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Atomic bonding

in solid, liquid, and gas
Forces on chemical bonding

Chemical Bonding
Types of

Ionic Covalent Metallic Hydrogen
Bonding Bonding Bonding Bonding
Interatomic Forces Interatomic Forces Interatomic Forces Intermolecular Forces

Pure (non-polar)
Covalent Bond

Polar Covalent


Ionic Bonding
Ionic bond: the electrostatic force of attraction between
positively and negatively charged ions
Ionic bond: bond in which one or more electrons from one
atom are removed and attached to another
atom (transfer of electrons)
Formed between metals and non - metals
Ex. Bonding between sodium (metals) and chlorine (non-

Ionic Bonding
NaCl crystal structure

Electrostatic attraction
between cations and anions


F2 Pure (non-polar) Covalent Bonding Shared electrons Single covalent bond Double covalent bond 3 . Pure (non-polar) Covalent Bonding • The electrons have the same electronegativity • Atoms are held together by electrostatic forces of attraction between positively charged nuclei and negatively charged shared electrons. • Ex: fluorine molecule.

Polar Covalent Bonding • Covalent bonds with unequal electron sharing • Resulting that an atom have a slight negative charge compared to the other atom which will have a slight positive charge H Br δ+ δ- Polar Covalent Bonding • Covalent bonds with unequal electron sharing • Resulting that an atom have a slight negative charge compared to the other atom which will have a slight positive charge δ+ δ- δ+ 4 .

CH4 (methane gas) It has a non-polar covalent bonding and is an hydrophobic Covalent Bonding on Diamond • Diamond: the hardest material found in nature. Covalent Bonding on Hydrocarbon Ex. entirely carbon (giant covalent bond) 5 .

sehingga tiap ion ions dikelilingi molekul air (terhidrasi) 6 .. liquids.Molekul air menurunkan gaya ikat antar ion yang berlawanan muatan Hydrated . or (made of .. basa) di air Misal: garam NaCl. asam.) (made of ions) solids (made of molecules) Melting and boiling High Low points Electrical Conduct electricity Poor electrical conductivity when melted conductors in all phase Solubility Many soluble in Many soluble in water but not in nonpolar liquids nonpolar liquid but not in water Air sebagai Pelarut (berhubungan dengan polaritas air) Larutan Ionik: larutnya bahan yang dapat terionisasi (garam. mengandung ion sodium (Na+) dan chloride (Cl-) yang memiliki ikatan ion .Ikatan ion rusak. Comparison of Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Ionic Compounds Covalent compounds Phase Crystalline solids Gases.

Spectrum of Covalent-Polar Covalent-Ionic Metallic Bonding Metallic bond: the electrostatic force of attraction between positively charged ions and delocalized electrons In metals. Delocalized electrons 7 . positive metal ions are held together by electron clouds These electrons are free to move through the structure. this is why metals conduct electricity.

Ex. Metallic Bonding • Metals hold on to their valence electrons very weakly • Think: Metals consist of closely packed cations (positive ions) floating in a “sea of electrons” • All of the atoms are able to share the electrons • The electrons are not bound to individual atoms Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen bond: a force of attraction between a hydrogen atom in one molecule and a small atom of high electronegativity in another molecule. Hydrogen bonding in water (H2O) Representative the Van der Waals Forces with permanent dipole- dipole interactions 8 .

Forces on Chemical Bonding • Primary Bonds  strong >> Interatomic Forces or Intramolecular Forces (Ionic bond is the strongest) • Secondary Bonds  weak >> Intermolecular Forces (Van der Waals Forces) The strong intramolecular and the weaker intermolecular bonds are holds on chemical bonding Combinations of Primary Bonds 2 alternative strutures of HCl. depent upon the environment: δ+ δ- Polar covalent in a gas Ionic in a solution 9 .

Why is a metal ductile but an ionic compound is not (brittle)? Classification of Substance Substance Liquids and Gases Solids Liquid Crystals Crystalline Non-crystalline (Amorphous) 10 .

e. Molecular structures i. Amorphous structures i. groupings of atoms 2.e. without specific form 11 . a repetitious patern of atoms 3.Arrangement of Atoms in Material 1..e. Crystal structures i...

O2. HNO3 • The strength of the Intermolecular Forces (IMFs) on different substances: Substance IMF Strength Example Gas Very weak IMFs O = OO = O H‒O----------O‒H Liquid Moderate IMFs   H H Solid Strong IMFs Na‒ClNa‒Cl Gases • Gases have atoms or molecules that do not bond to one another in a range of pressure. temperature & volume • These molecules haven’t any particular order & move freely within a container 12 . CO2. N2. CCl4. Molecular Structures • Molecules: discrete groups of atoms Ex. H2O.

