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# Lecture Notes for

436-351 Thermofluids 2
Unit 1: Potential Flow

## March 10, 2003

Preliminaries

Main Text
Anderson J. D. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, McGraw-Hill

Suggested Reading
Vallentine H. R. Applied hydrodynamics
Lamb Hydrodynamics
Streeter Fluid dynamics
Milne & Thomson Theoretical Aerodynamics

## Assessment (Unit 1 only)

70 % End of semester examination
20 % Assignment
10 % Prac

1
2
Contents

1 Introduction 5

## 2 Some Preliminary Concepts 7

2.1 Concept of steady and unsteady flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 Pathlines and Streamlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3 Concept of total derivative (substantial or Lagrangian derivative) . . 9
2.4 Vorticity and Angular Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

## 3 Momentum equations: Eulers equations of motion 13

3.1 Pressure Forces: Bernoullis Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

## 4 Velocity Potential and Stream function 17

4.1 Concept of a stream function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.1.1 How does behave alone a streamline . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.1.2 What is the physical meaning of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.1.3 What is the relationship between u, v and . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.2 General equation for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.3 Concept of a scalar point function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.4 Concept of velocity potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

## 5 Some Simple Solutions 31

5.1 Some simple solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.1.1 Parallel flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.1.2 Source flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.1.3 Sink flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.2 More complex flow solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.3 Singularities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.4 Source and Sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.4.1 Superimpose flow right to left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.4.2 Superimpose flow left to right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.5 Flow past a circular cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.5.1 The doublet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.5.2 Doublet with uniform flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.6 Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.7 The point vortex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.8 Flow past a circular cylinder with circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5.8.1 Pressure distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.8.2 Magnus effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5.9 Method of images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.10 Vortex pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.11 Velocity Field in terms of velocity potential function . . . . . . . . 69
5.12 Electrical analogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

3
4

## 6 The complex potential function 73

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
6.2 Velocity components from w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
6.3 Example - Stagnation point flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.4 Example: flow over a circular cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
7 Conformal Transformations 85
7.1 Conformal Transformation of velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
7.1.1 Example-Flow over a Flat Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
7.2 Flow Over An Airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Chapter 1

Introduction

We wish to predict fluid motion, that is the flow patterns and associated forces they
create (eg. lift and drag). In many cases this is a difficult task and several different
approaches may be required.

## Analytical Computational Experimental

OC MB

C B
C B
Simplify equations Model the physics that Test scale models
is not understood

Here we will consider the analytical method known as classical hydrodynamics. This
involves the study of ideal fluids, by ideal we mean incompressible and frictionless
(inviscid), ie. =constant and = 0.
For example consider flow around a cylinder,
Classical model

Drag= 0

5
6

due to influence
of viscosity

## The discrepency between the above is known as dAlemberts paradox. Engineers

initially largely ignored the classical approach. However in many fluid flows friction
is only important in regions such as boundary layers and wakes. Outside of these
regions the fluid may be considered frictionless.
A more useful application would be a streamlined body.

Classical Model

Better
agreement

Actual flow

thin wake
Chapter 2

## 2.1 Concept of steady and unsteady flow

In general the velocity field consist of three velocity components,

V = u i + v j + wk (2.1)

## V = V(x, y, z, t). (2.2)

If the velocity components are a function of space alone and are not a function of
time we have steady flow, ie V = V(x, y, z). Consider continuity

dA

Control volume V

## From last year,

Z
V cos dA =0 (steady flow)
A
Z
d
= dV (unsteady flow)
dt V

7
8

## The above is in integral form, we can also write it in differential form,

V =0 (steady flow)

= (unsteady flow)
t
Since we limit ourselves to incompressible flow (ie. =constant)

V = 0

u v w steady or unsteady
+ + = 0 .

x y z

## Note we are using the Cartesian coordinate system where

k

z
NB:

j
w
y

u
x

V = i u + j v + kw

## 2.2 Pathlines and Streamlines

In Fluid mechanics, it is important to visualise the flow field. Many fundamental
concepts of Fluid mechanics can be understood by sketching how the flow looks like.
In order to visualise the flow field, it is critical that one comprehend the concept
of streamlines and pathlines.

## A streamline is defined as a curve whose tangent at any point is in the

direction of the velocity vector at that point. It is the snapshot of the flowfield
at any instant in time. For unsteady flows the streamline pattern is different
at different times.
A pathline is the line traced out by fluid particle as it moves through the flow
field. It represent the path of a massless fluid particle moving in a flow field.

