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THE U.S.

ARMED FORCES
GERMAN YOUTH ACTIVITIES PROGRAM
1945 - 1955

HISTORICAL DIVISION
HEADQUARTERS,
UNITED STATES ARMY, EUROPE
1956
F O R E W O R D

The purpose of this monograph is to relate the history of the
efforts of the United States armed forces to assist German youth, both
organized and unorganized, during the 10-year occupation period follow-
ing World War 11, After tracing the development of the program from its
informal beginnings in 1945 through its formal organization in the spring
of 1.946, the study analyzes the operation of the program In its peak
years and concludes with a discussion of the phase-out and termination
of the pmgram. Among the topics discussed are the establishment of
youth centem, the activities sponsored by the program, personnel and
s u p p o r t problems, and relationships with the German communities,

The study w a s prepared by the staff of the Current History Branch,
Historical Division, based on research conducted in USaREUR headquarters
f i l e s and in the command's retired files, which were recalled from the
Kansas City Records Center, Kansas City, Missouri, Additional infor-
mation was obtained from interviews with key personnel at both staff and
operating levels.

Recent monographs and special studies published by this Division
are listed on the inside cover opposite the title page, A. limited
number of these publications is available for distribution upon request
eent to the Chief, Historical Division, USBREUR, APO 164.

Colonel AGC
August 1956 Chief, Historical Division

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CONTENTS

FO~O~.............................. ii

CHApTE3 1: IMMEDIATE: POSTWAR PERIOD

1.
2. . . .
Early O f f i c i a l P o l i c i e s
. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
The Youth Problem A n t i c i p a t e d
.
3. The F i r s t Program ................
4. The Theater-wide Program. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
5. The K r e i s Youth Committees.

CHAPTER 2: THE ORGANIZATIONAL PHASE, 1946-47

.......
6.
. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
The Beginning of Army B s s i s t a n c e . 8
7. The USFET Program 11
0 . German-Sponsored Group8 12
9. Youth Amnesty . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . 13
10. D e f i n i n g t h e Armyts Role.
11. The C r e a t i o n of Army Youth Centers.
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14
1.7
. . . ....... 18
. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
12. A d j u s t i n g P r a c t i c e t o P o l i c y .
1 3 * The C i v i c C e n t e r s 19
20
14 The P e r s o n n e l Problem
16. Christmas P a r t i e s . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
15 L o g i s t i c a l Support. 23
24
1-7 We If a r e . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . 26
27
18. P r e v e n t i v e Medicine
. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
1 9 A p p r a i s a l of GYA. 27
20. Communist Reactions ........ 29

CHAPTER 3: OPERATION, 1948-51

21.
22. The General Clay Fund .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
F i n a n c i n g t h e Program 31
32
...............
General A c t i v i t i e s . 33
23
.............
The Chief GYA P r o j e c t s . 34
24
Other P r o j e c t s . ................. 36
25
26. . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. .. ..
Personnel D i f f i c u l t i e s .
Reduction of U.S. Constabulary Aid.
38
39
27
...........
M o d i f i c a t i o n o f the, Program 40
28.
29 Youth Leadership T r a i n i n g
L e g a l i $ y of t h e Program
.
. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 42
43
30
31. .........
Democratic R e o r i e n t a t i o n Survey 47

- iii -
-
CONTENT S--continued -
Page
CHAPTER 4: THE PHASEDUT, 1951-55

32. ...
Plans for Transfer of GYA Responsibilities 419
i

3 3 . Initial Transfer Attempts............ 511
.......
34. Consequence of Reduction of finds. 51
35. Transfer of Centers. .............. 512
37. Beginning of the End
...
36. The Joint USAREUR-HICOG Working Committee.
..............
54
56
38. The Final Phaseout ............... 58
GLOSSBIiY............................. 60
CHRONOLOGY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Charts

Chart 1 --Organizational Chart, German Youth Program ...... 16
i'a--Liaison Contacts between EUCOM and OMGUS Agencies ... 41
i'b--.EUCOMLiaison with and Assistance to German Youth
Agencies.. ...................... 41

Maps

Map 1--Occupied Zones of Germany, 1945. ............. 3

Illustrations

1.
2.
German orphans greeting U.S. soldiers, 1945
Instructing German youth in American basketball,
. . . . Precedling !I
Bam'berg, 1946 ................... Oppoaiite 11.
3. GYA Center at Schwabing, near Munich, 1948.
The Bhderstein Youth Center in Construction. . . .
.... I1
tt
1i'
151
4.
5. The B i a d e r a t s i n Youth Center completed, 1951. . . . tt 141
6. Chria%mm par%y sponsored by Anwrlcxim stationed in
NurrmbQPsFg, ..................
11945 It 25'
7. 1st and 2d p r i z e winners of one of the first Soapbox
Derbies ...................... Preceding 35
.
8 . Preparing entries € o r Handicraft Contest at GYA
...........
Center workshop, Berlin, 1953
............ Opposite 36
9. GYA summer camp in hvaria. 81
46
10. Preparing entries €or Handicraft Contest at GYA
Center, B e r l i n , 1953................ Preceding 57

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Y
I n t h e s p r i n g of 1945 t h e American %POOPS t a k i n g up olccupation duey
i n t h e d e f e a t e d Third Reich found r u i n 5 and r u b b l e where once spPen ib
c i t i e a had stood. A s t h e Bong columns of t r o o p s tkreaded t h e i r way
through t h e r u i n s , they were watched w i t h s u l l e n or f r i g h t e n e d c u r i o s i t y
by t h e crowds of weary and hungry c i v i l i a n s i n t h e shatterled c i t i e s ,
To t h e average s o l d i e r t h e s e shabby crowds were one w i t h t h e mounds of
r u b b l e . A t f i r s t he was i n d i f f e r e n t t o both, having s e e n t o o much of
t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of w a r and t o o many f r i g h t e n e d people crowding t h e roada
over wh-fch he had fought. Then, t h e small a h i l d r e n who f r e q u e n t l y
c l u s t e r e d about the w l l d i e r s d u r i n g h a l t s i n towns and v i l l a g e s caught
the s o l d i e r o e , a t t e n t i a n and o f t e n h i $ sympathy. Many s o l d i e r s enjoyed
t h e s m i l e s which came t o t h e f a c e s of t h e e h i l d r s n when t h e y were given
candy, chewing gum, and b i t 8 of food from t h e m i l i t a r y rat.fons. Broken
and h e s i t a t i n g l y shy e f f o r t s a t c @ n v @ r s a t i o nand games 80011 followed
t h e handouts of candy and food, from suah spontaneous beg.innings de-
veloped t h e f i r s t ooncerted a c t i o n s by which American m i l i t a r y personnel
b e f r i e n d e d German youth. Probably without r e a l i z i n g i t , l e t a l o n e with-
o u t b e i n g t r a i n e d or prepared f o r i t , t h e s e men were d e a l i n g w i t h one
of t h e many formidable s o c i a l problems emerging from t h e chaos of w a r ,

1. The Youth Problem A n t i c i p a t e d

SevwaP months b e f o r e V-E Day Supreme Headquarters PI11:Led Expe-
d i t i o n a r y Forces (SHAEF) 'Mad a l r e a d y been aware of t h e German youth
problsm that impending v i c t o r y would b r i n g t o t h e A l l i e s . The Education
and Rel i g i o u s Affairs Branch and t h e Welfare Bramh, both -in the SRBEF
G-5 Division, had v i e d f o r the assumption of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e
supervdsiun of German youth a c t i v i t i e s . The former had a n t i c i p a t e d t h e
demands of German schools and churches t o e s t a b l i s h o r r e s - t o r e youth
or o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , M i l i t a r y government and education o f f i c e r s had
been advised n o t t o heed such r e q u e s t s u n l e s s t h e purposea of m i l i t a r y
government were t o be served thereby. The p u b l i c a t i o n s of the Welfare
Branch had described youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s under t h e Weimar and Nazi
regimes and had p r e d i c t e d i n A p r i l 1945 t h a t youth a c t i v i t i e s would be
one of t h e most important f u n c t i o n s . o f m i l i t a r y government and t h a t a
p r s g ~ a mof youth a a t i v i t i e s would have t o be i n s t i t u t e d , Before April
1945 Supreme Headquarters had asafgned r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e srupemisj.ora
of youth program t o t h e Education and REmPigicSars Affairs Braneh,lb- The1
branch r e t a i n e d t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y through t h e s u a a e s s i o n of postwar
theater reorganizations, 2

2. x l g Official Policies

a. M i l i t a r y Government, I n t h e p e r i o d immediately f o l l o w i n g V-E Day
m i l i t a r y government r e g u l a t i o n s speeifiaaBPy p r o h i b i t e d a l l German youth
o r g a n i z a t i o n s , M i l i t a r y commanders were d i r e c t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t o prevent,
t h e r e c o n s t i t u t i o n o r a c t i v i t y of Nazi youth groups. The r e c o r d s and
propert,y o f thease groups were c o n f i s c a t e d , Such p r o p e r t y was sometimen
made a v a i l a b l e f o r use by approved educational organiizatisns, No youth
groupe could be fsmsd OF revived without the Supreme Commanderfla ( o r .I

USFET commanderes) permission, I n J u l y 1945 r @ l l g i o u s groups were
allowed t o conduet youth, 5 p o r t s , and w e l f a r e activities and t o r e c e i v e
c o n t r i b u t i o n s for t h e i r e u p p o r t o I n t h e same month m i l i t a r y governmenli
r e q u i r e d l o c a l German officfakw t o prepare 8 work program f a r c h i l d r e n
b e f o r e t h e reopening o f t h e echools, This SnoZuded c l e a n i n g public
b u i l d i n g s and s t r e e t s , c l e a r i n g r u b b l e and @ % h e r i n g ealurageabla con-
s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s , and a s s i s t i n g i n crop h a r v e s t i n g and 'otherpagri--
cultural work, 4 Youth O f f i c e s ( W d a e m t s T ) were a a t a b l i s h e d by
milftagy government@and s t a f f e d by Germam, t o s u p e r v i s e and t o provide
care f o r larphane8, needy, and d e l i n q u e n t b r m a n youth, The enormity sf
thfs~problemu l t i m a t e l y f o i l e d m i l i t a r y governmentus i n t e n t i o n of re-
t a i n i n g o n l y a d i r e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for youth a c t i v i t i e s and w e l f a r e .

'German Youth A c t i v i t i e s of t h e U,S, q m y , Occupation Forces i n
Europe Series, 1945-46, F i p s t Year, Vol, 15 (heGeafter e i t e d as GYA
Study), p. 2. I n UWREUR H i s t Div Ref Lib,
2SHAEF, a s t h e combined British-American command, w a s dissolved to
make way f o r a U.S. command i n charge of t h e American troops i n t h e
European t h e a t e r , The Buropean Theater of Operations, U , S , Army (ETOUSA) -
w a s b o t h t h e wartime supply and adrninistxation a g e m y L a n d t h e t r a n s i t i o d
o r g a n i z a t i o n used t o dissolve SHAEF, ETOUSA w m r e d e s i g n a t e d U,S Forces,
European T h e a t e r (USFET), O Q II J u l y 1945. SHAEF w a 8 o f f i c i a l l y d i s s o l v e d
on 14 J u l y , The G-5 Division of ETOUSA and t h e A m e r i c a n element of t h e
S W G-5 D i v i s i o n were e s n e o l f d a t e d i n t o t h e G-5 D i v i s i o n of USFET head-
q u a r t e r s , The U.S, Group, Control Caunoi'b, t h e American element of the
A l l i e d Control Council and t h e policy-determining agency f o r the UPSo
Zone, was r e d e s i g n a t e d t h e O f f i c e of Military Government, U G S , (OMGUS),
on 1 October 1945.
'(1) GYh Study, pp. 2-3, ( 2 ) USF'ET Itlay,7 Jul 4 5 $ sub: Sec VII
P a r t I Education P a r 1 2 ( A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f M i l i t a r y Government i n U.S.
Zone of Germany) AG 014.1-1 ( 6 )

- 2 -
MAP I
OCCUPIED ZONES OF GERMANY
. 'I I945

LEGEND:

-.------ --',,sender BOUNDARY
KILOMETERS
Consequently, m i l i t a r y governmen%% r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s could n o t and dnd
n o t c e a s e w i t h t h e s e t t i n g up of tef and o t h e r w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s ,
4

AS SO oftea h a p p ~ ~ o s f, r i c i z ~ lpoi i C Y had to
Initial l y , t h e controversial a o n f r a t e r n i -
ndly c o n t a - t a with G e r m a n q , MiIntary
ed not t o mingle with Germanq. upon bznw of
s t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y OT" in g ~ s u p a3 0 o f f i c i a l
o r unofficial dealjag.: h%BO amount o f o r i e n t a k i o n segim-ata-bi can
could convince the s o l d ~ e rof the soundness o f t h i s po
as i t r e l a t e d ti., -hi'Id p w a d violation of the
z a t , i a n p o l i c y began w i t h the estabhishment of f r i e n d l y v l a t i c y n f i between
American s o l d i e r s and Gsyman c h i l d r e n , Command s s c o g n i t i c n of the
s i t u a t i o n began on 8 June 1945 when U,S, t r o o p s were p e r m i t t e d t o assor;f-
a t e with German c h i l d r e n , Contacts w i t h t h e ohi3rllren l e d t o contacts
with thfe p a r e n t s , and on 10 J u l y 1945 f u r t h e r r e l a x a t i o n o f t h e n s n f T a t e r -
n i z a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s p e r m i t t e d t r o o p s t o engage i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h
Germans i n pub1 Laces a development a t l e d t o a eomplnte breakdown
of the n o n f r a t e a t i on rule i n many II l i t a e s , A 1 1 r e s t r i c t i o n s on
f r a t e rni zat 1 on pX fo-r known N a z i elsrnenfs were removed i n Austria
b y 24 A u g u s t . 3 t h s e restrictions were akao l i f t e d i n Germany on
1 Octobel- 1945

Eve11 b e f o r e the t o t a l llapee of* t h e n o n f r a t e r n i z a t i o n p o l i ~ yU.S,
military pernannel in J u l y 1945 had mads s p o r a d i c efforts i n s e v e r a l
l o e a l i i t E e s $0 establish youth groups among Germans Although this
activity w a s c o n t r a r y t o n o n f r a t e s n i x a % i o n rules and w a s therefom w i t h -
o u t a f f r c i a l e u p p o ~ k , i R achieved aonaiderabls sp1cce8s9 e ~ p e s i a l l yi n tthe
Bremen Enclave, In SapRember 1945 Seventh Army inslidutad t h e f i r s t
broad pmgram of' German youth a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e area t h e n known as t h e
% a t e r n M i l i t a r y DistricP,, oomprising Greater Hesse and YlluerLtemberg-
Baden Chaplainsrand o t h e r m i l i t a r y perscmnel.were encouraged t o organize
youth a c t i v i t i e s ,c
4
Lt Gen. Geoffrey Keyes, the Seventh Amy commander, d i r e c t e d t h a t
t h e youth a c t i w t f e a be organized on a Pacar basis, thiat t h e y be COOTCIS-
n a t e d w : t t h Pocah m i l i t a r y government a u t h o r i t i e s , where n e p e s s a r y , and
t h a t t h e y be conducted w i t h i n t h e bounds of t h e f r a t ~ m i s a t i o nre&-
l a t i o n s , I d l e and r e s t l e s s y o u t h , subJect t o p o s s i b l e w r*iv[e i n f l u -
enc-a:y were t h e concern of t h e Seventh Army programr No d i s t i n c t i o n was

_II ----
4GI'A S t u d y , p. 4.
5
EUCOM Hist D l v , Occupation Farces i n Europe S e r i e s , 1945-46,The
F i r s t , Pa.. of the Oaewpation, P t . , V, pp. 81-93,
5
EUCOM Hist D? " + O e c n p a t i c \ n F c r w ? In Ehr3pe Ser
F r a L e m i z a . f i o n w i t h the G-rmans i n W c s r l l War 11, pp 2l?9-4Ou

:. ,! .
to be made betmaen t h e children of N a z i o r a n t i "Nazi p a r e n t s , because
t h e program was i n t e n d e d t o a s s i s t i n t h e democratic y e o r i e n t a t i o n of
German youth. Thie w&s t o be achieved by a c q u a i n t i n g tha young people
with such a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s as wooderafta and 8thll.eties t h a t were
n o m a l t o youths o f similar age i n t h e United S t a t e s 7

M i l i t a r y government opposed t h e Seventh Army P ~ L ~ F P I Iyouth I program
because i t was i n a u g u r a t e d b e f o r e t h e i s s u a n c e of new r e @ ; u l a t i o n s , which
were b e i n g p r e p a r e d i n o r d e r t o s e t up a broad youth p r o g a m . The
rcnt.ul?iial p o i n t of d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t t h e army a c t i v e l y organized and
s u p p o r t e d youth groups, c o n t r a r y t o m i l i t a r y government p o l i c y o f making
t h e Germans th~mselvesr e s p o n s i b l e f o r such a c t i v i t y . The c o n t i n u a t i o n
t f t h i s p r a c t l e e by the m i l i t a r y f o r c e s i n the U.S. Zone of Germany l a t e r
gave r i s e t o a t h o r n y q u e s t i o n : namely, was t h e Army t h e a p p r o p r i a t e
agency t o sponsor German youth a c t i v i t i e s , a f u n c t i o n regarded by
oppanents o f m i l i t a r y s p o n s o r s h i p a8 a c i v i l i a n one? M i l i t a r y government,
o b j e c t e d t o the use of Army c h a p l a i n s i n youth work because t h e f u n c t i o n s
a f c h a p l a i n s p e r t a i n e d s t r i c t l y t o m i l i t a r y personnel. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the
h a p l a i n s continued t h e i r work, The q u e s t i o n o f whether o r g a n i z i n g
German youth w a s w i t h i n t h e bounds o f t h e f r a t e r n i z a t i o n ban was removed
f m m c o n t e n t i o n on 1 October 1945, when, as noted above, a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s
wei-e 1 i f t e d a B

In Oct8bex 1345 USFET set up on a zone-wide scale t h e procedure
whereby German youth groups were t o be organized and supe.rvised. The
commanding g e n e r a l s o f the E a s t e r n and Western M i l i t a r y D i s t r i c t s and t h e
s u b o r d i n a t e ccmmands o f t h o U S Zone o f Germany were d i r e c t e d t o en-
mnsx-age t h e f o r m a t i o n of v o l u n t a r y youth groups f o r c u l t u r a l , r e l i g i o u s ,
and r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. Youth committees, composed o f German edu-
catissnal and r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s as well. as t r a d e union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s $
were o r g a n i z e d a t &-e%B ( c o u n t y ) and _Lnnd ( s t a t e ) l e v e l s f o r t h e purpose
of : n i t iating and w i p e m i s i n g youth a c t i v i t i e s , The G ~ P P M ~themselves I.~~
w e r e g i v e n t h e r a s p o n s i b i l i t y frsip e s t a b l i s h i n g youth a c t i v i t i e s p r o p a m s
uoder she 4 V ~ eT l l r -s an t ~o lof t h e l o c a l m i l i t a r y government agencies,
o f t h e l e a d e m h i p p e r s o n n e l f o r t h e youth groups appmved by
Land- youth committees, w h i l e initially a r e q m n a i b i l i t y o f
and _.--
us ecPmmitteect w a s wbQeCt t o f i n a l a p p r o v a l by t h e local

'Seventh Army I t r , West Mil D i s t , 14 Sep 45, sub: Oirganization o f
Youth A c t i v i t i e s , AG 353. 8/2,

- 5 -
m i l i t a r y government o f f i c e r . 9
While youth p ~ u p were s f o r b i d d e n tsl d3. ladd ui'
race o r r e l i g i o n , as well as on socio-eso~iomic g r o u n d s , t h e chumk~e&
were permi t t e d t o o r g a n i z e youth a l o n g denominat ioaaY 1j: r16 8 and the yl

t r a d e u n i o n s were a u t h o r i z e d t o r e - c r e a t e t h e i r y o u t h auxiliaries of t h e
Weimar p e r i o d , I n a f f e c t , t h e poundwork f o r L l r s r e - e . r a a t i m o f ~ . X U E L K ~
youth programs as %hey had e x i s t e d i n t h e y e a r e o f tbc; W I B ~ W T Republie,
had been l a i d , e x c e p t t h a t a11 m i l i & a & a % i e , u a t % o e ~ & B i ~ d tvli i c , t,ota.M-
t a r i a n p r a c t i c e s were f o r b i d d e n ,

Seventh Army r e v i s e d i t s o r i g i n a l d i r e c t i v c ~ 'thli: ivrga~~iz:,;ltlf II of
youth a c t i v i t i e s t o conform w i t h t h e terms r r l t h e a t c r d i X ~ ~ G t i ~ .As
I ~ C
m i l i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n u n i t s were withdrawn f r o m aomnunitiea, 7 o c a l 3
groups f o r m e r l y a s s i s t e d by t h e m i l i t a r y were i n danger 01 b e i n g 31
w i t h o u t s p o n s o r s . For t h i s r e a s o n the c o n t r o l ~f s u c h y I l ~ t h~ u " o u p sW ~ B
t o be t u r n e d o v e r t o t h e l o c a l Kreis youth e e m i t t e s s i n c l . ~ c o r d d r i cw~i t h
p e r t i n e n t m i l i t a r y government regulations, Even in w 6 a B where military
u n i t s s t i l l remained on o c c u p a t i o n d u t y , formal conlrwl of s l l j o u t h
groups under u n i t sponeorshfp w a s t o be turned C ~ V Bt ~
m i t t e e s i n accordance w i t h military gouernmaut r e g ~ l a
u n i t s were t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r youth work i n e s a p e r a t i o i l w i t h t h a K r s a , ~
youth committees. 10

5. The K r e i s Youth Committees

'USFET l t r , C G f s E a s t & West Mil D j s t i , 2? O r L 4 5 9 ~ I X I ? .&ma>idui
I

t o Part I ( E d u c a t i o n ) , Section V I Y (Education avad
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of M i l i t a r y GovexmnsaL in
45. AG 014.1 GEC-AGO. AS t h e ~ ~ b j e ~: ~i t ~ ~ ~ i~1 - xt ~ ~ + d ~
was t h e r e s u l t of t h e revf8iori of military- ~ ~ ? P ~ I ~ ! P B HvI ~ BKgu L l~
t a i n i n g t o t h e youth program. I n Augus% and September a m w set of
r e g u l a t i o n s had been w r i t t e n t o provide gxeatc>r u n i f o a m i t y i n t h e 4'~r
of a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n by t h e new groups. %ary eff'cwt WBI -to be mad@
t o p r e v e n t t h e s u b v e r s i o n of t h e s e groups by undemoaratfc o r amtidemo-
c r a t i e p o l i t i c a l elements. On 7 September 1445 r e y r e e e n t a t i v e s €rsm the
O f f i c e of M i l i t a r y Government f o r Greator Heme, USFET,, and IT.$, Group9
C o n t r o l Council, d i s c u s s e d t h e s e m g u l a t i o n ~ iand approved t h e i r p u b l i -
c a t i o n . See GYB Study, p . 8.
"Seventh Army l t r , 10 %a 459 subr . 92% Csl.
Yuu%h b t i ~ i k i e ~ bG
Existing dirketiwen, however, gave m t l i t a r y government no Q p e s a t i n g
r e q n n * a b a l i t y f o r %he organized German youth a c t i v i t i e s , Active
h i p of such activities was a f u n c t i o n o f t h e Kreiw committees,
I _ _

whale t h e milftary government o f f i c i a l s merely e x e m i a e d ,g!nmaI s u p e r -
vrsopy authchyitg 1% b

Additional youth committees were e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e i& ].eve1
under t h e r e s p e c t i v e ministers: sf e d u c a t i o n ; The s t a f f of t h e bornmititees
i n c l u d e d f u l l - t i m e s t a t e employees a s s i g n e d t o work w i t h t h e v a r i o u s
K r e f ~osmmittees as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e _Land government. By March
1946 each of the t h r e e Laender in the U,S, Zone had organized i t s own
&(and youth committees, and by Decembm 1945 e v e r y K r e i s i n t h e t h r e e
Laender had a y o u t h committee,

B a v a r i a , the largest of t h e three Laender i n t h e U.S. Zone o f
Germany, was perhaps t y p i c a l i n i t s methods o f forming Kreis youth corn-
mittees, The Bavar-aan youth commft"te w a s e s t a b l i s h e d on 24 May 1946,
This rommittee was d ~ v i d e di n t o 6 working commfttess which included s p o r t
gmopw and youth henatel ~ 3 ) ~ 8 p l t u r - da.f"fafrs, r e l i g i o u s affairsa,p u b l i c i t y ,
s o c i a l , and economic. a f f a i r s . Local K T W I S youth committees were t h e n
e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h e a s a i e t a n c e of ti-d committee, By the end o f
July 1946 t h e s e committees had approlvad t h e f o r m a t i o n o f more t h a n 70
youth groups w i t h a b o u t l00,OOQ p a r t i c i p a n t s , 13

Forming t h e committees wag a s l a w p r o c e s s , Approximately 10 montha
a f t e x p u b l i e a t i o n of tbhe d i r e c t i v e o n l y 64 o u t of the 168 !.(rgf.$g i n
Bavaria had formed t h e i r youth cnmmitt4ees, A l a r g e number c f the
c o u n t i e s i n Bavayia WBTB predominantly r u r a l , which probably accounted
~ Q tPh i s d e l a y . I n m r a l area3 %he youth were g e n e r a l l y f i i l l y employed
i n farm work; whereas I n u r b a n a r e a s , which had s u f f e r e d more s e v e r e l y
m c t i o n of warg youth piobliems were mom u r g e n t ,
t h e r e l u c t a n c e of t*he p e a s a n t s t o a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o j o i n y o u t h
o r g a n i z a t i o n s hindered what e € f o r t s were made t o promote youth a c t i v i t i e s
among r u r a l you rth 14
__I

"USFET Itr, 25 O c t 45, s i t e d above,
'*M;:id;ap.y --
fhj.rernment Weekly Information BulYetm, No, 38, 2 2 Apr
46, Po 7.
i;
Lkr+ OMGUS ~ O T "Bavaria t o D i r e r t o r ~ , OMGUS Bavaria, 2 0 Jul 46, In
SGS 353 81 Ger ( 1 9 4 6 ) , V O ~ ,I , Itam 43B+
14(:) Ibzd. ( 2 ) "Youth Astivitaes," OMGUS Rept on German Youth,
Second Year of t h e Occupation, 1 Apr 46-31 Mar $7.