• Liquid Crystals have mobile molecules. • Applying low levels of thermal energy can easily break the existing weak bonds. but a type of long range order can exist. liquids have no atomic/molecular order & they assume the shape of their containers. Schlieren texture of liquid crystal nematic phase 13 .Gas Effusion Gas Diffusion Liquids & Liquid Crystals • Similar to gases. the molecules have a permanent dipole.

Types of Forces between Molecules: Intermolecular Forces (IMFs) in Liquid Type of Intermolecular Force Found Ion-Dipole Forces On dissolved ions Dipole-Dipole Forces Between two polar molecules Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces Between polar and non-polar molecules Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole Between two non-polar Forces molecules Types of Forces between Molecules: Intermolecular Forces (IMFs) Ion-Dipole Forces Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces δ- δ+ Induced Dipole- Dipole-Dipole Forces Induced Dipole Forces 14 .

polycrystalline) or amorphous. • Solids can be crystalline (single crystal. volume) have stronger interatomic bonds than liquids. The Three General Types of Solids Single Crystal Polycrystalline Amorphous An ordered region is a spatial volume in which atoms or molecules have a regular geometric arrangement or periodicity. they require more energy to break the interatomic bonds than liquids. Solids • Solids consist of atoms or molecules which are at fixed points in space • Solids (at a given temperature. 15 . So. pressure.

crystalline forms of silica. tungsten (wolfarm) Crystal of snowflake Quartz. table salt. copper. diamond. table salt • Metallic crystal: silver. snowflakes. diamond. Crystal Structures Crystal: a solid which is arranged in an orderly and repeating pattern has lattice with long-range order and symmetry possible as liquid or solid Table salt (NaCl) crystal Crystal Structures Ex. SiO2 16 . sugar • Analysis for crystal: x-ray analysis and density calculations • Non-metallic crystal: ice.

ideally have a high degree of order. throughout the entire volume of the material. with no grain boundaries • Ex. single crystal pyrite Single Pyrite Crystal Amorphous Solid Crystalline Solids • Polycrystalline: solids that are composed of many crystallites (grains) of varying size. Crystalline Solids • Single Crystals. metals. ceramics Polycrystalline Pyrite Grain 17 . or regular geometric periodicity. orientation and separated from one another by grain boundaries • Ex. silicon single crystals used in integrated circuit manufacture.

Polycrystalline Solids • The atomic order can vary from one domain to the next.100 microns in diameter. Polycrystals with grains that are < 10 nm in diameter are called nanocrystallites. The grains are usually 100 nm . Related to ductility and malleability Classification of Cystals and Lattices 18 .

1 atom/unit cell 2 atoms/unit cell 4 atoms/unit cell (8 x 1/8 = 1) (8 x 1/8 + 1 = 2) (8 x 1/8 + 6 x 1/2 = 4) 19 .

Calculate the density of silver.When silver crystallizes.9 g 1 mole Ag m = 4 Ag atoms x x = 7. Calculate the density of silver.17 x 10-22 g mole Ag 6.84 x 10-23 cm3 V 4 atoms/unit cell in a face-centered cubic cell 107.022 x 1023 atoms m 7.17 x 10-22 g d= = = 10. it forms face-centered cubic cells. The unit cell edge length is 409 pm.5 g/cm3 V 6. it forms face-centered cubic cells. m d= V = a3 = (409 pm)3 = 6. m d= V = a3 V 4 atoms/unit cell in a face-centered cubic cell When silver crystallizes.84 x 10-23 cm3 20 . The unit cell edge length is 409 pm.

2007. Hirai Y.high . I2.poor heat and electricity Examples NaCl. Mg. Moriyama M. C12H22O11 Na. Chemical Society Reviews 36.good . H2O.low to high . Liquid-crystalline physical gels. CaCO3 SiO2 (quartz) elements (eg.poor .low .high . Molecular Crystals Kato T. All metallic Ar. MgO. dipole- dipole forces. brittle Hard Soft to hard Soft . Cu) (sucrose) *Diamond is a good thermal conductor 21 . hydrogen bonds General Properties Hard. C (diamond)*.poor .melting point . Types of Crystals Type of Crystal Ionic Covalent Metallic Molecular Force(s) Holding Electrostatic Covalent Metallic bond Dispersion the Units Together attraction bond forces. CO2. Nakaso S. Fe.conductor of . LiF. 1857–1867.

& glasses Crytalline and Amorphous Phase 22 . amorphous silicon. Amorphous Structures Amorphous: a solid with varying degrees of short- range order and lacks the long-range order characteristic of a crystal Ex. plastics.