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Submitted by


In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree




Under The Guidance of Submitted by:
Mr. Ajay Gupta Miftah Nazar (Reg.No.11101571)
Asst. Professor Krishna Kumar Singh (Reg.No.11103640)
Praveen Kumar Mahato (Reg.No.11105954)
Rahul Kumar (Reg.No.11101156)

Phagwara – 144411, Punjab (India)
May 2015


Department of Mechanical Engineering
Lovely Professional University
Phagwara – 144411, Punjab (India)


Certified that this project report entitled “AUTOMATIC POWER HACKSAW
NAZAR, Reg. No: 11101571, KRISHNA KUMAR SINGH, Reg. No: 11103640,
11101156’’ student of Mechanical Engineering Department, Lovely Professional University,
Phagwara, Punjab who had carried out the project work under my supervision.

This report has not been submitted to any other university or institution for the award of any


Mr. Ajay Gupta
Asst. Professor

Department Of Mechanical Engineering





This project is on the design and construction of an automatic power hacksaw machine for
cutting of metal to different size and length with the help of hacksaw. The objective of this
project is to save man power and time in cutting metals in order to achieve high productivity.
It is a cutting machine with teeth on its blade used specially for cutting metals. The power to
the hacksaw is provided by the motor. The motor drives the pulley-1 connected to the rotor of
the motor. The pulley-1 is connected to the flywheel-1 by belt drive. The flywheel-1 is
coupled to the one end of shaft-1 and the other end of shaft-1 is coupled to the pulley-2.
Again pulley-2 is connected to the flywheel-2 by belt drive. Flywheel-2 is coupled to the one
end of shaft-2 and the other end of shaft-2 is connected to the crank which in turn is
connected to the connecting rod. Finally connecting rod is connected to the vertical arm
connected to the horizontal arm. Rotary motion of the shaft is converted into reciprocating
motion of the hacksaw with the help of crank and connecting rod. Work piece of desired
length can be cut by feeding it to hacksaw by holding it into bench vice. The various
component of the machine were designed and constructed. Test was carried out on the
machine using different metals.



We want to thank Lovely Professional University, Punjab for providing me the open door to
utilize their assets and work in such a challenging environment. First and foremost we take
this opportunity to express our deepest sense of gratitude to our guide Mr. Ajay Gupta for his
able guidance during our project work. This project would not have been possible without his
help and the valuable time that he has given us amidst his busy schedule.

Last but not the least I would like to thank all the staff members of Department of
Mechanical Engineering and University who have been very cooperative with us.

Miftah Nazar
Reg.No: 11101571

Krishna Kumar Singh
Reg.No: 11103640

Praveen Kumar Mahato
Reg.No: 11105954

Rahul Kumar
Reg.No: 11101156

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,
Lovely Professional University, Punjab


DECLARATION We hereby declare that the project work entitled “AUTOMATIC POWER HACKSAW MACHING USING SLIDER CRANK MECHANISM” is an authentic record of our own work carried out as requirements of Capstone Project for the award of degree of B. Punjab vi .No: 11105954 (Signature of Student) Rahul Kumar Reg. Phagwara. Ajay Gupta. during January to May. of Mechanical Engineering.No: 11101571 (Signature of Student) Krishna Kumar Singh Reg. Lovely Professional University. under the guidance of Mr.No: 11101156 (Signature of Student) Dept. 2015. Miftah Nazar Reg.Tech in Mechanical Engineering from Lovely Professional University.No: 11103640 (Signature of Student) Praveen Kumar Mahato Reg.

…………….. General ……………….NO.…..….… 9 2. Sawing ……………………….. Introduction ……………………………………………………….. General …………………………………………………………. Justification & Relevance ………………………….7..6.4.….. Project Methodology ………………………………….…………………………………. 40 4. Historical Background .….... Literature Review ………………………………………………… 4 ..3. 39 3. Power Hacksawing ………………………………………………. Approach and Methodology ……………………………………..…. Objective of Project ……………………………………………… 2 1.. 10 3.3 1.………………………………………….4. IX LIST OF FIGURES …………………………….40 3.. Fabrication ……………………………………………………… 32 3.….…………………. 12 3.. Result and Discussion ……………………………………………. V DECLERATION ………………………………………………….. 6 2. 2 1. 4 2.…. General ………………………….. CONTENT PAGE NO.2. Band Sawing ………………………………………………. VI TABLE OF CONTENT ………………………………………….. IV ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………….5..... Calculation ………………………………………………….6.10 2... TABLE OF CONTENT Sr..……………. 11 .. 42 vii ...1.. 6 2. Scope of the Project ………………………. XII 1. Circular Sawing …………………. Types of Hacksawing Machines ………………………………… 7 2..……………….. Features of Modern Hacksaw …………………………………....8.3.….………………………………………… 1 1. Cost and estimation ………………………………….…. 3 2.2.…………………………………. Conclusion ……………………….………….5... 8 2.… X LIST OF SYMBOLS …………………………. 41 5.…………..3....4.1.. VII LIST OF TABLE ………………………………….……… 1 1.. ………. 1 . Components Used ……………………………………………… 18 3...II PROJECT TOPIC APPROVAL PERFORMA …………………… III ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………..1.2.…………………………….. 4 2.……………………………… 11 3.….…………. Design of Automatic Power Hacksaw Machine ………………..5. CERTIFICATE …………………………………………………….

6.…………………………………. References ………………………………………………………….… 44 viii . Future Scope …....………………… 43 7..

Table 3. LIST OF TABLES Sr. Description Page No.1 Cost & Estimation 40 ix . No.

