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Wireless Pers Commun

DOI 10.1007/s11277-012-0899-5

Capacity Maximization through Energy-Aware
Multi-Mode Relaying

Nikolaos Nomikos · Dimitrios N. Skoutas ·
Demosthenes Vouyioukas · Christos Verikoukis ·
Charalabos Skianis

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Abstract In future wireless mobile networks, data rate and quality of service are expected
to be comparable to those of wired deployments. To achieve this target, novel architectures
must be adopted, successfully countering the disadvantages of the wireless transmission.
Inspired by that, cooperative relaying was proposed because of the various gains it intro-
duces to the network. In this work we propose a scheme consisting of multi-mode decode
and forward relays facilitating the communication between a base station and a user ter-
minal (UT). By equipping the relays with two interfaces, we can exploit the plethora of the
available wireless protocols. Also, instead of performing multi-relay transmissions, we adopt
an opportunistic relaying scheme due to its simplicity and outage-optimality. Additionally,
we incorporate successive transmissions to improve the spectral efficiency, thus recovering
the half-duplex loss in capacity due to the two-hop transmission. However, as inter-relay
interference arises from successive transmissions, we propose mitigation techniques through
interference cancellation and out-band transmissions using the multi-mode relays. At the
same time, an energy-aware mechanism is implemented in the selected relay’s transmission,
opting for power reduction, as the channel state information is acquired prior to the sig-
nal’s forwarding to the UT. Finally, we give numerical results by comparing the proposed

N. Nomikos · D. N. Skoutas · D. Vouyioukas · C. Skianis (B)
Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering,
University of the Aegean, 83200 Samos, Greece
N. Nomikos
D. N. Skoutas
D. Vouyioukas

C. Verikoukis
Telecommunications Technological Centre of Catalonia (CTTC), Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain


Inspired from the above schemes. the UT always receives a new frame in every transmission. while exploiting at the same time. Moreover. excluding the first frame period. Most mo- bile phones are equipped with more than one wireless interface that allows them to connect with various wireless networks. transmission delay and energy consumption. the distributed nature of DSTC can lead to errors in the reception of the symbols at the relays. The paper is organized as follows. we aim to combine the advantages of OR and SR. especially in the diversity domain. C. In order to benefit from the aforementioned fact. Schemes aiming to recover the half-duplex loss have been suggested. On the downside. By employing these types of relays our aim is to combine two hetero- geneous RATs. By employing relay nodes. Although gains can be harvested in the data rate through the multiplexing of the information streams. On the contrary. various gains. excessive fading can be handled by exploiting the multiple relay paths towards the UT. In the related literature two techniques have attracted the attention of researchers: Coop- erative relaying with a) distributed space-time coding (DSTC) and b) OR. 2 123 . a low-cost deploy- ment of such nodes in fourth generation (4G) mobile networks is expected. As a result. resulting in reduced capacity as it was shown in [2]. Keywords Opportunistic relaying · Successive relaying · Multi mode relaying energy-aware relaying 1 Introduction Cooperation between network elements is a fundamental characteristic of future wireless networks. such as successive relaying (SR) [3]. More specifically. SR introduces IRI that must be mitigated in order to acquire the benefits of the improved capacity. in Sect. the capacity loss is negligible. further extending the need for novel relaying architectures. outage probability. energy efficiency is improved compared to DSTC. delay distribution and power gain. energy-aware multi-mode relaying (EA-MMR) scheme. the progress made in smart mobile terminals. especially in the interference mitigation domain. are introduced to the network. DSTC leads to distributed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) topologies through the use of space-time codes initially designed for co-located MIMO systems. with two other schemes in terms of average end-to-end capacity. The usage of more than one interface by the relays can lead to interesting results. we study the potential gains in end-to-end capacity. This means that relays cannot receive and transmit at the same time. by taking advantage of the multi-interface nature of current mobile handsets. requiring N + 1 frame periods to receive N frames. In addition. Thus. outage probability. As N increases. where the source transmits a new frame before the previous frame reaches the UT. Hence. in this paper we propose a multi-mode relaying (MMR) scheme employing energy- aware (EA) relays with the capability to select between macro and micro radio access technologies (RATs). the outage optimality of OR compared to DSTC was proven in [1]. a half-duplex constraint is assumed in relay trans- missions. to com- plement the energy efficient nature of OR and reduce the IRI. we em- ploy relay nodes with two interfaces that are capable to offer connectivity to UTs in macro and micro coverage areas. In the majority of the related articles. Since multi-relay transmissions are replaced by a single relay transmission in OR. we equip the relays with a power reduction scheme that is used when the selected relay forwards the BS’s signal to the destination. Skianis et al. Since no wired backhaul is required. relay selection is performed in OR so as to decide which relay node will forward the information to the UT.