7 -
The Organizational Phase, 1946-47

6, The Beginning of Army Assistance
a. The Need. Before the Kreis youth committees were established,
troop units stationed in some cities had sponsored certain youth activi-
ties. Though informally organized on an emergency basis, these efforts
were moderately successful in dealing with some of the problems of German
youth. The assignment by military government of major organizational
and operational responsibilities for youth activities to the Land and
Kreie youth committees had coincided with the withdrawal o f omupation
troops from many localities. This had left many of the Kreie committees
without support in obtaining facilities and equipment necessary to
conduct a youth program. By the end of 1945 it had become evident that
unless these committees received some form of logistical support, their
r o l e in restoring a democratic German youth program would be either
V sharply curtailed or eliminated. With its requisitioning izuthority and
its extensive logistical organization, USFET waa the logical agency to
assist the Kreis committees in securing buildings and equi:pment. Earlier
USFET directives had dealt only with the procedural aspects of organizing
German youth activities and with the relationship of the Axmy to them.
Hence, additional guidance was required if the Army was to assist the
youth groups with urgently needed logistical support.

b. Logistical Problems. On 15 April 1946 USFET provided such
guidance and authorized Army units to provide limited logistical and
personnel support to German youth organizations in the U.S. Zone.
Specifically, USFET ordered the direct issue of captured German military
equipment to the Kreis committees. Surplus American equipment was to be
made available to the education sections of the Offices of Military
Government for distribution t o youth groups in the U . S . Zone and the
Berlin area. In addition to releasing athletic equipment -to the Germans,
troop commanders were inatructed to survey existing athletic and recre-
ational facilities in their administrative area8 f o r the purpose of
sharing them, at least on a part-time basis, with the German youth
q p c c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d to
a s s i s t the m e a m i n s e v e r a l nraye,
m a t i o n s e c t i o n s of t h e
and o f f e r a a s i s t a n c p t o the local
'The l & ? : + ~ ware
r t o hP a e s i s t . o d xn s p o n s o r i n g t h e f o r -
me (ycuth s e n t a r s ) f o r v a r i o u s youth a c t i v i t i e s , T'his
f t h e c n n c ~ p tof y a u t h r e n t e r s , around which t h e
-1 C . ~ . v m a ny ) u t ; h aetTvitxcs p r o p a m gradua1ly d e v e l o p e d ,

(7fhi.r 7 whose sponsnrehip by t h e K ~ e - s acommittees was t o
~ r the
be a ~ s ~ s t by i Army were showings f t f a p p r o p r i a t e films, athlptle
cnmpetr Rionm between local German t e a m , inform.%] trade and h a n d i c r a f t
classe:; r e p a i r and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s , Beg.inning i n May 1946
s u b o r d i n a t e commanders were t o p r e p a r e monthly r e p o r t s on t h e s e r v i c e s
and aesiptance r e n d e r e d by t h e i r t r o o p s t o the youth committees and
organs z a t i o n s *

The r o l e of the Of-fice of M i l i t a r y Government (OMGUS) i n r e l a t i o n
t o t h P y o u t h pwgram C Q U P ~he summed up i n t h e term " s e s p o n s i b i l i t y , "
B r o a d l y a n d bn. - ~ f ' : y ,OVGUS r e a p o n s n b i l i t y i n c l u d e d developing p o l aay and
s t a n d a r d 8 governing 8 1 i y w t h n r t n v i t i e s ; m x e e n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r
f o u n d u g new gr(upe ; a p p t i n g Germans who woiild be rssponsiblp for
osgani m t i o n and w p o r t s p p m v i n g members of youth commit,tees, a~ w e l l
a s l e a d e r s and ~ p r n s youth g r o u p s ; and e n f o r c i n g a7 P OMGUS re@-
l a t i o n ? governing y o u t h a[ctivitiPfl) epppc-rally t h o s e i n v d v i n g memher-
s h i p r e q u i r e m e n t s , uniform p r o h i b i t i o n e , and o t h e r f o r b i d d e n activities.

In c o n t r a P f , the key word d e f i n i n g the Axmyrs r o l e an German youth
a e t l v l t i p ? a t t h i 8 timP was %fiTistance.'' The formal t i t l e dessgnatt-Lng
t h e i v ~ -ra l l youth a s s i s t a n c e program o r i g i n a t e d a t hP qamp time: &my
A s s i s t a n c e Program t o German Youth A c t i v i t i e s (GYA),

On 29 J u l y 1946 t h e German Youth A c t i v i t i e s (GYA) S e n t i o n w a s
c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e G-3 D i v i s i o n , Headquarters, USFET, t o s u p e r v i s e the
youth a s s i s t a n c e program. L a t e r t h i s s e c t i o n f u n c t i o n e d as a p a r t o f
t h e O p e r a t i o n s , P l a n s , O r g a n i z a t i o n , and T r a i n i n g D i v i s i o n (OPQT) of

L
USFET Its, 15 Apr 46, sub: Army A s s i s t a n c e t o German Youth
A c t i v i t i e s , U.S. Zone, AG 353.8 GCT-AGO.
2--
1bld*

- 9 -
EUCOM when t h a t h e a d q u a r t e r s r e p l a c e d USFET.

The name of t h e program was changed a g a i n i n t h e summer o f 1948 t o
r e f l e c t t h e u n i f i c a t i o n of t h e Armed Forces i n September 1947. The
program was e v e n t u a l l y r e d e s i g n a t e d t h e Armed Forces A s s i s t a n c e Program
t o German Youth A c t i v i t i e s , because t h e A i r Force, which had p a r t i c i -
pated i n GYA when i t had been p a r t of t h e Army, continued t o do s o as a
separate service.

d , A i r Force Reaction. The U-S, A i r Force6 i n Europe (USAFE), one
o f t h e s u b o r d i n a t e commands of USFET, e n t e r t a i n e d s e r i o u s doubts con-
c e r n i n g t h e program as i t was t h e n c o n s t i t u t e d , Recognizing t h e youth
program as a n important p a r t of t h e b a s i c problem of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l
r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Germany, USAFE maintained t h a t t h e German people needed
e x t e n s i v e r e e d u c a t i o n i n demo&a$ic p r i n c i p l e s USFET * s proposed program
t o a s s i s t i n t h i s r e e d u c a t i o n would be inadequate because s u f f i c i e n t
q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l were n o t a v a i l a b l e , Moreover, s i n c e m i l i t a r y u n i t s
were s c a t t e r e d i n r e l a t i v e l y few l o c a t i o n s , a s s i s t a n c e c o u l d be provided
t o o n l y a small segment o f t h e U.S, Zone. Every a c c e p t a b l e German would
be needed t o implement a thoroughgoing r e e d u c a t i o n program. Any program
based on v o l u n t a r y work would be handicapped by t h e German d i s i n c l i n a t i o n
t o take any i n i t i a t i v e and t h e American l a c k of experience and t r a i n i n g
i n a s s i s t i n g German y o u t h ,

To p r o v i d e f o r an e f f e c t i v e Frogram, USAFE pmposed t h a t USFET
r e c r u i t a n adequate number of s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e United Sti3tes t o
a d m i n i s t e r t h e program; i n s t i t u t e an American program of t r a i n i n g f o r
German t e a c h e r s , youth i n s t r u c t o r s , and s o c i a l workers; o r g a n i z e a n
e x t e n s i v e program of work and r e e d u c a t i o n camps f o r youth; provide
s u i t a b l e books, p e r i o d i c a l s and f i l m s t o implement t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
program; p r o v i d e a thorough a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program; u t i l i z e p r i s o n e r s of
war r e t u r n i n g from t h e United S t a t e s i n t h e youth program; and send
s e l e c t e d German youths t o t h e United S t a t e s f o r one y e a r and u s e them a8
youth workers upon t h e i r r e t u r n . If such a program could n o t be e n a c t e d ,
USFET ought t o l e a v e t h e e n t i r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r youth a s s i s t a n c e t o
OMGUS and t h e German civil a u t h o r i t i e s . 4

’Oliver J, F r e d e r i c k s e n , The American Militar Occu a t i o n ,of
Germany, 1945-1955 (USAREUR H i i 1 9 5 j ) , h e r r e -
o r g a n i z a t i o n s and r e d e s i g n a t i o n s of t h e United S t a t e s f o r c e s i n Europe
o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e p e r i o d covered by t h i s n a r r a t i v e , Thus) USFET
became t h e European Command (EUCOM) on 1 5 March 1947, and EUCOM w a s
r e d e s i g n a t e d U.S, Army, Europe (USAREUR), on 1 August 1952,
‘ L t r , C G USAFE t o C G USFET, 29 Jun 46, sub: The Problem of German
Youth and t h e Army A s s i s t a n c e t o German Youth Program. I n USAREUR H i s t
Div GYA f i l e s .
Before t h s A ~ m y ~oaf € i c i a l youth a s s i s t a n c e PO ram had been a few
months o l d , t h e Air Force had a c c u r a t e l y p r e d f c t e s t g e c h i e f d i f f i c u l t i e s
t h a t t h e program would encounte??. I n s o f a r a s t h e auggested measures f o r
a l l e v i a t i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s were c a r r i e d o u t , t h e program was s u c c e s s f u l .
The i n a b i l i t y t o s o l v e a l l t h e complicated problems of youth a s s i s t a n c e
r e f l e c t e d t h e n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f a m i l i t a r y agency i n d e a l i n g w i t h a
nonmil I.t a r y m i s s i o n ,

7. -
The USFET Program

a. A t h l e t i c s , With t h e end of h o s t i l i t i e s t h e Asmy had been f a c e d
w i t h t h e problem of keeping l a r g e numbers of young s o l d i e r s a c t i v e i n
wholesome Army-supervised a c t i v i t i e s , The zone-wide s p o r t s and handi-
c r a f t programs were t h e Armyfs answer t o t h e problem of i d l e and r e s t l e s s
troops I t w a s l o g i c a l t o extend t h i s answer t o the problem of i d l e and
homeless German youth. During t h e summer o f 1946 formal a t t e m p t s were
made t o i n c l u d e German youth i n the a t h l e t i c program. A t t h e summer
.
s e s s i o n o f t h e T h e a t e r A t h l e t i c School h e l d i n S t u t t g a r t t h a t J u n e ,
approxamately 350 young Germans-in a d d i t i o n t o the r e g u l a r military
students---were g i v e n i n s t r q c t i o n i n coaching methods, games demon-
s t r a t i o n s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e h t o p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t s .
I n s t r u c t i o n was g i v e n i n a11 s p o r t s e x c e p t g o l f and hard b a s e b a l l , w i t h
t h e g r e a t e s t ; i n t e r e s t b e i n g shown by t h e youths i n t e n n i s and s o f t b a l l ,
The f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e t o t h i s program l e d t h e USFET h e a d q u a r t e r s t o
c o n s i d e r t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f conducting similar programs on a zone-wide
basis * f)

b Handfcraftm. With t h e response t o i t s a t h l e t i c program s o
f a v o r a b l e , t h e Army decided t o extend t o German youth i t s well-organized
h a n d i c r a f t s program, which had been c r e a t e d f o r t h e U.S. f o r c e s f o l l o w i n g
t h e end of h o s t i l i t i e s . On 25 November 1946 USFET h e a d q u a r t e r s a u t h o r -
i z e d a : ~ lu n i t s t o admit German youth t o t h e S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s manual a r t s
i n s t a i ; a t i o n s f o r t h e purpos" o f working w i t h American m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l
on g i f t s of a p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e 6 I n view o f t h e exssting d i f f i c u l t i e s t

i n p u r c h a s i n g t h e most elementary household i t e m s and t h e a b j e c t p o v e r t y
o f mil:Lions of homeless p e o p l e , t h e h a n d i c r a f t s program provided young
people w i t h me as w e l l as rewarding work o p p o r t u n i t i e s and <
b r o u g h t them i n c o n t a c t w i t h American p e r s o n n e l and i d e a s , During t h e
s e v e r e w i n t e r o f 1946-47 t h e Army a s s i s t a n c e program rendered i n v a l u a b l e
h e l p t o many l o c a l youth groups by p r o v i d i n g heated m o m s f o r indool-
a c t i v i t i e s . S i m i l a r programs sponsored by t h e Germans d u r i n g t h e same
p e r i o d were f a l t e r i n g due t o t h e g e n e r a l l a c k of m a t e r i a l s , The U,S,
armed f o r c e s t h u s provided v i t a l l y needed a s s i s t a n c e a t a time when
German youth groups and committees were unable t o h e l p themselves,a

'USFET I t r , t o C G Third k m y , CG B e r l i n D i s t , e t c , , 22 J u l 46, In
f i l e above, Item 50.
6USFET l t r , 25 Nov 46, sub: T h e a t e r S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s Manual Arts
Program for A s s i s t a n c e t o GYA, I n f i l e above, Item 83B.
7"Youth A c t i v i t i e s , " OMGUS Rept on German Youth, Second Year o f t h e
Occupation, 1. Apr 4 6 - 3 1 Mar 47.
c . The Unit-Sponsored Cen'Lerz, The spontaneous e f f o r t s of
m i l i t a r y u n i t s s m c e the b e g i n n i n g of t h e program had been made l a r g e l y
i n b e h a H of young people who were n o t b e i n g served by o r g a n i z e d groups.
The y o u t h c e n t e r s had been s e t up on a n open-door p r i n c i p l e t o a t t r a c t
t h o s e who might d P i f t i n o f f t h e s t r e e t s o r who had no othler p l a c e t o $0
f o r entertainment,

The S * O T Y o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e Fend1 D f e t r i c h s t r a s s e GYA c e n t e r
i n Munich i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t , A q u a r t e r m a s t e r u n i t wa,u s t a t i o n e d i n
a barracks on that s t p e e t , near a l a r g e , r u b b l e - f i l l e d lot where the
neighborhood c h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y g a t h e r e d t o p l a y , The s o l d i e r s watching
t h e c h i l d r e n p l a y i n t h e s e r u i n s decided t o h e l p &ake t h e Lot a more
p l e a s a n t p i a y p o u n d , I n t h e i r s p a r e time and w i t h Army equipment t h e
s o l d i e r s c l e a r e d the S o t and soon b u i l t a f i n e playground f o r t h e
c h i l d r e n . On t h e edge of the playground s t o o d a former youth hostel,
c o n f i s c a t e d by t h e h m y and b a d l y i n need of r e p a i r . When r a i n i n t e r -
r u p t e d thei3n o u t d o s s a c t i v i t i e s , t h e c h i l d r e n would t a k e s h e l t e r i n t h e
empty b u i l d i n g , Some o f t h e s o l d i e r s t h e n decided t o r e h a b i l i t a t e t h e
b u i l d i n g , u t i l i z i n g s c r a p and s a l v a g e m a t e r i a l , as a c l u b house f o r t h e
c h i l d r e n , E v e n t u a l l y , w i t h t h e coming of c o l d weather, a l l t y p e s o f
c h i l d r e n s n a c t i v i t i e s were going on i n s i d e t h e c l u b house; t h e s e con-
s i s t e d of games and h a n d r e r a f t work as w e l l as r e a d i n g and d i s c u s s i o n
groups under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f s o l d i e r s who v o l u n t e e r e d t h e i r f r e e time
f o r such worke8

A s can be seen from t h e f o r e g o i n g example, such e f f o r t s were
g e n e r a l l y undertaken f o r younger c h i l d r e n - - u s u a l l y from t h e p o o r e r
neighborhoods--who were n o t members of e s t a b l i s h e d youth c l u b s . This
remained t r u e o f t h e GYA a s s i s t a n c e program throughout t h e y e a r s of i t s
existence

8. German-Sponsored Groups

Meanwhile t h e German a u t h o r i t i e s of t h e t h r e e Laender I n t h e U.S.
Zone were ol-ganizzng t h e i r own youth a c t i v i t i e s , By t h e end of 1945
t h e r e v i v a l o f t h e GeTamn youth a c t i v i t i e s had manifested i t s e l f l a r g e l y
i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Boy Scout groups, youth h o s t e l s ( i n t e r n a t i o n a l
h i k i n g and camping o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) , and youth camps. By t h e summer of
1946 t h e f i r s t postwar g e n e r a l youth r a l l y i n Baden-Wuerttemberg mas
h e l d a t Kirchheim-Teck, where more t h a n 1,000 youths g a t h e r e d f o r a
Landesjugendtag ( S t a t e Youth Day) R e p s a e e n t a t i v e s o f various youth
o r g a n i z a t i o n s took p a r t i n a program of f s l k dancing and community
s i n g i n g and i n t h e c e l e b r a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l summer s o l s t i c e w i t h
the burnang o f S t , Johngs F i r e . H e i n r i c h Hassinger of t h e Land Edu-
c a t i o n M i n i s t r y and Richard Schirrmann, the founder o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l

8
I n t e r v , Ms, L , W, Walker, USAREUR H i s t Div, w i t h Miss E l i z a b e t h
van Ow, LO Apr 54.
Youth E I ~ s t e lMovement spoke t o t h e g a t h e r i n g . With t h e encouragement
of m f l i t a r y government, t r a d e unions and churches throughout t h e U.S.
Zone took i n t e r e s t i n r e - c r e a t i n g t h e i r own youth groups. A t Land t r a d e
union eonferenoes h e l d i n Baden-Wuerttemberg and i n Greater Helsse the
d e l e g a t e s showed a readinesre t o t a x k l e t h e problem of t h e younger worksrra.
Moresveir, t h e t r a d a unions a c q u i r e d i n Augwet 1946 a n important medium. of
e x p r e s s i o n f o r d i e c u e s i n g , among o t h e r t h i n g s , the problem of youth:
namely,, t h r e e semimonthly t r a d e union p u b l i c a t i o n s published i n t h e t h r e e
Laandel- of t h e U.S. Zone and i n West E e r l i n . l O

The main atimulu8, however, t o youth work came g e n e r a l l y from such
o r g a n i z a t i o n s as German churches, s p o r t groups, and t r a d e unions.
Approximately 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e German youth a o t i v i t i e s were spon6ored
by t h e m g r o u p s , which would undoubtedly have organized such a c t i v i t i e s
even wl t h o u t a s s i s t a n c e from t h e occupation f o r c e s . 1 1

9. _Yotith Amnesty

, Ones of t h e larger groups of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s i n t h e e a r l y occu-
p a t i o n p e r i o d had been former members of t h e H i t l e r youth formations.
M i l i t a r y government r e g u l a t i o n s had a u t o m a t i c a l l y c l a s B i f i e d t h e s e
y o u n g s t e r s as members of t h e Nazi P a r t y and had t h u s denied them
p o s i t i a m s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o
seek a h i g h e r education. If they could f i n d work, i t w a s o n l y as
u n s k i l l e d laboren* If t h e s e young people were t o be r e h a b i l i t a t e d , t h e y
could 1110 l o n g e r be excluded from t h e s o c i e t y i n which t h e y would have t o
l i v e and work, Consequently, i n August 1946 t h e O f f i c e of M i l i t a r y
Government d e c l a r e d an amnesty f o r young people born a f t e r 1 January
1919.13 This s t e p opened t h e German youth movement t o a w i d e r group o f
young people, many of whom were p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s .

Leadership t r a i n i n g f o P German-sponsored youth groups was a p r o b h m
f o r w h i c h no s o l u t i o n wa.8 found p r i o r t o 1948. Although m i l i t a r y
government encouraged t h e t r a i n i n g of youth o r g a n i z a t i o n l e a d e r s , no
l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s were a c t u a l 1 opened i n t h e U,S. Zone d u r i n g
t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t h e occupation.P4

- ilitary
'M Government Weekly Information B u l l e t i n , No. 49, 8 J u l 46,
Po 3 2 -
" M-i l i t a r y Government Weekly Information B u l l e t i n , No. 79, 9 Dec 46,
p. 26,
"OMGUS Rept, '#German Youth Between Yesterday and Tomorrow," 1 Apr
47-30 A P 48.
~
12Memo, USFET I G t o USFET COFS, 15 Apr 46, sub: Youth Program. In
SGS 353.81 Ger (1946), Vol. I , Item 22B.
13Lucius I). Clay, Decision i n Germanx (Garden C i t y , L. I . , 1950),
p. 260.
" l Y o u t h A c t i v i t i e s , " OMGUS Rept c i t e d above, p. 30.

- 13 '-
10 D e f i n i n g t h e Army4s R o l e

a Youth Promam Conference, The c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h e m i l i t a r y
-I-.-.F-LI-IIIIL-

u n i t s i n the command t o the a c t t v i t i e s o f German youth w a s d i s a p p o i n t i n g .
P e r s o n n e l d i f f i c u l t l e a , problems o f supply and t r a n s p o r t a . t i o n , l i a i s o n
i n a d e q u a c i e s , and German a p a t h y o r antagonism were t.he c h i e f f a c t o r s
m i l i t a t i n g a g a i n s t t h e s u c c e s s of t h e Armyfs a a s i s t s n c e program, By t h e
summer of 1946 i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t the o f f i c i a l program of a s s i s t a n c e
launched t h e p r e v i o u s s p r i n g had t o be broadened i n scope 2nd strengthered
t o a l l o w t h e Army t o p a n t more a i d t o g r e a t e r numbers. For t h i s purpose
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e major commands and of m i l i t a r y government met on
7-9 August i n the f i r s t of a s e r i e s o f conferences on t h e youth a a s f s t a n e
programm

T h i s conference w a s s i g n i f s c a n t i n t h a t it provided t h e b a s i s f o r
t h e Army88 assumption o f an o p e r a t i o n a l r o l e i n t h e o v e r - a l l German
youkh pragmm, The p o i n t o f emphasis w a s s h i f t e d f r o m a s s i s t i n g German
y o u t h c e n t e r s t o o r g a n i z i n g new c e n t e r s , The m i l i t a r y government
c a f f i a i a l e a t t e n d i n g t h e conference emphasized p l a c i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on
German c i v i l i a n a g e n c i e s ; i n t h e i r o p i n i o n the r o l e of t h e o m u p a t i o n
f o r c e s would be t o determine and guide p o l i e y and m a i n t a i n a degree of
s e c u r i t y , A program wintered around a t h l e t i c s and s p o r t s would be
wholesome and e f f e c t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y i n combating delinquency, b u t would
n o t go far enough, The o b j e c t i v e of thic. proflam would be t h e democratic
r e e d u o a f i o n o f German youth, which was p a r t sf t h e l a r g e r g o a l o f r e -
o r i e n t i n g t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n t o democracy The qwstiyhn o f who should
p l a n f o r t h i s type of program w a s r a i s e d and answered by m i l i t a r y govern-
ment, A civilian agentcy ought t o p l s n sulrh a program w i t h t h e Armyfs
f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n and h e l p , I f t h e Army played t o o prominent a p a r t ,
thePe might be n o t o n l y a n e g a t i v e Congressional reartion b u t an u n f o r t u -
n a t e r e w u l t w i t h German youth, e s p e c i a l l y when t h e s c l e O F m i l i t a r i s m in
German h i s t o r y i s c o n s i d e r e d , F i n a l l y , t h e m i l i t a r y go-vernment r e p r e -
s e n t a t i v e s f e l t t h a t the program o f r e o r i e n t a t s G n was n o t a m i l i t a r y
operation,

D e s p i t e t h i s p o s i t i o n , or perhaps because of i t , t h e c o n f e r e e s
a g r e e d t h a t the Army ought t o i n i t i a t e t h e o r g a n i z i n g o f new groups.
Close l i a i s o n would have t o be k e p t w i t h m i l i t a r y government and l o c a l
y o u t h committees s o t h a t e v e n t u a l l y g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y could be
g i v e n to t h e German people. I n d e f i n i n g t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l o f t h e youth
program, t h e c o n f e r e e s a g r e e d t o s t r i v e f o r t h e r e e d u c a t i o n and reha-
b i l i t a t i o n of German youth.15

b, General Cl~ayljaT T ~ ~ E E , S h o r t l y a f t e r the conference Gen. Lucius
D, Clay, t h e n d e p u t y commander o f USFET and deputy M i l i t a r y Governor,
expTessed h i s views on the youth p r o p a m . He thought t h a t b o t h t h e Army
and m i l i t a r y governmefit onght t o s t a y o u t o f the o p e r a t i o n a l f i e l d i n

15M1n, Con€ on Army Bs$istar,ce t o GYA, USFET G-3 Div, 7-9 Aug 46. I n
USAREUR H i s t Div GYA f i l e s ,
German 'Youth Activities, especially below the level, The program of
reeducation would have to be handled by the Germans, wi%h the Americana
encoura,gingand supporting suitable German leaders, The aaaistance given
the youth groups by the occupation forces would have t o be indirect,
Such assistance would supplement the already existing German-sponsored
youth pro , but was not intended to xeplace 0%. t o compete with such
prog.rarns.EamThis position was restated substantially in another confer-
ence on youth activities, on 22 Octsber 1946, soon after USFET authorized
the formation of new youth centers under Army sponsorship, Youth
assistance was n o t t o be regarded a s a philanthropic enterprise, but 88
a program to help German youth in building a sound and democratic move-
ment, a point emphasized previously. American guidance and advice was
to be given only when needed and to encourage the youth g r o u p s t o
develop their own resources so as to carry on when American assistance
would be withdrawn. 2%

e. Implementation. The policies discussed and the decisions
reached at the summer conference were implemented in October 1946 by
USFET. Military government retained ppirnary xespsnsihility €or reedu
cation and for youth m t i v i t i e s ; the occupation f o r c e e ! p o s i t i v e mnllit"y
mission wai3 m t f v e assistance t o organized and unorganized German youth.
The assistance given was to b e within the organizational pattern and
policy established by OMGUS, whose responsibilities f o r yout*hactivities
remained essentially unchanged, The paplicipatrnn of the commands ~n
GYA and the functions of the German youth c o m $ t t e e s also remained
substantially the same. Briefly, the functional arganizaiion o f
assistance to GYA was as followat U . S Brmy p I s o n n c ? l gaare a~ip-Pshanire
to the Youth Activities Section In t h e Educat,7on and Re1 ig7 OUQ &fa!. ?s
Branch of each Land Military Government o f f i c e and t o ea"h y ~ a t htram
mittee within the Laender. Aymy assistance functioned Xal ?panally dh~ougli
the chain of command from EUCOM headquarters through the operational
commands and the zonal organization of military districts and military
posts. The U. S, Conatabulary, U S A F E , Headquarters Command EUCOM, and
the Bremerhaven Port of Embarkation were directed t o conduct t h e
assistance program in all, subordinate commands and component U Y ~ P ~ E :
Military posts, supel-vised directly by the military d i s t r i " t 4 , were
charged with coordinating, assisting, and advising on the operations o-€
units within their respective geographical areas, Milital-y post person-
nel also conducted their own programs and activities and supervised the
units assigned to the post (Chart 1).

The shortage of supervisory personnel was to be alleviated by
permitting the dependents of military and U.S, civilian personnel to
assist in the program. Within existing strength ceilings German

1 6 L t r s , Gen L. D, Clay to Gen J. T, McNarney, 10 Sep 46, and to Lt
Gen C, R , Huebner, 28 Sep 46. Both in SGS 359,83 Gel- (1946), Vol, I,
Item 61,
"Military Government Weekly Information Bulletin, No.. 6 7 , 11 Nov 46,
2P- 6 7 0
Chart 1
ORGANIZATIONAL CHART, GERMAN YOUTH PROGRAM

Theater Commander and Military Governor

RESPONSIBILITY - -
ASSISTANCE

I

I
Internal Affairs and Com-
munications Division
Education and Religious
Affairs Branch Training and
Youth Activities Section Education
4

Education and
Religious Affairs Coordination Major
Committee Commands
Military Government

'Kxeis
Youth ------- --Local
------ ----- ------ --
Coordination
Committee Units

Command
---------- coordination and Assistance

Tactical units coordinated laterally with each other.