Concept of automatic power hacksaw machine 12 Fig.16 (b). Pulley 24 Fig.3.3. No.3.1 Flowchart of Methodology 3 Fig.21 Construction of Base Table 32 Fig.14 Bench Vice 21 Fig.5 Bolt 14 Fig. Fly Wheel 15 Fig.3.12 (a).9 Shaft 16 Fig. V Belt 27 Fig.17 Hacksaw 26 Fig.3.2 (a).3.12 (b).23 Fixing of back arm into the shaft 34 x .3. Flywheel 20 Fig. Flywheel 20 Fig.3. Fig. Bench Table 16 Fig. Back arm 13 Fig. Ball Bearing 19 Fig. Shaft 22 Fig.20 Screw Threads 30 Fig.3. Concept of automatic power hacksaw machine 13 Fig.3.13 (a). Ball Bearing 19 Fig. V Belt 27 Fig.6 Nut 15 Fig.3.19 (b).1 Automatic Power Hacksaw Machine 11 Fig.1.18 Motor 27 Fig.16 (a). Pulley 24 Fig.13 (b).2 (b). LIST OF FIGURES Sr.3.10 Bench Vice 17 Fig.19 (a).11 Pillow Block Bearing 18 Fig. Collar Clamp ball bearing 14 Fig.22 Mounting of clamp containing ball bearing to hold shaft on 33 the bench table Fig. Description Page No.

3.25 Mounting of motor and flywheel 36 Fig.27 Mounting of hacksaw to the horizontal arm and mounting 38 of bench vice to the base table xi .26 Making of base for holding shaft connected with crank 37 Fig.24 Fixing of horizontal arm to the vertical arm 35 Fig.3.3.Fig.3.

/Nom. Symbol/Avv. SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS Sr. Description 01 cm Centimeter 02 BS British Standard 03 mm Millimeter 04 ᶲ Diameter 05 rpm Revolution per minute 06 m/min Meter per minute 07 Ft. Feet xii .No.LIST OF ACRONYMS.

A simple machines a wheel. at the packaging sector. All other machines can be built using combinations of these simple machines. 1. 3. The machine can solve the problem of time consumption. Machines are often designed to yield a high mechanical advantage to reduce the effort needed to do that work.48 cm). And it is used as hardware in large quantity like in fabrication of machine 5. Most blades range in length from ten to 12inches (25. a hacksaw consists of a metal frame that resembles a downward- facing. 4. The frame’s ends feature adjustable pegs that can be tightened to secure a blade in place. 2. Example: A drill uses a combination of gears (wheels) to drive helical inclined planes (the drill bit) to split a material and carve a hole in it. Its cutting mechanism is provided by removable blades which feature sharp teeth along their outer edge. Hacksaw blades are long. although six-inch (15. Scope of the project 1. A device that applies force. or metal is typically affixed to one end of the frame.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.4 to 30.24 cm) blades can be purchased to fit smaller hacksaw models. a lever or an inclined plane. Waste of resources in face of labor cost is reduced. wood. Each end of the blade is punched with a small hole that fits onto the saw frame’s pegs. changes the direction of a force.1. It provide alternative for industries aiming toward reducing human effort 1 . and loosened to remove it. A handle of plastic. General A hacksaw is a handheld tool used to cut through materials like plastic tubing and metal pipes. generally involving work done on a load. In most cases. in order to perform a task. The machine can be used in the industry where it is manufactured. or changes the strength of a force.2. thin strips of hardened steel that feature a row of teeth along their cutting edge.

2 . Justification & Relevance We have found a power hacksaw to be the most useful for general shop work. It generates sustainable and practical automation solutions for the future industrial development. Power hack saws are getting rarer all the time but they do a good job within their capacity. 1. To provide alternative for industries aiming toward reducing human effort and improvement in material handling system by implementing automation. To identify the key policy avenues considered to be appropriate to meet the challenge of sustainable manufacturing and packaging industry for the future. range from fair to good depending on the material being sawed. Tooling and maintenance costs are low. To cater to the issue of competition in mechanical industry the need for automation is assess by all the industry. Sustainable and practical automation solutions for the future industrial environment. A major advantage of power hacksawing is the relatively low capital investment required. 1. If you can get one that takes standard hacksaw blades then you'll have a tremendous range of blades to choose from and will be able to cut most anything. Objectives of the project 1. Time saving as compared to simple hacksaw. Accuracy and finishes produced.6.3. 3. Hacksaws are more tolerant to tensioning maladjustment and run off. 2.4. Comfortable then ordinary hacksaw. Modern heavy- duty hacksaw machines provide an economical and efficient means of sawing a wide range of materials and stock sizes. 4.


Often the foreman will assign a new trainee to a sawing task. 2. The reason for carrying out the present work is the growing realization on the part of manufacturers of both blades and machines. construction and working of automatic power hacksaw machine. The fact remains that cutting-off operations can account for a significant part of the cost per piece (Remmerswaa and Mathysen. Often. such as band and circular sawing. Whilst the British Standard BS 1919: 1974 gives specifications for hacksaw blades regarding 4 . Lots of factor have been consider for the design. cutting material. Therefore. on the principle that it is easy to learn and difficult to foul up.1.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. that the factors which control the mechanics and economics of power hacksawing are complex. Furthermore cut-off machines are frequently housed in stores away from the main production areas and the operation of the sawing machines appears to be simple. Also power hacksawing has been receiving increased competition from other cutting off processes. Many reasons have been given for this such as lack of interest. it is surprising that so little work has been done to understand the problems of this common operation. construction and working of automatic power hacksaw machine such as cutting speed. General After the study of many literatures about design.efficiency etc. sawing is the first operation carried out on bar stock. some of them describe the methodology of automatic power hacksaw. 1961).power . Historical Background The problem of cutting-off material to size is common to practically every industry. So. cutting time .2. it is a routine operation and that there is no need to consider better methods. lots of literatures have been found which gives the relevance information and methodology of constructing an automatic power hacksaw machine.

there has been requirement to identify the machine characteristics under normal working conditions and to investigate the mechanics of the sawing process and the variables affecting metal removal rate. A factor of prime interest to manufacturers is that. their costs are in many applications higher. both manufacturers of hacksaw blades and users have experienced considerable difficulty in establishing standard testing procedures and in obtaining consistency in test data using power hacksaw machines.dimensions etc. During the past fifty years very little attention has been devoted to developing the geometry of the hacksaw blade or the machine. the potential field of application will be widened. Whilst these alternative processes are frequently.1965). Whilst the impact of these alternative processes on the application of power hacksawing cannot be denied there remains a significant field of application for power hacksawing which is likely to remain unchallenged. Thus. the standard relates to testing of hacksaw blades for hand use only and does not include power hacksaw blade testing. some improvements in the blade material. Most of the early published work on cutting-off has been primarily concerned with circular and band sawing and cost comparisons between alternative processes. have been achieved (Nelson. Hence. 5 . although. together with methods of applying the load and mechanized work handling. if the costs of power hacksawing can be reduced by developing the blade and the saw machine. Preliminary investigations by the author have revealed that existing blade testing methods were not independent of the machine characteristics. which could contribute to one of the reasons for the inconsistency in the test data. quicker than power hacksawing.