2 Related Work As the proposed scheme combines the merits of various wireless techniques. in Sect. Finally. The work in [9] extracts the outage probability for an interference-limited system while evaluating the gains of OR in this case. it is able to subtract the interference caused by the currently selected best relay. max-harmonic-mean and max-min and proceeds in asymptotic outage analysis. concluding that the decrease of outage prob- ability reaches a power-limited region. A simple but efficient full interference cancellation scheme is proposed in [12]. 3 we present the system model.Capacity Maximization we cite the related work in the areas that make up the subject of our study. where IRI is canceled at the relays. 2. 5 we provide numerical results and details about the simulations. conclusions are given in Sect. in Sect. interfer- ence is introduced in the majority of these schemes and additional interference mitigation techniques are proposed. [7] performs an outage analysis in an environment consisting of asymmetric fading channels.1 Opportunistic Relaying Opportunistic relay selection is a very active research field with various works studying dif- ferent selection algorithms while at the same time. Furthermore. As a result. 6. To the best of our knowledge. the diversity order of two-path relaying is derived in [11]. In addition. the authors in [5] develop two half-duplex DF relay algorithms and examine their diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) performance and are lead to the conclusion that better results can be obtained with the use of these algorithms. evaluating their performance. 2.2 Successive Relaying In most works. only [13] has combined the opportunistic and SR. Moreover. Reference [3] proposes a SR protocol exploiting two separate relay paths towards the destination while considering two interference cancellation schemes to handle the IRI introduced by the successive transmissions. we state and discuss in this section articles in each related area. Reference [4] proposes a combination of two well-known relay selection criteria. Also. Another characteristic of OR is its ability to reduce the negative effects of fading channels due to the provision of additional relay paths. a half-duplex constraint is imposed on the relays. the achieved capacity can be in a disadvantageous position compared to direct transmission. This has led to various contributions aiming to recover the half-duplex loss. 4 we demonstrate the proposed energy-aware multi-mode relaying (EA-MMR) scheme. At the same time. The orthogonal relation of the in-phase and quadrature components of the signal is used in [10] aiming to exploit the IRI arising in the transmission. the impact of interference has been discussed in a number of works. while in Sect. where the proposed interference cancellation scheme is implemented at the relays. In [8] unequal co-channel interferers at the relays and the destination are considered. Reference [6] derives the PDF and CDF of an opportunistic amplify-and-forward (AF) relay system in Nakagami- m channels. 123 . in a Rayleigh fading environment. The authors in [13] state that when a relay belongs in the decoding set of the previous transmission. The authors conclude that it performs better than the partial cancellation techniques used in AF relay systems.

3 Heterogeneity As the number of wireless protocols increases. there is no other scheme in the related literature that combines OR. The work of the IEEE 1900. By using multiple relays with adaptive power control in the second hop. They state that relaying contributions should be evaluated separately. . The proposed RAT selection is based on parameters such as network load. Skianis et al. 2.4 Energy-Aware Cooperative Relaying The gains relaying introduces in a wireless network have an important impact in the energy domain. in [23]. in the Numerical Results section we evaluate EA-MMR in comparison to a scheme that is based on the relaying principles presented at [13] but adjusted to the system model of Sect. . The authors in [16] study the combination of LTE/WLAN protocols. Already. C. Comparisons with direct transmission and other schemes are given. K relay stations (RS) serving one UT at a time. the proposed scheme of [21] considers relaying the information through paths that require less energy. We denote the above network elements as B S. the authors discuss possible energy savings of relay nodes in a heteroge- neous environment. The work in [14] discusses various heterogeneous network deployments that are possible in LTE-Advanced through the use of relay and femto nodes. we consider that the UT is able to receive a signal by using either a macro or a micro RAT. providing improvements in the QoS. for an arbitrary frame transmission. . wireless protocols employ schemes that allow them to exploit the advances in this field. Consequently. we take advantage of the spatial diversity provided by the K RSs by selecting hierarchical modulation (HM) in 123 . 3. The authors conclude that an optimal strategy is to select a subset of these relays in order to cooperatively beamform to the destination. convergence and synergy between them attracts the interest of researchers. k ∈ {1. Furthermore. Moreover. Based on the fact that today’s mobile terminals host two or more interfaces. delay and jitter. In conclusion. Reference [18] employs a relay that takes over the handover between a WiMAX and a Wi-Fi network with improved results in delay and packet loss. . where different RATs are deployed. for different deployment scenarios. In this system we aim to leverage the half-duplex loss of the relays by performing successive transmissions from the BS. mainly due to shorter propagation distances. as there is no other scheme that can be directly compared to EA-MMR. Additionally. to the best of our knowledge. In [20]. 2. K } and UT. A similar case is the area of interest in [17] where a suboptimal solu- tion is suggested between different radio resource management (RRM) algorithms. The work of [22] examines the cost of obtaining the CSI in the energy consumption of a network with multiple relay nodes transmitting in parallel to the destination. relay selection is based on the minimization of the total average energy consumption.4 group is presented in [15] aiming to define how multi-mode UTs will use the available spectrum in environ- ments. stating the increase of the number of relays does not correspond to the same increase in handover performance. 1. 3 System Model We consider a system consisting of one BS. Two mobility scenarios are studied in [19]. SR and multi mode relays in an energy efficient manner. R Sk . a relay selection protocol is developed assuming a QoS requirement. concluding that the proposed scheme achieves better results in extending network lifetime. The use of relays as a mean to optimize the handover process among various RATs has also been proposed. as depicted in Fig.