For steady flow, pathlines and streamlines coincide. They do not coincide for un-
steady flows.
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 9

Exercise 2.1: Show that for a three-dimensional (sometimes written as ) flow
field, the mathematical equation for stream line can be written as

wdy vdz = 0
udz wdx = 0 (2.3)
vdx udy = 0

u is the velocity in the x direction and v is the velocity in the y direction and w
is the velocity in the z direction. For two-dimensional (sometimes written as )
flows, only the third relatioship is important

## vdx udy = 0 (2.4)

Exercise 2.2: Find the equations for streamlines and pathlines for the flow field
given by the following expressions

(a) V = x i y j

(b) V = x i + yt j

## 2.3 Concept of total derivative (substantial or La-

grangian derivative)
Differentiation following the motion of the fluid.

y
v v v
v+ dt + dx + dy
t x y

u u u
v A0 u+ dt + dx + dy
t x y
dy

A u

x
dx
10

## Particle goes from A to A0 in time dt so acceleration in the xdirection is,

Du Change in u velocity
ax = =
Dt dt   
u u x u y
= + +
t x t y t
u u u
= +u +v
t x y
D
Note we use Dt
to denote the total derivative, ie.
D
= +u +v
Dt t x y
similarly in ydirection
Dv v v v
ay = = +u +v
Dt t x y
When we consider steady flow all derivatives of velocity with respect to time are
zero
Du u u
ax = =u +v (2.5)
Dt x y
Dv v v
ay = =u +v (2.6)
Dt x y

## 2.4 Vorticity and Angular Velocity

Consider fluid element dx
y

v
v+ dx
x
v
1

dx

x
its angular velocity is
v
v+ x
dx v
1 =
dx
v
= .
x
Similarly consider fluid element dy
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 11

y u
u+ dy
y

dy
2

x
its angular velocity is
u
uu y
dy
2 =
dy
u
= .
y
Hence
v u
= 1 + 2
x y
and the above is called vorticity or rotation and is denoted by
v u
= . (2.7)
x y
It is defined to be the sum of the angular velocities of two mutually perpendicular
fluid lines.
12
Chapter 3

## Momentum equations: Eulers

equations of motion

Forces on a particle
Consider  flow, frictionless fluid and ignore body forces (gravity).
p
p+ dy
y

dy p
p p+ dx
x
dx

## Resultant external force in the xdirection,

 
p
Fx =pdy p + dx dy
x
p
= dxdy ,
x

similarly
p
Fy = dxdy .
y
Now Newtons equation of motion says

max =Fx
may =Fy

13
14

and the mass of the element is m = dxdy. Using Eqs. (2.5) and (2.5) the following
two equations are obtained
 
u u p
dxdy u +v = dxdy
x y x
 
v v p
dxdy u +v = dxdy
x y y

u u 1 p
u +v =
x y x These are the Euler equations
v v 1 p of motion in  steady flow
u +v =
x y y (Cartesian coordinates).

## If we had considered unsteady flow u/t 6= 0 and v/t 6= 0 then

u u u 1 p
+u +v =
t x y x These are the Euler equations
v v v 1 p of motion in  unsteady flow
+u +v =
t x y y (Cartesian coordinates).

The above equations can be derived in other coordinate systems eg. streamline
curve linear co-ord.

R + R

R Instantaneous streamlines 0
z }| {
Vn Vn Vn
Vn + dt + ds + dn
t s n
Vn
n
dn
s Vs 0
z }| {
Vs Vs Vs
ds Vs + dt + ds + dn
t s n
Note: dn = ds tan(d) dsd 0
Vn Vs
, Vn = 0
s R
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 15

Vs Vs 1 p
+ Vs = These are the Euler equations
t s s of motion in  unsteady flow
2
Vn Vs 1 p (streamline curve linear coor-
+ =
t R n dinates).

## 3.1 Pressure Forces: Bernoullis Equation

In many engineering applications, it is important to calculate the pressure forces at
various points in the fluid. For inviscid flows, Bernoullis equation is usually used
to calculate pressure forces. Bernoullis equation is given by
1
p + V 2 = constant (3.1)
2
For an inviscid fluid, Eq. (3.1) is valid along a streamline.

Proof:

## Consider the steady x momentum equation in 

u u 1 p
u +v =
x y x
Multiply the above equation by dx gives
u u 1 p
u dx + v dx = dx
x y x
Using Eq. (2.4) on the second term on the LHS of the above equation gives
u u 1 p
u dx + u dy = dx
x y x
 
u u 1 p
u dx + dy = dx
x y x
1 p
udu = dx
x
1 2 1 p
du = dx (3.2)
2 x
Repeating similar steps for the y momentum equation gives
1 2 1 p
dv = dy (3.3)
2 y
Adding Eqs. (3.2) and (3.3) gives
 
1 1 p p
d u2 + v 2 =

dx + dy
2 x y
16

1 1
d V 2 = dp

2
dp = V dV (3.4)
where V 2 = u2 + v 2 . If we assume that is a constant, we can integrate the above
equation along a streamline to obtain
Z p2 Z V2
dp = V dV
p1 V1

1 1
p1 + V12 = p2 + V22 (3.5)
2 2

Exercise 3.1: The analysis above show that Bernoullis equation (Eq. (3.1)) is
valid only along a streamline. However, if the flow is inviscid and irrotational, it
can be shown that Eq. (3.1) is valid anywhere in the flow field. Prove that the
previous statement is true.
Chapter 4

function

## 4.1 Concept of a stream function

The stream function is related to the rate at which fluid volume is streaming across
and elementary arc, ds.
For Incompressible  flow.

n

ds

## From continuity we have

I I
V
| cos
{zds} = 0 or V n
ds = 0

d

where V = |V|

ie. d = V cos()ds = V n
ds

This means I
d = 0

17
18

d = dx + dy
x y

## 4.1.1 How does behave alone a streamline

y

O x

I Z B Z A Z O
d = d + d + d = 0
OBAO O B A
=(B O ) + (A B ) + (O A )

A V n

## d = V cos ds = 0 along a streamline

Hence A = B
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 19

y

O x

## A O = volume flux crossing OA

B O = volume flux crossing OA

If AB is a streamline the above fluxes must be equal. This means that the difference
in between two points = the volume flux across any line joining the two points.
Therefore a streamline is like a fence, across which flow cannot occur. Also the
volume flux across a path between two streamlines is independant of the path.