4. Such situation rarely exists. 6 . In hacksawing. in the majority of the cases. reliable. As with many other basic processes. Most sawing machines perform the cut-off operation. Machines that accomplish this job include hacksaws. which is considered to be one of the drawbacks of the operation. quick and easy to repair. Blade replacement is relatively cheap and simple. this however introduces a service which the company has to pay for and. where a piece of stock is cut to a workable length prior to subsequent machining operations.2. consistently accurate. Power Hacksawing The simple back-and-forth motion of the blade made the hacksaw one of the first types of sawing machines designed for power. as compared to the continuous-cutting action of the band saw. hacksaws remain equally or even more popular alternative machines. the blade is lifted clear of the work piece. and reciprocated back and forth over the work piece. and perform the necessary finishing operations. The alternative to this primary operation of sawing is to buy-in prepared lengths and shapes. due to the fact that the majority of the stock requires to be cut in some way prior to starting a machining schedule. Sawing If all raw stock was delivered in ready-to-machine shapes and sizes. the return stroke. is less dependent on correct blade tension and less likely to run-out. 1974). (Thompson and Sarwar. select the suitable work piece. there would be no need for sawing machines in a metal working shop. hacksawing is a tried and tested method. giving a discontinuous cutting action. a single blade is tensioned in the bow. it is simpler and more economical to carry out the basic cutting- to-size operation in house.3. 2. Machine operators could merely go over to the stock. The low initial cost coupled with the flexibility and adaptability. One of the major advantages of sawing over all other kinds of machining is the narrowness of cut op. Despite this disadvantage. Furthermore power hacksaws can be left unattended for long periods when cutting large diameter bar and require minimum operator skill. During the second half of the cycle. The simplicity in the blade motion has kept the price of the saw machine relatively cheaper than other types of sawing machines. has enabled the hacksaw to remain popular in industry. The cutting action is achieved only during half of the cycle of operation. band saws and circular saws.

5. This type of machine generally has a work piece capacity between 150 . Hydraulic Machines The thrust force between the blade and the work piece in this type of machine is developed by a hydraulic device. unlike most other material removal processes.2. In some of these machines. Therefore. Due to the light construction and gravity feed the applications for this type of machine are limited. which is usually of light construction for general duty.5.2. 2. greater flexibility of control has been introduced by means of an arc cutting action combined with a universally controlled hydraulic system which allows better performance from the saw 7 . although some machines are provided with adjustable masses on the over- arm for thrust load adjustment. Pressure may be developed in the load cylinder by either a restricted back-flow system. The thrust. A third. Power hacksaw machines are used mainly for cutting-off operations.1. according to the method used to develop the load between the blade and the work piece. Gravity Feed Machines In this type of machine. load varies throughout the cutting stroke due to the reciprocating displacement of the over arm mass and the action of the cam operated lift-off device which acts at the beginning and the end of the stroke. the thrust load is developed by the gravity feed of the saw bow. The machines available can be divided into two broad categories. namely gravity feed machines and hydraulic machines.5.200 mm (6 and 8 inches) diameter and is ideal for the small workshop where the cutting requirement is only occasional and the configuration of work pieces to be cut ranges from mild steel flat complex shaped sections and tubular sections up to 6 inches diameter. Types of Hacksawing Machines For a given blade and work piece the material removal rates achieved by hydraulic and gravity fed machines are controlled solely by the thrust loads developed. hacksawing may be said to be a process in which the material removal rate is force controlled. In many of these machines the magnitude of the thrust load is fixed. or the pressure may be supplied from a separate pump. but not common machine is the positive displacement machine. 2.

rotating wheels.5. The advanced types of heavy duty electro-hydraulic hacksaws have a very wide range of operation and are available in semi-automatic or fully automatic form. 2. by intentionally twisting the blade so that the toothed faces in line with the machine throat. As with hacksaw machines. thus the length of the work piece could only be as long as the machine throat. unlike hacksawing. and part of the band is exposed to carry out the cutting operation of the work piece. a few machines are available where the feed rate of the blade and hence. These machines are the most common and develop greater thrust loads than machines of other type and have a reputation for sawing without problems and requiring minimum operator skill. Whilst earlier metal sawing bands were wide (over 25 mm). narrow blades. and were used strictly for cut off methods.blade. Band Sawing Band sawing. is a continuous cutting operation. the band. band saws can be divided into two broad categories. introduced about 50 years ago brought contouring capabilities. with the teeth fed against the work piece.3. giving a positive feed. they were limited in use by the basic design.6. Positive Displacement Machines Whilst these machines are not as popular as the gravity feed or hydraulic machines. the metal removal rate is directly controlled by a mechanical screw device. controlled by a dash-pot and using a25 8 . However modern machines have been modified to give adequate throat clearance. The feature of power down-feed to the saw bow incorporated in these machines makes the machine suitable for cutting the tougher steels and alloys. Positive displacement machines are not prone to variation in thrust loads during the cutting stroke-since the thrust loads directly arise as a result of the constant rate of penetration of the blade teeth. An endless blade. with provisions for automatic feeding of bar stock. 2. The band travels in a continuous motion. This type of machine can lead to overloading of the blade giving premature blade failure particularly when the blade is worn. A general purpose band saw having gravity fed system. is tensioned between two shrouded. Furthermore. due to the small throat clearance of the early band saws. cutting-off to predetermined sizes and unloading etc.

