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# L.

Joyprakash Singh, PhD

EE - 304 Electrical Network and Theory
(August - December 2016 Session)
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
North-Eastern Hill University (NEHU)
(B.Tech. 3rd Semester)

Handout: # 03

1. Loop/Circuit Matrices Complete Loop matrix or circuit matrix is used to describe
the way in which the branches constitute loops or circuits in a graph.

- To write this matrix in a systematic way, an arbitrary orientation is specified for each
loop using an ordered list of its branches and nodes.
- The total number of loops are determined using an exhaustive search.

There are two types of loop/circuit matrices:

- Complete Loop/Circuit Matrix, BC ,
- Loop/circuit matrix, B.

The elements of the complete loop/circuit matrix have the following values:

 1, if the branch j is in the loop i and their orientations coincide,

bij = −1, if the branch j is in the loop i and their orientations are opposite,

0, if the branch j is not in the loop i.

(a) The complete loop/circuit matrix, BC :
Example - 1: Consider the following circuit and its directed/oriented graph:

IL L
a

R1 R2
I1 2 I2 b 2 c
1 3 1 3

Is I3
IC

Vs + C R3 d e f

4 4

(a) (b)

Fig. 1.1: (a) A circuit and (b) its graph.

2060720-02#20160829LJS 1/5

e.d} (f) Loop 6: L6 {a.e. Shillong 2/5 .d} (g) Loop 7: L7 {a.f. Joyprakash Singh.c. loops are: Loop 1: L1 {a.c. 1.e.f.f.d} or Circuit 4: L4 {a.f.e.c.d} Loop 3: L3 {c.f.c.f.b} Circuit 1: L1 {a.304 ENT August 29. NEHU. all possible a a a a 2 b 2 c 2 c 2 1 c 3 1 3 1 3 1 c 3 b b b L2 L3 L4 d e f d e f d e f d e f 4 4 4 4 (a) Loop 1: L1 {a.d} Loop 7: L7 {a.e.d} (c) Loop 3: L3 {c.1(b).b} Fig.e.f.d} Circuit 5: L5 {b. 1.f.f.e.e} Loop 4: L4 {a.f. PhD EE .d} Loop 5: L5 {b.e} Circuit 3: L3 {c.c.d} Loop 6: L6 {a.e} (d) Loop 4: L4 {a.L.d} a a a b 2 c 2 2 c 1 3 1 c 3 1 3 b b L6 L7 d e L5 f d e f d e f 4 4 4 (e) Loop 5: L5 {b.2: (a)-(g) are all possible loops/circuits of the graph of Fig. the circuit matrix (known as complete tie-set matrix) is obtained: Branches Loops a b c d e f −1 −1   L1 1 0 0 0 L2   0 1 0 1 1 0   L3   1 −1 0 0 −1 1   BC = L4   1 0 −1 1 1 0   L5   0 0 1 0 −1 1   L6  1 0 0 1 0 1  L7 0 1 1 1 0 1 Handout: # 03 ECE.b} Circuit 7: L7 {a. BC .e. 2019 Let us try to find out the possible loops/circuits in the given graph: Thus.b} Taking the clock-wise orientation.c.b} (b) Loop 2: L2 {b.d} Circuit 6: L6 {a. the complete loop matrix.d} Circuit 2: L2 {b.c.c.f.c. of the above graph may be written as Branches → a b c d e f Circuits ↓   L1 b11 b12 b13 b14 b15 b16 L2   b21 b22 b23 b24 b25 b26   L3   b31 b32 b33 b34 b35 b36   BC = L4   b41 b42 b43 b44 b45 b46   L5   b51 b52 b53 b54 b55 b56   L6  b61 b62 b63 b64 b65 b66  L7 b71 b72 b73 b74 b75 b76 Thus.f.b} Loop 2: L2 {b.e.

Example . Detailed explaination: Fundamental Loops and Tie-Set Matrix. Joyprakash Singh.b. every link forms a unique loop.e} : L3 {a. Thus. Shillong Handout: # 03 3/5 .August 29. we know that there are t = n − 1 twigs in a tree and l = b − t = b − n + 1 links in co-tree. . the number of f -circuits or tie-sets is equal to l = b − n + 1.b. the a a a a b 2 c b IL1 2 b 2 b 2 1 3 1 c 3 1 3 1 3 IL3 L2 d e f e d e e f 4 4 4 4 Tree L1 {c. PhD (b) Tie-Set Matrix.b. we know a Number of nodes : n=4 Number of branches : b=6 b 2 c 1 3 Number of links : l =b−n+1=3 Therefore.b.Re-placement of each link one at a time in the tree forms a closed path or loop or circuit.e} and links{c.e} L3 {f.b.b.3.d. B Possible f -loops of the given tree with twigs{a.a} tie-set matrix.f} Fig.b} L2 {d.a. In a given tree of a graph: .2: In the tree shown in Fig.304 ENT L. number of f -circuits : 3 d e f Possible tie-sets or f -loops are now given by f -circuits : L1 {a.e. closed path or circuit called the fundamental loop (f-loop) or fundamental circuit (f-circuit) or tie-set.The number of f -circuits is same as that of links in a given tree.3: A tree with twigs{a. 1. . Hence. in short. 2016 EE .d. 1.e.f}: Therefore.c} 4 : L2 {b.The reference direction of the f -loop is taken as that of the link. B: In a graph with n nodes and b branches. NEHU. is constructed as Branches f -Loops  a b c d e f  L1 −1 1 1 0 0 0 B= L2  0 1 0 1 1 0  L3 1 −1 0 0 −1 1 ECE. B. Note: Every link defines a fundamental loop of the graph.e}.