Source: Incl 1 to USFET ltr, 5 Oct 46. AG 353 GCT-AGO.

- 16 -
civilians could also be employed as playground attendants, athletic
storehouse employees, and clerks, b u t not a5 supervisors or program
planners. Supplies and equipment were to be turned over to German youth
on a peymanent basis and were to be drawn from €our major sources:
indigenous supplies, captured enemy material, supplies and equipment
excess .to theater requarernents, and unit supplies and organizational
e quipme nt .
To counteract a potential rise in juvenile delinquency during the
winter months, when outdoor youth activities declined, the command
authorized the estabhiahment of a suitable buileinng in the vicinity of
each military community for the exclusive use of youth groups. In
addition all commanders were to try to obtain the part-time use o f
churches, schools, and other public buildings for German youth organi-
zations.18

11. !&-Creation of Army Youth Centers

The authority t o obtain buildings for the use of youth groups in
effect meant that the Army was directly sponsoring the ereation of
German youth centers, Properties were requisitioned, sometimes including
public welfare installations, Many units established centers without
determining from the local youth committees whether there was an actual
need for this type of activity in the community, Throughout 1947
American-sponsored GYA centers were opened wherever U.S. military units
were atationed in the U.S. Zone of Germany, By the end of that year 523
oenters were operating in the zone and in Berlin, This marked the high
point in the number of centers because growing official and unofficial
apposition curtailed the creation of additional centers.

a. German Opposition. Despite the good intentions of the Army in
supervising and operating the youth Genters, this activity aroused
antagonism and resentment in the German community for several reasons.
One was the requisitioning of additional properties, The general fai:lure
.
of U.S. military units to coordinate and maintain effective Biai8;an w i t h
the Kreis youth committees was another source of friction, German youth
4
leaders charged that the Army's assistance program organized rxval youth
groups and, to some extent, proselyted already existing organizations.
Another difficulty lay in the fact that U,S. military personnel could not
work in youth organizations under German supervision and, hence, served
in supervisory or advisory capacities. However, since few military
personnel were qualified by education o r experience to assume these
responsibilities successfully, German youth groups were reluctant to
accept assistance cn American terms, that is, direct sponsorship and
operation of German youth centers.

"USFET ltr, 5 Oct 46, sub: Army Assistance to German Youth Activi-
ties, U.S. Zone, AG 353.8 GCT-AGO.
c
t

E0
h OMGUS P a a 3 , t - Since the point of emphasis in U.S. Army
assistance had shifted from helping organized groups t o organizing new
centers, the military government system of channeling assistance to
organized groups through the local committees was affected, This
development tended to weaken the system of civil-military cooperation
that OMGUS had hoped to use to assist in the re-creation of a free, derho-
cratic German youth movement. To counteract this trend OMGUS redefined
and clarified the Army's mission in giving assistance to German youth.
First, the Army was to determine from German youth leaders and com-
mittees the needs of their organizations and to make plans f o r sharing
ithe necessary facilities with the Germans. Second, the Army was to
encourage the initiation of activities of interest to youth and around
which a group might later be organized. Finally, the Army was to
sponsor informal events such as picnics, motion picture shows, and ex-
cursions, which would require neither the participation of German
organizations nor the authority of military government.19 With the for-
mation of new Army youth centers, practice obviously did not conform to
pol icy.

12. Ad,justing Practice t o Policy

The effect of authorizing the creation of new centers was to
expand the entire GYA program considerably, .General Clay thought that
the program had reached-such huge proportions that further drastic
expansion would be andes5rable. The general furtheir opposed the requi-
sitioning of additional facilities for the program because of the
adverse effect such action would have upon the rehabilitation of the
German economy. 20

a. Clarifying GYA Objectives. Stressing the goal o.f increasing
the caliber and the-effectiveness of" the exieting propam rather than
increasing the number of youth being assisted, the Army redirected its
yodth assistance program in July l94TU Perasnnel, facilities, and
materials available for GYA were to be employed primarily for assisting
organized and approved youth groups--that is, groups with written
constitutions and whose existence had been approved by the local Kreis
youth committee. Youth g~oupsnot yet organized but striving toward
that goal were second in order of priority for Army assistance, while
unorganized youth were third. Close and friendly liaison was to be
maintained between individual Army units and local Kreis youth com-
mittees so that the U,S, forces could fulfill the mission of youth
assistance as originally conceived. Units that had not already

"Memo, C o l J. W. Curtis, C/USFET OPOT Div TI@ Br to OPOT Div,
27 Jul 47, sub: Conference at OMGUS re GYA Matters. In IJSAREUR Hist
Div GYA files.
*'Ltr, Lt Gen C. R, Huebner, EUCOM COFS, t o MaJ Gen W. A. Burress,
CG US Constab, 25 Jul 47. In SGS 353.81 Ger (1947), Vol. I, Item 55B.

- 18 -
e s t a b l i s h e d such l i a i s o n were o r d e r e d t o do s o w i t h o u t d e l a y . 2' AS a
r e s u l t , , some u n i t s succeeded i n consolXdatlng t h e i r own youth c e n t e r s
w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d youth g r o u p s - - g e m r a l l y s p o r t clubs-and 1x1 main-
t a i n i n g c l o s e and e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e K r e i s youth committees. 22

b. L i m i t i n g Formation of Youth Centers. During t h e same summer
OMGUS I*equested EUCOM n o t t o o r g a n i z e any a d d i t i o n a l youth s e n t e r s u n l e s s
t h e r e s p o n s i b l e German youth committee agreed t h a t such a c a n t e r was
needed. Also, t h e Germans would have t o be wnRllng t o assume r e s p o n s i -
b i l i t y for t h e c e n t e r a f t e r i t had been e s t a b l i s h e d and t o m a i n t a i n i t
a f t e r t h e American u n i t s had l e f t t h e a r e a . Youth c e n t e r s t h a t had
a l r e a d j r been e s t a b l i s h e d would be c o n t i n u e d , b u t e v e r y e f f o r t was t o be
made t o e n l i s t community support.*? On 3 October 1947 General Clay
o r d e r e d t h a t no more youth c e n t e r s be e s t a b l i s h e d , He a l s o wanted t h e
USFET a s s i s t a n c e program o p e r a t e d o u t s i d e of m i l i t a r y governmentxs
j u r i s d i c t i o n , b u t w i t h i n t h e framework of its, r e g u l a t i o n s . This view wae
v e r y c l o s e t o t h e A m y ' s o r i g i n a l concept o f a program f u n c t i o n i n g
i n d e p e n d e n t l y w i t h i n t h a t framework, b u t d i f f e r e d f r o m what the USFET and
OMGUS youth activities o f f i c t a l s had b e l i e v e d t h e Army a s s i s t a n c e program
t o be---a well-organized, c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d implementation of m i l i t a r y
governnient p o l i c y an youth r e e d u c a t i o n , 24 General Clayns views
r e f l e c t e d h i s concern o v e r t h e growth of a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e
t o c a r r y on t h e y o u t h a8sistRnce program and over t h e s o l e of c i v i l i a n s
( i n military government) i n what was regarded as a m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i c n ,

13. zte C i v i c C e n t e r s

The c i v i c youth c e n t e r i d e a , a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e GYA c e n t e r program,
was i n a u g u r a t e d d u r i n g May 1947 i n a n e f f o r t -to r e l i e v e t h e b l e a k n e s s of
l i f e i n t h e overcrowded c 5 t i e s . "he f i r s t c e n t e r was e s t a b l i s h e d i n
H e i d e l b e r g and similal- c e n t e r s were c r e a t e d w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of sue?-
ce6s i n o t h e r c i t i e s , Through t h e c i v i c c e n t e r s t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y was t o
be brought t o g e t h e r t o s h a r e i n and understand the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i r
c h i l d r e n . The Heidelbepg c i v i c c e n t e r c o n s i s t e d of t h e ground f l o o r and
basement of a former ~ t s u r e , i n a d d i t i o n to a l6-lsoom house t h a t was used
as a g i r l s ! c e n t e r and a s i m i l a r house €OP boyso The program, approved
by a German committee and c a r r i e d o u t by a s t a f f of German i n s t r u c t o r s
under h e r i s a n s u p e m j a i o n , i n c l u d e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n music, sewing,
d a n c i n g , a r t , woodworking, photography, and EngBish.25

"USFET l t r , 25 Jul 47, sub: C l a r i f i c a t i o n of German Youth A c t i v i t i e s ,
P o l i c i e s and Procedures. AG 353.8 GOT AGO. I n SGS 353.81 Ger (1947)$
Vol. I , Item 572, Tab A.
-
220ccupation Chronicle September 26, 1947.
23Memo, L t Col R. C. H a l l , C/EUCOM OPOT Div GYA Sec t o C/OPOT Div
TI&E Br, 25 Aug 47, sub: Report on Conference w i t h OMGUS r e GYA Guide,
I n USAREUR H i s t Div GYA f i l e s ,
'~EUCOM OPOT Div apt gn cgnf with OMOUS and e n c l a y f o r Revision of
h m y Assistance Progmm, O c t 47e I n USAREXJR H i s t Dnv GYA files,

- 19 -
The Biederstein Youth Center in construction

The Biederstein Youth Center completed, 1951
Each c:hT I d was required to b ng a Is.t,t&r frum his p a r e n t s i n d i I

r a t i n g t h a t t h z y WT"P ~ W R
f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p u r p o w of the o r g a n i z a t i o n u Another approach w a s t o
i n v i t e t h e p a r e n t s t o observe and t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t m i t i e s ~f
t h e c e n t e r , t o t a k e p a r t i n group d i s c u s s i o n s , dances, sot-ial e v e n i n g s p
and a t h l e t i c e v e n t s , o f , i n some c a s e s , t o p a r t i e l p a t e as i n s t r u c t o r s i n
v a r f o u s h a n d i c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s , '26

Shortages o f f u n d s and personnel t o o p e r a t e t h e c i v i c c e n t e r s
g r e a t l y l i m i t e d t h e i r scope and t h e s m a l l e r c e n t e r s t h e r e f o r e remained
t h e primary v e h i c l e for a s s i 8 t a n c e t o German youth,

14. The P e r s o n n e l Psobligm

In 19.46 t h e command a t t e m p t e d infrrrmally t o attract (Boldier person-
n e l t o pal-ticofpate 111 GYA, By t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e n e x t year an o f f i c i a l
i n a t i o n progmm w a s i n a u g u r a t e d t o encourage s o l d i e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n
i n t h e youth pwgrarn, D e s p i t e t h e s e e f f o r t s t h e youth a s s i s t a n c e program
s u f f e p e d f ~ o r na s h o r t a g e of v o l u n t e e r p e r s o n n e l , :E7

4 v~71ldnQ68
-/_ll.--l-
Faithful u o l u n t e s r workers, as f o r exampler,
PFC Milton Kefauvea- of' t h e 686th Army Air Force Ibnd who s p e n t h i s
2-week l e a v e leading a group o f 40 German Boy Scciuts on a h i k i n g t r i p and
who s e r v e d i n h i s f r e e time as a s c o u t m a s t e r o f a. l o c a l Boy Scout t r o o p ,
were comparatively rarc3-28

The work of Sgt. P a t r i c k J. Mosiarty and h i s c o l l e a g u e s of the
Bremerhaven P o r t of Embarkation w a u a n o u t s t a n d i n g example o f v o l u n t e e r
a s s i s t a n c e t o GYA. E a r l y i n 1947 S g t . Moriarty a d v e r t i s e d i n a Bremen
newspaper t h a t t e n American s o l d i e r s were w i l l i n g t o spend t h e i r f r e e
time o r g a n i z i n g a c l u b f o r Geman boys aged 10-17, They soon had over
7,800 a p p l i c a t i o n s f r o m i n t e r e s t e d boys, and s e l e c t e d t h e i r f i r s t boys!
c l u b from t h i s group.29 While t h e s e examples of" military personnel
g i v i n g u n s e l f i s h l y o f t h e i r f r e e time t o s e r v e t h e GYA program a t t r a c t e d
w i d e and well-deserved a t t e n t i o n , they were, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , n o t eharae-
t e r i s t i c of the over-all situation,

2 6 L t r , USFET t o CG OMGUS, C G Third Army Area, ICG USAFE, e t c , , 18 J a n
47. I n SGS 355.81 Ger (l947), Val. I, Item ?A,
27USFET Itr, 5 O c t .46$ sub: Army AseiF*anw t o GYA, U,S, Zoce. AG
353*8 GOT-AGO.
2 8 ~ i e s b a c i e np o p + , J a n u a r y
II_ !p 1947.
29USFET I&E Bull~'~n,, V o l , 2 , No. 1.0, 9 Mar 47,ssYr:uth Programs t h a t
a r e Winning t h e Peace I'

- 28 -
b. Personnel Shortages. The s h o r t a g e o f s u f f i c i e n t l y t r a i n e d
American s u p e r v i s o r y personnel was one o f t h e most important f a c t o r s
hampering t h e e f f e e t i v e n e s s of GYA. Only a few of t h e e s t i m a t e d 134
m i l i t a r y personnel and 25 Department of Army c i v i l i a n s working f u l l - t i m e
.in the youth a s s i s t a n c e program were s p z c i f i c a l l y provided f o r i n u n i t
t a b l e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n o r a u t h o r i z e d c i v i l i a n spaces. The m a j o r i t y of
rsuch personnel were charged a g a i n s t o t h e r assignments and f r e q u e n t l y
r o t a t e d . This meant t h a t t h e i r s e r v i c e s were a v a i l a b l e t o t h e GYA
l~rograrnf o r a v e r y l i m i t e d period. Moreover, because 'l?/O's provided no
s p a c e s f o r GYA p o s i t i o n s , personnel employed i n youth a c t i v i t y work were
o f t e n a t a disadvantage i n o b t a i n i n g p r o p e r r a t i n g s i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r
IJIOS. Capable and promising personnel were o f t e n r e l u c t a n t t o a c c e p t
m c h assignments, and many u n i t commanders were unwillimg t o a s s i g n such
p e r s o n n e l t o GYA f o r t h e same reason. 30 Consequently, i n s p e c t i o n s
r e v e a l e d t h a t many u n i t s were a s s i g n i n g u n f i t personnel. t o GYA d u t i e s
simply t o comply w i t h t h e requirement t h a t a GYA o f f i c e r o r NCO be
a p p o i n t e d i n each u n i t , 3 1

c . Female Supervisors. Proper s u p e r v i s i o n of g i r l s ! a c t i v i t i e s
remained a problem throughout t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e GYA program. The
a c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n of American women dependents of U.S. m i l i t a r y person-
n e l as w e l l as of German womei, e s p e c i a l l y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , w a s c o n s t a n t l y
130ught by t h e Army.32 Personnel f r o m t h e Women's Army Corps weire brought
.into t h e p i c t u r e by USFET t o h e l p provide l e a d e r s h i p f o r g i r l s ' a c t i v i -
t i e s of t h e youth a s s i s t a n c e program. The placement of a WAC o f f i c e r
was a u t h o r i z e d f o r m i l i t a r y government h e a d q u a r t e r s a t t h e Land l e v e l t o
:supervise t h e g i r l s ! a c t i v i t i e s phase of GYA, A t t h e same t i m e , USFET
a u t h o r i z e d the assignment of q u a l i f i e d WAC o f f i c e r o r e n l i s t e d p e r s o n n e l
.to t h e s t a f f o f t h e youth a c t i v i t i e s o f f i c e r s o p e r a t i n g a t s t a t i o n s
where WAC detachments were l o c a t e d . Such WAC personnel devoted t h e i r
'
e n t i r e time t o o r g a n i z i n g and conducting g i r l s a c t i v i t i e s . Extension
of t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o youth groups i n o u t l y i n g l o c a l i t i e s , however, w a s
p e r m i t t e d only i f they remained b i l l e t e d w i t h t h e i r own WAC detach-
ments. 33

It was planned t o a s s i g n a WAC o f f i c e r t o each m i l i t a r y p o s t as t h e
OYA o f f i c e r f o r g i r l s ' a c t i v i t i e s . This p l a n , however,, w a s blocked
because no spaces were a v a i l a b l e f o r the assignment o f WAC personnel
except by d i s p l a c i n g an equal number of male o f f i c e r s . To overcome t h i s

30ttYouth A c t i v i t i e s , " OMGUS Rept on German Youth, Second Year of t h e
Occupation, 1 Apr 46-31 Mar 47. ( 2 ) Cable S-2050, USFET t o CG OMGUS
B e r l i n , 14 Aug 47. I n SGS 353.81 Ger (1947), V o l , 11, Item 60B.
"Ltr, USFET G-3 TI&E B r t o ACOFS G - j , 10 Feb 47. I n SGS 353.81 Ger
( l 9 4 7 ) , Vol, I , Item 8:.
32Cable SC-21078, USFET t o A l l Conc, 4 Nov 46'. I n SGS 353.81 Ger
( 1 9 4 6 ) , V o l . I , Item 79A.
33Cable SC-23120, USFET t o A l l Conc, 2 3 Dee 46. I n f i l e above, Item
838.
- 21 -
o b s t a c l e i t w a s proposed t o s e c u r e . t h e s e r v i c e s of h i g h g r a d e c i v i l
s e r v i c e women employees who would become a d v i s o r s t o t h e p o s t commanders
on GYA m a t t e r s f o r girls.34

This p l a n was i m p r a c t i c a l because t h e Aymyes l i m i t e d c o n t r b l o v e r
c i v i i i a n employees assignment and s t a t i o n precluded t h e use o f c i v i l i a n s
i n t h i s type o f work. Moreover, i t seemed d o u b t f u l t h a t a. s u f f i c i e n t
number o f q u a l i f i e d e i v i l i a n employees would be a v a i l a b l e i n t h e eom-
mand.35 The Army t h e r e f o r e continued t o use Wacs whenever p o s s i b l e t o
s u p e r v i s e g i r l s ’ a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h c i v i l i a n women employees1 and v o l u n t e e r
dependent wives l e n d i n g a s s i s t a n c e , This, however, proved t o be
g e n e r a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y due t o t h e l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n amd c o n t i n u i t y
o f e f f o r t . % N e v e r t h e l e s s , e f f o r t s were made t o improve t h e q u a l i t y o f
l e a d e r s h i p and t o encourage g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e C:YA by volun-
t e e r women dependents. To t h i s end a zone-wide GYA t r a i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e
a t t e n d e d by more than 250 women w a s h e l d i n B e r l i n i n May 1947. A t t h i s
time t h e r e were 3 2 WAC o f f i c e r and e n l i s t e d p e r s o n n e l a s s i g n e d t o f u l l -
time d u t y with GYA a t t h e 6 m a j o r commands and 9 m i l i t a r y p o s t s . They
were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e c r u i t m e n t and t r a i n i n g o f women v o l u n t e e r s t o
a s s f s t i n l e a d i n g d i s c u s s i o n groups and i n g i v i n g i n s t r u c t t i o n i n sewing,
music, h a n d i c r a f t s , dancing, home n u r s i n g , home economics, and d r a m a t i c s .
, It was e s t i m a t e d a t t h e time t h a t t h e r e was a n appmximate a v e r a g e
monthly part-time p a r t i c i p a t i o n of 1,000 dependent wives i n t h i s phase
o f GYA.37

d, Employment of German C i v i l i a n s . Blthough t h e employment of
Gerrhan c i v i l i a n s t o a s s i s t i n t h e implementation of t h e program w a s
a u t h o r i z e d , t h e i r use i n s u p e r v i s o r y o r planning a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e y o u t h
c e n t e r s w a s n o t intended. However, t h e shortage of American p e r s o n n e l
made U.S, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the c e n t e r s mare and more
i r r e g u l a r and u l t i m a t e l y l e d t o v i r t u a l German control.. ?’he o n l y c o n t i -
n u i t y o f t h e GYh program e s m ~a t t a i n e d a t c e n t e r l e v e l was provided b y
t h e German c i v i l i a n employees, B t o t a l of 935 German employees formed
t h e b u l k of t h e f u l l - t i m e p e r s o n n e l engaged i n o p e r a t i n g t h e youth
centersa ir a s s i s t a n c e was a l l t h e more n e c e s s a r y hecause
u.3, 7rtiI’ ve luntenls pe r sorule 1 P A L tictL*ya+,sdi i i GYA r ) r u
t h e Christmas F G a s

3 4 L t r , EUCOM OPOT Div t o COFS, 10 Apr 47. I n SGS 353,Eil Ger (1947),
Vole I, Item 28B-1.
35Memo, EUCOM COFS, t o EUCOM OPOT Div, 12 Jun 47. I n f i l e above,
Item 42B.
36DF, EUCOM OPOT Div t o C/OMGUS I n t e r n a l Aff & Comm Div, O f f o f Sp
Educ & R e l i g i o u s B r , 3 May 47. I n f i l e above, Item 36B.
370MGUS Rept, German Youth Between Yesterday and Tomorrow, 1 Apr 47-
30 Apr 48, p. 10.

- 22 -
15 a i , o g i s t i c a l Support

I n a n a l y z i n g t h e problem of l o g i s t i c a l s u p p o r t of GYA, it i s
important t o d i s t i n g u i s h between m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e and c i v i l i a n c h a r i t y
by s u p p l y i n g needy young people w i t h f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r . The
f i r s t problem w a s n e v e r s o l v e d s a t i s f a c t o r f l y because, a p a r t from p r i v a t e
d o n a t i o n s from t h e United S t a t e s and Europe and l e v i e s on t h e German
economy by means of drawing f u n d s from t h e o c c u p a t i o n c o s t s budget, t h e
al-med f o r c e s wpre n e v e r g r a n t e d a u t h o r i t y t o u s e a p p r o p r i a t e d f u n d s i n
t h e GYA program, Consequently, t h e l o g i s t i c a l s u p p o r t of GYA from i t s
i n c e p t i o n was i r r e g u l a r w i t h g r e a t v a r i a t i o n s from u n i t t o u n i t . Since
no a p p r o p r i a t e d funds were i n v o l v e d , t h e r e c o r d s o f GYA e x p e n d i t u r e s
remained incomplete. However, EUCOM a u t h o r i z e d t h e commandem of
m i l i t a r y p o s t s , m i l i t a r y d i s t r i c t s , and exempt a i r i n s t a l l a t i o n s t o
c r e a t e a n o n a p p r o p r i a t e d fund f o r e x c l u s i v e GYA u s e , These :Funds could
a c c e p t p r i v a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o r +he revenues from minor p r o f i t - m a k i n g
a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t l y connected w i t h t h e GYA p m g r a m . Such a c t i v i t i e s
had t o have the a p p r o v a l of t h e board of d i r e c t o r s o r o f t h e o f f i c e r
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e fund. 38

a , Transportation. Gasoline and t h e u s e of Army vehic:les t o meet
t h e b a s i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s were t h e p r i n c i p a l items of
l o g i s t i c a l s u p p o r t provided by t h e U,S. armed f o r c e s . The supply of
g a s o l i n e and v e h i c l e s o f t e n f e l l s h o r t of r e q u i r e m e n t s , and, consequeiitly,
impeded o p e r a t i o n of t h e program. E a r l y i n 1947 i n t h e Munich area t h e
GYA program v i r t u a l l y stopped f o r l a c k of g a s o l i n e and v e h i c l e s t o
t r a n s p o r t GYA p e r s o n n e l , Moreover, t h e s h o r t a g e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
hindered t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of dependents i n t h e a c t i v i t y ; and t h e l a & of
f u n d s f o r even r o u t i n e o p e r a t i o n s made t h e conduct of t h e Munich youth
a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . D e s p i t e t h e s e problems t h e Munich
GYA program was c o n s i d e r e d o u t s t a n d i n g i n t h e U,S. Zone.39

b. Sources of S u p p l i e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l o g i s t i c a l s u p p o r t
p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, money and s u p p l i e s for t h e GYA program came from
l i m i t e d amounts of s u r p l u s Army s t o c k s t u r n e d over t o t h e German economy
through m i l i t a r y government Moreover, commanders had been a u t h o r i z e d to
i s s u e a t h l e t i c and r e c r e a t i o n a l equipment t o l o c a l youth comroittees from
c a p t u r e d enemy s t o c k s , provided t h e equipment was n o t needed for- t h e
performance o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n m i s s i o n , Captured enemy m a t e r i e l was
placed under t h e e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n of OMGUS, which i n t u r n t r a n s -
f e r r e d a l l such m a t e r i e l t o a German o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d express:Ly
f o r t h i s purpose. GYA requirements f o r such m a t e r i e l were submitted -to
a p p r o p r i a t e Land Economics O f f i c e s f o r a p p r o v a l and r e l e a s e of s u p p l i e s .
The i s s u e of a t h l e t i c and r e c r e a t i o n a l equipment from t h e s e s t o c k s w a s

38EUCOM C i r 2 0 , 22 Apr 47, sub: Nonappropriated Funds f o r German
Youth A c t i v i t i e s .
39Ltrl USFET S-3 Tng & Ed Br t o ACOFS G-3, 10 Feb 47. I n SGS 353.81
Ger ( l 9 4 J ) , V s l . I , Item 8 -
C.