With vertical feed. provides a complete cutting facility for the small fabricator. to allow the cutting of difficult alloys. The bench or floor mounted manual-feed circular saw. Modern production circular saws are built with several alternate basic feed mechanisms i. The machines available range from the earlier. having features such as dial-in component length.. are widely used where high quality production is required and often present the production engineer with a difficult choice to make between circular sawing and band sawing. 2. cutting all grades of steel and to introduce high accuracy and reliability. This machine is suitable for general fabrication work and accurate cutting of solid bars.e. A third basic feeding arrangement is a pivot motion or rocking-head system. This operation is similar to a milling operation. On machines designed for horizontal feed the blade is fed into the work piece from the back. the rotating blade travels downwards in a straight line to engage the work piece. in process gauging. hand-loaded models to the very large. Circular Sawing Circular saws have a continuous cutting action. when installed together with a general duty band saw or hacksawing a small workshop.7. it has been necessary for the band saw machine manufacturers to incorporate in the design not only heavy duty construction having capacities up to 450 mm (18 inches) diameters but also innovations in the hydraulic power down-feed. In order to meet the present day requirements for high-volume production. choice of loading magazines.. etc. The choice of the most suitable type of machine depends on the particular application and the size and shape of component. is the most popular machine available. Fully automatic circular saws. rocking head and variations of these. (Suzuki et. horizontal. al. and a large range of rotational speeds. 1998) 9 . This type of machine is limited to about 175 mm (7 inches) diameter for mild steel. vertical. inexpensive. use blades having many teeth. power loaded type and incorporate material handling devices for semi and then fully automatic (1 inch) deep blade. such as nimonics and titanium. this is as efficient as a vertical feed system and is a rugged arrangement.

uniform over the cutting stroke. (v) Some means of indicating and correcting blade tension. (iii) Adjustable stroke. Its limitations are due to its mode of operation. coupled with the low initial cost. Features of Modern Hacksaw The simplicity of design and operation. 10 . and the fact that not all the length of the blade is utilized. i.2. cutting only on half of the stroke.8. and a fast return stroke. (vi) Automatic stopping device when the cut is complete. Some of the features in a modern hacksaw which achieve improved performance are: (i) A range of cutting speeds. (iv) Automatic relief of the blade on the return stroke. (ii) Means to regulate and monitor the cutting pressure. the slow cutting speed. has made the hacksaw grow in popularity.e.

General Power hacksaws are used to cut large sections of metal or plastic shafts and rods. The Power hacksaw machine though being able to cut the shaft or rod without requiring any human effort to cut.1. Fig. it does require a human intervention to feed the work-piece many times with measurements being taken each time before feeding. Automatic Power Hacksaw Machine 11 . Once the operator has fed the work-piece till the required length in to the machine and starts the machine. Therefore power hacksaw machine is used to carry out the difficult and time consuming work. This power hacksaw machine shown in figure 1 is considered as an automatic machine because the operator need not be there to provide the reciprocating motion and downward force on the work-piece in order to cut it.CHAPTER 3 PROJECT METHODOLOGY 3.1. Cutting of solid shafts or rods of diameters more than fifteen millimeters is a very hard work with a normal hand held hacksaw.3. then the machine will cut until the work-piece has been completely cut in to two pieces.

2.2. Introduction The design of the paint mixing machine involves the initial stages of concept design and their purposes. Then. use of sensors and microcontroller were decided and finally a specific one was chosen after evaluating them on the basis of complexity. a detailed design of the same was presented which includes individual features. then designed base on base table (8x8)inch for holding shaft connected with crank and material used is mild steel. then fly wheel (Φ 9inch) and material used is cast iron.then pulley(Φ 3. then shaft (12inch. ease of fabrication and simplicity.3. then upper arm (3x36inch) is connected to the back arm and material used mild steel. Different concepts of color picking mechanisms. then again shaft is attached to the collar clamp ball bearing and fly wheel.2. specifications and CAD model presentation. then back arm (18x7)inch and material used is mild steel.3.2.Φ25mm) is used as connecting link for collar clamp ball bearing and back arm and material used is mild steel. then collar clamp ball bearing is attached with back arm (Φ 25mm) and material used is stainless steel.2. (a) Concept of automatic power hacksaw machine 12 .1. Concept Design In the concept design various parts have been designed like base table (36x18x24)inch and material used is mild steel.5inch) is connected to the ac motor and material used is cast iron. then collar clamp ball bearing (Φ 25mm) is designed on base and material used is mild steel . Fig. 3. Design of Automatic Power Hacksaw Machine 3. then ac motor (1200rpm) is attached under the base table .

3. Fig. Part Design 3. (b) Concept of automatic power hacksaw machine 3.2.3. Back Arm It is used to balance the horizontal arm and it is attached to shaft with the help of collar ball bearing. Back arm 13 .1.3.3. Fig.2. Its dimension is (18x7) inch.3.2. Fig. Bolt It is used for the fixing of collar clamp ball bearing and bench vice for proper alignment of shaft and flywheel.3.3. Collar Clamp ball bearing It is fixed on the base table with bolt and nut for proper alignment of back arm and the upper arm.3. Bolt 14 .2.3.2. Collar Clamp ball bearing 3. Fig.

6. Fly Wheel 15 . Fly Wheel It is used for storing energy when not required.5.2. Fig. Nut 3. connecting rod and collar clamp ball bearing for tightening bolts. Fig.3.3.3. Nut It is used in bench vice.7.

Base Table 3. Shaft 16 . collar clamp ball bearing.9.6. and collar clamp ball bearing.3.3.2. shaft. Base Table It is stand on which all parts are mounted like ac motor. Fig. fly wheel. Shaft It is used here for moving of back arm. fly wheel and upper arm.3. Fig.