## 4.1.3 What is the relationship between u, v and

d
Have = V cos = V n

ds

## Say we move a small amount in the x-dir

Here ds = dx

x
20

then ds = dx and
Vn
= v

= v
x
Say we move a small amount in the y-dir

V
y

Here ds = dy
n

x
then ds = dy and
Vn
=u

=u
y
Alternative derivation;
B

ds
dy
u

A dx

v
Let d = flux crossing AB
d = udy vdx
|{z}
|{z} |{z}
flux in across AB flux out side flux in bottom
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 21

## because d is an exact differential

d = dx + dy .
x y
Equating coefficient of dx and dy gives

= v =u
x y

In polar coordinates

u
ur

Convention
ur = radial component
u = tangential component
Note ur and u correspond with u and v when = 0
dr

u
ds B
y
dr
u B
ur ds
A rd
r
d
r ur
rd
x A

d = flux across AB
d = ur rd u dr

but d = dr + d
r
22

## Equate coefficients of dr and d

= u
r
1
= ur
r
If we had considered compressible flow

= v = u
x 0 r 0
1
= u = ur
y 0 r 0
where 0 is some reference density arbitraily chosen at some point in the flow. For
incompressible flow /0 = 1
Exercise 4.1: For the flow defined by the stream function = V y:

## (b) Find the x and y components of velocity at any point.

(c) Find the volume flow rate per unit width flowing between the streamlines
y = 1 and y = 2.

## Exercise 4.2: An inviscid flow is bounded by a wavy wall at y = H and a plane

wall at y = 0. The stream function is


(4.1)

## (b) Is the flow rotational or irrotational ?

(c) Find the pressure distribution on the plane wall surface, given that p = 0 at
[0, 0].

Exercise 4.3: The flow around a corner can be defined with the streamfunction,
= kxy

(a) Find the value of k if you are given that the volume flow rate of a line drawn
between (0,0) and (1,1) is 2m3 /s.

## (b) Is the flow field irrotational ?

(c) Given that the pressure at (0,0) is p0 , what is the pressure distribution along
the two walls.

(d) Pretend that the streamline going through the point (2,3) is a wall. Find the
pressure distribution along this wall.
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 23

## 4.2 General equation for

It has been shown that along a streamline is constant. Therefore if we can deter-
mine the stream function we are then able to plot (or sketch) the streamlines for a
given flow.
Use Eulers equation of motion to determine a general equation for . Assum-
ing steady flow we have;
u u 1 p
u +v = (4.2)
x y x
v v 1 p
u +v = . (4.3)
x y y

## we want to eliminate pressure, so differentiating (4.2) wrt y and (4.3) wrt x

1 2p u u 2u v u 2u
= +u + +v 2 (4.4)
xy y x yx y y y
2 2
1 p u v v v v 2v
= +u 2 + +v (4.5)
yx x x x x y xy

## Subtract (4.4) from (4.5) and assume

1 2p 1 2p
= ie. p is a regular function
xy yx

      
v u v u u v v u
0=u +v + +
x x y y x y x y x y

## but from continuity  

u v
+ =0
x y
hence
   
v u v u
u +v =0
x x y y x y
 
D v u
OR =0 (4.6)
Dt x y
n o
v
The term x u
y
is the vorticity which was defined in section 2.4
Note in streamline coordinates
Vs Vs
=
R n
Therefore (4.6) says that
D
=0 (4.7)
Dt
24

This means if we follow a fluid element its vorticity () does not change. Since
this is steady flow following a fluid element travelling on a streamline. Hence
streamlines are lines of constant as well as .
Since we have u = y
, v =
x
substituting into (2.7)

2 2
= 2
x2 y

= ( ) 2 = Laplacian operator
2 2
= 2 = 2+ 2
x y

2 =
Equation (4.7) becomes

D  2
=0 Helmholtzs equation
Dt
This is effectively the Euler equation and continuity expressed in terms of the stream
function () for the case of incompressible  flow.

Exercise 4.4: Repeat the steps above and show that Helmholtzs equation is valid
for inviscid, incompressible AND unsteady flows.

## Two special cases

1. Uniform vorticity upstream

y
u = ky

Here every streamline has the same vorticity and since remains constant
along a streamline then is constant everywhere.

## 2 = = const. Poissons equation (4.8)

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 25

## 2. Zero upstream vorticity

Occurs quite a lot in practice ie

U = U1 U1

=0
Velocity profile as seen
by observer moving with wing

## Now = constant along streamlines, therefore = 0 everywhere. With = 0

everywhere we have irrotational flow.