i. When a frame period starts. IRI is introduced to the network due to the successive trans- missions and mitigation techniques must be applied to counter its effect. More specifically. renders the decoding of the interference signal possible. On the other hand. 1 The system model the broadcast signal of the BS. When the decod- ing set is formed. More details of the proposed scheme will 123 . the relays having advantageous positions and fading conditions will be able to decode an enhanced version of the signal transmitted by the BS.13. The wireless links between the BS and the K RSs (B S-Rk ). we use MMDF relays that are able to perform out-band transmissions. the BS broadcasts by using hierarchical modulation towards the RSs. as well as the K RSs and the UT (R Sk –U T ) are assumed inde- pendent identically distributed (i. In addition. This criterion is based on the maxmin algorithm found in [4. d) with quasi-static Rayleigh fading. This transmission interface will be chosen if the latter has a strong link with the RS that was selected to forward the information. we impose a capacity constraint in the inter-relay links that if fulfilled. The CSI of the R Sk –U T is acquired by the RSs at the start of the ith+1 frame period and is used in the selection criterion as well as in the adaptive modulation (AM) transmission of the best RS. On the receiving side.Capacity Maximization Fig. the high priority stream is QPSK modulated while the low priority stream is 64QAM modulated. when a RS succeeds in decoding at least the high priority stream it becomes a member of the decoding set of the current frame transmission. corresponding to the micro RAT. With the use of HM. In each transmission we assume that the UT belongs in the coverage area of a RS and connectivity with the BS is achieved only through two-hop links. varying after each frame transmission. an opportunistic selection criterion is employed to choose the best relay to forward the frame towards the UT. towards the UT.24] considering the capacities of each hop. We restrict the maximum number of hops to two as this is the usual case studied in the literature and is easier to be practically implemented compared to multi-hop relaying. The BS’s signal consists of two priority streams with different quality levels.

