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Fullname Firliani Sarah
Student ID 2514 100 052
Email /

A. Introduction
If we have a time machine and turn back time into several decades ago, the business life
would be so different. People will buy things with price as the main consideration. Cars, clothes,
food, cleaning supplies. Cheaper is better. They hardly see its package, its quality, or its brand. As
long as it can be used, then no problem.
Now, it is totally different. Price is still one of main concern, but there are also another point.
Package, quality, and brand are only a little variation of factor customers take into judgment. There
are a lot value, beside from the price, customers calculate before they decide to buy something.
The producer starts to think they have to increase their quality, make the way of thinking that
eventhough the price customers have to pay is a bit higher, the quality is also much better than the
competitor’s. Now, the companies try to overtaking each other, produce the best quality product
with the lowest cost.
However actually, what is quality? This is the hard question for a person that do not get the
gist. Is it subjective? Is it objective? Can we measure the quality with equation? Questions are
rolling everywhere. This paper is going to explain what quality is, its importance to corporate
world, and the implementation of quality control.
We may define quality in many ways. For some people, quality is the desired characteristics
from customer to the product. For another, the product that has a good quality meant it’s hard to get
it broken. Quality has two definition : traditional and modern.
Traditional definition of quality is “fitness for use”. By this definition, there are two general
aspects : quality of design and quality of conformance. Quality of design means the quality the
producer offer to customer. For example, the design of a car for a single bachelor will be different
with the married man, from its size, acceleration, capacity, appearance, etc. whereas quality of
conformance is how well the prodcut conforms to the specification required by design. It is
influenced by some factors, including manufacturing processes choices, labor training and
supervision, process controls types, tests, inspection, etc.
However, most quality control experts agree that this definition are not suitable anymore. The
engineers and designer that follow the traditional definition only focus on “conformance-to-
specification” rather than their customer. Thus, the modern definition of quality is made.
Modern definition of quality is inversely proportional to variabilty. This definition by
Motngomery implies that if the variability in a product’s important character decreases, the quality
of the product increases.
So, based on the modern defintion of quality, quality improvement is the reduction of
variability in processes and products. Excessive variability in process performance often results in
The quality of a product can be described and evaluated in several ways. Garvin provides
eight components or dimenstions of quality, which is performance (will the product do the intended
job?), reliability (how often does the product fail?), durability (how long does the product last?),
serviceability (how easy is it to repair the product?), aesthetics (what does the product look like?),

Firliani Sarah | 1 | Quality Control Engineering

Bimoli’s temperature and quality is maintained at high frying temperature. etc. Bimoli. In the refining process. Bimoli uses acid-substance to bind those colodial substance. and odor. a product does not have to fulfill all of these dimensions. and deodorization. better taste. which is gotten from pressing and extraction process from supplier. and green color. Content PT. The producer claims in their ad that Bimoli using the best material. with high percentage of mineral and low percentage of cholestrol. Deodorization process is used to eradicate the unwanted odor and taste in cooking oil. In this process. The bleaching process using absorben to absorbs the pigment and another colodial substance such as gum and resin. The raw material is crude palm oil (CPO). and the oil is brought to third process : bleaching. CPO has to be processed again. making it has a golden glow. In Bimoli. resin. margarine. perceived quality (what is the reputation of the company or its product?). produces a perfect crunchy fried. fosfatida. protein. CPO usually has red. protein. but mostly it does. different types of CTQ can relate directly or indirectly to the dimensions of quality. Bimoli is renowned for its high quality. and fosfatida. Bimoli uses caustic soda. These parameters are called critical-to-quality (CTQ) characteristics. The sediment is thrown out. (source : bimoli. there are three sub-process : degumming. Figure 1 Bimoli product Degumming process supposed to eradicate any colodial substance. Then. the fractionation do not use any solvent. that later can be used as cooking oil. CTQ may have several types : physical. bleaching.features (what does the product do?). In this process. In netralization. such as cooking oil. This process’ objective is decreasing the pigment in CPO. Bimoli uses superheated steam that easy to dissolve in condensation. sensory. The last process Bimoli does to their CPO is fractionation. the oil is transferred to SS tank to analyze the quality. The main process in Bimoli for their CPO is refining and fractionation process. pigment. butter. time orientation. Salim Ivomas Pratama Tbk. netralization. there will be sediment of the colodial substance and the oil itself. In result. Next process in netralization. The ad also claims that Bimoli is processed with Golden Refinery technology. The main purpose is cooling down the oil temperature. If it’s already passed the Firliani Sarah | 2 | Quality Control Engineering . Let’s take a look at this high technology that Bimoli has. and better food nutrition. the goal is relieving FFA. Every product also possesses a number of element that describe what the customer thinks of as such as resin. The process using steam distillation. which is palm oil. etc. Sometimes. B. is famous for their cooking-supplies product. yellow. gum. the result will be sediment of the FFA and the oil. since it can create rancidity. The CPO contains free fatty acid (FFA). gum. and conformance to standard (is the product made exactly as the designer intended?). Let’s elaborate more about their so-popular cooking oil. To be used as food material.