## 2 = 0 Laplace equation (4.9)

This leads to what is know as potential flow and we can say if the flow is
irrotational ( = 0) the stream function () will satisfy the Laplace equation.
The beauty of the Laplace equation is that it is LINEAR. This means if we
have a series of simple flow solutions eg. 1 , 2 , 3 then the solution to more
complex flows can be obtained by superposition of the simple flows eg.
= 1 + 2 + 3 +
|{z} | {z }
complicated flow simple flows

## Note: the Laplace operator in polar coordinates is

1 2 2
 2
2 1
= 2 2+ + 2 +
r r r r z 2
| {z }
In the case of polar cylindrical

## Some more about vorticity

Vorticity is really a  vector

= i + j + k

=curl (V)

= V

i
j k

=

x y z
u v w
     
w v u w v u
=i +j +k
y z z x x y
26

v u
=k , || =
x y

## 4.3 Concept of a scalar point function

If we have a scalar point function, ie. = (x, y, z) then surfaces of constant will
form plates.
eg. surfaces of constant temp
surfaces of constant voltage

## Vector field whose direction

is perpendicular to
the contours

1 2 3 4
Often we can denote a vector field by
V =

=grad
where

= i +j +k .
x y z

There are many vector fields in nature that can be defined this way;
Vector field Scalar function
Current flux Voltage potential
Heat flux Temperature
Gravitational force Potential energy
The scalar function is called the potential for the vector field and if a vector field
possesses a potential it is called a conservative field.
Often in fluid flow (but not always) the velocity field is a vector point function
V(x, y, z) which possesses potential scalar function (x, y, z),

V(x, y, z) = (x, y, z) .

When this happens such a flow is called potential flow and is referred to as the
velocity potential.
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 27

## 4.4 Concept of velocity potential

The velocity potential is analogous to the stream function. The stream function is
related to the rate of flow across an small arc, ds, but the velocity potential, is
related to the rate of flow along ds.

Let d = V ds sin
Z B
then A B = V sin ds
A
d
or = V sin
ds

ds V

A n

Here ds = dx

then ds = dx and
V sin = u

=u
x

## Say we move a small amount in the y-dir

28

V
y

Here ds = dy
n

x
then ds = dy and
V sin = v

=v
y

Now V = i u + j v

=i +j
x y
V = (= grad )

## To find the governing equation for use volume flux technique.

v
v+ dy
y

u
u u+ x
dx
dy

dx

From volume flux balance (ie. what goes in must come out)
   
u v
udy 1 + vdx 1 = u + dx dy + v + dy dx
x y
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 29

u v
+ =0 continuity equation
x y
But
u 2
u= =
x x x2
and
v 2
v= = 2
y y y
2 2
+ =0
x2 y 2
2 = 0
Therefore the velocity potential function like the stream function follows the
Laplace equation (harmonic functions). Hence we can use superposition of solutions,
ie. to obtain a complex flow just add simple flows together.
30
Chapter 5

## 5.1 Some simple solutions

We will find the solution (ie. stream function ) for some simple flows.

## 5.1.1 Parallel flow

For the parallel flow with uniform velocity U shown in Figure 5.1, we have

u= and v=
y x

In this case u = U , v = 0

= 0, = U
x y

This gives two partial differential equations which can be solved by integration

=0
x
= f1 (y)

and

= U
y
= U y + f2 (x)

where f1 (y) and f2 (x) are functions of integration. These equations are compatible
only if f2 (x) = k where k is an arbitrary constant. For convenience the value of
is normally set to zero when y = 0 K = 0. Hence

31
32

## 5.1.2 Source flow

In source flow we have Q m3 s1 emerging from a point and flowing in the radial
direction ie.

u ur

C.V

Source
Strength= Q m3 s1
The volume flow rate through the control volume surface with unit depth is given
by
2r 1 ur = Q (vol. flux)
hence
Q
ur = , u = 0 By definition of a source
2r
. We have
1
= u , = ur
r r
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 33

1 Q
=0, =
r r 2r

=0
r
= f1 ()

and

1 Q
=
r 2r
Q
= + f2 (r) .
2

## These two equations are compatible only if f2 (r) = k usually k = 0 when = 0.

Q
= source in polar coordinates
2

In cartesian
Q y
= arctan
2 x

## 12 These are the streamlines

Usual to have 16 8
> >
20 =4

24 =0

-20 -4
Note the =
S/L has a discontinuity
-16 -8
-12
34

## Show that for a sink

Q
=
2

Sink
Strength= Q m3 s1

Exercise 5.1: Follow the steps outlined above and see if you can derive the stream
function for typical flows shown in Figure 5.2.

y y
y=-Uy y=Vx

x x

y
y=W(y cos a-x sin a)

## Figure 5.2: Examples of some typical stream function

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 35

## 5.2 More complex flow solutions

Source combines with uniform stream

Uniform flow, U
y

Source, Q

## For uniform flow 1 = U y

Q Q y
For source 2 = = arctan
2 2 x

Since the Laplace equation is linear we can add these solutions to get the solution
for the new flow