n RSk . In this way.RS xi−1 + n RSk . k  = b(i−1) (1) k where the second term at the RHS denotes the inter-relay interference of the best relay. C. Depending on the position and the fading condition of the UT. In order to handle IRI. n U T denote the additive white Gaussian noise at the RS and the UT. xi denotes the ith information symbol. Skianis et al. due to the half-duplex nature of the RSs. h RSk –U T . R Sk –U T . then the latter forwards the frame to the UT using AM and selects a modulation scheme between QPSK and 64QAM.RS 2 k k (i) 1 λbi−1 -U T = (i) (i) (4) ρbi−1 -U T σbi−1 -U T 2 The respective transmit SNRs are expressed as: (i) PB S (i) PRS (i) PRS ρ B S – RSk = .ρ = (5) N0 b(i−1) . the BS transmits the next frame towards the K − 1 RSs as the best relay. . . σb(i−1) -U T 2 are the power variances in each link. Equation 2 denotes the capacity constraint of the inter-relay links: ⎛  2 ⎞  (i)  (1 − a)Ptotal h b(i−1) . h bi−1 -U T k denote the Rayleigh distributed complex channel gains for the B S–R Sk . be given in the next section. The channel powers follow an exponential distribution with parameters denoted by: (i) 1 (i) 1 λ B S – RSk = (i) (i) . best relay-R Sk (b-R Sk ). The transmis- sion of the ith frame by the best relay is denoted by b(i) . since these RATs operate in different frequency bands. we consider RSs equipped with two interfaces so as to exploit the variety of the available heterogeneous RATs and achieve better interference mitigation. cannot be a member of the next decoding set. IRI can be avoided as the K − 1 RSs always receive in the macro RAT band. as we will examine the various forms of this criterion in our system model. when the best RS selects the micro RAT. then R Sk is able to decode the interference signal and subtract it from the one currently transmitted by the BS.RS . ρ B S – RSk σ B S – RSk 2 k ρb(i−1) . k Moreover. Ptotal is the total transmission power in our system.RSk N0 b(i−1) -U T N0 (i) (i) (i) where σ B S – RSk 2 . If the UT is not near 123 . we apply a capacity constraint in the R Sk -best relay links.h B S – RSk . k = 1 .RS  ⎜ ⎟ log2 ⎝1 +  2 k ⎠>R (2)  (i)  a Ptotal h B S – RSk  + N0 The ith signal received at the UT is denoted by: (i) (i) (i) yU T = h b(i−1) -U T xi−1 + n U T (3) In the above equations. The signals received by the K − 1 RSs in the B S–R Sk links are: (i) (i) (i) (i) y S Rk = h B S – RSk xi + h b(i−1) . σb(i−1) . both having zero mean values and variance N0 .RS 2 . and best relay-UT (b-U T ) links during the ith transmission respectively.RS = (i) (i) . λb(i−1) . When the selection of the best relay is concluded. α is a coefficient (i) (i) (i) (i) that allocates power between the BS and the best relay. The successive transmission of the BS will be interfered by the best RS’s transmission towards the UT. If this constraint is satisfied.ρ = .RS σb(i−1) . the best RS can choose between a macro RAT interface and a micro RAT interface to transmit towards the UT. K . At the same time.h bi−1 .

Targeting to increase the end-to-end capacity.1 Relay Selection Criterion As already stated. it will choose a modu- lation order to transmit its frame. while subsequently a power adjustment mechanism aims to reduce energy consumption at the RS. the maxmin criterion will have a different capacity term in the B S–R Sk link denoted by: ⎛  2 ⎞  (i)  PB S h B S – RSk  (i) ⎜ ⎟ C B S – RSk = B log2 ⎝1 + ⎠ (9) N0 resulting in an interference-free reception at the K − 1 RSs.Capacity Maximization the best RS or its link experiences severe fading. a) If the relay has decoded the low priority stream from the BS. a relay selection criterion aims to achieve the best possible end-to-end capacity. 4.S R  + N0 k ⎛   ⎞  (i+1) 2 PRS h RSk –U T  (i+1) ⎜ ⎟ C RSk –U T = B log2 ⎝1 + ⎠ (8) N0 In this case. when the decoding set of the current transmission is formed. 4 The Proposed EA-MMR Scheme In the following. Note that.2 Adjustment of the RS’s Transmission Power As indicated before. the macro RAT will be selected and the previous interference subtraction scheme will be employed. to forward to the UT. When an IRI mitigation scheme from those described in the previous section is applied. C RSk –U T (6) (i) (i+1) where C B S – RSk and C RSk –U T are the capacities of each hop analyzed as: ⎛  2 ⎞  (i)  PB S h B S – RSk  (i) ⎜ ⎟ C B S – RSk = B log2 ⎝1 +  2 ⎠ (7)  (i)  PRS h b(i−1) . In the case that IRI affects the reception of the K − 1 RSs the criterion becomes: (i) (i+1) max min C B S – RSk . At first. then it will select to trans- mit with the high order modulation scheme. the B S–R Sk link will usually be the bottleneck of the transmission and the maxmin criterion will choose the most isolated RS from the currently transmitting best RS. the best RS has already acquired the CSI of the R Sk –U T link when it entered the competition with the rest of the RSs. 4. we present the proposed energy-aware multi-mode relaying (EA-MMR) scheme. when the selected RS forwards towards the UT. we examine the capacity of each hop and afterwards we select the RS that maximizes it. its members enter a competition to choose the best RS to forward the signal to the UT. which consists of two components with different functionalities. if this is possible with the current link 123 .