2.8. For cutting purpose work piece should be align parallel to the base table. Bench Vice It is used to hold the work piece.3.10. Fig.3.3. Bench Vice 17 .

3. Ball bearings 2.It is an outstanding advantage of a rolling contact bearing over a sliding contact bearing that it has a low starting friction.1.The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. Roller bearings. Pillow Block Bearing In rolling contact bearings.3. one race is stationary and the other is attached to the rotating assembly (e.3.11.these are called antifriction bearings. Ball bearings tend to have lower load capacity for their size than other kinds of rolling-element bearings due to the smaller contact area between the balls and races. It achieves this by using at least two races to contain the balls and transmit the loads through the balls.g. al.3. However.. the contact between the bearing surfaces is rolling instead of sliding as in sliding contact bearings. 3.Due to this low friction offered by rolling contact bearings. UCP 205 ball bearing A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the bearing races. a hub or shaft).3. 2015) 3.. In most applications. Because the balls are rolling they have a much lower coefficient of friction than if two flat surfaces were sliding against each other.1. As one of the bearing races rotates it causes the balls to rotate as well. they can tolerate some misalignment of the inner and outer races. ordinary sliding contact bearing starts from rest with practically metal-to-metal contact and has a high coefficient of friction. Components Used Following components has been used to construct this project.( Kurvinen et.1. Types of rolling contact bearings: 1. Fig. 18 .

Cleanliness. Accuracy of shaft alignment. The ball bearings are used for light loads and the roller bearings are used for heavier loads. 3.The ball and roller bearings consist of an inner race which is mounted on the shaft or journal and an outer race which is carried by the housing or casing. More noisy at very high speeds. 2. 5. Low resistance to shock loading. (a) Ball Bearing Fig. 19 . Reliability of service. 8.12. 3.12. (Khurmi and Gupta. 4.3.1. as no lubrication is required while in service. Disadvantages of rolling contact bearing: 1. 4.1. 2. Design of bearing housing complicated.3. Advantages of rolling contact bearings: 1. 6.3. there are balls or rollers as shown in Fig. The retainers are thin strips and are usually in two parts which are assembled after the balls have been properly spaced. 2012) Fig. Small overall dimensions. 7. (b) Ball Bearing 3.3. Ability to withstand momentary shock loads. More initial cost. Low cost of maintenance. 3.2.3. Low starting and running friction except at very high speeds. Easy to mount and erect. In between the inner and outer race. A number of balls or rollers are used and these are held at proper distances by retainers so that they do not touch each other.

2012).13.3. internal combustion engines. The amount of energy stored in a flywheel is proportional to the square of its rotational speed. (a) Flywheel Fig. these are generally limited to a revolution rate of a few thousand RPM . a flywheel releases stored energy by applying torque to a mechanical load. reciprocating compressors and pumps. Conversely. the energy is developed during one stroke and the engine is to run for the whole cycle on the 20 . Flywheel A flywheel used in machines serves as a reservoir which stores energy during the period when the supply of energy is more than the requirement and releases it during the period when the requirement of energy is more than supply. Flywheels have a significant moment of inertia and thus resist changes in rotational speed.2. Energy is transferred to a flywheel by applying torque to it. (b) Flywheel In case of steam engines.Some modern flywheels are made of carbon fiber materials and employ magnetic bearings enabling them to revolve at speeds up to 60. thereby increasing its rotational speed.13. and hence its stored energy. Fig.3.3.3. thereby decreasing the flywheel's rotational speed. Flywheels are typically made of steel and rotate on conventional bearings.000 RPM. (Raj.

Cheaper vises may be made of brittle cast iron.C. we have used an engineer’s vice. and it releases energy to its mechanical loads when no piston is exerting torque on it. the flywheel stores energy when torque is applied by the energy produced during this one stroke. In this case. engines. Vices have two parallel jaws. shearing machines. in I. Hence a flywheel does not maintain a constant speed.3. its speed increases and when it releases. The excess energy developed during power stroke is absorbed by the flywheel and releases it to the crankshaft during other strokes in which no energy is developed. a flywheel is used to maintain constant angular velocity of the crankshaft in a reciprocating engine. Bench Vice 21 . In such cases. In machines where the operation is intermittent like punching machines. 3. and it releases stored energy when the energy source is not applying torque to it. It is typically made of cast steel or malleable cast iron. thus rotating the crankshaft at a uniform speed. For example. is used to clamp metal. For example. riveting machines. one fixed and the other movable. the energy is developed only during power stroke which is much more than the engine load.3. the flywheel stores energy from the power source during the greater portion of the operating cycle and gives it up during a small period of the cycle. and no energy is being developed during suction. Vices are of various types. Flywheels are often used to provide continuous energy in systems where the energy source is not continuous.14. Thus the energy from the power source to the machines is supplied practically at a constant rate throughout the operation.. the flywheel—which is mounted on the crankshaft—stores energy when torque is exerted on it by a firing piston. A little consideration will show that when the flywheel absorbs energy. Bench Vice Vice is a mechanical apparatus used to secure an object to allow work to be performed on it. crushers etc. compression and exhaust strokes in case of four stroke engines and during compression in case of two stroke engines. threaded in and out by a screw and lever. Fig. it simply reduces the fluctuation of speed. which use flywheel energy to power devices such as toy cars. Other examples of this are friction motors. also known as a metalworking vice or fitter vice.3. the speed decreases.

lead.4. It should have low notch sensitivity factor. 3.15 Shaft The material used for shafts should have the following properties: 1. Shaft A shaft is a rotating machine element which is used to transmit power from one place to another. It should have good heat treatment properties. we may say that a shaft is used for the transmission of torque and bending moment.3. 3. It should have high wear resistant properties. 4. In order to transfer the power from one shaft to another. The vice may include other features such as a small anvil on the back of its body. 3. An engineer's vice is bolted onto the top surface of a workbench. 22 .The jaws are often separate and replaceable. These members along with the forces exerted upon them causes the shaft to bending. with the face of the fixed jaws just forward of its front edge. usually engraved with serrated or diamond teeth. gears etc. 5. the various members such as pulleys. 2. The power is delivered to the shaft by some tangential force and the resultant torque (or twisting moment) set up within the shaft permits the power to be transferred to various machines linked up to the shaft. Soft jaw covers made of aluminum. In other words. It should have high strength. Fig. or plastic may be used to protect delicate work.. It should have good machinability. The various members are mounted on the shaft by means of keys or splines. are mounted on it.

