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Adaptasi terhadap kondisi ekstrem

Tubuh manusia mengalami stress paling ringan dan berkondisi paling sehat jika menerima cukup asupan
makanan dan cairan, serta berada dalam lingkungan nyaman dengan suhu yang sedang, tekanan udara
normal. Dan grativasi standar namun tubuh memiliki kemampuan menakjubkan unruk mengatasi kondisi-
kondisi ekstrem, baik dalam jangka pendek menggunakan tanggapan darurat ataupun melalui adaptasi
bertahap lingkungan baru.

Kisaran suhu

Beraneka ragam proses dan perubahan kimiawi di dalam tubuh 36,5-37,5 oc (97,7-99,5of). sebagai bagian
dari kemampuannya untuk menyeimbangkan dan mempertahankan kondisi-kondisi internal, disebut
homeostatis, tubuh memiliki reaksi-reaksi otomatis yang dikenal sebagai termoregulasi (lihat hal. 30).
Reaksi-reaksi ini antara lain pelebaran pembuluh darah kulit saat suhu hangat atau penyempitanketika
suhu dingin. Kita juga memiliki respon-respon perilaku misalnya mengenakan pakaian lebih tebal
sewaktu kedinginan atau mencari tempat teduh ketika panas. Namun begitu suhu inti tubuh melenceng
lebih dari sekitar1,5oc (2,7 of) untuk waktu yang cukup lama, mulai terjadi reaksi-reaksi yang lebih jauh
dan lebih drastic, dan kerusakan dapat terjadi. Seseorang dinyatakan hipotermia bila suhu intinya 35 oc (95
o
f) atau lebih rendah yang tidak memadai untuk metabolisme normal. Serupa dengan itu hipertemia
dimulai ketika suhu inti naik lebih daripada sekitar 1 oc (1,8 of) di atas suhu tubuh normal dalam siklus 24
jam.

Efek kedinginan

“citra panas” (termogram) ini, yang menunjukkan suhu dari kuning yang berarti paling panas ke warna
indigo yang berarti paling dingin, menampakkan minuman dingin yang akan membantu mengatasi stress
panas dengan cara mendinginkan mulut, tekak, dan inti tubuh.

Spectrum suhu tubuh

Reaksi-reaksi biologis, semisal gemetar dan berkeringat, serta tindakan-tindakan perilaku dapat
melindungi tubuh dari ekstrem suhu untuk waktu singkat. Akan tetapi dalam kondisi membeku,
ekstremitas tubuh berisiko mengalami masalah serius, misalnya radang beku dalam beberapa menit,
dengan akibat kehilangan jaringan secara permanen. Terlepas dari itu, bahkan meskipun ini terjadi, suhu
inti dalam organ-organ vital dalat dipertahankan cukup lama agar kita bertahan hidup.

Suhu inti tubuh

Dingin ekstrem Dingin sedang Dingin sedikit Kondisi hiportemia Detak jantung (denyut nadi) dan Detak jantung (denyut nadi) dan menyerang. NORMAL AIR PRESSURE. Otot-otot yang tertaut ke rambut kebingugan dapat tidak lagi peka terhadap nyeri. kulit memendek. AS WELL AS BEING IN A COMFORTABLE ENVIRONMENT WITH MILD TEMPERATURES. menyempit . organ-organ inti seperti lilin” dan peningkatan kulit sehingga menjaga panas mulai menghentikan resiko radang dingin inti dan menjadikan kulit pucat aktivitasnya Hilangnya ingatan dan Mati rasa dan tidak lagi cekatan. laju pernapasan laju pernapasan semakin laju pernapasan agak menurun semakin menurun. membatasi aliran radang dingin yang tidak dapat menyebabkan tampilan pucat “ darah dan kehilangan panas dari dipulihkan . namun melambat demi menghemat detak jantung mungkin energy untuk otak meningkat akibat aritmia Jaringan-jaringan permukaan Peredaran darah ke kulit dan Pembuluh-pembuluh darah kulit menderita kebekuan dan ekstremitas semakin terbatas.menegakkan menyebabkan orang melucuti pergerakkan menjad lamban dan rambut untuk menginsulasi baju secara irasional sulit sekali panas di atas kulit “paradoxical undressing” (menyebabkan merinding) Otak biasanya merupakan Jika gemataran hebat tidak Otot-otot bergetar atau gemetar organ terakhir yang berhenti membantu tubuh menjadi diam secara tidak sadar menyebabkan berfungsi untuk menghemat energy yang produksi panas yang di edarkan tersisa dan panas pada organ. AND GRAVITATION STANDARDS. BUT . ADAPTATION TO EXTREME CONDITIONS THE HUMAN BODY IS EXPERIENCING STRESS LIGHTEST AND MOST UNCONDITIONED HEALTHY IF THEY RECEIVE SUFFICIENT INTAKE OF FOOD AND FLUIDS. oleh darah organ vital Tanda-tanda peringatan dingin Gemetar dan hilangnya kepekaan kulit adalah tanda- tanda awal yang memperingatkan penderita agar mengenakan pakaian yang lebih tebal terutama di kepala dan leher dan berpindah ketempat yang lebih terlindung dimana angin tidak teru- menerus meniup panas tubuh menjauh (efek yang di kenal dengan sebagai wild chill).