- 23 -
of t h e military c01mands,40 I n many
s u p p l i e s , such as Skiis and s o c c e r s h o e s , were
ubs a t a time when :such items were v i r t u a l l y

SY EIJT ing o f 1947 n r i l i t a r g government t:ransferred U, S , Army
s ~ r ' * ; . ~ bxrraperty
us valued a t $l,5OO,OOO t o t h e Kre:fs youth committees,
a f t e r the B e - p a r t i t e Economic Panel had agreed t o p l a c e t h e c o s t of t h i s
eq-.x2pmerSt a s B charge a g a i n s t t h e German economy, This w a s t h e second
si2i.h r e q u ~ s i i f $ o approved,
n the f i r s t having been s l i g h t l y under a h a l f
million, cJolBars, Most of t h e equipment c o n s i s t e d of t e n t s , c o t s ,
b l a n k e t s , and s l e e p i n g bags, a11 of which t h e v a r i o u s committees turned
o v e r t o t h e youth h o s t e l s throughout t h e U,S, Zone t o Supjport the summer
camping program,41 ,

There were many occasions when American m i l i t a r y personnel a s s i g n e d
t o GYA d u t i e s used t h e i r i n i t i a t i v e t o s o l v e the e v e r - r e c u r r i n g c r i s i s
of s u p p l i e s f o r the c e n t e r s , For i n s t a n c e , t h e youth c e n t e r i n Gmmisch
receawed a :Large cpantiity of ping-pong b a l l s through a d i s t r i b u t i o n of
sur*pllua Army s u p p l i e s , b u t f a i l e d t o g e t any paddles o r t a b l e s , The non-
is charge of German youth a c t i v i t i e s promptly
f r o m the Special S e r v i c e s cllub, turned t h e paddles
f ~ ~ l t h eof~ s e v e r a l o f the young p a r t i c i p a n t s i n
~~~ag;.u m , w i t h i n a week s u f f i c i e n t paddles and t a b l e s
and
otc? a ping-pong competition a t the c e n t e r , 4 * In
t r o o p units helped, a8 i n t h e town of HuenfePd and
r, e i g h b o r- rig c e m u r i i t i e s t o repair a darnaged gymnasium and s e v e r a l
s p o r t s a r e n a s s o t h a t the y o u t h groups c o u l d c a r r y on t h e n s p o r t
programs 43 0

T m Christmas of 11945 hHd seen t h e f i s s f , l a r g e - s c a l e e f f o r t s on t h e
p a r t of t h e U o S o f o r c e s to h e l p German youth, Christmas p a r t i e s ergan-
t l;ks U0S, Z o m and in t h e U,S, S e c t o r of B e r l i n had
I , t h e s i n g i n g of
I p u p p e t shows, the ~ Y o ~ ~ Eand
For t h e average German c h i l d the p a r t i e s had
meant prarnarily :dn o p p ro rt u wt y t o e a t a good, hair meal, and f o r many
of the ymnges c h i l d r e n t h e f i r s t chance i n t h e i r l i v e s t o t a s t e ice

__
- _ - -~ ---_
40tJSFET Itr, 5 Oct 46, sub: Army Assistance t o GYAb U,S, Zone. AG
31j308 GOT-AGO,
d!I
USFET I&E B u l l e t i n , Vole 11, No. 15# 11 May 47$ "Tomorrowts
cream, hot.alai;ex an6 f r e s h meat o f any k i n d .

The C h i i s t m a s p a r t i e s o f 1946 were o r g a n i z e d f a r more e f f i c i e n t l y
and wi';h mere A r m y s u p p o r t t h a n t h o s e of t h e p r e v i o u s year, which were
erLzed by a p n n t a n e o u s e x p r e s s i o n s o f sympathy and g e n e p o s i t y ,
n of d i s p l a ? e d p e r s o n s (DPfs), o f whom t h e r e were 84,500 i n t h e
U S, Zone, were n c t f o r g o t t e n . USFET r e l e a s e d from Army s t o c k s enough
foods+luf"f:; + C I provide e a c h DP c h i l d w i t h 18 ounces o f f r u i t j u i c e ,
4 , 1 ~ n r ~ 'of s chocolateo and 8 ounces of s u g a r . I n a d d i t i o n 100,000 t o y s
urc3d f r m t h e Grlxnan economy w e ~ ed i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n ,
Appr ximately 77 p e r z e n t o f t h e DP children were e n t e r t a i n e d a t
C h r i s t r i a s p a r t i e s as compawd w i t h a b o u t 18 percent of t h e German
c h i . l d r ~ ni n t h e U,S o Zone 44

T h e w was a t o t a l o f 2,663 C h r i s t m a s p a r t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e A m e r i -
c a n Zcne n n i l u d m g B e r l i n , t o which 794,021 ?Arman and 47,786 DP
c h i l d r e n (-&me, About 27,500 s o l d i e r s and 5e500 c i v i l i a n s and d e p e n d e n t s
t o o k p a r t i n a y r a n g i n g and staging t h e s e p a r t i e s . Over a m i l l i o n candy
kIay a n d tiiouqands o f d o l l a n worth o f c l J t h x n g , f o o d , and t o y s were
c o n t r ; b u t e d by Americans t h r o u g h v o l u n t a r y d o n a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h p U. S.
Zone 4; The aetxve p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f U o S , p e r s o n n e l and t h e generous
c m t r hu%iqn~f w m Army r e s o u r c p ~r e f l e c t e d &he aysternatic offinial
s u p r o r t , ;yiven the Chnqtrnas welfare activaitles, Thns w a s t h e apogee of
s u c h a , s ; : t a n ~ e g i v e n b y t h e Axmy t o German and DP yout.h,4 6

F m m tzme t o time v a r i o u s y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
would a d o p t m e o f t h e GYA c e n t e r s and send i t f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and t o y s
I + '2hr s'rnn-, usually i n answer t n l e t t e r s fTom a homo-town boy on d u t y
1 y 1 Get-mny w i t h t h e armed s e r v ; [ - e s u These s o l d i e r s had i n t e r e s t e d t h e i r
f e l l o w : i + i z e n s I n t h e w m t r h e d p l i g h t of' t h e German c h i l d r e n and had
s p p ~ a i c dfcr u s e d r l o t h i n g and equipment t~rh e l p t h e more needy cases,
S u c h c r l F r a t r m s h o w @ w r 3warp g e n e r a l l y spon%%neouse x p r e s s i o n s of'
good will duxLng t h e first 'two y ~ u <s i f GYA, and a t was no+*u i i t S i l 1948-
4 9 , w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e & n o Luca-ufi D o Clay Fund u n d e r Yhe
a u s p i c e s o f Mrs. J o u e t t Shouse o f Washington, D O C , , + h s t + h e ~ 7 f - r ~
suppol-t of' GYA from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e a l l y became an o r g a n i z e d and
h-fghly p u b l i c i z e d a c t i v i t y ,

- 25 -
Christmas party sponsored by Americans stationed in Nuremberg, 1945
17. Welfare

A t t h e o u t s e t food, s h e l t e r , and warmth were t h e b i g g e s t drawing
c a r d s for t h e GYA c e n t e r s , During t h e p e r i o d 1945-47 t h e s e needs were
u n d e r s t a n d a b l y uppermost i n t h e minds of a l l Germans, I n some i n s t a n c e s
m l l i t a l - y u n i t s a s s i s t e d young people i n gardening p r o g e c t s , p r o c u r i n g
s e e d s and implements f o r t h e p r o j e c t s , and t u r n i n g over t h e produce t o
needy y o u t h s o 4 a I n A p r i l 1947 t h e Army t u r n e d o v e r t o t h e F r a n k f u r t
w e l f a r e a s s o c i a t i o n two Nfessen h u t s i n t h e v i c i n i t y of th.e main r a i l -
road s t a t i o n t o s h e l t e r t h e homeless, t r a n s i e n t youth o f b o t h s e x e s who
l o i t e r e d about t h e s t a t i o n . This s h e l t e r was a p a r t of t h e GYA program
o f t h e 1st M i l i t a r y P o l i c y S e r v i c e Group s t a t i o n e d i n F r a n k f u r t , &
F r e q u e n t l y t h e Brmy would a c t as t h e d i s t r i b u t i n g agency f o r C R A L O G ~ ~
i n s u p p l y i n g food t o v a r i o u s summer camps throughout t h e zone, Hundreds
of c h i l d r e n from t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s of Germany were s e n t f o r s h o r t v i s i t s
t o t h e s e camps, where t h e y were g i v e n a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o g a i n s t r e n g t h
and weight.50 Many c h i l d r e n had r e c e i v e d food d u r i n g 1945-46, b u t a f t e r
October 1946 U,S. p e r s o n n e l were a u t h o r i z e d t o v o l u n t a r i l y donate food
t o German c h i l d r e n , provided such food and beverages were consumed i n the
p r e s e n c e o f t h e donors.51 I n Heidelberg a l l cooked and p e r i s h a b l e foods
from Asmy messes t h a t could n o t be used i n l e f t - o v e r menus were picked
up t w i c e a day and d i s t r i b u t e d t o orphanages i n the a r e a . This was
supplemented by t h e work of a n i n v e s t i g a t i n g committee, under t h e
a u s p i c e s of GYA, which checked c a s e s of needy c h i l d r e n and t h e n c o o r d i -
n a t e d r e l i e f e f f o r t s of t h e U.S, r e s i d e n t s i n t h e H e i d e l b e r g a r e a t o
meet t h e r e l i e f r e q u i r e m e n t s . 52 German c h i l d r e n o c c a s i o n a l l y expressed
t h e i r g r a t i t u d e f o r t h i s h e l p . A t Christmas 1946 over 9,000 Darmstadt
s c h o o l c h i l d r e n between t h e a g e s of 6 and 1 4 gave thousands o f handmade
t o y s t o U,S. dependent c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n t h e Darmstadt a r e a as a n
e x p r e s s i o n of thanks f o r t h e American-sponsored s c h o o l lunch program,
whlch w a s s u p p l i e d by food shipments from CRliLOG and d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h
t h e h e l p of the Army u n i t s i n t h e Darmstadt a r e a . Toys l e f t over from
t h e i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n were s h i ed t o t h e United S t a t e s f o r d i s t r i -
b u t i o n t o American orphanages. -B

47The S t a r s and S t r i p e s (Eur. e d . ) , J a n u a r y 27 and May 5, 1947.
480ccupation C h r o n i c l e , A p r i l 1947.
49The Council of R e l i e f Agencies Licensed f o r O p e r a t i o n i n Germany.
50EUCOM I&E B u l l e t i n , Vol. 11, No. 19, 11 May 47, "Tomorrowfs
L e a d e r s , " p. 9.
51USFET l t r , 5 Oct 46, c i t e d above.
52The S t a r s and S t r i p e s ( f i r . e d . ) , August 15, 1947.
5 7 M i l i t a r y Government Weekly I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n , No. 73, 23 Dec
46, pp. 18-19.

- 26 -
Throughout t h i s p e r i o d of g r e a t e s t need an t h e p a r t o f t h e German
y o u t h , American m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e food and c l o t h i n g
d i s t r a b u t e d i n GYR c e n t e r s had been c o n t r i b u t e d v o l u n t a r i l y by i n t p r e a t e d
Americana, military and oiplilxans, and were n o t t h e r e s u l t of a n &rmy
charity drive The armed fcbrcea c o n t i n u a l l y challenged t h e concept
which was p r e v a l e n t b o t h among Americans and Germans, t h a t t h e GYA
program was e s s e n t i a l l y a v e h i c l e f o r prsvxding f o o d , clothing, and
s h e l t e r t o needy German youth.54

18. -
Preventive Medicine

I n a d d i t i o n t o a i d i n g i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of food and c l o t h i n g t o
needy c h i l d r e n , GYA a s s i s t e d i n a r e a p r o p a m s o f p r e v e n t i v e medicine.
With t h e h e l p o f l o c a l German p h y s i c i a n s t h e GYR, sponsored by a n Army
er.(;ineer P m p n y 11, 11, ngy'tltl . I n e a r Darmstadt, enabled 2 3 mothers of'
t h e community t o b r i n g t h e i r b a b i e s t o t h e l o c a l youth c e n t e r for f r e e
medical examinations. These examinations, supplemented by c o u r s e s i n
f i r s t a i d , were conducted a t t h e GYA c e n t e r f o r p a r e n t s . 5 5

Phy'sical examinations f o r c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g t h e Fuerstenfeldbruck:
s c h o o l s were sponsored by t h e A i r Force GYA c e n t e r i n t h a t a r e a . From
30 t o SO c h i l d r e n were examined each Saturday by German p h y s i c i a n s a t
t h e GYA c e n t e r . If t h e p a r e n t s were f i n a n c i a l l y u n a b l e t o pay f o r t h e
n e c e s s a r y t r e a t m e n t , which might be i n d i c a t e d as a result of t h e exami-
n a t i o n , t h e l o c a l GYA o f f i c e r took s t e p s t o o b t a i n t h e r e q u i r e d
a s s i s t a n c e . 56 A similar program was conducted by t h e USBFE-sponsored 3 U
c e n t e r -in Eklangen.

19. h l r a i s a l of GYA

a. By German Youth. An o p i n i o n survey conducted by OMGUS i n A p r i l
1947 among y o u t h s i n F r a n k f u r t , Kassel, Heidelberg, and Munich i n d i c a t e d
t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e boys and g i r l s questioned had never heard of a GYA
program. The pexcentage of t h o s e who claimed t o have knowledge of GYA
w a s 17 i n F r a n k f u r t , 22 i n K a s s e l , 22 i n Heidelberg, and 15 i n Munich.
Only a small p e r c e n t a g e of those q u e s t i o n e d had taken p a r t i n t h e GYA
p r o g r a m , while a l a r g e m a j o r i t y s a i d t h a t t h e y had never a t t e n d e d GYA
meetings.

Concerning t h e a t t i t u d e s of t h o s e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e GYA program,
t h e majclrity of t h P yoang people q u e s t i o n e d i n t h e p o l l i n d i c a t e d t h a t
t h e y came t o t h e GYA c e n t e r s for candy and food. When asked what w a s t h e
m o s t i m p o r t a n t p o r t i o n of t h e GYA program, over 51 p e r c e n t r e p l i e d t h a t
t h e y a t t e n d e d the GYA t o o b t a i n supplementary food.

540MGUS Rept, German Youth Between Yesterday & T ~ c m r o w , 1 Apr 47-
30 APT 48, pp. 9-10.
55Darmstadt D e t o n a t o r , October 17, 1947.
56G
- S t a r s and S t r i p e s (Eur. e d . ) , August 2 2 , 1947.

- 27 -
A r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f those t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e GYA
r e p o r t e d t h a t they had gained a much b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f democracy
as a r e s u l t of t h e program; t h e f i g u r e s were 9 p e r c e n t i n F r a n k f u r t , 19
i n K a s s e l , 9 i n H e i d e l b e r g , and 1 2 i n Munich. These young people i n d i -
c a t e d t h a t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of democracy w a s enhanced through t h e i r
p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the GYA programs. Very few of t h e youths a t t e n d i n g
GYA had been a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h Americans, because t h e y
r a r e l y had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet U.S. p e r s o n n e l a t t h e c e n t e r s . Conse-
q u e n t l y , t h e i r o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e q u a l i t y of U.S. l e a d e r s h i p i n GYA
as w e l l as Americans i n genere,l were based mostly on a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h
Americans o u t s i d e t h e GYA program, on o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s , o r on hearsay27

b , -Opinjc,n. A t a b o u t t h e same time t h a t OMGUS had completd
t h e above o p i n i o n s u r v e y Y t h e command completed a r e p o r t on t h e a t t i t u d e s
and o p i n i o n s o f the o c c u p a t i o n f o r c e s on t h e Army's German youth
a s s i s t a n c e program, The sample of z 9 3 9 3 e n l i s t e d men and 305 o f f i c e r s
c o n s t i t u t e d a r a p r e a e n t a t l w e c r o s s - s e c t i o n of t h e American t r o o p s i n
Europe, The e x t e n t of" p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e program w a s 24 p e r c e n t f o r
t h e e n l i s t e d men and 41 p e r c e n t f o r t h e of€fcers. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n was
m o s t l y v o l u n t a r y i n t h a t 6 2 peiioent of t h e e n l i s t e d p e r s o n n e l used t h e i r
f r e e time and o n l y 1 6 p e r c e n t used d u t y time f o r GYA work. Among t h e
o f f i c e r s 4'7p e r c e n t used f r e e time and 19 p e r c e n t d u t y time. Many used
b o t h f r e e and d u t y hours. The p e r s o n n e l who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n GYA,
compared w i t h t h o s e who d i d n s t , were b e t t e r e d u c a t e d , had more p r e v i o u s
e x p e r i e n c e i n c l u b work, were a b l e t o speak and understand German, were
more f a v o r a b l y d i s p o s e d towards t h e Germans, and had been i n t h e command
l o n g e r , Most o f t h o s e who took p a r t i n t h e program had heard about i t
through t r o o p i n f o r m a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n . Otherwise, t h e
c h i e f s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n about GYA m a t t e r s w a s The S t a r s and S t r i p e s .

Most of t h o s e surveyed, whether t h e y were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e
program o r n o t , %hought t h a t GYA w a s a f a i r l y good i d e a . Most p a r t i c i -
p a n t s thought t h e Army was doing a good j o b i n p r e v e n t i n g delinquency
and i n t e a c h i n g democratic p r i n c i p l e s . The m a j o r i t y of thoise p a r t i c i -
p a t i n g thought t h a t b e n e f i t s from t h e program accrued t o b o t h Germans
and Americans. E n l i s t e d men i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i e f p e r s o n a l g a i n s
were i n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n of world problems and i n
h e l p w i t h t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . A m a j o r i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s thought t h a t
most German youth l i k e d t h e GYA program, even though t h e German b o y ' s
o r g i r l l s d e s i r e f o r a "handout" and a p l a c e t o keep w a r m was a n
i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . F i n a l l y , a l a r g e percentage of t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d
wanted t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e program.58

570MGUS I C D Opinion Survey, Rept No. 56, 26 Apr 47, sub: German
C h i l d r e n Appraise t h e Youth Program. I n USAREUR H i s t Div Doc Br f i l e s .
58Rept No, E-10-87, 15 Jun 4 7 , sub: S o l d i e r Opinion Concerning t h e
Armyfs A s s i s t a n c e t o t h e German Youth Program i n t h e European Command,
I n SGS 355.81 Ger (1947), B/P.

- 28 -
zo. Communist Rsaationa
American a t t e m p t s t o d e m o c r a t i c a l l y r e o r i e n t German youth t h r n u g h
GI'A a r o u s e d b o t h East German and S o v i e t o p p o s i t i o n . For example, i n
November 1947 Marshal V a s s i l y Sokolovsky, t h e Russian member of t h e
A l l i e d Control Council, accused t h e American f o r c e s of engaging i n sub-
vetrsive youth a c t i v i t i e s and of f o s t e r i n g a s p o r t s program i n the U,S,
Zone as a cover-up f o r t h e m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g of German youth.59

On a n o t h e r o-casion t h e Communists e x p l o i t e d t h e propaganda value of
an i n c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g a few boys who happened t o be members of GY'A.
These boys became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a c i r c u s p e r f o r m e r who had r e c e n t l y
flted from t h e Russian S e c t o r of B e r l i n . Among t h e p o s s e s s i o n s he had
left behind were f o u r p r i z e h o r s e s , The boys went t o E a s t B e r l i n i n an
a t t e m p t t o " l i b e r a t e " t h e h o r s e s but were apprehended and s p e n t a. few
days i n a communist j a i l , The f a o t t h a t the boy8 were mawbars of" a
B e r l i n GYA c e n t e r was e f f e c t i v e l y e m p l a i t e d by %he Communists in a F ~ Q ~ B L ~ .
g m d a campaign which charged, among o t h e r things, t h a t the GYA c e ~ n t e r s
w8re s u p e r v i s e d by American g a n g s t e r a and h o r s e thieves and were b e i n g
used t o t r a i n young Germans t o be c r i m i n a l s . 4 Q

I n a c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t t o win young c o n v e r t s i n Western Germany,
t h e Communists f l o o d e d t h e U.S. Zone w i t h y o u t h l i t e r a t u r e . A t one time
a b o u t 60 p e r c e n t of t h e youth p u b l i c a t i o n s r e a d i n t h e U,S. Zone o r i g i -
n a t e d i n t h e Russian Zone.61 I n t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s GYA was o f t e n
s u b j e c t e d t o a t t a c k . I n August 1948 M i l i t a r y Government i n Land Hesse
suspended t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t of t h e F r e i e Deutsche J u g e n d m J ) - - t h e
Soviet-sponsored German youth o r g a n i z a t i o n o p e r a t i n g mainly i n t h e East
Zone, b u t w i t h some members i n t h e Western Zones--for p r i n t i n g m a l i c i o u s
c r i t i c i s m of G Y A ~

Taking advantage o f West B e r l i n ' s i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n w i t h i n Lhe
R u s s i a n - c o n t r o l l e d zone, t h e FDJ w a s e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e i n attempLing t o
dfisrupt GYA o p e r a t i o n s i n t h a t c i t y . I n compliance w i t h t h e i r open-door
p o l i c y , GYA l e a d e r s i n v i t e d a l l youth o f t h e S o v i e t S e c t o r o f t h e c i t y
t o p a r t i c i p a t e in @ & n t e ra c t i v i t i e s ; many y o u t h s t o o k advantage of t h i s
o p p o r t u n i t y . The L i c h t e n r a d e c e n t e r , which was l o c a t e d a l i t t l e more
t h a n 200 y a r d s f r o m t h e z o n a l b o r d e r , w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r w:tth

-- . - __.
- .
5'_ Decision i n Germany (GaTden C i t y , N . Y .
/.. IYA:; D. C a a y 19!jO),
pp. 6 4 , 161.
6 0 1 n t e r v , M r . L. W. Walker, USBREUR H i s t Div, w i t h hks, Lstte
R 3 e s s l e r , GYA Secy, B e r l i n , 1 6 Jun 54.
610MGUS Rept, German Youth Between Yesterday and Tomorrow, 1 Apr 47-
30 A p r 40, pp. 24-25.
62
News of Germany, 17 Aug 48, p. 4.

- 29 =
East Zone c h i l d r e n . E v e n t u a l l y , t h e Communists u s e d t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s
t o i n f i l t r a t e i n t o t h e G Y A g r o u p s ; however, t h e a g i t a t o r s who r e p e a t e d l y
a t t e m p t e d t o d i s r u p t t h e y o u t h c o u n c i l s and t o d i s c r e d i t t h e American
s u p e r v i s o r s f a i l e d t o accomplish t h e i r purpose. I n f a c t , some i n f i l -
t r a t o r s were c o n v e r t e d t o d e m o c r a t i c views as a r l e s u l t of t h e i r a s s o c i -
a t i o n s i n t h e GYA c e n t e r s e 6 3

6 3 1 n t e r v s , Mr. L. W. Walker, USAREUR H i s t Div, w i t h M r . Robert Eehr,
1 7 J u n 54; Mrs. R o e s s l e r , 18 J u n 54.
CHAPTER 3

O p e r a t i o n , 1948-51

21. -
F i n a n c i n g t h e Program

S i n c e t h e U . S. m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d y o u t h programs as
a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f German c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and as a f i n a n c i a l
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e German p e o p l e , t h e y d i d not; contempl.ate t h e
s u p p o r t o f t h e German y o u t h g r o u p s o r o f t h e Army a s s i s t a n c e program
t o GYA from a p p r o p r i a t e d f u n d s ,

The GYA program was f i n a n c e d from a p p r o p r i a t e l d f u n d s t o t h e e x t e n t
that, p e r s o n n e l o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n f o r c e s were employed full.- o r p a r t -
time i n y o u t h a c t i v i t i e s . S u p p l i e s and materials bought on t h e German
economy were p a i d f o r o u t o f RACAOA ( R e l i e f and C e r t a i n Aid i n Occupied
A r e a s ) Funds, and l a t e r o u t of GARIOA (Government and R e l i e f i n Occupied
Areas) Funds, b o t h o f which were monies a p p r o p r i a , t e d by Congress f o r
m i l i t a r y government p u r p o s e s , ' I n May 1947 t h e GYA a s s i s t , a n c e program
was o f f i c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e German c i v i l a u t h o r i -
t i e s and was t h e r e f o r e c h a r g e a b l e as a n o n o c c u p a t i o n c o s t - - c o s t n o t
i n c u r r e d f o r t h e d i r e c t upkeep o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n f o r c e s , klut n e v e r t h e -
l e s s a s s e s s e d . o n a mandatory b a s i s - - i n t h e EUCOM i n d i g e n o u s b u d g e t .
T h i s meant t h a t b e g i n n i n g w i t h f i s c a l y e a r 1948 i n d i g e n o u s f u n d s would
be a l l o t t e d f o r e x p e n d i t u r e i n t h e GYA program. These f u n d s were drawn
on f o r p a y i n g t h e s a l a r i e s o f t h e German employees i n GYA, as w e l l as
e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r r e n t a l , u t i l i t i e s , communications, maintenance, and
o t h e r s e r v i c e s , During the 1948-1951 p e r i o d t h e CTYA program o p e r a t e d
on an o v e r - a l l a n n u a l bud e t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y DM 8Q m i l l i o n or t h e
5
e q u i v a l e n t o f $2 m i l l i o n ,

I
( 1 )ElJCOM K i s t Div, German Youth A c t i v i t i e s (of t h e U.S. Army,
1 J u l 46-,?-: J u n 47, pp. 87-90, i n O c c u p a t i o n F o r c e s i n Europe S e r i e s ,
1946-47. ( 2 ) GYA B r i e f i n g Notes f o r t h e U,S, H I C O G , D r . Conant, n,d.
Date e s t i m a t e d a t J a n 53. I n USAREUR Hist Div GYA f i l e s .
2 m ,
- 31 -
22. --
The G e n e r a l Clay Fund

Another s o u r c e o f f u n d s f o r t h e GYA program, as i n d i c a t e d b e f o r e ,
was d e r i v e d from v o l u n t a r y d o n a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e U e S e Zone
and i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , O f f i c i a l p o l i c y from t h e s t a r t of‘ ‘the program
had been t o p u b l i c i z e GYA t o t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e e x t e n t t h r o u g h a l l
a v a i l a b l e c h a n n e l s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n German and American moral and
f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e program, Such p u b l i c i t y was a l s o e x p e c t e d
t o enhance t h e p r e s t i g e of t h e U,S, o c c u p a t i o n f o r c e s i n Germctny.3

I n 4948 a n o r g a n i z a t i o n was c r e a t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o
i n c r e a s e t h e amount o f s u p p o r t coming from t h a t q u a r t e r t o GYA. Through
t h e v i g o r o u s e f f o r t s o f Irs. J o u e t t Shouse--prominent i n Washington