one UT is served at a time. on one hand for a varying number of MM RSs and on the other. The required SNRs for the transitions between the modulation orders are based on those of [25. As expected.1. the chances for a RS to have decoded the low priority stream and moreover. Therefore. As stated in Sect. 5. 3. thus resulting in energy aware transmissions. to have a high quality link to the UT are increased. C. the relay transmits with the power threshold of the modulation scheme selected. then it will select to forward this stream with the low order modulation scheme even if the conditions of the link permit for a higher transmission rate. First. instead of having a constant transmission power. which are based on the relaying principles presented at [13. The aforementioned analysis will be divided in two parts.26]. by adding more RSs to cooperate we increase the available paths that can be selected. b) Furthermore. we see the results for the average end-to-end capacity for a varying number of RSs and increasing transmit SNR. 5. On the other hand. as the RS has accurate knowledge of the R Sk –U T link. they are able to select between a macro and a micro RAT.1 Scenario Without Power Adjustment In this scenario. Skianis et al. if the relay has decoded the high priority stream from BS. and lead to improved end-to-end capacity 123 . we will describe the simulation setup that was created in Matlab© and we will present the results of various scenarios. each one of which employs 10 MM RSs.1 Comparisons with Various RSs Numbers In Fig. in comparison with the Max RD and Max SR schemes. Subsequently. This value corresponds to the minimum power required for the transmitted frame to be received by the UT in the current modulation order. In this way. through two-hop trans- missions. 5 Numerical Results In this section. The RSs and the UT are equipped with two interfaces and according to the position and fading condition of the UT at the time of transmission. The simulation topology is based on the description of the system model. where non line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation is common. The fading coeffi- cients vary in each frame period but they are considered constant for one-hop propagation time. we will compare it to the Max RD and Max SR schemes. we run the simulator to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. 3. Table 1 contains the simulation parameters and the comparisons performed. with each one experiencing independent fading condi- tions. we will examine the performance of the proposed EA-MMR scheme for an increasing number of RSs and afterwards. at the same time. We note that these schemes are adjusted to the system model that we examine and thus we evaluate the performance of the different maxmin criteria. The wireless channels are assumed to be Rayleigh faded. simulation results will be given about the efficiency of the power adjustment technique that we employ in the best RS’s transmission.24] respectively. power consumption is reduced. The steps of the proposed scheme are depicted in detail in Fig. conditions. The benefits of the power adjustment are twofold: the best RS’s transmission produces reduced IRI to the receiving RSs while. we can safely reduce its transmission power. otherwise the low order modulation scheme is selected. 2. as is the case of urban environments.

Capacity Maximization Fig. 2 The proposed scheme 123 .

7.000 Frame length (symbols) 100 Transmission time per hop 10 ms [27] Number of relays 2. Table 1 Simulation parameters Parameter Value Modulation B S–RSk link: Hierarchical modulation (QPSK. C. 64QAM) RSk –U T link: Adaptive modulation (QPSK. Skianis et al. 64 QAM) Channel gains Quasi-static i.i. 10 . 4.d Fading Rayleigh Total transmit SNR (dB) 0:30 Receiver SINR threshold for QPSK-64QAM 6–15 dB Frames transmitted per SNR 3.

max min C B S – RSk . C RSk –U T .

Schemes max C B S – RSk .

3 The average end-to-end capacity for a varying number of relays for increasing transmit SNR results.5 0. where OR cannot be performed and relays are chosen alter- nately.5 EA-MMR (K=10) 6. the channel’s characteristics are improved and the addition of extra relays does not contribute as much to the average end-to-end capacity as to low SNR values. This behavior is expected. for the increasing values of transmit SNR.0 0 5 10 15 20 Pt/N0 (dB) Fig.0 2.0 EA-MMR (K=2) 4. power control performance 7.5 4.0 1.5 EA-MMR (K=4) 5. the outage probability falls sharply with the K = 7 and K = 10 cases performing almost identically.0 3.5 3.0 0. It must be noted that the performance of the K = 7 scheme is very close to the K=10. delay distribution for 20 dB transmit SNR. max C RSk –U T Results Average end-to-end capacity. 123 .0 6. Outage probability curves are depicted in Fig. since. 4. We can see that after 10 dB.0 EA-MMR (K=7) Average Capacity (bps/Hz) 5. It is easier to observe this improved performance when we have more than two relays in the system as in this case.5 2.5 1. outage probability.