= 1 + 2
Q y
= U y + arctan
2 x

We want to sketch this flow, ie. plot lines of constant . To do this we first find the
stagnation points, which are points where u = v = 0. The velocity components
in the new flow are;

u=
y
Q 1 1
= U +  
2 1 + y2 x
x2
Q x
= U + (A)
2 (x + y 2 )
2
36

and

v =
x  
Q 1 y
=  
2 1 + y 2
x2
x2
Q y
= (B)
2 (x2 + y 2 )
Lets assume the stagnation point(s) occurs at x0 , y0 .
From (B)
Q y
0=
2 (x + y 2 )
2

## y0 = 0 ie. stagnation point occurs on the x-axis

and from (A)
Q x
U =
2 (x2 + y 2 )
Q
x0 =
2U
Q
So there exists one stagnation point at ( 2U
, 0).
Streamlines that pass through the stagnation points are called sepratrix stream-
lines. The value of on the sepratrix must be constant = |x0 ,y0 and in this case
|x0 ,y0 = 0. Lets plot this streamline
Q y
= 0 = U y + arctan
2 x
The solution has two branches
y=0
 
2U y
and x = y cot
Q

Q
Q 4U
2U Separtrix streamline x

stagnation point
Q
x=
2U
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 37

Locate x intercepts
y
x =lim
y0  
2yU
tan Q

## Use LHopitals rule

1
x =lim
y0  
2U
sec 2 2yU
Q Q
Q
x= ie. the stagnation point, as expected
2U

Locate y intercepts (x = 0)

Q
U y + =0
2 2
Q
y=
4U

## Also for x , y 2UQ .

We can now sketch the overall flow pattern

To aid sketching;
Find stagnation points and note at a stagnation point 2 streamlines come in
and two streamlines come out
sketch sepratrix streamline
consider flow close to origin (ie. source dominates) and in far field (ie. uniform
flow dominates)
streamlines cannot cross each other
adjacent streamlines must flow in the same direction.
38

Now any streamline can be replaced by a solid boundary, eg. we can replace the
= 0 streamline with a solid boundary. Hence we have solved the flow field about
a body whose shape is  
2U y
x = y cot
Q
and such a shape is called a Half-Rankine body (or semi-infinite body) ie.

Exercise 5.2: Repeat the derivation outlined in Section 5.2 with the free stream
velocity going from left to right. Assume that Q/(2U ) = 1. In addition, plot
the pressure coefficient, Cp , along the centerline of the body. The solution to this
exercise is shown in Figure 5.3.

5.3 Singularities
There are in general two types of singularities
1. Irregular singularity eg. Source/Sink, Vortex u = v =
2. Regular singularity (or saddle), u = v = 0 stagnation point
Irregular singularity

## This is called an irregular singularity

and we cannot Taylor Series expand about this point.
Also a discontinuity exists

Regular singularity
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 39

5
4
3
2
1 /2
Y
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-5 0 5 10
X
5

3
y

0
-5 0 5 10
x
1.0

0.5
Cp

0.0

-0.5

-1.0
-5 0 5 10
x

## This is a regular sigularity and we can

Taylor Series expand about this point
Also all functions are continuous as we
go through this point. This point is also
known as a saddle.

## This is what we see if we approach

the singularity, ie. rectangular hyperbolae.
Note; 90o only if vorticity is zero.
40

Note: Sources and sinks are called irregular singularities since they cannot occur
in practice (ie. u = v = ). However they can be used to approximate certain
practical situations.
Example
Fan
approximated by sink Q2

Fume bed
approximated by source Q1
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 41

## 5.4 Source and Sink

y

Sink Q Source Q

y
P

A x
B
s s

Have

Q
A = A
2
Q
B = B
2

hence

=A + B
Q
= (A B )
2
Q
=
2

Plot the streamlines, ie. lines of = constant = constant. It can be show that
the locus of = constant corresponds to circles all intersecting the xaxis at s
and +s.
42

eg.

2s

Exercise 5.3: Show that lines of = const. (ie. = const.) gives the family of
equations  
2
 s 2 2 1
x + y =s 1+ 2
a a
where a = tan = tan (2/Q)

q
1

s 1+ a

0, as


Source
Sink
s s

## Hence the streamline pattern is;

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 43

## 5.4.1 Superimpose flow right to left

Now let us add a flow from right to left, then the new flow stream function is

Q
= U y + (A B ) .
2
Know,

tan A tan B
tan(A B ) =
1 + tan A tan B
( y y
)

A B = arctan xs yx+s 2
1 + x2 s2

## therefore the stream function in cartesian coordinates is

( y y
)
Q
= U y + arctan xs yx+s2 .
2 1+ 2 2 x s

It can be shown that the stagnation points lie on the = 0 streamline and this
is called the separatrix streamline, lets sketch it. The solution for = 0 has two
branches;

y=0
 
2 2 2 2U y
and x + y s = 2ys cot
Q

x2 y 2
   
2y U s y
ie. + 2 1= cot 2 = 0 Oval shape (5.1)
s2 s s Q s
44
n   o
x2 y2 2y y
s2
+ s2
1= s
cot 2 UQ
s
s

Like before the = 0 streamline can be replaced by a solid body. Hence we have
infact solved the problem of flow past a body whose shape is given by equation (5.1).