by organic production. These customers’ opinion that make Bimoli keep innovating in the manufacturing processes. There are two types quality control. eg a retailer. the cooking oil are brough to storaga tank olein. However. MS tank is used to olein quality that the RBS is filtered spray and the results are brought to storage tank olein later. always outrank another brand’s cooking oil. When customer hears the brand ‘Bimoli’ they eventually assume that the food will have a great taste. FFA testing. such as label. Bimoli is really serious to maintain their quality. without growth inhibition. such as the purchase situation. which is inspection and testing. since they can be ascertained by measuring and documenting aspects of the product and the production process. process-oriented quality. According to their PR in guest lecture Bimoli gives to high school student at February 18th 2016. and can differ for the same product between users. ensures the quality control of Bimoli qualified international standardization. etc. brand. and several such measurements of the same product or production process will be identical within the limits of measurement error. eventhough the price is definitely higher than another brand. Much of Firliani Sarah | 3 | Quality Control Engineering . The four types are interrelated. the hardest question of all : what is actually the customers seeking from a cooking oil? Let’s take a look more. Bimoli received ISO 9000. Example of product quality in Bimoli is FFA percentage. while testing is the chemical measurement such as Iodine Value testing. etc. The third type is quality control. and user-oriented quality can also be influenced by factors that are not characteristics of the product itself. the cleariness. etc. vitamins. etc. Bimoli is still one of the best quality cooking oil for the customer. the Quality Control Department do the experiment to the in-and-out materials. 2000. price. the substance. there is still no general agreement on what term food quality covers. User-oriented quality can be said to constitute subjective quality. Finally. Laweless. According to The Total Food Quality Model by Grunert (1995). the package (bottle or pouch). 1995). and these aspects may not necessarily have any effect on the product’s physical properties.specification. etc. and how it can be measured (Acebron & Dopico. Inspection is the physical measurement for the product. but at the operational level the adoption of a consumer point of view has been less clear (Cardello. Specifically. and user-oriented quality. these inter-relationships are by no means clear (Steenkamp & van Trijp. the iodine value. making sure that their product is the best available in the market. a user can be end-user or an intermediate user in the food chain. which we define as the standards a product has to meet in order to be approved for a specific quality class. While may attempts have been made to clarify and deine the concept of food quality (Bremmer. which is product-oriented quality. Many of proposed definitions of food quality include the end-user or consumer as the final judge. Process-oriented quality covers the way the food product has been produced. In Bimoli. type of retail outlet. according to regulations about animal welfare. user-oriented quality is subjective quality perception from a used point of view. eg volume of cooking oil. descriptions based on these aspects provide information about the procedure used to make the product. there are four different types of food quality. quality control. Product-oriented quality. Then. process-oriented quality and quality control can also be said to constitute objective quality. 1995). since it can be measured only at the end-user. This can be proved by high sales of Bimoli. Product-oriented quality covers all the aspects of the physical product that give a precise description of the specific food product. 1991). eg without pesticides. user-oriented quality is affected by all three types of objective quality. 2000). its carton. etc.