5. as a result of the improved capacity and outage probability. The round-trip time required for one-hop propagation is set equal to 10ms. 4 The outage probability for a varying number of relays for increasing transmit SNR 100 EA-MMR (K=2) 90 EA-MMR (K=4) Percentage of packets (%) 80 EA-MMR (K=7) 70 EA-MMR (K=10) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 50 80 110 140 Transmission Delay (msec) Fig. 80 ms] and [0.Capacity Maximization 1.7 0. 123 . From the corresponding curves we can see that as the number of RSs is increased the packet delays are more and more constrained to smaller intervals. the increased selection diversity provides more reliable transmissions to the network compared to the case of 2 and 4 RSs.0 0. K = 7 and K = 10. as well as considered in [27]. 140 ms].9 0.1 EA-MMR (K=10) 0. 5 The delay distribution for a varying number of relays As expected.2 EA-MMR (K=7) 0. 56 ms] respectively.4 EA-MMR (K=2) 0. The final comparison for a variable number of RSs.5 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 Pt/N0 (dB) Fig. The results are demonstrated in Fig. the packets delays are approximately constrained to the intervals [0. for the cases of K = 4. [0. We consider the transmit SNR fixed at 20 dB.3 EA-MMR (K=4) 0. More specifically. the outage probability corresponds to very low values in these two cases and it is obvious that after a number of relays the improvement in outage probability saturates. as the transmit SNR exceeds 15dB.6 0. The transmission delay is defined as the sum of i) the time that a packet stays in the queue of the BS and ii) the propagation time needed for two-hop transmissions. a value that favors transmissions with good capacity and outage for all schemes. investigates the delay distribution for the number of packets that we transmit during the simulation.8 Outage Probability 0. Furthermore. Additional delays for decoding and relay selection are ignored in this simulation.

Max RD and Max SR) that consider selecting the RS that maximizes the capacity of the RS-UT link and BS-RS link accordingly. 5.5 2.0 4.7 0. 7.5 EA-MMR (K=10) 6. we compare the schemes of [13. for increasing transmit SNR 123 .0 0. The results of the average end-to-end capacity are depicted in Fig. where we may observe that the proposed scheme achieves improved results because of the consideration of both hops in the relay selection algorithm.5 3. We set the number of RSs to 10 in order to examine the case where capacity and outage performance reaches a good level and to concentrate on the performance of the different maxmin criteria. 6 The average end-to-end capacity for the three schemes compared each with 10 relays.8 Max RD (K=10) EA-MMR (K=10) Outage Probability 0. Likewise.0 Average Capacity (bps/Hz) Max RD (K=10) 5. when the best relay is selected based on the relay-destination link quality.0 2.3 0.1. 6.5 4.e.0 0 5 10 15 20 Pt/N0 (dB) Fig. Each scheme employs MM RSs and a UT connected through a combination of macro and micro RATs. for increasing transmit SNR 1. the scheme of [24] will select relays that have the best reception con- ditions but since the second hop is not considered. the relay path selected will not have the maximum capacity towards the UT.9 Max SR (K=10) 0.6 0. Skianis et al.0 1.0 0.5 0.24] (i. C.0 0 5 10 15 20 Pt/N0 (dB) Fig.0 3.1 0.5 Max SR (K=10) 5. the scheme of [13] cannot exploit the hierarchically modulated broadcast signal and some packets of the low priority stream are missed.5 1.5 0.2 0. On the contrary.4 0.0 6.2 Comparisons with Other Schemes In this subsection. 7 The outage probability for the three schemes compared each with 10 relays.

5 15. More specifically. examines the delay distribution of the transmitted packets during the simulation.0 17. while Max SR has the worst performance admitting delays of 100 ms.2 Power Adjustment Performance In the final simulation. we study the performance of the power adjustment that we employed in the best RS transmission.0 12.0 Pt/N0 (dB) Fig. the behavior of the proposed scheme is identical to the one in [13].2. while EA-MMR constraints the packet delays below 56 ms. 7.0 7. 5. outage probability is evaluated and the results are demonstrated in Fig. the scheme of [24] selects the relay with the best first-hop link and outages due to bad second-hop links will not be avoided. 9 The power gain achieved through the power control mechanism in the case of 10 relays compared to a scheme with fixed transmit SNR 123 .5 10. On the other hand. The final comparison. As we define an outage event when the relays cannot decode the high priority stream modulated with QPSK. the above definition leads to the formation of the same decoding sets and the same relay paths towards the UT. Thus. Max RD admits packet delays of 80 ms. the RS is capable of acquir- 45 Transmission Power Decrease (%) EA-MMR (K=10) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2.Capacity Maximization 100 90 Max SR (K=10) Percentage of packets (%) 80 Max RD (K=10) 70 EA-MMR (K=10) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 50 80 110 140 Transmission Delay (msec) Fig. 8 The delay distribution for the three schemes compared each with 10 relays In the next comparison. 8 that the increased end-to-end capacity gives a significant advantage to the proposed EA-MMR scheme. 4.5 5. As it was already stated in Sect. We see from Fig.5 20.

