in vitro and in ground beef. 66. Divine. & Sakariah. in vitro and in vivo immunological effects. / Meat Science 76 (2007) 604–610 609 Table 4 study. (2003).0–1.... 73. health promoting antioxidants to the meat indus- GSE 400 3.. (2001). colour change. Eikelenboom. Pegg. over the 4-day Caillet. G. (2003)..02b 3. Enhancement of nisin 1000 lg/g) did not significantly affect the sensory scores antibacterial activity by a bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) leaf extract. relative to controls.0). K.91 ± 0. by panelists decreased marginally over the 4 day storage Gao. U. Hardy. & Mustapha.. Conclusion lipid oxidation in packaged.03a products.18 ± 0. B.6). V.03b 3. (2003). N. C. American College of Nutrition... Carpenter et al. In general. Food Chemistry. 20..02b CIE ‘a’ redness value. ever. Modulatory effects of resveratrol. FEMS Microbiology nificantly increased (P < 0.04b try.. Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence high enough to cause discoloration in cooked pork. G. Nutraceuticals and Functional foods: Introduction and ilarly no antioxidant concentration · time interaction was meaning. 3.. G.04 3. I. J. 688–689. Deeb. G. Ahn. 187–195. and Buckley (2005) reported that addition ol and plant derived extracts on oxidative stress in U937 cells. U. 16.47 ± 0. O’Callaghan. of cooked beef and poultry patties. & respect to overall product quality. 84. a a Control 3. & Mustapha. S. Rahimi-Moghaddam. to BB. A. Biochemical pharmacology. 211–216.18 ± 0. P.13 ± 0. 67. Media. X. J. 24.11 ± 0. & Weil.03c 4.. compared 551–562... Gru¨n. (2000). patties containing added GSE and BB A. Food Nutraceuticals such as GSE and BB were found to exhi- Research International. trends observed were not statistically significant. & Sakariah. of cooked pork patties for any of the quality attributes Faustman. D.6 over the storage period. Immunomodulatory activity of Resveratrol: Discrepant (5. Nutrition Reviews... G. Nutrition. Food Chemistry. Mikelsaar. O’Brien. Tea catechins and polyphenols: health properties of cooked pork patties at the levels employed effects. T. 95. It was concluded that addi. Hirmo. 19. The changing face of functional foods. BB 1000 3. 285–290. on the colour stability of cooked pork patties stored Annuk. J. 41–45. M.52 ± 0.05) the ‘a’ redness values of Letters.1–4. K. (1990). H. Effect of the dietary supplementation with vitamin E on colour stability and 4. Food Microbiology. and lipid oxidation in cooked beef. Jiang.04c 3. 55.

A. D... 814–826. C. N. subspecies Africana leaves. Polyphenolics in grape repens on lipid metabolism in normal and recent-onset diabetic rats. M. D.. C. (1999). M. 69. try. A.. E. Meat Science. M.. 75. Differential Roy. Yu. Grape and grape seed extract capacities at protecting LDL Fao cells submitted to oxidative stress.. & Younathan. R. (2003).. Y. In: Proceedings 47th method for the quantitative determination of malondialdehyde in International Congress of Meat Science and Technology. Alessio. O.. Shode.. et al. 448–454.. radical-scavenging activities of buckwheat seed components. 37. A. 1083–1087.and post-mortem use of grape seed Ruiz.. Adeline. 26–31 August 2001. M. A.. P. I. (1998). AAPH or SIN-1 and at Food Chemistry. & Barl...... J. A. & Buckley.. Journal of Wanasundara. Journal of the American Dietetic extracts of bearberry and cowberry leaves and wild camomile and Association. Y. Pre. Jouad. Shafiee. lipid oxidation in various parts of frozen mackerel. (2002).. 15. 36. E. M. phospho-molybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Linke. M. 24. & Skrede. D. 37–47.. chicken patties. M. & Nadar.. Research. Carbonneau. A. R. (2004). J. H. Ackman. 573–584. U. A. (pp. et al. Watts... Rice-Evans. E. J. A. The Journal of the American Oil Chemist’s Society.. (2005).. Anti-angiogenic property of edible berries. D. A comparison to other Maghrani.. (1999). Colorimetry of total phenolics with Grape seed extract as antioxidant in cooked. Pegg. Bagchi. J. G.. J. J. B. P. Biochemical Society Yilmaz.610 R. Y. 6. Llopiz. L. F.. R. Carpenter et al. 104. J. Antioxidant and maceutical Biology. 12. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.. Health aspects of functional grape Transactions. B.. J. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemis- 51. Olsen. (2004).. Somova. seed constituents. J. 299–305. 291–299. Ardevol. A. Phar- Pryzbylski. Food Chemistry.. 144–158. F. (2003). Descomps. E.. (1965). M. N.. Position of the American Dietetic Association: functional foods (2004). B. 234– rancid foods. F. M. & Esteve-Garcıa. Lemhadri.. B... Singleton.. L. E. 44–48. Ramnanan. M. 90. M. N. Anuuk. Effects of an aqueous extract of Triticum Shi. Krako´w. Free Radical Technology. 52. L. Lee. (2003). G. 1023–1031. R. Antigenotoxic effect of grape seed procyanidin extract in (2003). of Enology and Viticulture. & Eskin. & Nash. 16. decreasing superoxide THP-1 cell production. Application of plant Tarladgis. Puiggros. Cespedes... J. Action of aqueous American Dietetic Association. M. L. Arola. C. (1998). cold stored turkey meat. (2001). G. . Perez-Vendrell.. Antioxidant activities of 335–342. Trends in Food Science and Technology. V. 331–337. & Toledo. B. Mitsumoto. 422–433. R. Pohorly. A distillation polyphenolics in model and meat systems.. (2004). W. A. different supplemental fats. Tu¨ri. 191–198. & Arak. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. M. Vider. / Meat Science 76 (2007) 604–610 Ke. Effect of b- extract in dark poultry meat to inhibit development of thiobarbituric carotene and vitamin E on oxidative stability in leg meat of broilers fed acid reactive substances. 127–133. C. T. (1977). seeds-biochemistry and functionality. N. B. Bagchi. Journal of Agricultural and against oxidation generated by Cu2+. S. antiartheroscleretic and antioxidant activity of and lipid stability during chilled storage in cooked or raw beef and triterpenoids isolated from Olea europea. O’Grady. Blade. El Amraoui. G. American Journal LWT-Food Science and Technology. 63. N. 773–779. Vogt. Lau... 1595–1601. N. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant the American Oil Chemists’ Society... & Kakuda. 235). colour Antihypertensive. pineapple-weed flowers on Escherichia coli surface structures. & King. M. flavonoids as bioactive components of food. Mielnik. Journal of Food et al. & Leger. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. J. (1960). 47. 84. T. P. H. Haloui.. & Rossi. extracts or compounds. D. 39.. Amarowicz. 37. E.. 790–795. M. N. A. M. Khanna. activity of green tea extracts in marine oils.. B. Urban. Zeggwagh. & Miller.. (2006). 37. Tu¨ri. S. Journal of Medicinal Food. Poland. & Shahidi. H. 1602–1607. (1996)... Kerry. Free Radical Research.. A. Addition of tea catechins and vitamin C on sensory evaluation.