s o c i e t y and i n t h e G e n e r a l F e d e r a t i o n o f Women’s Clubs, and a cofound@:r
of t h e Women8 s N a t i o n a l Democratic C l u b - - s t a t e s i d e i n t e r e s t i n GYA was
s t i m u l a t e d , s u p p o r t was o r g a n i z e d , and a i d was d i s p a t c h e d , Mrs. Shousta
f i r s t became i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e c a u s e o f German y o u t h on a v i s i t t o
Germany d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1948, when s h e l e a r n e d of t h e Arxnygs
a c t i v e y o u t h program and o f i t s a d d i t i o n a l n e e d s g

Mrs. S h o u s e ’ s a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h many prominent p e o p l e e n a b l e d
h e r t o e x p e d i t e p l a n s f o r c r e a t i n g a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o r a i s e money and
c o l l e c t materials t o h e l p s u p p o r t GYA. G e n e r a l Clay, who had a l w a y s
been i n t e r e s t e d i n GYA, r e a d i l y a s s e n t e d t o Mrs. S h o u s e f s p r o j e c t ,
w h i l e G e n e r a l O m a r N. B r a d l e y , t h e n Army Chief o f S t a f f , was i n s t r u -
m e n t a l i n o b t a i n i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y d e p a r t m e n t a l a p p r o v a l . The G e n e r a l
Clay Fund f o r German Youth A c t i v i t i e s was t h u s c r e a t e d i n December
1948.4 L a c k i n g t h e r e s o u r c e s t o f u n c t i o n as a n o p e r a t i n g agency, t h e
f u n d c o o r d i n a t e d t h e e f f o r t s o f c l u b s and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d -
i n g b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s , i n c o l l e c t i n g materials and r a i s i n g f u n d s f o r
GYA, A t f i r s t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f packages and m a t e r i a l s - - d o n a t e d o r
p u r c h a s e d w i t h v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s - - w a s e n t r u s t e d t o CARE (Cooper-
a t i v e for American R e l i e f In E u r o p e ) , T h i s O r g a n i z a t i o n was a l r e a d y
s e n d i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e form o f food p a r c e l s t o German y o u t h . Wrs.
Shouse h e l p e d t o r a i s e o v e r $65,000 by t h e end of 1948 f o r t h o p u r c h a s e
o f CARE packages f o r Christmas. S i n c e o n l y $jO,OOO was r a i s e d t o buy
p a r c e l s f o r t h e 1949 GYA C h r i s t m a s program, Mrs. Shouse a r r a n g e d f o r
f u t u r e d i r e c t c o l l e c t i o n s and s h i p m e n t s o f materials t o Germany by t h e
G e n e r a l Clay F’und.5

’E’CTCOM H i s t Div, German Youth A c t i v i t i e s o f t h e U.S. Army, 1 J u l
46-30 Jim 47, c i t e d a b o v e , pp. 80-81.
4 L t r , Mrs. J. Shouse t o M r , R. A. Duffy ( f o r m e r l y GYA O f f i n
B e r l i n ) , 10 Apr 5 3 . I n USAREUR B i s t Div GYA f i l e s .
5 ( 1 ) Ltr, Mrse Shouse t o Gen Huebner, 18 Nov 48, I n SGS 353.81
(1948), Vol. I , Item 62A. ( 2 ) See c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between 1 0c:t and
31 Dec 49 from Shouse t o Huebner. I n SGS 153.81 ( 1 9 4 9 ) , Vol. I. (3)
P a p e r , n . d . , sub: GYA C o o p e r a t i o n i n U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n USAREUR H i s t
Div OYA files,

- 32 -
Some o f t h e a c t i v l t f e s initiated o r d i r e c t 1 : y sponsorled by the fund
d a z i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n c l u d e d Bishop S h e i l ' s Candy Caravan, t h e D a r i e n
Book F l a n whereby u s e d b o o k s were c o l l e c t e d f o r GYA l i b r a r i e s , and t h e
T i d e o f T o y s , a p r o j e c t o r g a n i z e d by t h e American Legion € o r c o l l e c t i n g
toys t o be s e n t t o German c h i l d r e n w i t h GYA a s s i s t i n g i n the d i s t r i b u -
t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , Mrs Shouse p e r s u a d e d t h e G e n e r a l F e d e r a t i o n of
Womenns Clubs t o p a r t i c i p a t e by c o l l e c t i n g sewing materials and Icaonduct-
i n g f u n d - r a i s i n g p r o j e c t s f o r SYA, The c o l l e c t e d m a t e r i a l l s and money
were g i v e n t o t h e General Clay Fund, which i n t u r n forwarded them t o
Germany, The G i r l S c o u t s a l s o c o l l e c t e d sewing 81s w e l l as a r t s and
Crafts m a t e r i z l s and d o n a t e d them t o t h e fund f o r GYA, Very o f t e n t h e
GYA c e n t e r s s e n t samples o f t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s , f o r which t h e Ameri-
c a n m a t e r i a l s had been u s e d , t o t h e S c o u t s f o r e x h i b i t i o n p u r p o s e s I

Many b u s i n e s s firms d o n a t e d materials f o r t h e GYA art8s and c r a f t s
program or s u p p l i e d them a t c o s t o r f o r a small h a n d l i n g c h a r g e .
c o s t s o r c h a r g e s were p a i d f o r o u t o f t h e G e n e r a l Clay c a s h fund. gThe se

23. General A c t i v i t i e s

The German Youth A c t i v i t i e s program expanded d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 4948
to 1951, a l t h o u g h t h e c h r o n i c problems o f s h o r t a g e o f p e r s o n n e l a n d
f u n d s , l a c k of" r e c o g n i t i o n , and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i a i s o n w i t h othem U.S,
a g e n c i e s remained u n s o l v e d Moreover, because o f t h e t e n s e i n t e r -
n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , U s, m i l i t a r y commanders had l i t t l e time t o d e v o t e
t o t h e problems of German y o u t h . After t h e p a r t i l e s and a c t i v i t i e s o f
C h r i s t m a s 1947, t h e GYA program s e t t l e d a g a i n into t h e l e s s s p e c t a c u l a r
r o u t i n e o f o p e r a t i n g t h e y o u t h c e n t e r s , The number o f German y o u t h
a t t e n d i n g t h e c e n t e r s dropped d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e months of 1948 t o
l e s s t h a n 4OO,OOO, which was a b o u t h a l f o f t h e number p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n
t h e p r e v i o u s C h r i s t m a s a c t i v i t i e s , The number o f U. S. m i l i t a r y person-
n e l d e t a i l e d t o d u t y w i t h t h e GYA c e n t e r s d e c l i n e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y from
a h i g h o f 6 6 9 d u r i n g November 1947 t o a few more t h a n 400 d u r i n g e a r l y
t948.7 The d e c r e a s e i n t h e number o f v o l u n t e e r s was even s h a r p e r .
Even though need f o r v o l u n t e e r h e l p a t %he GYA c e n t e r s had been s t r e s s e d ,
t h e number o f m i l i t a r y and dependent p e r s o n n e l p a r t i c i p a t i n g on a
v o l u n t e e r b a s i s dropped from o v e r 2,000 i n December 1947 t o 7 2 5 i n
,January and t o 419 d u r i n g F e b r u a r y 1948e8 The fol.lowing t a b u l a t i o n
shows s u b s e q u e n t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e number of American p e r s o n n e l
p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e GYA program from 1949 t o 19541:9

'Paper, n.d., c i t e d above.
7 ~ e m 0 ,EUCOM OPOT Div t o Brig Gen V. E, P r i c h a r d , D i r OPOT Div,
1 2 O c t 48, sub: Armed F o r c e s A s s i s t a n c e Program t o GYA. In USAREXJR
fiist Div GYA f i l e s .
61CUC@M OPOT Div GYA B r jumrnary o f GYA f o r Jan, Feb, arid Mar 48.
f i l e c i t e d above.
'Tab G t o memo, USAREUR ACOFS G 1 t o COFS, 21 Mar 55, sub: Termina-
t i o n o f GYA Program. AG 353*8 GPA. I n USAREUR ACOFS G 1 P e r s Svcs B r
F i l e s (1955)

- 33 -
The a c t i v i t i e s a t GYA c e n t e r s v a r i e d widely. Since a l l c e n t e r s
were housed i n r e q u i s i t i o n e d p r o p e r t y , t h e f a c i l i t i e s were n o t o f
uniform q u a l i t y . However, t h e o p e r a t i n g e f f j c i e n c g o f e a c h c e n t e r
depended l a r g e l y on t h e t y p e o f s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l a s s i g n e d , Fo rt u -
n a t e l y y , ,many of t h e GYA w o r k e r s were s e r i o u s , c o n s c i e n t i o u s , and u n s e l f -
f s h . They o r g a n i z e d d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s , c l a s s e s i n h a n d i c r a f t s , s p o r t s 9
s e w i n g , and similar a c t i v i t i e s . I n t h e summer t i m e t h e more a c t i v e
c e n t e r s o r g a n i z e d g a r d e n i n g p r o , j e c t s and summer camps, Many o f t h e
c e n t e r s had r e g u l a r programs o f moving p i c t u r e s , f o r which t h e y u s e d
films a p p r o v e d and f u r n i s h e d by t h e Army, One o f t h e most p o p u l a r
a c t i v i t i e s w i t h young Germans--though much c r i t i c i z e d hy t h e i r p e r e n t s - -
was t h e program o f e v e n i n g d a n c e s . Another p o p u l a r a c t i v i t y was t h e
b o x i n g t o u r n a m e n t . Under t h e t u t e l a g e of s e v e r a l f o r m e r American Golden
Gloves w i n n e r s , German boys p a r t i c i p a t e d I n l o c a l l y s p o n s o r e d GYA b o x i n g
tournanients. During t h e summer o f I 9 4 8 t h e first: U.S. zone-wide champi-
o n s h i p matches were h e l d i n Munich;l0 t h i s e v e n t was s o s u c c e s s f u l t h a t
i t was r e p e a t e d d u r i n g s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s ,

74. - - Chief GYA P r o e j e c t s
The

F u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i n g the v a r i e t y o f t h e GYA program were t h e threle
s p e c i a l p r o , j e c t s i n i t i a t e d i n 1949 on a zone-wide basis

a. Soapbox D e r b i e s . One o f t h e most successful o f t h e s e w a s t h e
Soapbox Derby. A f t e r t h e p o p u l a p i t y o f s e v e r a l races h e l d on a l i m i t e d
s c a l e i n v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e U.S, Zone had been d e m o n s t r a t e d , EUCOIM
assumed i n 6949 zone-wide s p o n s o r s h i p f o r t h e e v e n t , Through t h e Soap-
box Derby German y o u t h would be t a u g h t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f s p o r t s m a n s h i p
and fa1.r p l a y , i n t e r e s t i n GYA among the'German communities would be
a r o u s e d , and good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s would be promoted, Generalt Motors
C o r p o r a t i o n , which o p e r a t e d t h e ALL-American Soapbox Derby i n Akron,
O h i o , became i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e program. Through i t s German s u b s i d i a r y ,
t h e Adam Ope1 Company, t h e f i r s t o f t h e zone-wide d e r b i e s was h e l d
durin:: t h e summer o f 1949 i n Munich. Using GYA c e n t e r workshops, an
e s t i m a t e d a5,OOO b o y s , 10 t o 1 5 years o f a g e , b u i l t soapbox r a c e r s and
p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e more t h a n 500 e l i m i n a t i o n races. The f i n a l r a c e
was h e l d i n Munich and was w i t n e s s e d by a crowd of more t h a n 12,000
s p e c t a t o r s . The w i n n e r o f t h e f i n a l s r e c e i v e d , f o r h i m s e l f and h i s
f a t h e l - , a 2-week t o u r of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 'The Army f u r n i s h e d t h e
-
-_I--_ --
'%~litary Government I n f o r m a t i o n BulTetin,No, 1 5 2 , 11 Jan 49, pp.
'
- 34 "
a

ru
a
si;’
m

bl
8
F
w
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d the Ope1 Conlpan,y pard f a r a l l o t h e r e x p e n s e s . The
f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e number of boys c o m p e t i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e U , S , Zone
i n c r e a s e d t o s p p r o x i m a t e l y 20,00Qe The Adam 0pe:l Conpany a g a i n cooper-
a t e d w i t h GYA by f u r n i s h i n g , t h r o u g h i t s d e a l e r s , , t h e o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g -
n i z e d w h e e l s and a x l e s f o r t h e r a c e r s s T r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e G e n e r a l
M a t o r s f o f f i c i a l r u l e book b r o u g h t t h e German Soapbox Derby i n t o line
w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e All-American r a c e s , , rhe f i n a l s were h e l d
i n S t u t t g a r t i n J u l y 1950 and received wide-spread p u b l i c i t y and favora-
b l e comment i n t h e Geman p r e s s , " Among t h e c o m p e t i t o r s was an
u n i d e n t i f i e d East Zone y o u t h who was s o a n x i o u s 150 e n t e r t h e c o n t e s t t h a t
he T i s k e d t h o d a n g e r o f c r o s s i n g t h e zonal b o r d e r w i t h h i s soapbox racer.
~ l t h o u g i . 7he d i d n f l t w ~ na r i v o f t h e r a c e s , t h e Soapbox Derby Committee
awarded h L m a s p e c i a l p r i z e . " The f i r s t p r i z e w i n n e r o f t h e d e r b y won
a t r i p t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e r i g h t t o compete i n the All-American
Soapbox l k r b , y i n Akron, D e s p i t e t h e huge s u c c e s s o f t h e d e r b i e s as a
G Y A a c t i v i t y , LUCOM t u r n e d o v e r i t s s p o n s o r s h i p t,o t h e Adam Ope1 Conpany
a f t e r t h e 1950 c o n t e s t , By t h a t time EUCOM was c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t r a n s f e r
of t h e e n t i r e GYA program t o t h e Germans,

b. H a n d i c r a f t s Con@zJ, Another s u c c e s s f u l a c t i v i t y was t h e U . S.
Zone H a n d i c r a f t s C o n t e s t f o r g i r l s f i r s t h e l d i n 1949 and r e p e a t e d
t h e r e a f t e r f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . Each o f t h e I 2 m i l i t a r y p o s t s i n t h e U.S,
Zone o f Germany s p o n s o r e d c o n t e s t s and s e l e c t e d t h e b e s t e n t r i e s i n a r t ,
n e e d l e w o r k , woodwork, s c u l p t u r e , p l a s t i c s , and s e v e r a l o t h e r t y p e s of
handicraft, Winning i t e m s from t h e s e c o n t e s t s were s e n t t o t h e f i n a l
zone-wide c o n t e s t , which w a s u s u a l l y h e l d i n H e i d e l b e r g , T h i s was one
o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n which h l r s . Shouse t o o k a n a c t i v e i n t e r e s t , s i n c e
much o f t h e c l o t h and o t h e r m a t e r i a l f u r n i s h e d by t h e G e n e r a l Clay Fund
w a s u s e d b-t t h e c o n t e s t a n t s i n making t h e i r e n t r i e s , I n t h e f i r s t h a n d i -
c r a f t c o n t e s t ~r 1949, o v e r 50 g i r l s r e c e i v e d p r i z e s which i n c l u d e d
t r i p s t o S w i t z e r l a n d , new b i c y c l e s , and materials Ior makinlr c l a t h i n q . 7 3
I n s u c c e e d i n g c o n t e s t s boys were e l i g i b l e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which
i n c r e a s e d the number :sf e n t r i e s a s w e l l a; t h e number o f atwards. O f the
t h o ~ i s a n d sr ~ f~ J ~ + T I111 P ~t h e '3cll) competition 3 ,200 i t e m s viere e x h i b i t e d
111 t h e Ylnal. d g n n g ; 108 csf" t h e s e were awarded v a r i o u s p r i z e s i n c l u d i n g
cameras b j cy P S ! , ziid c ~ l ~ h . r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s p a r t i c i p a t i o n
~

gradually, By I954 the ni?mber of final

.___I_ "_.
_----I_--.
11
( I , ) Ltr, EUCOM t o 3b.b namds, Mag 49, s u b : 1949 G Y A zone-wide
Soapbox Derby, I n . X S 35!i81 ( 1 9 ~ l 9 )VoL,
~ I , Item 49A, ( 2 ) EUCOM
ilistory of t h e Soapbox Derbie:;, 7 1 J u l 51 I n U5AREIJT Hizt n i v GYA
files,
12
i n t e r v , Mr. L. W, Walker, 1J;APSUH Hist Div, w i t h Mrs, R o e s s l e r ,
B e r l i n GYR Secy, 1 6 J u n 54.
"Ltr, Gen Huebner t o Mss, Sh o u s e , 1 3 J u l 49. In .?GS 353.81 (2949)
V u l , 1 , Item 4 2 ,

- 35
r, M e i s t e r s i n g e r Csn%est. The GYA o f f i c e r of r h e
iXil%tar-yi ' o s t i n a u g u r a t e d i n 3 944 t h e Meisl-e.er,:ln&
t h e c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s of t h e GYA program, The ___-;- e f 3-k e T"singer
c o n t e s t had been h e l d i n Nuremberg i n %he 1'6th c e n t u r y and i t was t h e r e -
f o r e tklought a p p r o p r ~ a l et o i n v i t e a German committee t o set up t h e
r u l e s Elnd t o r u n t h e c o n t e s t a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l prae.ticisW Any
German boy o r g i r l ( e x c e p t p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n g e r s ) between t h e sges of 18
and " who l i v e d in t h e U.S. Lon6 o f Germany and B e r l i n was (eligible
t o part i c i p a t e ,'5 F'rom 1950 t o 1954 e l i m i n a t i o n c o n t e s t s werie h e l d by
Army n i 1 1 t ary p o s t s and A i r Force organiaa+ioaxs throughout& t h e American
Zone ?rid i n West B e r l i n , The first,,second., and t h i r d p l a c e winners o f
t h e l o c a l c o n t e s t s were e l i g i b l e f o r t h e f i n a l c o m p e t i t i o n h e l d e a c h
y e a s or1 t h e s t a g e of t h e Nuremberg Opem Home,, The winners of" t h e
f i n a l c o n t e s t s g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d c a s h p i 1 Z P S , schoXnrships f o r f u r t h e r
musical t r a i n i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d n p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r (concert
t o u r s and performances w i t h l e a d i n g o p e r a companies, 1 6 'rile GYII-
s p o n s o r e d M e i s t e r s i n g e r C Q ~ ~ ~a tStracked
T krindreds of t a i e n t e t l young
s i n g e r s arid t h o u s a n d s o f s p e c t a t o r s a n d , as a r e s u l t , c o n t r i b u t e d sub-
s t a n t i a l l y t~ t h e post8war c u l t , u r a l r e v i v % l of Western Cerinang,

-
Other ProJects

The soapbox d e r b i e s and t h e M-e-istersinger and h a n d i c r a f t s c o n t e s t s
became p r o b a b l y t h e t h r e e most important, f e a t u r e s o f t h e GYA program,
Even a f t e r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s c e a s e d t o be t h e d i r e c t " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of
t h e EUCOM GYA S e c t i o n , t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e program.
Some o t h e r p r o j e c t s , also s p o n s o r e d by G Y A b u t l e s s s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h e
above-uentioned o n e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s r e f l e c t e d t h e d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f thle
program

a , Youth H e l p s Youth Program, One o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s was t h e Youth
H e l p s Youth program, which was i n i t i a t e d i r ' 3 4 8 %y Gfie EUCObl GYA
dD
Y
d

. b
.0
k
c o n s i s t e d o f y o u t h groups i n Germany w r i t i n g t o similar g r o u p s i n t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s . The GYA S e c t i o n w r o t e t h e i n i t i a l . l e t t e r s t o d e t e r m i n e
what y o u t h g r o d p s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t a c t i n g
t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n Germany, From t h i s emerged a s y s t e m o f p a i r i n g
g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o t y p e o f g r o u p , age, and sex ctf i t s members, e t c . ,
s o t h a t t h e number o f p a i r e d g r o u p s grew from n e a r l y 300 i n 1948 t o TOO
i n 1949e17 Although t h e tendenoy t o w r i t e i n d i v i d u a l l e t t e r s was s t r o n g ,
and e v e n e n c o u r a g e d , GYA was c o n v i n c e d t h a t Youth Helps Youth was n o t a
Itpen p a l t t proKram For u n e x p l a i n e d r e a s o n s t h i s p r o e j e c t l a p s e d a f t e r
1950.

b. R u r a l Youth P r o j e c t . I n 1950 and 1951 t h e Rural Youth P r o j e c t
was c o n d u c t e d t o e n a b l e s e l e c t e d German y o u t h t o l i v e i n s e l e c t e d farm
homes i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t o a s s i s t t h e h o s t fa.mily, t o o b s e r v e com-
munity e v e n t s and neighborhood l i f e , and t o t a k e p a r t i n r u r a l y o u t h
a c t i v i t i e s , Through t h e combined e f f o r t s o f EUCOM, t h e E x t e n s i o n
S e r v i c e of t h e U,S. Department . o f A g r i c u l t u r e , and Mrs, Stiouse, 6
German boys and g i r l s a t t e n d e d t h e 4-H Club encampment i n Washington,
D , C , , i n J u n e o f 1951 and 1952. They t h e n s p e n t t h r e e months w i t h
s e l e c t e d farm families. GYA p a i d t h e y o u t h s ! e x p e n s e s frclm t h e i r homes
i n Germany t o t h e i r a r r i v a l i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , where t h e Department
o f A g r i c u l t u r e assumed s p o n s o r s h i p ,

GYA el1,jO;yed f a v o r a b l e p u b l i c i t y as a r e s u l t o f t h e R u r a l Youth
P r o j e c t , b u t t h e c h i e f b e n e f i t s were l i m i t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l Germans
who had been s e l e c t e d , Although w o r t h w h i l e , t h e p r o j e c t was d u p l i c a t e d
on a l a r g e r s c a l e by t h e H I C O G Exchange Program, These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,
i n a d d i t i o n t o b u d g e t a r d i f f i c u l t i e s , caused t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e
p r o j e c t e a r l y i n 195Q0 aB
e , W m u n ~ i - J yS e r v i c e Con%esk, The o r i g i n a l purpose o f t h e Com-
munity S e r v i c e C o n t e s t was t o t r a n s m i t t h e c o n c e p t of 'Pcommunity ~ ' p i ~ i t ~ t
t o young Germans and t o promote v o l u n t a r y c o n s t r u c t i v e work o f a k i n d
t h a t would meet t h e a c t u a l needs o f t h e community, T h i s p r o ~ e e thad
l a i n dormant f o r a b o u t two y e a r s f o r l a c k o f f u n d s , I n J a n u a r y 1951
Mrs. Shouse c o n t r i b u t e d enough money from t h e General C l a y Fund t o
l a u n c h t h e c o n t e s t , C o m p e t i t i o n was f i r s t conducted on a l o c a l l e v e l
w i t h t h e m i l i t a r y p o s t s , T w e l f t h A i r Force, and Bremerhaven !?or+ o f
Embarkation s u b m i t t i n g a t o t a l o f 30 e n t r i e s . These c o n s i s t e d o f
b u i l d i n g , r e p a i r i n g , o r a d a p t i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r u s e as community play-
groiinds, youth c e n t e r s , education c e n t e r s , parks, s p o r t s f i e l d s ,
libraries, etc. Six w i n n e r s were chosen, one from e a c h of t h e p a r t i c i -
p a t i n g a r e a s . The f i n a l zone-wide c o m p e t i t i o n t o o k p l a c e i n F e b r u a r y

"Notes 3d, 4 t h , and 6 t h Tng Confs, GYA, 16-17 Sep 48, 28-29 Apr 49.
18(1) L t r s , Mrs. Shouse t o Gen Huebner, Dept o f Agrie t ? Mrs,
Shouse, b o t h 3 Feb 50. Both i n SGS 353.81 ( 1 9 5 0 ) , Vol. I , I t e m s 1 5 A ,
1 8 A ( 2 ) Memo, L t Col Robert A . Norman, C/EUCOM OPOT Div GYA B r , to-l)ir
OPCT Div, 18 Feb 5 2 , sub: D i s c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h e GYA R u r a l Youth P r o j e c t .
I n UAAREUR H i s t Div GYA f i l e s ,
- 37 -
1952, when t h r e e w i n n e r s were c h o s e n by a n American-German jud.ging team,
headed 'by t h e C h i e f of t h e EUCOM @YA Branch and P r o f . 3tto Har'tning,
p r e s i d e n t o f t h e German APohi%ec%s A s s o c i a t i o n ,

The c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n d u c t i n g t h e p r o ? e c t , was t h a t G:erman c i v i c
l e a d e r s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s f a i l e d t o g r a s p t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e I d e a
of "cominunity s e r v i c e , " T h i s f a i l u r e was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e ina.bi1it.y t c t
t r a n s l a t e t h e term a c c u r a t e l y i n t o German Although deemed wclrthwhile,
t h e p r o j e c t w a s n o t r e p e a t e d b e c a u s e t h e f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e
GYA program became more acute a t t h i s time, 19

26. -
Personnel DifI'iculties

M i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l working w i t h GYA were t h e n e c e s s a r y aa;.d i r r e -
d u c i b l e core o f t h e e n t i r e youth assistance program, T h e r e f o r e , regardl-
l e s s o f t h e numbers o f t r a i n e d Germans and v o l u n t e e r s who h e l p e d i n t h e
c e n t e r s , t h e program c o u l d o n l y be as good as t h e s o l d i e r s a s s i g n e d t o
i t , C o i s c i o u s o f t h e programvs d e f i c i e n c i e s , Lt. Gen. C l a r e n c e R,
Huebner ( t h e n CINCEUR) a t t r i b u t e d G Y A * s weaknesses t o t h e f a i l u r e of t h e
s u b o r d i i a t e commanders--especially t h o s e o f smaller u n i t s - - t o a s s i g n
enough p e r s o n n e l who were a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d i n y o u t h work. He f e l t
t h a t maliy s u b o r d i n a t e commanders p a i d l i p s e r v i c e t o GYA w h i l e a s s i g n i n g
m i s f i t s t o i t and l e n d i n g l i t t l e o r no r e a l s u p p o r t , According t o
G e n e r a l Huebner, t h i s s i t u a t i o n w a s e x t r e m e l y d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e S U C C ~ E I S
of t h e GYA programs2' Related t o t h e problem o f a s s i g n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l y
t r a i n e d men and women t o t h e GYA program was t h e command- and Army-wide
problem o f p e r s o n n e l t u r n o v e r , An a n a l y s i s o f t h e t u r n o v e r o f GYA-
assignetl m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g 1949 showed t h a t t h e average l e n g t h
of t h e p e r i o d o f a s s i g n m e n t t o GYA was s i x months. 21

Some c e n t e r s were s u p e r v i s e d by s o l d i e r s who l a c k e d b o t h t h e t r a i n -
ing and t h e i n c l i n a t i o n t o work w i t h young p e o p l e , O f t e n a s s i g n e d + 2
GYA work b e c a u s e t h e y were misfits i n t h e i r own u n i t s , t h e s e men w@re t

r e s p o n s L b l e f o r much o f t h e ill f e e l i n g on t h e p a r t of t h e Germans towa.rd
