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# MATHEMATICS - FORM 1

WHOLE NUMBERS

WHOLE NUMBERS
1. Whole numbers are 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,....

2. (Zero) is the first whole number.

3. Whole numbers can be written in words or figures.

4. Each whole number is made up of the digits from 0 to 9.

For example:-

(a) 304 is made up of the digits 3,0 and 4.

It is read as 'three hundred and four'.

(b) 4263 is made up of the digits 4, 2, 6 and 3.

It is read as 'four thousand two hundred

and sixty-three'

A) Place Value and Value of Each Digit in Whole Numbers.

Worked Example Write the following in figures. hundred. 2. 3. tens. thousand. (a) five thousand six hundred and twenty-four. (a) 530 274 Solution (a) five hundred and thirty thousand two hundred and seventy-four. . hundred. Each digit in a whole number has its own place value. millions and so on. The value of a digit in a whole number depends on its place value. Worked Example Write the following in words. ten thousand. 5 972 436 is read as 'five million nine hundred and seventy-four thousand two hundred and thirty -six. The place values for whole numbers include units (ones).1. thousand.

(b) If the digit is less than 5. retain the digit as it is at the place value involved and replace the other digits on its right with zeros. (a) 391 (c) 29 710 (b) 9 004 (d) 4 951 650 Solution (a) 90 (c) 9 000 (b) 9 000 (d) 900 000 B) Rounding off Numbers A number can be rounded off to a certain place value by following the rules below. . add 1 to the digit at the place value involved and replace all the other digits on its right with zeros. (a) 573 (c) 307 842 (b) 9 704 (d) 7 951 650 Solution (a) ten (c) thousand (b) hundred (d) millions Worked Example State the value of digit 9 in each of the following numbers.Solution (a) 5 624 Worked Example State the place value of digit 7 in each of the following numbers. (a) If the digit is 5 more. Look at the digit on the right next to the place value involved.

We often use rounding off to give an estimation to the actual value.In our daily life. . 2. we use estimation when an accurate answer is unnecessary.c) Estimation 1.

3. .ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF WHOLE NUMBERS. A) Addition 1. The total is also known as the sum. The order of addition of numbers does not change sum. 2. For example:- The sum of 300 and 5 000 is 5 300. Addition is a process of finding the total of two or more numbers.

Step 1:. B) Problem Solving involving Addition Worked Example .Arrange the numbers according to their place values.The sum of any number and 0 is the number itself. For example:- (a) 12 + 0 = 12 (b) 0 + 6 = 6 5. Follow the steps below when carrying out addition.4.Add from right to left. Step 2:.

3 760 durians and 948 oranges in Mr Tan's stall. Carry out the plan 4. Subtraction is a process of finding the difference between two numbers. Find the total number of fruits in his stall.There are 25 apples. c) Subtraction 1. 3. Devise a plan Use addition. Solution 1. Check Add again to see if the answer is the same. For example:- .Total number of fruits 2. Understand the problem Given information:- Number of apples = 25 Number of durian = 3 760 Number of oranges = 9 48 Find:.

20 = 45 (Difference or remainder) 2. The difference between two same numbers is 0.0 = 75 4.15 = 47 . Step 2:. Step 1:. the number remains the same. Addition is the inverse of subtraction. For example:- 76 . Follow the steps below when carrying out subtraction. 65 .Arrange the numbers according to their place values. For example:- 75 . When we subtract 0 from a number.15 = 61 62 .19 = 0 3. 5. For example:- 19 .Subtract or minus from right to left.

how many female students are there? Solution 1. Worked Example There are 1 244 male students in a college. Understand the problem Given information:- Number of male students = 1 244 The number of female students is 327 less than the number of male students.If the number female students is 327 less than the number of male students.D) Problem Solving Involving Subtraction. .

2. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OF WHOLE NUMBERS A) Multiplication 1. Multiplication is a process of repeated addition. . Carry out the plan 4. 2. Check Use addition to check.Changing the order of numbers in multiplication does not affect the product. 3. Devise a plan Use subtraction.

For example:. 10 × 0 = 0 0 × 10 = 0 4. 36 × 1 = 36 Worked example Find the product of 42 and 426. How many can she sew in a week? . For example:. A number multiplied by 1 is the number itself. Solution B)Problem Solving involving Multiplication Worked example Marrion can sew 45 handkerchiefs in one day. The product of any number and 0 is 0. 6 × 3 = 18 3 × 6 = 18 3. For example:.