3. Rigidity 3. (b) Shafts subjected to bending moment only.5 inch pulley (Usher. 3. We have used a 3. belt. the following cases may be considered: (a) Shafts subjected to twisting moment or torque only. Stiffness In designing shafts on the basis of strength. The residual stresses may cause distortion of the shaft when it is machined. 3.3.4. Manufacturing of Shafts Shafts are generally manufactured by hot rolling and finished to size by cold drawing or turning and grinding.4. or chain that runs over the pulley inside the grooves to lift loads. and to transmit power. The drive element of a pulley system can be a rope. (d) Shafts subjected to axial loads in addition to combined torsional and bending loads. The cold rolled shafts are stronger than hot rolled shafts but with higher residual stresses.1. Pulleys are used in a variety of way a pulley may also be called a sheave or drum and may have a groove between two flanges around its circumference. Pulley A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a cable or belt along its circumference. Design of Shafts The shafts may be designed on the basis of: 1. 2013).3.5. Strength 2. (c) Shafts subjected to combined twisting and bending moments. cable. 23 . Shafts of larger diameter are usually forged and turned to size in a lathe. especially when slots or Keyways are cut.2.3. apply forces.

more complex models of pulley systems that work in different ways to serve different functions. lifting loads. require an equal amount of effort to the load to lift it off the ground. if used individually. Some pulley systems can make use of more than one or more pulleys which are linked. the wheel is secured at a fixed place and does not move.3. the load is attached to one end of the rope while the wheel is secured at a higher position with the rope running through it and the force being applied to one end of the rope to lift the load on the other end. The advantage of using such systems is that they reduce the amount of effort required to get work done. single fixed pulleys. There are several different. For simple. It is easier to lift a load when the wheel is secured at the top and the rope is pulled downwards to lift the load rather than having to pull the rope upwards to lift a load in some movable pulley systems.16 (a) Pulley Fig. Fig. The wheel can be secured at the top in some pulley systems and can be movable in some.16 (b) Pulley The application of pulleys can be for many different functions. This is one of the simplest models of a pulley system demonstrating how it works. applying forces or transmitting power. The advantage with this is that one does not have to push or pull a load to be able to move the load as it allows for easy displacement of the load. These pulleys are the only pulley systems though which. The disadvantage being that more effort is required to move the load as compared to other pulley systems. 24 .3. The output force or work done by a pulley system can be calculated by multiplying the effort required to pull the rope to lift a load with the distance the that the rope moves. In this system. There are three types of pulleys: The simplest type of pulleys is the fixed pulley systems. What this system does is that it changes the direction of the force in order to complete a task.

and pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. This way. the wheel used in the pulley moves along with the load that is being displaced. 25 .Unlike a fixed pulley system. These systems have the advantages of both the fixed and movable pulley systems as one would not require pushing and pulling a load to be able to transfer it. The third type of pulley systems present today is the compound pulley systems. whereby the load is placed in between the fulcrum and the effort. A power hacksaw (or electric hacksaw) is a type of hacksaw that is powered by electric motor. These are a combination of fixed and movable pulleys. lesser force is required by the user to carry out the same task if using a fixed pulley system. Stationary models usually have a mechanism to lift up the saw blade on the return stroke and some have a coolant pump to prevent the saw blade from overheating.3. Hacksaw A hacksaw is a fine-tooth saw with a blade under tension in a frame. used for cutting materials such as metal. in turn making the job seem more easier. The disadvantage with these systems is that one has to pull or push to displace a load and the main advantage is that it requires lesser effort to be able to move the load. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. This pulley also acts as a second class lever. movable pulley systems are able to multiply the force that a user applies to the machine to carry out a task.6. in the movable pulley systems. 3. Most power hacksaws are stationary machines but some portable models do exist. This function of the pulleys allows it to use lesser effort to be able to move the load. Unlike fixed pulley systems that exert only as much force on the load as that of which is applied on the rope. Hand-held hacksaws consist of a metal frame with a handle.

The AC motor is turned on after the work-piece has been firmly fit in the pneumatic chuck. The AC motor commonly consists of two basic parts. an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with alternating current to produce a rotating magnetic field. which operates by a simple crank mechanism to convert rotary motion of crank into reciprocating motion Hacksaw blade.3. is produced with the help of an AC motor. The Torque of motor is increased by transmission of power to a pulley by belt transmission. The last step in the manufacturing process is surface cleaning. Fig. Hacksaw Hacksaw blades (both hand & power hacksaw) are generally made up of carbon steel or high speed steel strip rolls. The reciprocating motion of the Hacksaw blade.7. AC MOTOR An AC motor is an electric motor driven by an alternating current (AC). and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft producing a second rotating magnetic field.17. printing and packing of the hacksaw blades for market supply. reluctance saliency. teeth are being made on the blank by milling or hobbling process. because of which the cutting process takes place. The blank of required size is obtained by fixing the strip rolls on the stand of semi-automatic strip cutting machine and punched a hole at their both ends. The rotor magnetic field may be produced by permanent magnets. painting. 3. or DC or AC electrical windings. Once teeth are being cut. 26 . the hacksaw blades are heat treated and tempered for the required hardness. Then.3.

This is achieved by coupling the rotor of the AC motor to a pulley by a belt drive. 27 . Motor The torque of the AC motor must be increased so as to bring about the necessary power for cutting of work-pieces efficiently. 2.19 (a) V Belt Fig. So.3. The tension under which the belt is placed on the pulleys.8.19 (b) V Belt The amount of power transmitted depends upon the following factors: 1. The pulley is coupled to the reciprocating mechanism.18.3. 3. The velocity of the belt. Fig. V Belt The belts or ropes are used to transmit power from one shaft to another by means of pulleys which rotate at the same speed or at different speeds.3. 3. this will reduce the rotating speed while increasing the torque.