GYA, Many of t h e u n f a v o r a b l e s t o r i e s t h a t c i r c u l a t e d a b o u t t h e program
t h r o u g h o u t i t s e x i s t e n c e were based on i n a i d a n t s Gamed by i n a d e q u a t e L
s u p e r v i s i o n . I l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s was a n outing f o r yoang p e o p l e a r r a n g e d
by a cer1te.r i n Nurembeyg i n the spring OR 91949. The s o l d i e r s i n charge
o f t h e i t f t e r n o o n a c t i v i t i e s t u r n e d o v e r some b a t s , b a l l s , and g l o v e - t o
t h e boy:: who were p r e s e n t , , t o l d them t o produce t h e equipr,ient a g a i n at

19G3'A <rid9 9 Apr 52, I n USAWUR H i s t Div GYA f i l e s ,
2 0 M ~ ~ mt~o 1 C I N C E U R , 2 4 Feb 49. I n SGS 351,81 (19491, 1 I * I,
Item 74
" ( * I ) Memo t o Dir OPOT Div, 5 J a n 50, sub: Military P e r s o n n e l on
GYA Duty, ( 2 ) Memo, EUCOM t o C I N C E U R , 1 8 J a n 50, s u b ; M i l i t a r y P e r s o n -
n e l Assjgned t o Duty w i t h GYA, Both i n .;GS 35j508t ( l 9 5 O ) , Vol. I,
I t e n s 7 , 7A and a t c h d
a600 h o u r s , and t h e n d i s a p p e a r e d for he a f t e r n o o n w i t h t h e i r German
g i r l f r i e n d s who had come w i t h them. 23 Another i n s t a n c e o f i r r e s p o n s i -
b i l i t y o c c u r r e d i n t h e S t u t t g a r t area. E a r l y i n 1948 EUC(1M i n s p e c t o r s
found t h a t t h e GYA program a t t h e E s s l i n g e n c e n t e r was a t a c o m p l e t e
s t a n d s t i l l , and t h a t a l a c k o f s u p e r v i s i o n and i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t of
t h e r e s p o n s i b l e p e r s o n s had c o m p l e t e l y d e f e a t e d t h e purpose of t h e
program i n t h a t area, A f t e r r e p o r t i n g t h i s c o n d i t i o n , t h e i n s p e c t o r 8
r e t u r n e d t o make a follow-up i n s p e c t i o n i n September. C o n d i t i o n s had
n o t improved, EUCOM a s k e d f o r immediate a c t i o n t o c o r r e c t t h e d e f i c i e n -
c i e s , b u t when i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s v i s i t e d t h e c e n t e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g
J a n u a r y t h e y found o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l improvement. The German employees
were e i t h e r u n n e c e s s a r y o r i n c o m p e t e n t ; t h e r e were s h o r t a g e s o f e q u i p -
ment, p o o r s u p e r v i s i o n , and a g e n e r a l l a c k o f i n t e r e s t and e n t e r p r i s e
on t h e p a r t o f t h e A r m y p e r s o n n e l a t t h i s center.*T

27. R e d u c t i o n o f U.S. C o n s t a b u l a r y Aid

The problems of p e r s o n n e l s u p p o r t were a g g r a v a t e d by t h e e f f o r t s
o f t h e U.S. C o n s t a b u l a r y - - a s i d e from t h e 1st I n f a n t r y D i v i s i o n t h e o n l y
m a j or t a c t i c a l command i n t h e U.S. Zone a t t h a t time--to r e d u c e i t s
p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e
GYA program. The C o n s t a b u l a r y was r e q u i r e d t o f u r n i s h n o t l e s s t h a n 5
f i e l d - g r a d e and 21 company-grade o f f i c e r s as w e l l as 114 e n l i s t e d men
f o r f u l l - t i m e GYA d u t ~ . ~ 4S t a t i n g t h a t i t c o u l d no l o n g e r f u r n i s h t h e s e
men b e c a u s e t h e y were needed f o r t a c t i c a l a s s i g n m e n t s , t h e C o n s t a b u l a r y
proposed a r e d u c t i o n o f i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e GYA program t o 4 o f f i c e r s
and 5 e n l i s t e d men on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n was n o t
a c c e p t a b l e t o EUCOM because t h e GYA program was a p r i m a r y m i l i t a r y
mission. Any r a d i c a l r e d u c t i o n i n s u p p o r t , as proposed by t h e Constabu-
l a r y , would i m p a i r t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e p r o ram and l e a v e i t s imple-
m e n t a t i o n t o t h e whims o f l o c a l The C o n s t a b u l a r y a l s o
recommended p l a c i n g t h e burden o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Army a s s i s t a n c e on
t h e m i l i t a r y p o s t s , a change t h a t EUCOM was a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r i n g a t t h e
t i m e . G e n e r a l Huebner, t h e n commander o f EUCOM, was a n x i o u s t o r e l i e v e

' * ( I ) Memo, Mrs. B. S c h a l e t t o Col R. C. H a l l , 11 J u n 49. (2)
N o t e s, j d Tng Conf, EUCOM, 1 6 4 7 Sep 48, sub: The Armed F o r c e s
A s s i s t a n c e Program t o GYA. ( 3 ) R e p t s on Opns o f GYA Program f o r 1948,
s u b m i t t e d b y Col R. C. Hall t o C/OPOT Div Tng & Educ B r . A l l i n USAREUR
H i s t Div GYA f i l e s .
2:'(1) L t r , EUCORl t o C G , S t u t t g a r t M i l P o s t , 4 Oct 48, sub:
D e f i c i e n c i e s i n GYA Program a t E s s l i n g e n Subpost. I n SGS 353.81 ( 1 9 4 8 ) ,
Vol. I , Item 48A. ( 2 ) IRS, EUCOM OPOT Div t o DCOFS, 26 J a n 49, same
sub. I n SGS 357.81 (1949), Vol, I , Item 5.
24USFTT l t r , 5 Oct 46, sub: Army A s s i s t a n c e 150 GYA, U.S. Zone.
353,8 GCT-AGO.
2 5 L t r , US Constab t o CIWCEUR, 20 Aug 48, sub: C o n s t a b u l a r y
i:s.;istance t o GYA Program, and 1st I n d , t h e r e t o . I n SGS 353.81 ( 1 9 4 8 ) ,
V o l . 1, Item 42A
- 39 -
most coinbat u n i t s o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r p r o v i d i n g f u l l - t i m e
p e r s o n n e l t o GYA. The EUCOM Chief o f S t a f f , Maj. Gen. Carter B.
Magruder, s u g g e s t e d t h a t OMGUS ought t o p r o v i d e a l l t h e needed full-time
p e r s o n n e l , s i n c e from t h e o u t s e t t h a t agency had assumed p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i -
b i l i t y Tor t h e GYA program. F a i l i n g t h i s ' , EUCOM had t h e a l t e r n a t i v e of'
h i r i n g 1J.S. c i v i l i a n s for GYA. 26

None o f t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s was f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h because EU'COM
Fepardeil t h e GYA a s s i s t a n c e program as a d i s t i n c t and s e p a r a t e o p e r a t i o n ,
even t h i u g h German y o u t h a c t i v i t i e s were a n OMGUS r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
D e s p i t e t h e r e d u c t i o n i n GYA p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g t h e y e a r t h e r e were s t i l l .
263 o f f i c e r s and e n l i s t e d men a s s i g n e d t o f u l l - t i m e d u t y w i t h GYA by
O c t o b e r 1948. Ey c o n t r a s t , OMGUS had a s s i g n e d o n l y 1 2 c i v i l i a n s t o y o u t h
a c t i v i t i e s , and G e n e r a l Clay had d i s a p p r o v e d two e a r l i e r r e q u e s t s t o
increasle t h a t number, Several a t t e m p t s t o r e p l a c e m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l
w i t h I!e partment o f Army c i v i l i a n s were e q u a l l y u n s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e t h e y
were d i s a p p r o v e d by t h e M i l i t a r y Governor, who doubted t h a t Congress
would a p p r o p r i a t e money f o r t h i s purpose w h i l e he d i d n o t a n t i c i p a t e
C o n g r e s ; i o n a l o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e u s e o f s o l d i e r s whose time c o u l d be made
a v a i l a h ~e.27

28. G j l f i c a t i o n o f t h e Program

EUI:OM was c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g an a d e q u a t e
p e r s o n n e l s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e GYA program, S i n c e t h e program wsts i n f l u x ,
i t f o l l o w e d t h a t t h e p e r s o n n e l s i t u a t i o n would change from t i m e t o t i m e ,
n e c e s s i t a t i n g e x a m i n a t i o n and read,justment. Thus, i n 1948 w h i l e m i l i t a r y
pc=rsor!ri?l working w i t h GYA d e c r e a s e d , t h e number of r e q u e s t s f o r
a s s i s t a n c e and t h e number o f y o u t h s r e c e i v i n g assistance i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g
t h e lat'er p a r t o f t h e y e a r . This s i t u a t i o n , coupled w i t h t h e p r e s s u r e
f r o m thl? U.S. C o n s t a b u l a r y and o t h e r t a c t i c a l u n i t s t o be r e l i e v e d o f
some o f t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s t o GYA, l e d t o a n o t h e r s t u d y o f t h e EUCOM
a s s i s t a n c e program. I n November 1948 t h e r e s u l t s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o
a new d i r e c t i v e , which c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e numerous p u b l i c a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g
t o GYA I J p e r a t i o n s and p o l i c y i n t o one comprehensive document. The b a s n c
program was unchanged, b u t c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made t o
overcome c e r t a i n weaknesses.

26( 1 ) L t r , 2 0 Aug 48, c i t e d above, ( 2 ) IRS, EUCOM SGS t o D i r OPOT
Div, 30 Sep 48, sub: L e t t e r from G e n e r a l White r e C o n s t a b u l a r y
A s s i s t a n c e t o GYA. I n SGS 35581 ( l 9 4 8 ) , Vol. I , Item 47A.
27( 1 ) Memo, t o Brig Gen V. E. P r i c h a r d , D i r EUCOM OPOT Div, 1 2 Oct
48, s u b : Armed F o r c e s A s s i s t a n c e Program f o r GYA. I n USAREUI.: H i s t D i v
G'IA fi1.s. ( 2 ) I E S , EUCOid OPOT Div t o SGS, 14 Oct 48, sub: L e t t e r from
G e n e r a l White r e C o n s t a b u l a r y A s s i s t a n c e t o GYA. ( 3 ) IRS, EUCiOM DCOFS
t o D i r OPOT Div, a9 Oct 48, same sub. Last two i n SGS 353.81 (1948),
- 54
V o l e I, I t e m s 52B,

- 40 -
- -__I_- "
-I
-_I._
--_

Chart 2
&; X A l S O N CONTACTS BETWEEN EUCOM AND OMGUS A G E N C I E S

Youth S e c t i o n GYA S e c t i o n

Military Posts

I
Liaison and S e c u r i t y
Detachments p.

I
Subordinate U n i t s

b . EUCOM L I A I S O N WITH AND A S S I S T A N C E TO GERMAN YOUTH A G E N C I E S

P-
Land Youth Committee
and equivalent, i n EUCOM GYA Election
~er:in and b e m e n )
I

Major C o n l m a n d l
I
7
US Constabulary,
---
Kreis Youth C o m m i t t e e
a n d e qui va I en t.s
- USAFE
Is t I n f a n t r y D i v i s i o n

I

r

L J
S O U * ( ~ ' P S8nnr.w A +cb EUCOM Cir 149, 2 Nov 48, sub: The Prmed
_l_m__

F n m e s A s ~ i s t a n r eProgram t o German Youth A c t i v i t i e s .

- 41 -
To i n s u r e b a l a n c e d and w e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d programs i n a l l atreas of"
t h e U.S. Zone, m a j o r r e s p o n s n b i l n t y f o r all GYA programs was a s s i g n e d
t o t h e m i l i t a r y p o s t commandersa i n c l u d i n g t h e Bremerhaven P o r t o f
Embarkation and t h e UAAFE commanding g e n e r a l i n t h e c a s e o f t h e A i r Force
i n s t a l l a t i o n s . With t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f l a r g e r areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,
t h e m i l i t a r y p o s t s a l s o assumed t h e p e r s o n n e l b u r d e n for GYA. Since u n i t
commanders o f t e n evaded t h e f u l f i l l i n g of t h e p e r s o n n e l assessment f o r
G Y A , EUCOM i n a u g u r a t e d a s y s t e m o f g u a r a n t e e i n g t h a t a s s i g n m e n t s o f
m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l t o GYA would be f i l l e d . L i a i s o n c o n t a c t s between
EUCOM and OMGUS a g e n c i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n GYA were as shown i n g i a r t 2a.
The purpose of t h i s l i a i s o n was t o k e e p OMGUS a n d UJCOM informed o f all.
German y o u t h a c t i v i t i e s o f j o i n t c o n c e r n , t o c o o r d i n a t e p l a n s f o r new
t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s , and t o r e p o r t t o e a c h o t h e r p o l i c y v i o l a t , i o n s ,
u n d e s i r a b l e p r a c t i c e s , and o u t s t a n d i n g s u c c e s s e s o r f a i l u r e s . Liaison
with and a s s i s t a n c e t o German y o u t h a g e n c i e s by EUCOM agencies; were as
shown i n - C h a r t 2b, The purpose o f t h i s l i a i s o n was t o i n s u r e t h a t armed
f o r c e s a s s i s t a n c e was a c h i e v i n g maximum e f f e c t i v e n e s s and was n o t duplit-
?i+ing t h e e f f o r t s o f German a g e n c i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r y o u t h a s s i s t a n c e .
S t a n d a r d s were set, up i n t h e h i r i n g , t r a i n i n g , and s u p e r v i s i o n o f German
employees. The c o n t i n u a t i o n o f worthwhile c u l t u r a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , vo-
c a t i o n a l , and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s was p r e s c r i b e d and encouraged b e c a u s e
t h e s e had proven e f f e c t i v e i n r e e d u c a t i n g and r e o r i e n t i n g German youth,,
Finally, new c h a n n e l s were opened f o r t h e procurement o f s u p p l i e s and t h e
r a i s i n g o f f u n d s t o s u p p o r t t h e program.

Althou{;h t h e m i l i t a r y p o s t s became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l a n n i n g ,
i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f all armed f o r c e s
a s s i s t a n c e t o GYA w i t h i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c l i n i t s of t h e i r commands, t h e
C o n s t a b u l a r y and t h e 1 s t I n f a n t r y D i v i s i o n were n o t r e l i e v e d of a l l t h e i r
o b l i g a t i o n s t o t h i s program. The t a c t i c a l u n i t s were s t i l l r e q u i r e d t o
s u p p o r t t h e program even though t h e i r p r i n c i p a l m i s s i 3 n i n v o l v e d e x t e n s i v e
t r a i n i n g and maneuvers. However, t h e demands upon t h e i r p e r s o n n e l were
somewhat r e d u c e d , 2 8

29. Youth L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g

To h e l p overcome t h e s h o r t a g e o f a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d American and
German p e r s o n n e l a t t h e GYA c e n t e r s , a s e r i e s o f t r a i n i n g C O U I ' S ~ S and
c o n f e r e n c e s was i n s t i t u t e d i n t h e p e r i o d from 1948 t o 1956 Military
Government had opened t h e f i r s t t r a i n i n g c e n t e r f o r t r a i n i n g y o u t h workers
ir; 1948 a t .Iannsee n e a r B e r l i n , T h i s c e n t e r had also been c r e a t e d t o
p r o v i d e p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d yo:ing l e a d e r s i n t h e German y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s

*'( 1 ) f ' / N 1, E U C O l l OI'OL' Div t o SGS, 2 5 Feb 49, sub: GYA I i i s t o r i c a l
M a t e r i a l f o r t h e Commander i n C h i e f , TAB A , 2 5 Feb 49, s u b : H i s t o r y
and Background of t h e Armed Forces Assistance Prog;ram t o German Youth
Activities. I n ,GS 351.81 ( 1 9 4 9 ) , Vol I, Item 25A-1 a t c h d . ( 2 ) EUCOM
C i r 149, 2 Nov 48, sub: The hr!:ied F o r c e s A s s i s t a m e Program t o German
Youth Activities,
t h a t had been formed s i n c e t h e end o f Xorld War 11. In addition t o
p r e s e n t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n c e r t a i n a r t s and s k i l l s , t h e c e n t e r s t r e s s e d
f r e e , n o n p a r t i s a n d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s and encouraged i n d e -
pendence o f t h o u g h t , Moreover, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e s c h o o l was
d e s i g n e d t o t e a c h g r o u p program p l a n n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Over TOO
people a t t e n d e d t h e c e n t e r d u r i n g i t s first g e a r o f o p e r a t i o n .

I n May 1949 EUCOM opened a y o u t h l e a d e r s h i p s c h o o l at R u i t , n e a r
S t u t t g a r t , e x c l u s i v e l y f o r Germans working i n GYA. Later i n t h e y e a r
t h e s c h o o l w a s t a k e n o v e r by t h e IT,S. High Commission f o r Germany
(HICOG),*9 Germans l i v i n g i n t h e U.S. Zone and West B e r l i n r e c e i v e d
i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e GYA c e n t e r s and i n c o n d u c t i n g s p o r t s
and p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g programs. The s e v e r a l hundred p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d
t h e s c h o o l d u r i n g 1949 and 1950 were able t o exchange i d e a s and e x p e r i -
e n c e s t h a t would a i d i n t h e r u n n i n g of t h e c e n t e r s w i t h a l a r g e r measure
o f zone-wide c o o r d i n a t i o n ,

I n t e n s i v e l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g f o r noncommissioned s o l d i e r s and
a i r m e n a s s i g n e d t o GYA c e n t e r s was p r o v i d e d i n 1949 i n a s p e c i a l c o u r s e
s e t up a t t h e EUCOM I n t e l l i g e n c e School i n Oberammergau. In a d d i t i o n t o
t h e t r a i n i n g a t s p e c i a l s c h o o l s , GYA p e r s o n n e l r e c e i v e d f u r t h e r i n s t r u c -
t i o n a t monthly t r a i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e s , which were u s u a l l y h e l d at m i l i t a r y
p o s t l e v e l . From 1948 t o 1951 semiannual t r a i n i n g c o n f e r e i i c e s were h e l d
on a zone-wide b a s i s f o r key Army and A i r Force o f f i c e r s and c i v i l i a n s
p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e GYA program. These Conferences were h e l d t o t r a i n
p e r s o n n e l i n t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f GYA,to c l a r i f y GYA. o l i c i e s a n d d i r e c t i v e s ,
and t o d i s c u s s problems e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e f i e l d . 3 B
30 0 L e g a l i t y o f t h e Program

a. OMGUS E v a l u a t i o n . + I n A p r i l 1949 a g r o u p r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e
G e n e r a l Clay Fund and CARE a r r i v e d i n Germany f o r a n i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e
G Y A c e n t e r s . Mrs. Shouse was a l s o i n t h e v i s i t i n g group. Near t h e end
o f t h e t o u r t h e v i s i t o r s l e a r n e d t h a t some OMGUS o f f i c i a l s no l o n g e r
c o n s i d e r e d GYA a worthwhile a c t i v i t y . The c h i e f of t h e E d u c a t i o n a l and
C u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s D i v i s i o n o f OMGUS, Dr. Alonzo Grace, f o r i n s t a n c e ,
r e g a r d e d GYA as j u s t a program t o g i v e Coca-Cola and candy t o German
c h i l d r e n . Alarmed a t t h e p r o s p e c t s o f t h e l o s s of' o f f i c i a l . s u p p o r t f o r
GYA, t h e g r o u p c o n s u l t e d w i t h Dr. Lawrence E , N o r r i e , who was c h i e f o f
t h e Youth A c t i v i t i e s S e c t i o n o f t h e m i l i t a r y government o r g a n i z a t i o n ,

2 9 V i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of Germany on 21
September 1949, t h e O c c u p a t i o n S t a t u t e and t h e C h a r t e r o f t h e High Com-
m i s s i o n became e f f e c t i v e , On t h e same d a t e H I C O G r e p l a c e d the Office
o f M i l i t a r y Government, U n i t e d S t a t e s (OMGUS) H I C O G , a Department o f
S t a t e a g e n c y , assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l n o n m i l i t a r y occupation:
matters
30(1) OUGUS, I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n , No. 1 6 2 , 31 May 49, pp. 17-19.
'2) HICOG, I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i nJ a n 50 -40. ( 3 6 See a l s o N o t e s ,
>iit h r o u g h 8 t h Tng Confs, 1948-51. I n U?3Af7E6R38ist Div YA f i l e s ,

- 43 -
Emphasjzing h i s i n t e r e s t i n GYA, D r . N o r r i e e x p l a i n e d t h e o r i g i n a l need
f o r thc3 program and n o t e d h i s p a r t i n l a u n c h i n g i t , He t h e n c o n t r a s t e d
t h e pa:rt need w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n o f s u b s t a n t i a l economic
r e c o v e r y i n Western Germany, and s t r e s s e d t h e r e s u r g e n c e of y o u t h a c t i v i -
t i e s u n d e r German l e a d e r s h i p . He f i n a l l y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t a s k of
r e o r i e n t i n g German y o u t h c o u l d be t u r n e d o v e r t o t h e German p e o p l e f o r
t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : t h e s o l d i e r s a s s i g n e d t o t h e program were f n a d e -
q l j a t e l T r p r e p a r e d f o r working w i t h t h e German y o u t h ; a s o c i a l program of
t h e C Y l i t y p e d i d n o t f i t i n t o t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f Army p o l i c y ; and t h e
German p e o p l e r e s e n t e d t h e program because n o n o c c u p a t i o n f u n d s were u s e d
f o r i t : ; s u p p o r t , In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h e Germans claimed t h a t t h e millions
o f Deu1,sche M a r k s s p e n t on GYA c o u l d be b e t t e r u s e d by t h e i r own o r g a n i -
zation:;. W i t h no t r a i n e d c i v i l i a n s a v a i l a b l e , t h e q u a l i t y o f l e a d e r s h i p
s u f f e r c d b e a a u s e of t h e c o n s t a n t t u r n o v e r o f Army p e r s 0 n n e l , 3 ~

DY. N o r r i e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t h i s e v a l u a t i o n of t h e Armyvs GYA
program was based on p e r s o n a l knowledge and on t h e o p i n i o n of l e a d i n g
h e r i c r t n e d u c a t o r s who had been b r o u g h t t o Germany on v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s
t o examine t h e program, A t t h a t time a C a l i f o r n i a e d u c a t o r was c o m p l e t -
i r g a s u r v e y a c c o r d i n g t o which n o t one German p a r e n t i n t e r v i e w e d had.
expres:ged a p p r o v a l o f t h e GYA program. Finally, Dr. Norrie asserted
t h a t tlie GYA program was a d i r e c t v i o l a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w , b u t
w i t h o u b e l a b o r a t i n g how he a r r i x e d a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , 32

b , The Problem o f German f i n d s . A few weeks l a t e r D r , Grace
summoned a c o n f e r e n c e o f EUCOM and OMGUS r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o d i s c u s s GYA
activities Also p r e s e n t at t h e c o n f e r e n c e was a Sta te Department
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who was making a s u r v e y of U,S. a c t i v i t i e s concerned w i t h
the r e o r i e n t a t i o n and r e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e German p e o p l e . The p u r p o s e of
h i s s u r v e y was t o d e t e r m i n e what economies t h e State Department c o u l d
p u t i n t o e f f e c t upon assuming c o n t r o l o f t h i s phase of t h e o c c u p a t i o n a ,
n c t u a l t y , Dr. G r a c e t s main r e a s o n f o r holdin,.; t h e c o n f e r e n c e was t o
e x p l a i i t o t h e Army r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h a t he and t h e S t a t e Department
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e doubted t h e l e g a l i t y of u s i n g n o n o c c u p a t i o n f u n d s f o r
t h e GY1. program, T h i s p r o c e d u r e would p r o b a b l y have t o be d i s c o n t i n u e d
becausl? i t was c o n t r a r y t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w , as s t i p u l a t e d by b o t h tlie
Hague ,and Geneva C o n v e n t i o n s , t o assess a n o c c u p i e d n a t i o n f o r f u n d s
necess,wy t o c a r r y o u t a program t h a t was i n t e n d e d t o assist t h e o c c u p i e d
nation i t s e l f ,

Tile s u g g e s t i o n t h a t GYA be o p e r a t e d w i t h o u t Deutsche Mar’k f u n d s
was n o t countenanced because i t would have l e d t o t h e c o l l a p s e of t h e
e n t i r e program. Even w i t h t h e s e n o n o c c u p a t i o n f u n d s , no more t h a n 2 0
p e r c e n t o f t h e German y o u t h i n t h e U.S. Zone had p a r t i c i p a t e d l i n GYA,

/ *
laemo, B e a t r i c e B, S c h a l e t t o Col Robert C. Hall, I 1 Jurt 49. In
SGS 353.81 (1949) I VOI, I , Item 4 3 ~ ~
’*~-Ibid.

- 44 -
a p e r c e n t a g e c o n s i d e r e d t h e bare minimum t o . j u s t i f y t h e program.33
While t h e amount o f German f u n d s u s e d i n s u p p o r t o f t h e GYA program was
o n l y a small f r a c t i o n of t h e o v e r - a l l o c c u p a t i o n c o s t s , t h i s money w a s
v i t a l t o t h e program because i t p a i d f o r t h e r e n t a l o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s ,
t h e s a l a r i e s o f t h e German employees, and t h e materials f o r which d o l l a r
f u n d s were n o t a v a i l a b l e . A t t h a t time more t h a n 4 m i l l i o n Deutsche
Marks was s p e n t by EUCOM t o s u p p o r t GYA, most o f which went f o r s a l a r i e s
f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y a thousand f u l l - t i m e s u p e r v i s o r s , i n s t r u c t o r s , and
o t h e r y o u t h c e n t e r p e r s o n n e l , a l l German n a t i o n a l s . About a f o u r t h of
t h a t amount w a s u s e d t o pay r e n t on t h e r e q u i s i t i o n e d p r o p e r t i e s . In
a d d i t i o n , t h e U. S. c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e program i n c l u d e d m i l i t a r y person-
n e l p a i d from a p p r o p r i a t e d f u n d s and more t h a n 1,000 p a r t - t i m e v o l u n t e e r
w o r k e r s as w e l l as s u p p l i e s and equipment, e n g i n e e r c u s t o d i a l maintenance
o f the buildings, and about 15,000 g a l l o n s o f g a s o l i n e p e r month. Final-
l y , a l m o s t a q u a r t e r o f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s was d o n a t e d i n v o l u n t a r y
c o n t r i b u t i o n s ( i n 1948) from U.S. Zone p e r s o n n e l t o supporlt GYA C h r i s t m a s
a c t i v i t i e s , and some a s s i s t a n c e was p r o v i d e d by t h e G e n e r a l Clay Fund.34

c , The EUCOM P o s i t i o n . The problem of n o n o c c u p a t i o n f u n d s was a l l