C. 3062–3080... N. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communication. 3. compared to a scheme with fixed transmit SNR. & Krikidis. EA-MMR harvests significant power gains by adjusting its transmission power to the threshold required for the selected modulation scheme. (2007). As a result. C. Exploiting the capabilities of smart mobile terminals through the use of intelligent RSs with the ability to use more than one RAT. Dai. Ding. 6(9)... H. 10(8). IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communication.24]. Bletsas. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications. adjusting transmission power to the wireless channel’s condition. Spectral efficient protocols for half-duplex fading relay chan- nels. The proposed EA-MMR is suitable for a wireless environment where multi-interface ter- minals operate. Rankov. A. F. (2011). Cooperative diversity in wireless net- works: Efficient protocols and outage behavior. 123 . X. We see that after 10 dB where capacity is improved. & Win. We employed MM RSs in a system model where smart modulation schemes are used together with interference mitigation techniques. Laneman. Q. I. P. & Wittneben. The percentage of power gain if the transmission power is set to the selected modu- lation scheme’s threshold. Z. Shin.e.. Simula- tion results showed that the proposed scheme outperforms Max SR and Max RD in terms of average end-to-end capacity and delay distribution of the transmitted packets. can be a promising wireless architecture in future wireless networks. Skianis et al. the power gain compared to a scheme employing fixed transmission power. (2007). M. Chen. Approaching MISO upper bound: Design of new wireless cooperative transmission protocols. 2. since after a transmission power value the system’s performance reaches a power limited threshold. Zhou. (2011). 4. C. W. in comparison with a fixed transmit SNR. Asymptotic analysis of opportunistic relaying based on the max-generalized-mean selection criterion. Max RD) based on the principles introduced at [13. (2004). The energy-awareness of the proposed scheme was underlined by employing a power adjustment mechanism at the RSs. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. N. More specifically. the use of EA-MM RSs can offer a stable and capacity optimized communication. an interference cancellation algorithm was implemented at the RSs to complement the out-band transmissions of the MM RSs. in the case where connectivity of the UTs with the BS is difficult due to severe fading and NLOS conditions. M. 379–389. The performance of MM Relaying was evaluated through simulations in comparison with two schemes (i. 5. Xu. X. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. Siu. increases with each step. taking advantage of the multiple inter- faces that can be found in the RSs. 50(12). MAX SR. Moreover. Tse. Furthermore.. B. D.. F.. allowing a linear transmission power reduction. 1050–1057. 10(4). leads to energy-aware relay trans- missions. 3450–3460.. 2725–2737. & Wornell. Cooperative communications with outage-optimal opportunistic relaying. 6 Conclusions In this paper we proposed an EA-MMR technique that combines the advantages of OR and SR. G. Z. References 1. 25(2). is shown in Fig. T. J. ing the CSI of the R Sk –U T link.. in conjunction with energy-aware characteristics. and according to its condition it can reduce its transmission power.. 9 for different values of fixed transmit SNRs. & Lau. A.