## Full Rankine body

This is called a full Rankine body. The shape of the body depends on the non-
dimensional parameter UQ s
while the scale (size) depends on the length scale s.

Exercise p
5.4: Show that the stagnation points for the full Rankine body occur
at x = s Q/(U s) + 1.

## 5.4.2 Superimpose flow left to right

The flow pattern changes dramatically if the free stream flow is in the opposite
direction. Consider the case when the flow is from left to right
( y y
)
Q xs
x+s
= U y + arctan y2
.
2 1+ x2 s2
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 45

## u=0 and v=0

=0 and =0
y x

It turns out (exercise show this) that the location of the stagnation points depends
on the strength of the parameter UQ s
, there are three cases;

U s
p
1. Q
> 1/, then the stagnation points are on the xaxis at x = s 1 Q/(U s).

Q
=
2

Q
=0
U
46

U s
2. Q
= 1/, then the stagnation points are at the origin (repeated root) this
is a degenerate case (unstable saddle)

## Structurally unstable saddle

(note 3 S/L in, 3 S/L out)

U s
p
3. Q
< 1/, then the stagnation points are on the yaxis at y = s Q/(U s) 1.

## Note as the parameter UQs

is varied the saddles (stagnation points) move, merge
and split. When this happens it is called a bifurcation.
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 47

## 5.5 Flow past a circular cylinder

This is a special case of the Rankine body where the spacing between the source
and sink goes to zero.

## 5.5.1 The doublet

When a source and sink of equal strength are superimposed upon one and other we
get a doublet. First consider source/sink pair spaced 2s apart;
y
P

r
Sink Q B x
B A
A
s Source Q
s

then let the source and the sink move together (ie. s 0), such that the product
Qs remains constant (K). Then as s 0

AM 2s sin
= =
r r
We know (from last lecture)
Q
=
2
Q 2s sin
=
2 r
Hence
Qs sin K sin
= = Doublet .
r r
Note as s 0, Q so that Qs = K remains a constant. In Cartesian coordinates
y
sin = 1
(x2 + y 2 ) 2
1
r = (x2 + y 2 ) 2
48

Ky
=
(x2 + y 2 )

Streamlines are a family of circles, whose centres lie on the yaxis and which pass
through the origin.

## 5.5.2 Doublet with uniform flow

Now we are going to add parallel flow from right to left to the doublet. Hence the
stream function for this flow is

Ky
= U y +
(x2 + y 2 )

## Find stagnation points ie. u = 0 and v = 0; exercise show stagnation points at

r
K
x= , y=0.
U

Consider the sepratrix streamline, it passes through the stagnation point and cor-
responds to the = 0 streamline. The solution for = 0 has two branches

y=0
r
K K
and x2 + y 2 = = a2 equation to a circle with radius a =
U U
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 49

x 2 + y 2 = a2

q q
K K
U U

Again we can replace the = 0 streamline with a solid body and hence we have
solved for the flow past a circular cylinder.

Exercise 5.5: Find an expression for the velocity on the surface of the cylinder
( = 0 streamline). Use this expression to find the pressure distribution and hence
the lift and drag forces on the cylinder.

Exercise 5.6:
Two half cylinders of outer radius a are joined together in a uniform potential
flow, as shown in figure 5.4. A hole is to be drilled at an angle such that there
will be no nett force between the half cylinders at the joints. Determine the angle
assuming the internal pressure Pint to be equal to the static pressure on the
external surface of the cylinder at the point where the hold is drilled.

Hint: Remember from potential flow theory that the predicted pressure on the
surface of a cylinder is given by
1 2 2
P = P + U 2U sin2 (5.1)
2

Exercise 5.7: Integrate Eq. (5.1) and show that the lift and drag on a circular
cylinder as predicted by potential flow theory is zero.

5.6 Circulation
We wish to solve flow about bodies that produce lift. This can be achieved by
introducing circulation around the body. Circulation is the line integral of velocity
around a closed loop. Suppose we are in a flow field where the velocity at one of the
points is V .
50

Joint
t

Pint

Joint

## Figure 5.4: Half-cylinder configuration described in Exercise 5.6

ds V

A n

Line integral of velocity from A to B is equal to the component of velocity along the
line from A to B, and we will denote this integral by LAB ie

Z B
LAB = V sin ds .
A

## This expression is analogous do work done if we replaced V with force F

Z B
work done = F sin ds .
A

## When the curve is closed it gives the circulation

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 51

ds line of integration

I
= V sin ds

The above expression can also be expressed in terms of the velocity components u
and v ie. I I
= V sin ds = (udx + vdy)

Proof:
B

y
s

ds V
x

A n

## udx + vdy = V cos ds cos + V sin ds sin

| {z } | {z } | {z } | {z }
u dx v dy

## =V ds(cos cos + sin sin )

=V ds(cos( ))
=V ds sin
Actually circulation is closely related to vorticity, infact
Z
= dA
A

## That is circulation is the area integral of vorticity. Consider an infinitesimal fluid

element and evaluate the line integral around this element.
52

y
u
u+ dy
y

dy
v
v v+ dx
x

u
x

dx
   
v u
d =udx + v + dx dy + u + dy (dx) + v(dy)
x y
 
v u
d = dxdy
x y
d = dxdy circulation = vorticity area
Hence we can say vorticity = circulation around an element per unit area.
What is the area integral of vorticity over a finite area ?

yu
v1 v2

Finite area

dA

yl

x
x1 (y) x2 (y)
Integrate over the area,
ZZ  
v u
dxdy
A x y
ZZ   ZZ  
v u
= dxdy dxdy .
A x A y
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 53

## Consider first term,

ZZ   Z yu Z x2 
v v
dxdy = dx dy
A x x
Zylyu x1

= (v2 v1 )dy
Zylyu Z yl
= v2 dy + v1 dy
Iyl yu

= vdy .