t h e more s e r i o u s because t h e O f f i c e o f M i l i t a r y Government had c o n t r o l
o v e r u s e o f t h e Deutsche Mark f u n d s . But EUCOM found s p e c i f i c a u t h o r i t y
t o u s e t h e f u n d s t o s u p p o r t GYA i n an agreement among t h e Military
Governors of t h e t h r e e o c c u p y i n g powers, a l t h o u g h t h a t d i d n o t e l i m i n a t e
t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w a s p e c t s o f t h e problem. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g weeks
e v i d e n c e was g a t h e r e d s u p p o r t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t GYA conltinue t o be
f i n a n c e d w i t h Deutsche Mark f u n d s , 35

The p o s i t i o n advanced by t h e Office o f M i l i t a r y Government, i n
which i t a p p e a r e d t o have t h e f u l l b a c k i n g o f t h e S t a t e Depar ment, was
b a s e d upon t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n o f t h e Hague Conventions: '3 "Requi-
s i t i o n s i n k i n d and s e r v i c e s s h a l l n o t be demanded from m u n i c i p a l i t i e s
o r i n h a b i t a n t s e x c e p t f o r t h e needs o f t h e Army o f Occupation. They
, s h a l l be i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e r e s o u r c e s of t h e c o u n t r y , and o f s u c h
n a t u r e as n o t t o i n v o l v e t h e i n h a b i t a n t s i n t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f t a k i n g
p a r t i n m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e i r own c o u r i t r y o t i To r e f u t e t h e
OMGUS-State Department argument, EUCOM sought t o p r o v e b o t h t h a t t h e
Germans wanted t h e GYA program and t h a t i t w a s c a r r i e d o u t n o t s o much
t o b e n e f i t German y b u t h b u t r a t h e r t o f u l f i l l a need o f t h o Army o f

'31RS, EUCOM OPOT Div t o COFS, 8 J u l 49, sub: F i n a n c i a l Support
o f t h e GYA Program. I n SGS 353.81 ( 1 9 4 9 ) , Vol. I , Item 60,,
3 4 1 ~ S ,EUCOM OPOT Div t o SGS, 22 J u l 49, sub: Brief on F i n a n c i a l
S u p p o r t of GYA Program. I n f i l e above, Item 64A.
j51bid.
3 Agreements
r made a t t h e F i r s t and Second Hague C o n f e r e n c e s , 1899,

- 45 -
O c c u p a t i o n and was, t h e r e f o r e , i n a c c o r d w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreements,*37

To p r o v e t h a t t h e German p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s l i k e d t h e program and
wanted i t c o n t i n u e d , EUCOM conducted a p u b l i c o p i n i o n s u r v e y , E a r l i e r
s u r v e y s had i n d i c a t e d a c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t of t h e Germans, An
OMGUS s u r v e y rnade i n Land Hesse d u r i n g 1948 had shown t h a t German a d u l t s
and comnunity l e a d e r s s e p a r a t e d t h e GYA program from t h e i r communities
by a w a l l of' c r i t i c i s m and p r e j u d i c e , A t b e s t t h e y had c o n s i d e r e d GYA
a w e l l - n e a n i n g b u t b l u n d e r i n g e f f o r t t o i n t r o d u c e an American-style y o u t h
p r 0 g r a m . 3 ~ A EUCOM p u b l i c o p i n i o n survey i n Bremen and Bremerhaven had
been o n l y s l i g h t l y more f a v o r a b l e a n d , a l t h o u g h some German a a l u l t s had
a p p r o v e 3 a t l e a s t o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f U.S. Army-sponsored y o u t h o r g a n i -
z a t i o n s , most had been o p e n l y a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e GYA m e t h o d s , 3 9 To
measure German r e a c t i o n t o t h e GYA program i n J u l y 1949, 80 Germans weir8
a s k e d f n t h e i r o p i n i o n of GYA. They d i d n o t r e p r e s e n t a cross section
b u t wer? c i v i c o f f i c i a l s , c h u r c h l e a d e r s , s c h o o l and s p o r t s o f f i c i a l s ,
a n d l e a l e r s o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s o r youth groups. T h e i r answers i n d i -
c a t e d t i a t r e a c t i o n t o t h e GYA program d u r i n g i t s t h r e e and a h a l f y e a r s
o f e x i s t e n c e had r a n g e d from h o s t i l i t y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g t o one! o f g e n e r a l
a p p r o v a l and s u p p o r t by t h e middle o f 1949. Seventy-nine o f t h e 80
Germans q u e s t i o n e d t h o u g h t t h a t GYA s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d as a n o f f i c i a l
mission o f the occupation f 0 r c e s , 4 ~

Th+ l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g used by EUCOM t o e s t a b l i s h GYA as a& need o f
t h e Arm*? o f O c c u p a t i o n was t h a t t h e program had been i n i t i a t e d primari1.y
as a p r x t i c a l method o f a s s u r i n g g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y f o r t h e o c c u p y i n g
f o r c e s 3y r e d u c i n g j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y among t h e l o c a l popula.tion.
T h i s view d i d n o t r e a l l y c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s l y announced o b j e c t i v e
of GYA--namely, t h e d e m o c r a t i c r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f German y o u t h , Less
emphasi:, m e r e l y , had been p l a c e d on t h e r e d u c t i o n o f juvenile1 &l.inprr:y
because o f t h e l i m i T e d i n f l u e n c e t h a t a v o l u n t a r y program l i k e GYA c o u l d
exert ii t h i s respect. After t h e GYA program had become e f f e c t i v e , i t s
scope had t o be e x t e n d e d beyond t h a t o f a p u r e l y r e c r e a t i o n a l n a t u r e ,
and t h e m i s s i o n of r e d u c i n g j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y had t o be broadened to
i n c l u d e i n c u l c a t i n g German y o u t h w i t h d e m o c r a t i c i d e a s and p r a c t i c e s i n
o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e i r p a s s i v e and a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e t o o c c u p a t i o n
measure,: .4a

1711?S, EUC@M OPOT Div t o J A Div, 2 2 Aug 49, sub: Legality o f GYA
Program u n d e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law. I n f i l e above, I t e m 75*
'*&ccerpt from Wklg I n t e l Sum Na. 138, OMGUS f o r Hesse, 1948. Copy
i n USARIXJR H i s t Div GYA f i l e s ,
39E1JC3M Iiept o n German A t t i t u d e s Toward t h e Army A s s i s t a n c e Program
t o GYA, 4 Feb 48. I n USAREUR H i s t Div GYA f i l e s ,
4011~S, EUCOM OPOT Div t o SGS, 1 5 Aug 49, sub: Conference between
H T C X and Act C I N C E U R . I n SGS 353.81 (1949), Vol. I, I t e m 74
491i(S, EiCOhll OPOT Div t o J A Div, 22 Aug 49, sub: L e g a l i t y of GYA
Program u n d e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law. I n SGS 353.81 ( 1 9 4 9 ) , Vol. I , Item 751.

- 46 -
The e n t i r e c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e l e g a l i t y of t h e prog:ram w a s n o t
m e r e l y s i g n i f i c a n t from t h e f i n a n c i a l v i e w p o i n t s i n c e sho:rtage of funds
was a r e c u r r e n t problem. The s i g n i f i c a n c e l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t A r m y
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e GYA program had been c h a l l e n g e d . The i s s u e was
resolved-even though t h e q u e s t i o n o f l e g a l i t y was n o t answered--when
M r a John McCloy, t h e American M i l i t a r y Governor, approved t h e scheduled
M u t s c h e Mark budget f o r GYA,42 Thus t h e Army remained i n c o n t r o l o f t h e
GYA program,

31 Democratic R e o r i e n t a t i o n Survey

S i n c e one o f t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e GYA program w a s t o assise
i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f German y o u t h , t h e o f f i c i a l s i n c h a r g e
o f t h e program were a n x i o u s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s a c h i e v e d .
Q u a n t i t a t i v e measurements o f t h e number o f y o u t h c e n t e r s i n o p e r a t i o n
and t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , o r of t h e amount o f a s s i s t a n c e r e n d e r e d
o r o f t h e number of i n d i v i d u a l s a s s i s t e d were of l i m i t e d v a l u e i n g a n g i n g
q u a l i t a t i v e accomplishments. Consequently, i n F e b r u a r y and March o f 1950
t h e GYA Branch conducted a s p e c i a l s u r v e y of a thousand German s c h o o l
c h i l d r e n , o v e r 16 y e a r s o f age, o f b o t h s e x e s , and r e p r e s e n t i n g all t h e
L a e n d e r ( i n t h e U.S. Zone), B e r l i n , and Bremerhaven,
--_1_1 In consultation
w l t h American and German e d u c a t o r s , t h e H I C O G E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r a l
R e l a t i o n s D i v i s i o n , and t h e Opinion Survey Branch o f t h e EUCOM TI&E
D i v i s i o n , GYA d e v i s e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t would i n d i c a t e t h e d e g r e e t o
which t h o s e q u e s t i o n e d f a v o r e d democracy. I n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h standards
of measurement t h a t mfght i n d i c a t e t h e t e n d e n c y o f y o u t h Lo f a v o r o r not
t o f a v o r democracy, a d e f i n i t i o n of t h e c o n c e p t o f democralcy had t o be
a g r e e d upon and adopted. Democracy was d e f i n e d as a form (of government
i n which t h e u l t i m a t e power r e s t s w i t h t h e p e o p l e r a t h e r t h a n w i t h a
l e a d e r o r one p a r t y . 4 3 To t e s t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e I f s v a l i d i t y , a n English
v e r s i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 100 American h i g h s c h o o l boys and g i r l s i n
Germany. Two-thirds o f t h e g r o u p showed a g o s i t i v e l y favo:rable a t t i t u d e
toward democracy, The r e m a i n i n g t h i r d was undecided. None however
p o s i t i v e l y opposed democracy. The second p o r t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e
d e t e r m i n e d t h e f a c t o r s t h a t might i n f l u e n c e t h e a t t i t u d e of German y o u t h
tovrard democracy. I n c l u d e d t h e r e f o r e were q u e s t i o n s on mecnbership in
y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s and on o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n democracy by p r a c t i c e ,
S i n c e a n o t h e r b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t many German y o u t h s e q u a t e d
democracy w i t h America and Americans, o t h e r q u e s t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d a t t i -
t u d e s toward Americans and t h e d e g r e e of p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h them,

42
IRS, EUCOM OPOT Div t o COFS, 8 J u l 49, sub: F i n a n c i a l :upport of
t h e GYA Program. I n f i l e above, Item 60
4'Rept, D r . W. P , S h o f s t a l l , C i v i l i a n A d v i s e r , EUCOM GYA BT, t o L t
C o l L. B. Cole, C/OPOT Div GYA B r , sub: W i l l German Youth Choose
Democracy7 3urvey o f Y o u t h ' s A t t i t u d e s toward Democracy in R e l a t i o n t o
t h e i r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e GYA Program, 24 Feb 50 t o 10 Mar 5 0 , I n c l t o
Fde~o, C/GYA B r t o D i r OPO'i' Div, 1 J u n 50, sub: GYA Democratic Reorien-
; a t i o n Survey. T n U5ARYIR IS Di G f e ,

- 47 -
ThB r e s u l t s of t h e survey showed t h a t almost h a l f ( 4 7 p e r c e n t ) o f
t h e Gernans t e s t e d were undecided i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward democracy,
a l t h o u g h more t h a n twice a a many (38 p e r c e n t ) favored i t t h a n were
opposed (I5 p e r c e n t ) , German youth who had c o n t a c t with t h e GYA program
were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a v o r a b l e toward democracy t h a n t h o s e who had
l i t t l e 3r no e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i t . A number of t h e f e a t u r e s emphasized
most i n t h e GYA program, such as American-sponsored games, p a r t i e s , etc;.,
had t h e l e a s t amount o f i n f l u e n c e on democratic r e o r i e n t a t i o n , qmverqc!.y.
t h e f e a t u r e s t h a t were l e a s t emphasized i n t h e GYA program, such as group
p r a c t i c e i n p a r l i a m e n t a r y prooedure, were most i n f l u e n t i a l i n d e v e l o p i n g
positivc? a t t i t u d e s toward democracy. The s t r o n g e s t f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g
:he p r e r e r e n c e of German youth f o r democracy was t h e way i n which t h e
Germans thought t h e Americans regarded them ( i , e , , whether t h e h e r i c a n c
r e s p e c t e d Germans or c o n s i d e r e d them "'second r a t e Y V \ The f i n a l conclu-
s i o n bat3ed on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y was t h a t t h e t o t a l impact of the
o c c u p a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g American o v e r - a l l p o l i c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s ,
e x e r t e d more i n f l u e n c e on t h e a t t i t u d e of young Germans toward democracy
than 7ny one program such as GYA.44

44( I ) Rept and memo c i t e d above. ( 2 ) Notes from 6 t h Tng Conf, GYA,
17-16 Apr 50. In USAREUR H i s t Div GYA f i l e s ,
CHAPTER 4

The Phaseout 1951-55

32, P l a n s f o r T r a n s f e r of GYA R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s

A s e a r l y as December 1948, EUCOM had considered d e v e l o p i n g a p l a n
for e v e n t u a l l y t u r n i n g over t h e GYA program t o p r o p e r l y c o n s t i t u t e d
German youth a g e n c i e s and dropping d i r e c t s u p p o r t by U,S, m i l i t a r y
agencies,l

A t t h e t r a i n i n g conference f o r GYA p e r s o n n e l h e l d i n H e i d e l b e r g i n
A p r i l 1949 t h i s theme had been s t r o n g l y emphasized by Lt, Cole F, W,
H a l l , t h e c h i e f of t h e EUCOM GYA S e c t i o n , i n h i s a d d r e s s t o t h e
c o n f e r e e s , He had s t a t e d t h a t GYA workers must n e v e r l o s e s i g h t of t h e
e v e n t u a l phaseout of GYA, A l l c u r r e n t and f u t u r e e f f o r t s would have t o
be s o o r i e n t e d as t o i n t e g r a t e t h e program i n t o t h e German community
and way o f l i f e , Only t h u s could t h e e f f e c t of t h e program endure p a s t
t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of American a s s i s t a n c e t o i t , *

While t h e Army a n t i t i p a t e d t u r n i n g o v e r t h e program t o t h e Germans
and even conducted youth l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g w i t h t h a t o b j e c t i v e i n
rnind,3 HICOG t o o k t h e f i r s t p r a c t i c a l s t e p s i n t h e m a t t e r . I n January
1950 M r , J o h n J , McCloy s t a t e d t o General Handy h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e
time had come t o s e c u r e German community s u p p o r t and s p o n s o r s h i p f o r

'Ltr, D i r OPOT Div t o EUCOM COFS, 27 Dec 48, sub: The Armed Forces
A s s i s t a n c e Program t o German Youth A c t i v i t i e s . I n SGS 353.81 Ger (1948),
V o l , I , Item 72A0
% o t e s from t h e 4 t h Tng Conf, GYA, 28-29 Apr 49, p. 8. I n USAREUR
H i s t Div GYA f i l e s ,
'HICOG, Information B u l l e t i n , J a n 50, p. 40.
the operatTLanal phases ef* GYA. This view was based on t h e O c c u p a t i m
S t a t u t e c a n ~ e p ti h a $ t b m e m a t t e r s f o r which t h e Germans could assume
s e s p o n P i b i l i t y caught t o he t u r n e d o v e r to them, S t r e s s i n g t h e value
of armed f o r c e s assiB,.&;ance i n t h e p a s t , hk, M e C l ~ yasked t h a t such as-
s i s t a n c e be continued d u r i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d through t h e e x r s t -
ing Geman youth s e r v i c e s s t r u c t u r e a H e s e t no s p e c i f i c t a r g e t d a t e
b u t hoped t h a t p r o g r e s s would be made within s i x mon$hs,4

I n March HICOG and EUCOM r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d i s c u s s e d what a c t i o n
would have t o be t a k e n on Mpo McCLcayfls p r o p o s a l s , No definite decision
was reached a t t h a t t i m e R but the p r o j e c t remained of i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t
to EUCOM. By April EUCOM had decided t o oppose any piecemeal t r a n s f e r
of GYA c e n t e r s c r i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , Only if HICOG became willing
t o 3ake o v e r the e n t i r e program would EUCOM agree t o r e l i n q u i s h
control 5

At a Later HICOG-EUCOM conference t h e concept of g r a d u a l t u r n o v e r
of + b e CXA pp-gram w a s emphasized by Dr, Norrfe of H I C O G , EUCOM
r e a t a t e d ?.ts p a r a d o x i c a l view t h a t i t w a s anxious t o c a r r y o u t t h e
wishes c f the High Csmm$ssioner but o n l y i f t h e Batter would assume
complete control of $he pragmxm, Thz4 n e w p o i n t was opposed by HICOG,
who a l s c m d x a t e d t h a % ful%nl-e r e d u c t i o n s in funds might make neces-
s a r y a sudden c u r t a l l m e n $ o f t h e program t h a t would be P a s more
harmful than a g r a d u a l trans€er o f it,6

I n J u l y HICOG a d v i s e d EUCOM t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t of t h e United S t a t e s
might b e s t be ssn.ved by retiring behind the menes i n youth programs,
HICOG a s s e T t e d t h a t Bxazerf~minfluence an t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e y o u t h
pregsam would be -increased by relisvlng U,S, p e r s o n n e l from adminns-
t r a t l L v e d n a t ~ e sand p e r m i t t i n g them t o observe and guide t h e over-a18
prngram,<l Ths s c c n s a d s r a t i a n a p p a r e n t l y modified General Handyes
a t t i t u d e r f e ; t h e r csmple$&,iy t u r n i n g over t h e program t o t h e Germans
or r e t a i n i n g f u l l c o n k o l , I n e f f e c t , he agreed t o c o n t i n u e v o l u n t e e r
and J 5 @ s t ” c a l s u p p o ~ tt ~o c e n t e r s a f t e r t h e y had passed from armed
I , T h ~ aconce8sion w a s mads a% t h e J u l y HICOG-EUCOM

%+r, HICOG t o CINCFJUR, 20 Jan 50. In SGS 553081 Ger ( l g 5 0 ) ,
V 2 i o I, Item 10,
5 (1:)
I R S , D a r OPOT D l v to EUCOM VCOFS, 28 Mas 5 0 , sub: German
You$h Activities, ( 2 ) MPWS for r e d , COP Ralph W, Zwicker, Dep D i r
OPOT Div Org & Tng, 3 Apr 50p sub: T r a n s f e r of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
Certa4n GYA C e n t e r s , Both i n SGS 553,81 Ger (1950)9 Vol, I,
Items 3 0 v 41,
61HS, Drr OPOT Div t o VCOFS, 17 Apr 50g subr HICOG-EUCOM
R e l a t i o n s h i p s : GYA, I n file above, Item 53.
‘IRS, POLAD d s CINCEXJR, 23. 3ul 50s sub: Comments on German
Youth Program. I n file above, Item 66A,-_
conference, at which it was also a g r e e d to begin plans f o r the t r a n s f e r
of c e n t e r s t h a t were t o o f a r from t r o o p c o n c e n t r a t i o n s t o make support
by t h e armed f a s c e s p r a c t i c a l , Both HICOG and EUCOM were s a t i s f i e d w i t h
t h i s beginning, and a l i s t of such c e n t e r s was drawn up for consider-
a t i o n as p o t e n t i a l i n i t i a l t r a n s f e r p r o j e c t s , 8

33. Initial T r a n s f e r Attempts

By t h e end of October t e n t a t i v e p l a n s had been drawn up t o t u r n
over t h e Tauberbiwchofsheim GYA c e n t e r t o HICOG-German c o n t r o l o German
sponsors would o p e r a t e t h e c e n t e r under HICOG supervfsion,9 A number
of t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s delayed a c t i o n on t h e p l a n s f o r s e v e r a l
months, By t h e end of February 1951, however, HICOG and ICUCOM agreed
on t h e procedures and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s each would undertake i n %he
p i l o t t r a n s f e r of t h i s center," A% t h f s p o i n t f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s
arose w i t h German o f f i c i a l s in Taubesbfsehofshefm. They were w i l l i n g
t , ~f u r n i s h t h e p r o p e r t y , b u t wanted U,S, souraes t o gay for o p e r a t i n g
costso HICOG f i n a l l y agreed t o pay f o r support o f t h e c e n t e r f o r
FY 1 9 5 2 ff no o t h e r s o l u t i o n could be found, but t h e Germans still
r e f u s e d t o continue support for t h e c e n t e r a f t e r t h e withdrawal of
HICOG f i n a n c i a l support on I J u l y 1952. I n view of t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y
of r e a c h i n g a mutually a c c e p t a b l e arrangement f o r t h e t u r n o v e r of t h e
Tauberbaschofshelm c e n t e r , the m a t t e r was f i n a l l y dropped i n June, PP

34.
E v e n t u a l l y t h e i s s u e of t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e c e n t e r s was f o r c e d when
EUCOM r e q u e s t e d a n a u t h o r i z a t i o n of roughly DM 8 * 4 million. from HICOG'S
c o u n t e r p a r t funds f o r GYA o p e r a t i o n s i n FY 1952, Due t o a c u r t a i l m e n t
o f furnda, HICOG was a b l e t o a u t h o r i z e only 11M 4*6 million,12 Conse-
q u e n t l y , EUCOM ordered t e r m i n a t i o n of o p e r a t i o n s i n 120 GYA c e n t e r s ,

'Memop C/GYA Br t o Dir OPOT Div, 31 J u l 506 no sub. I n f i l e above,
Item 96 a t c h d ,
'Mema, Dir OPQT Div t o mJCOM COFS, 27 Oct 5 O S sub: Logistical
Support Outlined i n Plan fur Turnover o f GYA Center from EUCOM $0
HICOG-German Control, In file above, Item llS&
10
IRS, D m OPOT Div t o EUCOM DCOFS f o r Admfn, B Mar 519 subr
P u b l i c i t y on T r a n s f e r of Taubprbiachofsheirn GYA Center. I n SGS 353*8L
Ger (1?51), V o l e I, Item B4,B,.t
"I.RSQss, Dir OPOT Div t o EUCOM DCOFS f o r Admin, 30 Mar, 4, 14$ & 19
Jun 51, aub: T r a n s f e r of Taubesbischofsheim GYA Center, A l l i n f i l e
above, Items 35, 55, 5 3 , 59&,
"Ltr, EUCOM AG Div t o H I C O G , 10 Apr 51, ng sub. I n f i l e above,
Item

- 51 =

I
effect1.m 5'1 June 1951. T h i s l e f t 108 c e n t e r s under armed f o r c e s super-
VISPJL HICQG was r e q u e s t e d t o name German sponsors f o r t h e c e n t e r s
h e r n g temm:rlated. In t h e event t h a t sponsom were named, EUCOM d i r e c t e d
s u b o r d m a t e commands t o d e r e q u i s s t i o n any buildnngs or p r o p e r t y u t i l i e e d
by t h e c e n t e r s ; t o r e l e a s e to t h e new sponsors any aupplies and equipnlent
purchased w i t h GARIOA, RACAOA,'5 o r c o u n t e r p a z t f u n d s ; and t o t r a n s f e r
a p r o p o r t i o n of t h e GYB f u n d , based upon youth p a i t m i p a t i o n f i g u T e s a.s
of February 1951, t o t h e new s p o n s o r s o D i s t r i B L 1 R i m of donated m a t e r i a l s
and s a l v a g e continued as i n t h o p a s t ; y o u t h s using c e n t e m remained
e l i g i b l e f a r zone-wide GYA a c t i v i t i e s ; and l e a d e r s ~f t h e c e n t e r s were
i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d GYA t r a i n i n g conferences. Transportation w a s prcsv%d.ed,
when such s u p p o r t d i d not c o n f l i c t with m-llitgry needs, and v o l u n t e e r
a s s i s t a n c e was encouraged, Limited l o g i s t i c a l support was g i v e n a t t h e
l o c a l commanderfs d i s c r e t i o n t o c e n t e r s t h a t were r e l e a s e d w i t h o u t a new
sponsoi', b u t i n s u c h c a s e s t h e u n d e r t a k i n g of o p e r a t i o n s o r a s s i s t a n c e
was s p a c n f l c a l l y f o r b i d d e n , 4'

35. g a n s f e s of C e n t e r s

0-f' t h e 1 2 0 c e n t e r s r e l e a s e d on 30 June %95lS 58 were t r a n s f e r r e d t o
German s p o n s o r s named by HICOG a l o n g w i t h p r o p e r t y valued a t a p p r o x i -
mately DM lgp,OOO, The o t h e r 62 c e n t e r s were c l o s e d , w i t h t h e r o p e r -
t i e s e j t h e r d e r e q u i s i t i o n e d o r converted t o o t h e r m i l i t a r y u s e , fl5

In e f f e c t , what, t h i s meant was t h a t t h e GYA program had been
r e d u c e d by more t h a n 50 p e r c e n t . The f o l l o w i n g t a b u l a t i o n shows t h e
s h a r p d e c l i e s i n t h e e n r o l l m e n t of German youth i n t h e c e n t e r s a f t e r
June 1951: 18

German Youth
E n r o l l e d i n GYA

Jul. 49
JUP 50
Jul 51
Jul 52
Jul 53
Jul 54

13Gsvernrnen& and R e l i e f i n Occupied Areas, and R e l i e f and C e r t a i n
Aid i n Clccup~edAreas,
14(1.-) T b b d , ( 2 ) EUCOM Hr9 16 Apr 51, sub: German Youth A c t f v i -
t es 4G J i J , 8 GOT, (3) Ltr, Mrs. J, Shouse t o SA, 2 Oct 54, sub:
Report >n T r r p t o Germany, I n SGS 351081 Ges (1951), Vol, 11, Item 9Oll --
atchd,
l5[RS, D/OPOT t o COFS, 29 Aug 51R sub: Consolidated Report on
R-lease of' GYA Centers3 In SGS 3 5 j 0 S l Ger (1951), Tale 11, Item 82.
"'6'n.(_ G t n memn, USARFUR ACOFS Gil t o COFS, 2 1 M a r 55, subs Terrni-=
nat:on OF GYA Program, AG 5 5 3 e 8 GPA,

- 52 -
The r a p i d phaseout o f c e n t e r s and sudden d r o p i n e n r o l l m e n t was,
mare t h a n r(-mgen%ted f o r by t h e West German Government tinct e s t s ; b l h d
a yi-bnath prog:%m J f z own and a p p r o p r i a t e d I1M 53 m i l l i o n f o r it,lq
Sance t h e b a s i c p o l i c y w a s t o t u r n over t o t h e Germans t h o s e t h i n g s f o r
which thpy were r e a d y t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e U.S. armed f o r c e s
might well have c o n s i d e r e d t h i s as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e time t o g e t com-
p l e t e l y out o f the youth a c t r v z . t i e 9 f i e l d r a t h e r t h a n t o c o n t i n u e a half-
s t r e n g t h program t h a t was no l o n g e r v i t a l l y needed. However, i t i s
o f t e n diffrcunfk, %a check t h e momentum o f a n o r g a n i z a t i o n , once
e s t a b l i s h e d and o p e r a t i n g , T h i s a p p a r e n t l y was t h e case w i t h GYA. More-
o v e r , General Eddy llates maintained t h a t a n a b r u p t t e r m i n a t i o n of a l l
3YA o p e r a t i o r , s might, have had u n d e s i r a b l e p o l i t i c a l consequences. 18