(e) The tight side of the belt should be at the bottom. load of the bearings. It may be noted that: (a) The shafts should be properly in line to insure uniform tension across the belt section. so that whatever sag is present on the loose side will increase the arc of contact at the pulleys. The conditions under which the belt is used.3. (f) In order to obtain good results with flat belts. They provide the best combination of traction. (b) The pulleys should not be too close together. which in turn develops crooked spots in the belt. They are generally endless. but less than three times the sum of both pulleys. The belt also tends to wedge into the groove as the load increases—the greater the load.5 times the diameter of the larger pulley. The "V" shape of the belt tracks in a mating groove in the pulley (or sheave). needing less width and tension than flat belts. with the result that the belt cannot slip off. The arc of contact between the belt and the smaller pulley. the greater the wedging action—improving torque transmission and making the V-belt an effective solution.130 m/min).000 ft. (c) The pulleys should not be so far apart as to cause the belt to weigh heavily on the shafts. (d) A long belt tends to swing from side to side. causing the belt to run out of the pulleys. /min (300–2. 28 . The preferred center distance is larger than the largest pulley diameter. thus increasing the friction load on the bearings. 4. Optimal speed range is 1.000– 7. in order that the arc of contact on the smaller pulley may be as large as possible. V belts are the basic belt for power transmission. V-belts trump flat belts with their small center distances and high reduction ratios. the maximum distance between the shafts should not exceed 10 meters and the minimum should not be less than 3. and long service life. V-belts need larger pulleys for their thicker cross-section than flat belts. speed of movement. and their general cross-section shape is trapezoidal hence the name "V".

When an endless belt does not fit the need. A screw made by cutting a single helical groove on the cylinder is known as single threaded (or single-start) screw and if a second thread is cut in the space between the grooves of the first. A screwed joint is mainly composed of two elements i. This may be for the purpose of holding or adjustment in assembly or service inspection. repair. A link v-belt is a number of polyurethane/polyester composite links held together. The fibers may be of textile materials such as cotton. polyamide (such as Nylon) or polyester or. or replacement or it may be for the manufacturing or assembly reasons. jointed and link V-belts may be employed.e.9 Bolt and Nuts A screw thread is formed by cutting a continuous helical groove on a cylindrical surface. These provide easy installation and superior environmental resistance compared to rubber belts and is length adjustable by disassembling and removing links when needed (Khurmi and Gupta 2012).3.8. for greatest strength. either by themselves. of steel or aramid (such as Tarpon or Kevlar). or by metal studs. Advantages and Disadvantages of Screwed Joints: Following are the advantages of the screwed joints: 1. two or more V-belts can be joined side-by-side in an arrangement called a multi-V. 3. V-belts may be homogeneously rubber or polymer throughout or there may be fibers embedded in the rubber or polymer for strength and reinforcement.3. Most models offer the same power and speed ratings as equivalently-sized endless belts and do not require special pulleys to operate. The screwed joints are widely used where the machine parts are required to be readily connected or disconnected without damage to the machine or the fastening. Similarly. The parts may be rigidly connected or provisions may be made for predetermining. running on matching multi-groove sheaves. This is known as a multiple-V-belt drive (or sometimes a "classical V-belt drive"). The helical grooves may be cut either right hand or left-hand. 3.For high-power requirements. Screwed joints are highly reliable in operation. such as Fanner Drives' Power Twist.e. 29 . multiple- start) threads may be formed. a double threaded (or double-start) screw is formed. a bolt and nut. triple and quadruple (i. such as Gates Nu-T-Link.1.

Pitch diameter. It is the smallest diameter of an external or internal screw thread. Major diameter. The screw is specified by this diameter. Screwed joints are convenient to assemble and disassemble.3. Following are the disadvantages of the screwed joints: The main disadvantage of the screwed joints is the stress concentration in the threaded portions which are vulnerable points under variable load conditions. Screw Threads 1. It is the diameter of an imaginary cylinder. 3. on a cylindrical screw thread. In 30 .2. the surface of which would pass through the thread at such points as to make equal the width of the thread and the width of the spaces between the threads. Important Terms Used in Screw Threads The following terms used in screw threads are important from the subject point of view: Fig.20. 4. Screws are relatively cheap to produce due to standardization and highly efficient manufacturing processes. 2. It is also known as outside or nominal diameter. It is also known as core or root diameter. 3. 3.8. A wide range of screwed joints may be adapted to various operating conditions. Minor diameter. It is also called an effective diameter. It is the largest diameter of an external or internal screw thread.3.2.

31 . 7. Pitch. It is the angle included by the flanks of the thread. 11. It is the distance from a point on one thread to the corresponding point on the next. Crest. Root. It is the surface joining the crest and root. 10. It is the bottom surface created by the two adjacent flanks of the thread. it is the diameter at which the ridges on the bolt are in complete touch with the ridges of the corresponding nut. It is the distance between two corresponding points on the same helix. Mathematically. This is measured in an axial direction between corresponding points in the same axial plane. it is twice the pitch in double start. Flank. It is the top surface of the thread. 8. 6. It may also be defined as the distance which a screw thread advances axially in one rotation of the nut. 9. Lead. Depth of thread. Angle of thread. It is half the pitch of the thread.a nut and bolt assembly. thrice the pitch in triple start and so on. 4. 5. Slope. It is the perpendicular distance between the crest and root. Lead is equal to the pitch in case of single start threads.

Construction of base table: It was made using mild steel. Four legs made of mild steel of length 24 inch were attached to the four corners of a plate of dimension (36x18) inch made up of mild steel using arc welding. The fabrication of each part and mechanism are described in the following section.4.4. Fabrication: Fabrication means providing a physical shape to the prepared model.21. Construction of Base Table 32 . Fig. Fabrication was mostly done using the metal parts. The base and the support structures were made using the parts made up of cast iron.