Check Multiply again to see if you gate the same answer. it cannot be defined. Division is equal gathering or equal sharing.Carry out the plan 4. C) DIVISION 1.Solution 1. 2. Devise a plan Use multiplication. 2. 3.Understand the problem Given information:- Number of handkerchiefs sewn in one day = 45 Find: Total number of handkerchiefs sewn in a week. For example:- 8 ÷ 0 cannot be defined. When a number is divided by 0. .

the quotient is 0. Changing the order of numbers in division will affect the answer. When a number is divided by 1.3. When 0 is divided by any number. . For example:- Worked Example (a)Divide 1 694 by 14 (b) Find the value 925 ÷ 4 Solution D) Problem Solving involving Division Worked Example 160 table are arranged equally in 10 rows. the quotient is the number itself. For example:- 5÷1=5 4. For example:- 0 ÷ 58 = 0 5.

10 x 16 = 160 COMBINED OPERATIONS OF WHOLE NUMBERS A) Combined Operations involving Addition and Subtraction For combined operations involving addition and subtraction. 3. Carry out the plan Therefore. Worked Example Find the value of each of the following. Understand the problem 160 table are arranged equally in 10 rows.How many table are there in each row? Solution 1. calculate from left to right. 4. Devise a plan Use division. 2. there are 16 table in a row. . Check Check by multiplication.

165 + 8 Solution B) Problem Solving involving Addition and Subtraction Worked Example A basket contains 32 fruits. Carry out the plan . How many fruits are there in the basket now? Solution 1.(a) 22 + 18 . 11 are taken out and then 21 are added in. Devise a plan Perform subtraction followed by addition.24 (b) 230 . 3. Understand the problem Given information:- Number of fruits in the basket = 32 Number of fruits taken out = 11 Number of fruits added in = 21 2.

32 . Worked Example Find the value of each of the following. They shared the cost equally. Check C) Combined Operations involving Multiplication and Division For combined operations involving multiplication and division. 4. 42 fruits are in the basket now. (a) 18 x 7 ÷ 3 (b) 600 ÷ 8 x 5 Solution D) Problem Solving involving Multiplication and Division Worked Example Sasha. .11 + 21 = 21 + 21 = 42 Therefore. Hanim and Akma bought 20 novels costing RM16 each. Find the amount paid by each of them. calculate also from left to right.

and division are involved. multiplication. perform multiplication and divition before addition and subtraction. -. Worked Example Simplify (a) 7 x 40 . Hanim and Akma = 20 Cost of each novels = RM 16 Find: Amount paid by each of them 2. subtraction.Solution 1.10 x 11 (b) 48 + 32 x 24 ÷ 6 -2 Solution . 3. Understand the problem Given information:- Number of novels bought by Sasha. 4. Check 21 x RM16 = 336 3 x RM 112 = 336 E) Combined Operation involving +. Devise a plan Perform multiplication followed by division. x and ÷ For combined operations where addition. Carry out the plan 21 x RM16 ÷ 3 = RM 336 ÷ 3 = RM 112 The amount paid by each of them was RM 112.

95 = 20 x ( 2 + 7 ) . For combined operations involving brackets.6 ) (b) 20 x (2 + 28 ÷ 4 ) .95 Solution (a) 6 ( 6 .2 ) ÷ ( 8 .95 = 20 x 9 . work the calculation within the brackets first. Worked Example 1. Solve each of the following.2 ) ÷ ( 9 .F) Combined Operations involving Brackets 1.95 = 85 .95 = 180 .2 ) =6x4÷6 = 24 ÷ 6 =4 (b) 20 x ( 2 + 28 ÷ 4 ) . (a) 6 x ( 6 .

If each bottle has 55 marble in it. Solution 1.15 = 7 . -. the total number of marbles is 1 210. 4. x. For example:- ( 8 . Brackets are also operative symbol for multiplication.10 = 20 . ÷ and Brackets Worked Example Azan and Amir have 7 and 15 bottles of marble. Carry out the plan ( 7 + 15 ) x 55 = 22 x 55 = 1 210 Therefore.5 ) -10 = ( 5 ) ( 4 ) . Understand the problem Given information: Number of bottles bought by Azan = 7 Number of bottles bought by Amir = 15 Number of marbles in each bottles = 55 Find: Total number of marbles 2. Check 22 . 3.10 = 10 G) Problem Solving involving +. Find the total number of marbles. Devise a plan Perform addition within the brackets and followed by multiplication.3 ) ( 9 .2.

21 ) ÷ 3 = 75 ÷ 3 = 25 25 exercise books were given to each of his sons. . He give 26 of them to his daughter. 1 210 ÷ 55 = 22 Worked Example Mr Lee bought 8 Dozens exercise books.21) ÷ 3 = ( 96 . How many exercise books were given to each of his sons? Solution ( 8 x 12 . He then distributed the rest evenly to his 3 sons.