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In 2005. From 1996 to 2003 he has been a scientific researcher. where since 2004 he had been an adjunct lecturer. Greece in 1985. he is an active reviewer for several scientific journals and he is a member of pronounced professional societies (IEEE Communications Society. His research interests include mobile and wireless communication systems. As of February 2011 he is a PhD Candidate in the University of the Aegean. degree in Electrical and Com- puter Engineering from NTUA. he acts within Technical Program and Organizing Committees for conferences. Skoutas is currently a member of Computer and Com- munication Systems Laboratory (CCSL) a research and educational unit in the Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering (ICSE) of the University of the Aegean. Dr. He has also been keenly working on the area of Resource Management and Quality of Service Provisioning in Mobile and Wireless Broadband Networks where he has proposed several algorithmic and architectural optimizations.Sc. channel characterization and propagation models. and the Ph. He is currently an Assistant Professor and member of the Computer and Communication Systems Laboratory in the Department of Information and Communi- cation Systems Engineering. C. Skianis et al. Skoutas has several publications in the above fields in international scientific jour- nals and conference proceedings. from NTUA. where he has been engaged to several European and National Projects. His current research activities include context aware Next Generation Networks and Quality of Service provisioning in het- erogeneous networks environment. His research interest is focused on 4G. He holds a PhD degree in Communication Networks and a Dipl. University of the Aegean. performance modeling of wireless 123 . Dimitrios N.D. and from 2003 to 2005 he was a senior researcher at the Mobile Radiocommunications Labo- ratory of NTUA. He is a member of the Technical Chamber of Greece. Greece. Dr. He also serves as a scien- tific coordinator in several research projects. Skoutas is at the editorial board of ACM/Springer Wireless Networks (WINET). mobile net- works. Greek Computer Society and Technical Chamber of Greece). Greece. He received the Diploma in Electrical Engineering and Computer Technology from the University of Patras in 2009 and the MSc in Communication and Computer Networking Technologies from the University of the Aegean in 2011. analog and digital communications. Author Biographies Nikolaos Nomikos was born in Samos. he joined the Hellenic Aerospace Indus- try at the Department of Satellite Communications. Demosthenes Vouyioukas received the five-year Diploma in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the National Technical Uni- versity of Athens (NTUA). He has also been actively involved in various European and National funded R&D projects. He has also received a Joint Engineering-Economics M. He teaches undergraduate and postrgraduate courses on Communication & Computer Networking Technologies stream. OFDMA-based.-Eng (5 years degree) in Electrical and Computer Engineering with major in Tele- communications. Dr. cognitive radio techniques and cooperative communication sys- tems from a physical and radio resource management perspective. in 1996 and 2003 respectively.

Springer. cooperative wideband systems. and member of IEEE BTS. UMTS. while in some of them he has served at the Project or the Technical Manager.. He is an active member of several Technical Committees within the IEEE ComSoc (e. He has been in- volved in several European (FP5 IST. IEEE TVT and IEEE CS.Sc. vice chair for the CSIM technical committee. University of Bradford. EUREKA) and national (in Spain and in Greece) research funded projects. wireless sensors and broadband net- works. He is currently project coordinator for ICT FP7 PASSIVE project. Since 1997 he is a member of IEEE and member of IEEE Com- munication Society of the Greek Section. in phys- ics.Capacity Maximization networks. and has served as a TPC member in several international conferences.. He has published over 100 journal and conference papers. and a B. Charalabos Skianis is currently an assistant professor in the Depart- ment of Information and Communication Systems at the University of the Aegean. 123 . Department of Physics. vice chair for Information Infra- structure technical committee). cooperative and cognitive communications for wire- less systems.g. a member of pronounced professional societies (senior member of IEEE) and an active reviewer for several scien- tific journals. FP7 ICT & People. IEEE Networks magazine). FP6 IST & Marie-Curie.g. IEEE Communications Magazine. next generation mobile and satellite networks. He holds a Ph. IFIP Networking. He has published over 60 papers in scientific journals. LTE-A and WiMAX systems and MIMO and Femtocell technologies. His research interests include MAC protocols. respectively. symposium chair for several IEEE Globecom and IEEE ICC conferences) and as a Guest Editor for scientific journals (e. IEEE Surveys & Tutori- als. he was research associate and projects coordinator in the Southeastern Europe Telecommuni- cations & Informatics Research Institute in Greece. He acts within Technical Program and Organizing Committees for numer- ous conferences and workshops (e. Since February 2004. Greece.Sc. he is a senior research associate in Telecommunications Technological Centre of Catalonia (CTTC). RRM algorithms. cross- layer techniques. a member of IFIP and ACM and also a member of the Technical Chamber of Greece.g. Before joining CTTC. HSPA. Samos. Greece. Ad hoc Networks).. member of the education board of IEEE ComSoc. wideband systems with relays. 10 chapters in different books and 2 books. conference proceedings and as book chapters and has also been presented in numerous conferences and workshops. He has acted as Technical Manager for ICT FP7 VITAL++ project and represen- tative for the University on ICT FP7 HURRICANE project. University of Patras. LTE. He is at the editorial board of journals (e. degree in computer sci- ence.D. in Telecom- munications Engineering from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in 1994 and 1997.. His work is published in journals. United Kingdom. He got his PhD from the Technical University of Catalonia in 2000.g. IEEE Wireless Commu- nications. Christos Verikoukis received degree in Physics and M. book chapters and international conference proceedings. He also serves as an Associate Editor of Telecommunication Systems Journal.