the core temperature as measures of behavior can problems. BOTH IN THE SHORT TERM USE OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE OR THROUGH THE GRADUAL ADAPTATION OF NEW ENVIRONMENTS. when cold or seek shade and core body. called normal metabolism.8 of) above which indicates the These reactions include normal body temperature temperature of the hot yellow dilation of blood vessels skin within 24 hours. which when the temperature is means the most cold. even though this is shaking and sweating.7 of) for quite RANGE a long time. pharynx.5oc (2. with the maintained long enough for extreme temperatures for a consequent loss of a us to survive. the body has hyperthermia begin when the FREEZING EFFECT automatic reactions known as core temperature rises more "Hot image" (calorimetry). as well the body at risk of serious the case.5oc (97. when it's hot. such as conditions. short time. Similarly homeostasis. TEMPERATURE sekitar1. But once the body's core temperature to deviate more than Spectrum Body Temperature Biological reactions. means to indigo.5of). But in the freezing permanent network. drinks reveal that will help We also have behavioral overcome heat stress by responses eg wear thicker cooling the mouth. such as frostbite in vital organs dalat protect the body from within minutes. and damage can chemical changes in the body occur.THE BODY HAS AN AMAZING ABILITY UNRUK OVERCOME EXTREME CONDITIONS. Someone stated 36. 30). Apart . as hypothermia when the core part of its ability to balance temperature of 35oC (95 of) and maintain internal or lesser inadequate for conditions.7-99. cold warm or cold temperatures. than about 1oC (1. thermoregulation (see p. began to occur reactions that further and Diverse processes and more drastic.5-37. the extremities of from that.

The heart rate (pulse) and The heart rate (pulse) and respiratory rate decreased. no longer sensitive to skin hair shortened. but respiratory rate slowed to save respiratory rate slightly the heart rate may increase as a energy for the brain decreased result of arrhythmia Tissues surface of the ice and Blood circulation to the skin The skin blood vessels to suffered frostbite that can not and extremities increasingly narrow. causing a pale look and heat loss from the skin so stop their activities core "like a candle" and increase the keep the heat core and makes risk of frostbite the skin pale Memory loss and confusion Numbness and no longer The muscles that are linked to may cause people to disarm nimble. organs began to restricted. restricting blood flow be restored. The Core Body Temperature . straightened clothes irrationally pain. especially in the head and neck and move to place more sheltered where the wind does not Teru consistently blowing body heat away (the effect of which is known as a wild chill).Extreme Cold Cold Cold Was A Little Conditions hiportemia attack. movement becomes slow hair to insulate the heat on the "paradoxical undressing" and difficult skin (causing goose bumps) The brain is usually the last If shaking does not help the The muscles vibrating or organ that ceases to function body to be silent in order to shaking unconsciously lead to save energy and heat remaining the production of heat that in vital organs circulated in the blood Warning signs of a cold Shaking and loss of skin sensitivity are early signs that warn the patient to wear a thicker.

more irregular. accompanied by water lost as sweat. Low blood pressure and to the skin relaxes hair. muscles the heat of the skin can are more likely to fall started twitching easily switch to the air Skin sweat glands Sweat may be increased Convulsions. secrete sweat. people into a blue skin. orhan vital organs have failed to work. likely to clot so that the replenishment" though as well as changing the risk of stroke or heart the body water content skin becomes red or attack increases dropped to a critical level "flushed" Tiny muscles attached Drop in blood pressure. hot and humid suffered tissue damage that can not be restored Dilated skin blood If dehydration occurs. followed by vomiting and confusion and perhaps exhaled air is getting diarrhea aggression. Heat a little Heat medium Heat Ekstrem Increased thirst Headache and nausea Hyperthermia occurs sensation to replace may occur more nausea. then fainted. increasing blood thickens and more missing "paradoxical blood flow and heat loss. heart evaporates and cools hot and dry. which so that the skin becomes unconsciousness. Warning signs of heat The conditions were very hot cause sweating. . a striking rate becomes weaker and the body surface sign of hyperthermia. affects the ability to lack of oxygen to change so the hair fell down and stand and move. the Great thirst may be vessels. light- headedness berkunag and thirst is a sign that we drink more fluids and rest in a cool temput for example in the shade and no wind bias is continuously presenting any perspiration that evaporates so that the cooling effect increases .