## Similarly it can be shown that,

ZZ   I
u
dxdy = udx
A y

hence ZZ   I
v u
dxdy = (udx + vdy)
A x y
This expression implies the area integral of vorticity = line integral of velocity on a
closed circuit around the area.

## 5.7 The point vortex

We wish to introduce circulation into potential flow problems but this requires we
introduce vorticity since Z
= dA .
A

However we want a irrotational flow field so put all the vorticity at a single point
called a point vortex (this will be a singularity in the flow field). For a point vortex
A 0 while such that remains finite, ie. vorticity is concentrated at a
point.
H
V sin ds =

Point vortex ()

H
V sin ds = 0
54

Derivation of the stream function for a point vortex with circulation (or strength)
.
u
Point vortex ur = 0

I
= V sin ds

Z 2
= u rd
0
=2ru

## In polar coordinates we have

1
= u and = ur
r r

1
=0
r
= f1 (r)

and

=
r 2r

= ln(r) + f2 ()
2
Above are compatible if f2 () = const, choose the constant such that = 0 at r = b
where b is some arbitrary value

r
= ln stream function for a potential vortex
2 b
Check whether the point vortex satisfies the Laplace equation ie.

2 = 0
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 55

In polar coordinates
2 1 2 1 2
= 2 2 + + 2
r r r r
For the point vortex we have

2 2
= , 2
= and =0
r 2r r 2r2 2
Hence,
 
12
= +
r 2r 2r2
=0
56

## 5.8 Flow past a circular cylinder with circulation

It has been shown that flow around a cylinder can be generated from a doublet in
a uniform flow

K y = U y
=
x + y2
2

K y
1 = U y +
x + y2
2
 
K 1
= U sin r
U r

r
K
a=
U

## Because the flow pattern is symmetrical there is no lift generated.

In order to obtain lift we have to add circulation to the flow, this can be achieved
by introduction of a point vortex. To achieve positive lift for the above configuration
we require positive circulation (ie. anti-clockwise). The stream function for a vortex
placed at the origin is
 r 
2 = ln .
2 b
Hence the combined flow is

=1 + 2
a2
 
r
= U sin r ln
r 2 b
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 57

a2
 
1 1
ur = = U cos r
r r r
2
 
a
= U cos 1 2 (5.1)
r

a2
 
1
u = = U sin 1 + 2 + (5.2)
r r 2 r
Now we want to find the stagnation points ie. ur = u = 0. From (5.1)

a2
 
U cos 1 2 = 0
r

solutions are r = a or =
2
Check if u = 0 has solutions for r = a, from (5.2);

a2
 

U sin 1 + 2 + =0
a 2a

sin = solutions exist for <1
4U a 4U a

This means when the non-dimensional parameter 4U a < 1 there exists two stagna-
tion points located on the surface of the cylinder (r = a) and at 0 = sin1 ( 4U
a
),
ie.

y

For <1
4U a

x
0
58

For 4U a
= 1 these two stagnation points merge and are both located at
 
1 4U a
= sin = , r=a
4U a 2

y

For =1
4U a

## Now check if v 0 = 0 has solutions for = 2 , from (5.2);

a2
 

U 1+ 2 + =0
r 2r

r2 + r + a2 = 0 2 real solutions exist for >1
2U 4U a

This means when the non-dimensional parameter 4U a > 1 there exists two stag-
nation points located on the yaxis (one at |r| < a and one at |r| > a) ie.

y

For >1
4U a

r = a, = 0
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 59

Note for all of the above cases the shape of the = 0 streamline is preserved as
a circle of radius= a. If we looked at the streamlines inside the circle we would see;

<1 =1 >1
4U a 4U a 4U a

## 5.8.1 Pressure distribution

In order to determine the lift generated we need to know the pressure distribution
around the cylinder. Let pp be the static pressure at some point P1 (a, ) and q be
the resultant velocity (q = u2r + u2 ).

p = patm
q = v0 U
P1
a
x

## Applying Bernoulli along the streamline = 0 (ie. r = a) also note q = u on the

surface.
1 0 1 2
p + v 2 = p + U = pt = total pressure
2 2
1 0
p = pt v 2
2
60

## Now we know the velocity distribution on the surface is;

u = 2U sin +
2a

 2
1
p =pt 2U sin +
2 2a
2
 
1 2 2 2U sin
=pt 4U sin + + 2 2
2 a 4 a

## Lift = normal force perpendicular to the free stream direction

Z 2
L= pad 1 sin (lift per unit length)
0
Z 2 
2U sin2 2
 
1 2 3
= pt a sin + a 4U sin + + 2 2 sin d
0 2 a 4 a
Z 2 
2
 
1 2 U
= pt a sin + a U (3 sin sin 3) + (1 cos 2) + 2 2 sin d
0 2 a 4 a
 
1 U
= a 2
2 a
L =U

total lift = U l

## 5.8.2 Magnus effect

The cylinder with circulation flow can be approximately achieved by spinning a
cylinder in cross flow. The lift that results is called the Magnus effect.
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 61