Perhaps t h l s possibility motivated t h e d e c i s i o n t o c o n t i n u e t h e program
on a s m a l l e r s c a l e ,

R e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e r e would be even l e s s money f o r GYA i n FY 19539
t h e competent a u t h o r i t i e s wanted t o develop means of e f f e c t i n g a smooth
t u r n o v e r of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t h e Germans, The c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d by
EUCOM f " ( s r t h e maqs t r m s f e r P € c e n t e r s t h a t had t a k e n p l a c s on 30 June
were also) fr1-1 wed -iff, t%e i;r*anefer sf" the Maranhelm-Rhefnau GYA Center
t o German e o n t r v l . , Following a p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i m t o determine t h e
s u c c e ~ so€ t h e GFxTmardC: in o p e r a t i n g the c e n t e r , similar t r m s f e r s were
t o be a t t e m p t e d a t e e i ~ ho f the m i l i t a r y p o s t s . A f t e r two months of
p e r i n d i e v i s i t s aud * * l j p o r t s g GYA o f f i c i a l s concluded t h a t t h e t r a n s f e r
of t h e ManriheIrn-Rhei~~e,~~ uprlter w a s s u c c e s s f u l . Subsequent t r a n s f e r
a t t e m p t s were, u n t ,~t~nate:y~somewhat l e s s e P f e c t i v e . During t h e
remaindel- i ~ fFY 1952, 7 t r a n s f e r s were attempted. Despite c a r e f u l
study 2nd c i o p e r a t i o n bet,waen p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s o n l y 4
of t h e 7 a t t e m p t e d t r a n s f e r s were s u c c e s s f u l l y completed, Local German
2x1s were h v l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s bad r e c o r d ; Germart r e l u c t a n c e
t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s n b t l i t y for continuance of GYA c e n t e p o p e r a t i o n s
seemed d u n rnXm-e t 3 a 1at.k o f i d e o l o i c a l c o n v i c t i o n t h a n a n u n w i l l i n g -
n e s s t~ p ~ o v i d efinancj%1 w p p n r t , 4
~

- 53 -
As had been antlcipated, funds f o r FY 1953 were reduced considerably,
necessitating further c u t s in the GYA program, I n addition to %he 4
centers transferred during FY 1952, EUCOM d n - i d s d to @lo)se24 centers a$
the start of FY 1953m These a e t l m s , following a number of abandonmen-ts
during the sprin of 3195z9 left a total. of 74 GYA centers rn operation
on 1 July 1952,2%

The funds f o r the operation of t h i s curtailed program during FY 15353
came from four sources. HICOG allocated DM 1 million ($238,000) for the
salaries of German workers in the centers; logfstical support provided
by U S A R E U R ~amounted
~ to an estimated $200,000; collections of funds and
rnLLteria5s by the GknslraP Clay Fund IF, the United States were valued at
$~O,OOQ;and nmappsopriated fundw of approximately $130,000 were gener-
a t e d :ocaliy in t h e U,S, Zone hy means o f b e n e f i t s , Saffles, athletic
e v e n t s , paytable collections, and the like,
22

36. The Joint USAREUR-HICQGWorking Committee
At the begimning of FY L957, HICOG staked that the IXM 1 million fox
that year would h a m ta be c o n s i d e r e d as terminal, In view of this fact,
and considering the pending sovereignty of West Germany, H I C O G recom-
mended that a joint committee be formed with the command to implement
the liquidation of GYA, The committee was t o establish criteria for the
disposition sf centers e i t h e r by elimination, by transfer to German
sponsorship, or by converting them to Joint milatary-German operation,23
USAREUH a g r e e d to the formation of such a cornittee, but refused t o
consider elimination or Joint operation as a basis for discussion, The
USAREUR view was that centers would either continue to be turned over t o
HICOG-recommended German sponsors as in the past or else be operated b;y
the arrried forces as long aa funds would alEswO24 At the same time the
USAREUB Civil Affanre navision expressed strong doubt that the program
could cr should be continued after FY 19530 According to the Department
of State, GYA was in its last yearn with its complete liquidation antiei-
pated for the end of FY 19530 As soon as the Contractual Agreements
making Germany a sovereign nation became ef€eetive, such a-program would
be an infringement on the righte and responsibilities of the German
r
nation and, therefore, could have serious political repercussions,

*'herno, OPOT Div to C/GYA Br, 20 Aug 52, sub: Survey of Current
GYA Operations. In USAREUR Hist Div GYA files,
*'ElJCOM was redesfgnated USAREUR on 1 August 1952,
22
Memo, C/GYA Ssc to DCOFS Admin, 20 Apr 53, no sub. In USAREUR
H i s t Djv GYA files,
23iLtr,HICOG to EUCOM Comp, 1 L Jul 52, no sub, In USAREUR Hist Div
GYA f i l e s ,
24Memo, C/GYA Sec to Dir OPOT Div, 6 Aug 52, sub: Establishment of
USAREUH-HICOG Committee f o r GYA Integration. In file aboveo

- 54 -
Finally, anothe? compelling ~ " e a s o nf o r early liquidation of GYA was the
Armylls ~ x p e c t a t i ~that
n no more Dsutsche Marks would be available for
support of' the program, Considering a P P these factors GYA was expected
to s u r v i v e only a few additional monthse25

The GYA Section of USAREUR headquarters failed to be impressed by
these arguments, Two days be€ore the first meeting of tho joint com-
mittee the GYA Section asserted that the program was then approaching
the peak of ff,:j effectiveness and formed a safeguard for German youth
against totalltarxan i d e o l o g i e s , Therefore GYA ought to be continued,
unless after r a t i f a ~ a f ~ omf the Con$rae%uaP Agreeme ts the West German
Government o b j e c t e d t o c.mtinust%on o f the program, 2 8

a, --Mee+:ng,, Tbse f i r s t meeting of the Joint USAREUR-HICOG
Working C s m 4 L t a e w a s on 17 October l952* HICOG anticipated compbte
phaseout of GYA opepqt by I J u l y 1955 and emphasized that no funds
would be availabns for GYA support in the following fiscal. yeare Suf-
ficient funds were avai1abRe to carry the program through FY 1953. How-
ever, centers would continue to be transferred to German s#ponscsrsin
aceordance with the critsz-ia upon which H I C O G and EUCOM ha.d agreed, If
n0 funds became available for continuance of GYA in FY 1954, USAREUR
ag-reed to sltiminate centers that had not secured German sponsors by
30 June L35;o

USAREUR refused to t a k e p a r t in joint operations of centers wfth
Germans. The command would either accept complete responsibility for the
programt includlnng control of funds, or limit its activities to providing
assistance to German sponsorso 7

b, R e ~ n a l t s of Second Meeting. At the next meeting in December 1952
USAREUR recommended eliminating centers for which no German sponsors
could be found if U , S , support could n o t be continued, The command also
suggested initiating a public information program to win German support
for the transfer project, It was agreed t o transfer as many centers as
p o s s i b l e before 30 June 19"j3. In this connection, it was also agreed t o
make j o i n t H I C O G - U S B U R press and radio releases to stimulate a campaign

25Memo, CAD to Dir QPOT DXv, 1 6 Aug 52, sub: Transfer of Staff
Responsibility for German Youth Activities, In file above.
26Stf Study, GYA Sec, 15 06% 52, sub: The GYA FY 54 Outlook, In
file abovem
2aMemo, C/Tng Br to Dir OPOT Div, 21 Oct 52, sub: Joint USAREUR-
H I C O G Working Committee on GYA mtters, In file above.

- 55 -
fr)r g e t t j n g German s p o n s o r s f o r GYA c e n t e r s , But USAREUR would c o n t i n u e
t o o p e r a t e any c e n t e r s f o r which no s p o n s o r s could be found f o r as long
a s f u n d s were a v a i l a b Y s o 2 B By u s i n g r e n t f r e e p r o p e r t i e s t o house t h e
c e n t e r s , encouragnng more t r o o p u n i t s u p p o r t of i n d i v f d u a l c e n t e r s , and
absorbink; marntensnce c o s t s ~n t h e command budget, USAREUR hoped t o be
a h s e t o cbontame p a r t sf t h e program t h m u g h FY 1954@ The major problem1
o f how Gcirman workers i n t h e c e n t e r s would be p a i d during FY 1954 was
s t i l l un:;olved, 29

37. %inning of t h e Ehd

a. FY 1954 Transfers,, I n May I953 USAREUR d i r e c t e d t h e implemen-
t a t i o n of t h e transfer program, I n d i c a t i n g t h e a n t x c i p a t e d l a c k of
f u n d s f o r FY 1.954, USAkUR-ordered area commanders t o t r a n s f e r GYA
c e n t e r s t o German o r lassal t r o o p miit c o n t r o l b e f o r e 1 ' J u l y 1953. Any
c e n t e r s annt s o t r a n s f e r r e d would have t o be closedmjO ,

In tiacordaxace with t h i s d i r e c t i v e , 34 c e n t e r s were t u r n e d o v e r t o
German B , J O X ~ % O F Bw i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e c e n t e r s would c o n t i n u e
t a be o,p~aratedunder t h e a u o p ~door" n p o l i c y and w i t h adequate l e a d e r s h i p .
The armed f o r c e s re3eaaed t h e c e n t e r s w i t h t h e i r equipment and s u p p l i e s
and o f f e r e d l i m i t e d l o g i s t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r a p e r i o d o f s i x months
a f t e r t h e t r a n s f e r o Local t r o o p u n i t s undertook t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f c r t-hre support of 22 c e n t e r s f o r which no German sponsors were a v a i l a b l e ,
These '8i t e r s continued t o r e c e i v e l o g i s t i c a l s u p p o r t from USAREUR, The!
remainin,s 17 c e n t e r s were closed,3 1

USAIiEUR emphasized, however, that d i r e c t s u p p o r t t o GYA had been
t e r m i n a t e d o n l y because of t h e lack of funds. Other a s s i s t a n c e , such as3
d i s t r i b u t i n g salvage, f u r n i s h i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i n g m a t e r i a l s
and funds dona-l;ed €ram the United S t a t e s , and p a y i n g for l O g i S t i c a 1
s u p p o r t lsf troop-operated c e n t e r s would c o n t i n u e m32

28(1) IRS, Dlr OPOT Diar t o DCOFS Admin, 24 Nov 52, sub: J o i n t
USAREUR-HICOG Working Committee on GYA M a t t e r s . ( 2 ) Min, Mtg of HICOG-
USAREUR 2ommittee f o r GYA M a t t e r s , 9 Dec 52, Both $n f i l e above,
2 9 L t r , L t Gen M. S, Eddy t o Gen I;, Do Clay, 15 Dec 52, I n SGS
353.81 Ger (1952), Vol, I , Item 2 9 4 a t c h d o
3oUSAREUR l t r , 25 May 5 5 9 sub: T r a n s f e r of GYA C e n t e r s t o German
Sponsors, AG 353.8 GOT-AGO.
'lTab A t o I R S , Gg t o DCOFS Admin, 20 Oet 53, sub: GYA B r i e f i n g
f o r M r , McCloy, I n USAREUR SGS 353*8l Ger (1953), Vole 11, Item 22.
32(1) Memo, USAREUR COFS t o Reads o f All Stf Divs, 19 Atlg 53, sub:
GYA A c t i v i t i e s ,
( 2 ) Ltr, USAREUR COFS t o a l l Area Comdrs and CG,
Seventh Army, 2 8 J u l 5 j j a no sub, Both i n USARl$UR Hist Div GYA f i l e s ,

- 56 -
be p r e ta t i o n o f t h e
f u n c t i o n s of GYA underwent a s i g n i f i c a n t change, & n o W, M, Hogs,
CINCUSAREUR, informed h i s s u b o r d i n a t e commanders t h a t GYA nlo l o n g e r w a s
concerned o n l y w i t h c e n t e r s , b u t r a t h e r i n c l u d e d a l l armed f o r c e s
a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n t o German youth whether through a t r o o p - s u p p o r t e d o r a
German c e n t e r , o r t o unorganized youth, He emphasized t o o t h a t d o n a t e d
m a t e r i a l s and f u n d s f r o m t h e United S t a t e s were t o be d i s t r i b u t e d t o
b o t h t r a n s f e r r e d and troop-supported c e n t e r s , I n t h e e v e n t t h a t t h e
M e i s t e s s i n g e r and H a n d i c r a f t C o n t e s t s were c o n t i n u e d , t h e y t o o would be
open t o a l l youth o f former GYA <-eri+ersas w e l l as t o t h e members o f t h e
t raop supp c 1"t e d c e n t e T s ,33
-
7

c o C o n t i n u a t i o n of Modified Pr-ogram, I n November 1953 USAREUR
____p

decided t o phase out the modified GYA program on 30 June 1954. The
H a n d i c r a f t and M e i s t e r s i n g e r c o n t e s t s t o be h e l d i n May snd J u n e 1954
would s e r v e as f i n a l phaseout a c t i v i t i e s , E f f o r t s would be made t o f i n d
German s p o n s o r s f o r t h e s e two a c t i v i t i e s , and t r a n s f e r of troop-sponsored
c e n t e r s t o German c o n t r o l w a s t o b e e x p e d i t e d o 3 4

'Phis d e c i s i o n was n o t o f f i c i a l l y announced u n t i l March 1954. A%
t h e same tkme, however, CINCUSAREUR i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u p p o r t would be
continued o n a v o h n t a r y b a s i s by t r o o p u n i t s and that, p l a n s were b e i n g
made t o continue t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of" d o n a t i o n s from a g e n c i e s i n t h e
United ~ t a t e s , 3 5

l a s t a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n f u n d s t o c o n t i n u e t h e program i n FY 1955
was made i n May 1954 when USAREUR r e q u e s t e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n from the
Ihepartwen-b of t h e Army t o u t i l i z e DM 35O,OOO of t h e f u n d s a v a i l a h l i e t o
t h e command t o pay for t h e r e n t s , u t i l i t i e s , and s a l a r i e s of i n d i g e n o u s
workers a t t h e remaining c e n t e r s o The r e p m e v e came i n June w i t h t h e
passage of P u b l i c Law 458--*,he FY 1955 Department o f Defense Appropri-
a t i o n Act--which p e r m i t t e d the use of German f u n d s a s . r e q u e s t e d , A1-
though f u n d s were t h e n a v a i l a b l e f o r a n o t h e r y e a r of o p e r a t i o n , a l l
p o s s i b l e e f f o r t s were made t o f i n d German s p o n s o r s for t h e r e m a i n i n g
c e n t e r s 36

33Statement, Gen Hoge t o H I C Q G - C L ~ ~ I BCenf O c t 53s sub: Armed
Forces A s s i s t a n c e Program to German Youth A c t i v i t i e s , I n SGS 353,SS
&P- (1953>,Val, IT, Item Tab H,
34Memo9 ACQFS G'5 t o USAKEUR GQFS, h N - v 5 5 % sub: Future ~ f "t h e
Armed Forces A s s i s t a n c e Program t o G e m a n You?h A c t i v i t i e s , In f i l e
above, Item 22A, a

"Statwmt?nt, CINCUSAREUR t o HICOG-Comdrs, C o n f Mar 5LIa sub:
Armed F o r c e s A s s i s t a n c e Program t o German Youth A c t i v i t i e s , I n SGS
353,87~Gez. ( 1 3 5 4 ) q VoE, 6 , L t s m 7 , Tab A ,
"(L) Cat lle SC-J21111'7r3, USAREUR t:r DA for Campt6, 12 May 54" (2)
Cable SC-10 USAREUR to R e ~ l i nComd, BPOE, h s a Coinds, L J u l 540
( 3 ) Cable D 7'-C(l, DA $ 6 CINCUSAREUR, 1 J u B 54, A l l i n f 1 1 ~a b o v e ,
Items 8 a n d t2 a ' - h d o
- 57 =
Preparing entries for Handicraft Contest at GYA Center, Berlin, 1953
p e The F i n a l Phaseout
E f f e c t i v e 2 August 1954a t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e GYA program
was t r a n s f e r T e d from t h e A s s i s t a n t Chief of S t a f f , GI, t o G 1 and com'bined
with t h e newly formed American Youth A c t i v i t i e s (AYA) program under
c o n t r o l of t h e AYA-GYA Sectacan,3% C l e a r l y GYAos days were numberedo
By J a n u a r y 1955 o n l y 19 GYA c e n t e r s remained i n o p e r a t i o n , I n A p r i l
CINCUSAREUR, Gen A, C, McAuBiffe, d i r e c t e d t h e t r a n s f e r of t h e s e c e n t e r s
t o German s p o n s o r s by 30 June 19550 BPI armed f o r c e s f i n a n c i a l supplort
was t o be t e r m i n a t e d as o f t h a t d a t e and t h o s e c e n t s r s t h a t had n o t
found German s p o n s o r s were t o be c l o s e d , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and d i s t r i -
b u t i o n of s u p p l i e s from t h e General. Clay Fund were t o be continued in
o r d e r t o permit a smooth phaseout of t h a t a s p e c t o f t h e prograrn,3*
W i t h t h e a t t a i n m e n t of s o v e r e i g n t y i n May 1955, West Germany assumed
s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s own youth program, Local commanders werle
p e r m i t t e d t o g i v e o n l y o c c a s i o n a l and l i m i t e d s u p p o r t t o German centiers
i n t b e i n t e r e s t of troop-community r e l a t i o n s , L a t e r i n t h e summer t h e
AYA-GYA S e c t i o n w a s r e d e s i g n a t e d t h e BYA Xection,39

In September, USAREUR t e r m i n a t e d l i a i s o n with and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e General Clay Fund. Mrs. Shouse, chairman of t h e f u n d ,
w a s r e f e r r e d t o t h e c u l t u r a l a t t a c h e a t t h e U.S, Embassy i n Bonn f o r
l i a i s o n w i t h t h e West German Government i n youth program m a t f e r s ,
USAREUR e s t a b l i s h e d 30 A p r i l 1956 as t h e c u t - o f f d a t e f o r i t s p r o c e s s i n g
and h a n d l i n g o f donated s ~ p p l i e s , 4 ~I n t h e meantime, however, any o t h e r
a s s i s t a n c e w a s s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o h i b i t e d , No p e r s o n n e l were t o be
a s s i g n e d t o a s s i s t i n German youth a c t i v i t i e s ; m i l i t a r y v e h i c l e s wer8
n o t t o be u s e d , except: i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e above-mentioned
s u p p l i e s ; no m i l i t a r y - c o n t r o l l e d b u i l d m g s would be u t i l i z e d as c e n t e r s ;
and r o m i l i t a r y s u p p l i e s were t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o German youth
organ i zat i o n s 41

I ?
' ( I ) AYA-GYA B u l No, 1, Se-p 54, In SGS 353,81 Ger (1954)$ Vole I,
Item 13. ( 2 ) Memo, ACOFS GP t o COFS, 17 Jun 54$ sub: American Youth
A c t i t i t i e s , In SGS 005 (1954), Vole I, Item 128, s

"(1) L t r , Gen A, C, McAuliffe t o Mrs. J o u e t t Shouse, 7 Apr 55.
( 2 ) Ltr, C/AYA-GYA Sec t o Mrs. J o u e t t Shouse, 2 J u n 550 Both i n SGS
5) < F:, S e r (1955), V o l e I, Items 3A a t c h d and 8 a t c h d ,
z9USAKEUR l t r , CINCUSAREUR t o C G SACOMS 6 Sep 55s sub: T r a n s f e r
of GkA C e n t e r s t o German Sponsors, I n SGS 353@81Ger (1955)s V o l , I,
Item lI&,
40(1)L t r , CINCUSAREUR t o Mrs. J, Shouse, 22 Sep 55. I n SGS
3 5 3 - E l Ger ( l 9 5 5 ) $ Vol, I, Item 8 a t c h d , ( 2 ) Cable SC-1495Oa USAREUR
t o DP., 9 Feb 56, I n SGS 005 (Y956), Yol, I , Item la,
''USAREUR C j r 28-75, 18 Oct 55> sub: German Youth A c t i v i t i e s ,
--

A t t h e recommendation of t h e Department of t h e Army, and in o r d e r
t o a f f o r d t h e General F e d e r a t i o n o f Women's Clubs s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t y
t o s t o p shipment of s u p p l i e s , t h e cut-off d a t e was extended t o
30 June 1956.42 This was the dying gasp, and the U.S. armed f o r c e s
a s s i s t a n c e program t o German Youth A c t i v i t i e s o f f i c i a l l y ended on t h a t
date

42(1) Cable DA-382580, DA t o CINCUSAREUR, 18 Jan 56. (2) Cable
SC-14950, USAREUR t o DA, 9 Feb 56. Both i n SGS 005 (1956), Vol. I,
Item l A m

- 59 -
Thi:: g l o s s a r y c o n t a i n s a l l a b b r e v i a t i o n s used i n t h i s volume, except
t h o s e l l s t e d i n SR 320-50-1, 20 O c t o b e r 794gr and changes t h e r e t o ,

--
Te rm D e f i n i tion

AGWAR Adjutant General, War Department (former
designation)

AYA American Youth A c t i v i t i e s

RFOE Bremerhaven P o r t o f Embarkation

("AD C i v i l Affairs D i v i s i o n , o r Civil.
Adnii r : i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n ( OPK3JS)

c Am C o o p e r a t i v e for. American Re1 ief i n Europe

C. LNCEUR C'ommander in C h i e f , European Command

c RfLLOG C ~ u f i c i lo f R e l i e f Agencies L i c e n s e d for
Operation i n Germany

13ieutsche ntark

d i s p l a m d person

Eurovean T h e a t e r o f O p e r a t i o n s , U.S. Army

European Command

Government and R e l i e f i n Occupied Areas

German Youth A c t i v i t i e s

U, S , High Commission( e r ) € o r Germany

-I
bid
?-
em i n t h e same p l a c e

I n f o m a t i o n Crintrol D i v i s i o n (OMGUS)

internal route s l i p

7outh Office(s)

YV I r h r e l i t e r ( S )
ies)
cauLA73(

- 60 -

c.
-
Term . Definition

--
Land (Laender) s t a t e ( s)

-1,andesj u g e n d t a g S t a t e Youth Day

-Landrat S t a t e Councilor

-Oberbuergerme i s t e r Lord Mayor

OMGUS O f f i c e o f M i l i t a r y Government, U. S,,

CIPOT O p e r a t i o n s , P l a n s , O r g a n i z a t i o n , and
Training

I’OLAD P o l i t i c a l Adviser

ILACAOA Relief and C e r t a i n Aid i n Occupied Areas

SAC OM Southern Area Command

SEIBEF Supreme Headquarters, A l l i e d E x p e d i t i o n a r y
Forces

USAFE U.S, A i r Forces i n Europe

IJSAREUR U. S. Army, Europe

IJSFET U.S. Forces, European T h e a t e r

We hrmac h t German Armed Forces

- 6.1 -
Chrono1o g y

-
Date krent

1 Jul ETOUSB is redesignated USFET 2

14 Jul SHAEF is officially dissolved; the G-5 Division
of ETOUSA and the U.S. element of the SHAEF G-5
Division are consolidated'into the USFET G-5
Division. 2

14 SeP Seventh Army begins first broad program of
German youth activities in the Western Military
District. 4
1 Oct The U.S. Group, Control Council, is redesignated
the Office of Military Government, U. S. (OMGUS). 2

Nonfraterniaation restrictions are lifted in lJ.S,,
Zone of Germany. 5 -
25 oct USFET institutes procedures on zone-wide scale
for organizing and supervising German youth
activities. 5-6

USFET authorizes Army units to give limited
logistical and personnel support to German youth
organizations in the U.S. Zone. 8 -9

24 May Bavarian Youth Committee is established. 7
Jun First German youth are included in USFET athletics
program. 11

29 Jul German Youth Activities (GYA) Section in created
within USFET G-3 Division to supervise the youth
assistance program. 9-

Jul First postwar general youth rally is held in
Baden-Wuerttemberg at Kirchheim-Teck. 12

7-9 Aug First of a series of conferences is held to
broaden and strengthen the Army youth assistance
program. 14
Page
Date Event Referencg

1946

Aug OMGUS declares amnesty for young Germans,
thereby opening the German youth movement to
more young people and more potential leaders. 13
5 Oct USFET authorizes the formation of new youth
centers under Army sponsorship. 15-16

25 N O T German youth are authorized to work in Special
Services manual arts installations. 11

11947
15 Mar USFET is redesignated the European Command (EUCOM);
GYA Section functions as part of the EUCOM OPOT
Division. 10

k Y GYA training conference is held in Berlin to
promote greater participation in GYh by volunteer
women dependents. 22

May GYA ~ssistanceprogram is designated 8 responei-
b i l i t y of" the German c i v i l authorities and becomes
chargeable as a nonoccupation cost. 31
25 J u l USFET redirects its youth assistance program and
clarifies GYA policies and procedures. 18-19

No v Marshal V. Sokolovsky, the Russian member of
the Allied Control Council accuses GYA of being
suklvrersiva cover-up for military training of
Geman youth. 29

20 Bug The U.S, Constabulary proposes reduction of its
personnel support t o GYA. 39
2 Nov EUC(pIvI C l t . 149 is published redefining program,
policies, and responsibilities with respect to
GYA; major responsibility is assigned to military
post, commanders; demands upon tactical units for
support of GYA a r e reduced. 40-42
- --

Page.
D a &8
___ Event Re f e r e n c e

De 6: The General Clay Fund is c r e a t e d i n t h e United
S t a t e s t o h e l p s u p p o r t some GYA a b t i v i t i e s . 32

APT Controversy b e g i n s o v e r t h e l e g a l i t y of t h e GYA
a s s i s t a n c e program. 43-45

a Y F i r s t GYA-sponsored, zone-wide h a n d i c r a f t s
c o n t e s t f o r g i r l s begins. 35
WY EUCOM opens y o u t h l e a d e r s h i p s c h o o l f o r German
GYA workers a t h i t , n e a r S t u t t g a r t . 43
JUn F i n a l j u d g i n g c o n c l u d e s t h e f i r s t GYA Handi-
c r a f t s Contest. 35
Jul EUCOM survey i n d i c a t e s t h a t German community
l e a d e r s f a v o r c o n t i n u a t i o n of GYA. 46
Jul F i r s t GYA-sponsored, zone-wide Soapbox Derby i s
h e l d i n Munich. 34
2 1 Sep F e d e r a l Republic of Germany i s e s t a b l i s h e d ; t h e
Occupation S t a t u t e and t h e C h a r t e r of t h e High
Commission become e f f e c t i v e ; H I C O G r e p l a c e s
OMGUS . 43

24 Feb- EUCOM GYA Branch conducts a d e m o c r a t i c r e o r i e n -
YO Mar t a t i o n survey. 47
F i n a l s of t h e f i r s t GYA-sponsored M e i s t e r s i n g e r
c o n t e s t a r e h e l d i n Nuremberg. 36
Jul H I C O G a d v i s e s CINCEUR that; t e r m i n a t i n g t h e Army's
r o l e i n youth a c t i v i t i e s might b e s t s e r v e U.S.
interests . 50
Jul EUCOM ? p e e s t o t h e g r a d u a l t r a n s f e r of t h e GYB
pence?= t o the Germans, 50
Page
Event . Reference

EUCOM releases 120 GYA centers; 62 are closed
and 58 are transferred to German sponsors. 51-52

1952
Feb Zone-wide , GYA-sponsored Community Service
Contest finals are held. 37-38
1 Aug EUCOM is redesignated U.S. Army, Europe
.
( USAREUR) 10

1 7 Oct First meeting of Joint USAREUR-HICOG Working
Committee on GYA matters is held. 55

25 May USAREUR directs that all remaining GYA centers
be transferred to German o r local troop unit
control by 1 July 1953. 56
Nov USAREUR decides to phase out the GYA program on
30 June 1954. 57

2 Aug Responsibility for GYA is transferred from the
Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 to G1 and combined
with BYA under control of the AYA-GYA Section. 58

m
Gen. A. C , McAuliffe directs transfer or closing
of the remaining 19 GYA centers by 30 June 1955. 58

Federal Republic of Germany becomes sovereign and
assumes sole responsibility for its youth program. 58
USAREUR announces termination of the processing
and handling of supplies donated from the United
States and establishes 30 April 1956 as cut-off
date. 58

- 65 -
Page
Date Event Reference

Feb USAREXJR extends to 30 June 1956 the processing
and handling of donations from the United States. 58
30 Jun Last Armed Forces assistance to German Youth
Activities officially ends. 59

- 66 -
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A. DEFARThENT OF THE ARMY"
1. The Ad j u tant Genera1
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