The Total Food Quality Model (Total Food Quality Model). and hence no positive effect on the producer’s competitive situation. The distinction between before and after purchase thus forms the basis of the Total Food Quality Model. many characteristics of a food product cannot be ascertained before purchase. ie most food products have only search characteristics to a limited degree. originally proposed by Grunert. In order to make a choice. The strong characteristics of food (primarily taste. This paper will elaborate more from the user-oriented quality. while the consumer evaluates and pays for subjectively perceived quality. since Firliani Sarah | 4 | Quality Control Engineering . we may have 4 dimensions for Bimoli cooking oil. a matter of pleasure. and process. of course. Larsen. Figure 1 The Total Food Quality Model (source : Grunert. For most people. This has always been the case. food is. objective quality. The amount a consumer is willing to pay for a product depends on this subjectively perceived quality. but also appearance and smell) constitute a central dimension of quality for consumers. but not the same as. we may form the quality dimension of Bimoli cooking oil : taste. the Total Food Quality Model distinguishes between ‘before’ and ‘after’ purchase evaluations.the discussion on quality in the food industry is concerned with product and process-oriented quality and quality control. which have no effect on consumers’ perceived quality will have no commercial effect. integrates the multi-attribute and the hierarchical approaches to quality perception. As already mentioned. 1995) First of all. Before we take a step further. From this model. convenience. Madsen and Baadsgaard (1995). but in recent decades consumers have shown an increasing interest in other quality dimensions as well. These quality dimension however mostly represents an experience characteristic of a food-related product. From this quality model. translated into dimension of quality and critical-to-quality of Bimoli. the consumer will develop expectations about quality – but it is only after consumption that experienced quality can be determined (and even this is limited in the case of credence characteristics). health. and has always been. which is related to. let’s take a look on Total Food Quality Model. Improvements in objective quality.

From a consumer point of view. consumption. Tuorila. quantifiable point. Health is a quality dimension that has become very important to many costumers. and high protein. The customers that chooses quality of course will choose Bimoli for their cooking oil. By using CTQ tree. physical or mental energy at one or more stages of the overall meal process: planning and shopping. In Bimoli. Even though Bimoli has high price for their product. we can invert the customers’ subjective point of view into objective.’ This quality dimension is also a credence characteristic. low fat. another factor of increasing importance to consumers is convenience. From the CTQ above. Customer form preferences based on this dimension motivated by expectations of both a longer life and one of higher quality (Roininen. It will be easier for the producer to make the product as good as the customer wants. the odor of the food. Firliani Sarah | 5 | Quality Control Engineering . Conclusions Quality is one of the important thing the company has to consider when they process their product. Last. more beautiful it is). the company should be increase their product’s quality. storage and preparation of products. and the appearance of the food (in the fried food usually. Here. The production process has become a dimension of quality. and critical-to- quality for each categories. They also elaborate more in their website and give promotional brochure and pamphlets in crowd place. This includes functional qualities of foods. Bimoli realizes that. they do not lose their customers. Zandstra. the company may get higher profit. In recent years. we can see from the nutrition facts that the FFA is much lower than other brand. into several drivers. de Graaf & Vehkalahti. race other brands. since the consumer must rely totally on guarantees about production-oriented quality from various sources. and production without the use of genetically modified organisms. convenience is much more than just ease of purchase or quick consumption. Much of customers interest in the production process focuses on ‘naturalness. Customers now do not only count the cheapest price. production that takes animal welfare into consideration. For this dimensions. A number of studies indicate that today health is as important as taste. It also has a lot of vitamins and minerals. The taste of the food after being fried or sauted. 2001). we can translate from what customers want (Voice of Customer/VOC). By this. we regard health-oriented food quality as how costumers perceive a food product will affect their health. C. Let’s see the CTQ tree from the dimensions in Figure 3. In the cooking oil. This emphasize the importance of quality in product.taste can usually only be established after consumption. It is proved by how they maintain their quality for decades. 1995). for example. Bimoli usually invites house-mom to their factory to see directly the process of cooking oil made. This quality dimension covers organic production. Convenience means the saving of time. and the cleaning up and disposal of leftovers (Gofton. but costumers are also concerned about safety and risk-related issues. Because. people think the crunchier the food. It is okay for them to pay the higher price for higher quality product. customers have attached increasing importance to the way food is produced. even when it has no immediate bearing on the taste or healthiness of the product. if they can be number one. it gives them privilege to sell the product more expensive. Hence.

there will be always a lot of customers that choose quality over price.REFERENCES Firliani Sarah | 6 | Quality Control Engineering . . Nowadays. Figure 2 Critical-to-quality Tree of Bimoli What is important to remember by producer is they do not have to be afraid to produce high quality product.

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