b} (c) L2 {d. the rank of B is (b − n + 1). Vb . (c) Tie-Set Matrix. e} f − circuit : L3 {f. L1 . For the tree with twigs {b.c. c. and KVL Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) of a graph can be applied to the f -loops to obtain a set of linearly independent equations. Therefore.e} (b) L1 {a. then the KVL equations for the three f -loops can be obtain from B V = 0.e}. And Bt is a matrix of order (n − 1) × (b − n + 1) which corresponds to the twigs.3: Obtain a tie-set from the following graph of Fig. If Va . Vd . 2019 Example .e. Shillong 4/5 . 1.c. Joyprakash Singh. For example: Considering the last tree with twigs{b.304 ENT August 29. NEHU. B.4(b)-(d) are written as f − circuit : L1 {a. PhD EE . b. I2 and I3 respectively. the tie-set matrix or f -loop matrix.e}. there are three fundamental loops. is then constructed as   1 −1 −1 0 0 0 B=  0 1 0 1 1 0  0 0 1 0 −1 1 Links T wigs branches → a d f b c e f − circuits ↓   1 1 0 0 −1 −1 0 B= 2  0 1 0 1 0 1  3 0 0 1 0 1 −1 B = [Bl Bt ] = [U.4 Therefore. we have   Va      Vb  0 1 −1 −1 0 0 0    Vc   0   0 1 0 1 1 0    Vd  =  0     0 0 1 0 −1 1   Ve   0 Vf Handout: # 03 ECE.e} (d) L3 {f.4(a) in which twigs are specified by solid lines while links dashed lines: a a I b 2 c b 2 L1 b 2 c b 2 c 1 3 1 c 3 1 3 1 3 L2 IL3 d e f e d e e f 4 4 4 4 (a) T wigs{b. B is a non-singular matrix. 1. Hence. the tie-sets from Fig. Vc . L2 and L3 with loop currents I1 . c} Thus.c. Bt ] where Bl is a square matrix for links having order (n − 1) × (n − 1) and is the identity matrix.c} Fig. the number of links. B. e.L. b} f − circuit : L2 {d.b. Ve and Vf are the branch voltages. 1.c.

1 a 2 1 b g c 4 3 5 i h 2 b c 5 d a d 6 e f 3 4 References [1] M.304 ENT L. B. for three f -loops. Shillong Handout: # 03 5/5 . E. 2012. using the equation: Ib = B T IL (d) Tie-Set Matrix. Edminister. Network Analysis. Vb + Vd + Ve = 0.e. Durbin.c} L1 {a. [4] D. H. Nahvi. NEHU. We can also get branch currents from tie-set matrix. 2/e. Networks and Systems. [2] W. and Vc − Ve + Vf = 0 repectively. S. we have three KVL equations: Va − Vb − Vc = 0. Obtain reduced incidence matrices and at least two tie-set matrices by selecting appropriate trees from each of the following graphs.e}     ia 1 0 0  ib   0 1 0        I L   ic   = −1 0 1  1   IL  2  id   1 1 0      IL3  ie   1 1 −1  if 0 0 1   1 0 −1 1 1 0 Where B =  0 1 0 1 1 0  0 0 1 0 −1 1 Branch current equations in terms of loop currents from the above equation is given by ia = IL1 id = IL1 + IL2 ib = IL2 ie = IL1 + IL2 − IL3 ic = −IL1 + IL3 if = IL3 Q. Engineering Circuit Analysis. J. MH. B. Hayt. S. Kemmerly. 1998. 3/e. Schuams Outline Electric Circuits. SIE.b. J. Circuits and Networks: Analysis and Synthesis. 2007. Roy Choudhury. 2005. [3] M. S. New Age Publishers. TMH. PHI.August 29.f. [5] A. 2016 EE . 4/e. 2002. Palli.e} L3 {c. Sudhakar.e. E. M. ECE.c. 8/e. and Branch Currents Given a tree as The link current transformation equation is given by Ib = B T IL : a a b 2 c 2 b 2 c 2 c 1 3 1 c 3 1 3 1 3 IL1 L2 IL3 d e f d e d e d e f 4 4 4 4 T wigs{d. PhD Therefore. Joyprakash Singh.d} L2 {d. Van Valkenburg. A. TMH.