3. two UCP 205 clamp containing ball bearing at a distance of 10 inch were fixed on the base table using nut and bolt of length 3 inch and diameter 0. Mounting of clamp containing ball bearing to hold shaft on the bench table: Four circular holes each of half inch were made using welding arc to fix clamp containing ball bearing on the base table. After making holes. After fixing two clamps containing ball bearing on the base table a shaft of length 12 inch and diameter 25 mm were inserted into the ball bearing to hold back arm.5 inch.4.22. Fig.3. Mounting of clamp containing ball bearing to hold shaft on the bench table 33 .3.

Fixing of back arm into the shaft 34 . Fixing of back arm into the shaft: Back arm of length 18 inch and breadth 8 inch were fixed into the shaft.4. Fig.

Fig. Fixing of horizontal arm to the vertical arm 35 .5. Fixing of horizontal arm to the vertical arm: Two holes of 25 mm were made into the back arm (vertical arm) then shaft of 25 mm were inserted into these two holes through two clamp containing ball bearing.3.4. A horizontal arm of length 33 inch and breadth 2.75 inch was then fixed to the back arm by clamping horizontal arm into the ball bearing.3.24.

Mounting of motor and flywheel 36 .A shaft of length 23 inch and diameter 25mm was fixed to this flywheel and a pulley of 3. with this pulley a flywheel of 9 inch was connected with the help of V-belt (A-1001 LP/A38 B-set).3. Fig.25.25 HP was mounted under the base table.5 inch diameter was fixed to the other end of shaft. Pulley of 2 inch diameter was fixed into the shaft of motor and then flywheel of 9 inch diameter was connected to this pulley with the help of V.3. Mounting of motor and flywheel Motor of 920 RPM and 0.4.6.belt (A 950 LP/A36 B-Set).

5 inch. Making of base for holding shaft connected with crank 37 . breadth 3.5 inch. Fig.3.3. Shaft was then inserted into these bearing.4.7.26. One end of shaft was connected to the flywheel of diameter 9 inch and other end was connected to the crank of length 4.5 inch.25 inch and breadth of 1.5 inch.Two clamp containing ball bearing of diameter 1 inch was fixed onto this base with the help of nut and bolt of length 3 inch and diameter 0. Crank was then connected to the connecting rod of length 7 inch and breadth 1.5 inch and height 5 inch was made to hold the shaft of length 12 inch and diameter 25mm. Making of base for holding shaft connected with crank: A base of length 5.

3. After mounting hacksaw to the horizontal arm.5 inch and 6 inch welded to the horizontal arm. bench vice was mounted to the base table by fixing it with nut and bolt of length 2 inch and diameter 8 mm.8. Mounting of hacksaw to the horizontal arm and mounting of bench vice to the base table: Hacksaw was mounted to the horizontal arm by welding hacksaw to the two vertical arm of length 7.4.3. Fig.27. Mounting of hacksaw to the horizontal arm and mounting of bench vice to the base table 38 .

401 Nm 39 .2286 m Driving Pulley speed N (2) = 204.5 rpm Torque T (Driving) (2) = 8.5. Torque T (Driven) (1) = 8. this will reduce the rotating speed while increasing the torque. Calculation The torque of the AC motor must be increased so as to bring about the necessary power for cutting of work-pieces efficiently.44 rpm Driven Pulley speed N (driven) (2) = 79. Motor.2286 m Therefore. N (driving) = 920 rpm Driven Pulley speed N (1) = 204.186 kW Power = 2πNT/60 Torque T (Driving) = 1. Reduction Ratio= 4. The pulley is coupled to the reciprocating mechanism.7113 Nm Driving Pulley (2) diameter= 0.0508 m Driven Pulley (1) diameter= 0.3.5:1 Speed of motor. Torque T (Driven) (2) = 22.44 rpm Power = 0.0889 m Driven Pulley (2) diameter= 0. This is achieved by coupling the rotor of the AC motor to a pulley by a belt drive. So.25 hp = 0.935 Nm Therefore. driving Pulley (1) diameter= 0.7113Nm Therefore.


Recommendation has been made on the operation and parameters of the machine. The cut was observed to be neat and straight. The total cost of producing the machine was estimated to be Rs13. For the loaded test. Suggestion have been offered on overall machine performance optimization and further work on the machine 41 . a shaft of diameter 25 mm and length 12 inch and the material of the shaft was mild steel was clamped on the vice of the machine. It took the machine 240 seconds to cut the with a new hacksaw blade. The total cost of equipment of the machine was Rs11.CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION Machine is driven by 1/4 HP and 920 rpm electric motor. 253. 253. Test was carried out on machine using different metal.

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION It is known that conventional hacksaw machine can be replaced with automatic power hacksaw machine. the machine uses 12 inch blade for cutting. In this rapid emerging industrial era. The automatic hacksaw machine can be made use of at any of the industries like pump manufacturing industries that involve bulk amount of shafts that have to be cut frequently. The major advantage of this machine is that intervention of labor is reduced to maximum level. 42 . Time and labor plays a major role in production process this can be overcome by using this type of automatic machines. Automatic power hacksaw machine gives high productivity in short time period in comparison with the conventional hacksaw machines. The range of size of work-pieces that can be cut using the automatic hacksaw machine can be varied by changing the blade size. Currently. the use of power Hacksaw machine is wide.

the machine will automatically feed the given length of work-piece and start to cut till the given number of work-pieces will be cut. In fully automated machine the operator need not measure the length of the work-piece that is to be cut and to load and unload the work-piece each time after a piece has been cut. which will help the user to verify the data given by him. After acquiring the two inputs from the operator. 43 . The inputs can be given by the operator with the help of a keypad and an LCD display. The operator need to only enter the two input namely the number of pieces to be cut and the length of each piece that is required to be cut.CHAPTER 6 FUTURE SCOPE The machine can be fully automated by using Microcontroller.

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