## Vorticity is contained in the

boundary layers
bound vortex

Wake
L U
D 6= 0

Exercise 5.8:
A cyinder of diameter 2.5 cm rotate as indicated at 3600 rpm in standard air which
is flowing over the cylinder at 30 ms1 . Estimate the lift per unit length of the
cylinder.

L
FreeStream

AngularVelocity

## 5.9 Method of images

Often we want to study flow patterns in the vicinity of a solid plane boundary. To
get the correct flow requires that the boundary corresponds to a streamline. This
can be achieved by treating the boundary as a mirror and placing images of the flow
structures behind the mirror.
For example say we have a sink located near a plane wall;
62

## Wall, which must correspond to a S/L

This would happen if it was a line of symmetry
acts as a mirror

A a a A0

## For the above the stream function would be

=A + A0
Q Q
= A A0
2  2    
Q y y
= arctan + arctan
2 x+a xa

which gives;
We get the required S/L which represent5s the wall

## Another example is a source between parallel planes, in this case we get an

infinite series of images (ie. like looking into a mirror when there is another mirror
behind you)
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 63

a a a a

 
X Q
= i
i=1
2
64

## 5.10 Vortex pair

Imagine we have a vortex pair held fixed in space with a uniform flow superimposed.
We can analysis the flow pattern by finding the stagnation points and sketching the
flow.

2l

= ln rA + ln rB U y
2  2
rA
= ln U y
2 rB
1
!
(x2 + (y l)2 ) 2
= ln 1 U y
2 (x2 + (y + l)2 ) 2
 2
x + (y l)2


= ln U y
4 x2 + (y + l)2

u= = 0

y

for stagnation points

v= = 0

x

It turns out that we get different flow patterns depending on the strength of the
non-dimensional parameter lU
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 65

<1
lU
2l

## Using dimensional analysis it can be shown that

 
s
=f
l lU

=1 6 way saddle - degenerate
lU
(unstable)
Bifurcation
66

Kelvin Oval

>1
lU

To find the shape of the Kelvin Oval consider = 0 streamline, show this gives
" #1
(y l)2 exp 4U y (y + l)2 2

x=
1 exp 4U y


In real physical situations we cannot have vortex pairs fixed in space hence the
pattern is unsteady. This is because the vortices induce each other along with a
velocity.

u =
2(2l)
l

l

u =
2(2l)

## Therefore each vortex moves with a velocity

u=
2(2l)
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 67

In order to achieve steady flow we must analyse the pattern in a frame of reference
moving with the vortex pair, this implies we see a uniform flow of

U= right to left
4l

## The strength of the non-dimensional parameter

=4
U l

and hence the shape of the Kelvin Oval is fixed and the streamline pattern looks
like

l 3 l 3 x
2l 4.174l

## For a stationary observer the pattern is unsteady. However the instantaneous

streamline pattern looks like
68

## A smoke ring is an axisymetric version of this. As before we can have a range

of flow patterns. However the maths is more complicated, owing to the vorticity
being distributed over a finite area the vortex core. The velocity of propagation
depends on the size of the vortex core 

 
4D 1
V = ln
D  4

Vortex core

V K


436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 69

## 5.11 Velocity Field in terms of velocity potential

function
Point vortex
Have,

ur = 0 =
r
1
u = =
2r r
integrating gives

= +c
2
Sketching lines of constant and gives
3
4
2
3

5 2
1 1

6 8
7

The stream function and the velocity potential are orthogonal to each other.
Conjugate harmonic functions.

Source
Q
As an exercise show that the velocity potential for a source is given by = ln r
2
3
4
2
3
5 2
1 1
and lines of constant and look like

6 8
7
70

The table below shows the velocity potential and stream function of some simple
cases.

## Flow Velocity potential, Streamfunction,

Uniform flow U y U x

Q
p Q Q Q
Source 2
ln x2 + y 2 = 2
ln(r) 2
arctan(y/x) = 2

p
Potential vortex 2
arctan(y/x) = 2
2 ln x2 + y 2 = 2 ln(r)
(anticlockwise circulation)

K x K cos K y K sin
Doublet x2 +y 2
= r x2 +y 2
= r
(anticlocwise top, clockwise bottom)

## 5.12 Electrical analogy

The flow of electrical current in a two dimensional conductor is analogous to irrota-
tional flow and follows the Laplace equation

2V 2V
2 V = + =0
x2 y 2

where V is the electrical potential and is the counterpart of the velocity potential
. Therefore we can use the electrical analogy to obtain the flow pattern through a
conduit.

Flow

Method

## 1. Cut a piece of conducting material into the shape of the conduit.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 71

## Line of constant potential

= const.
Insulator
Conducting Conducting
strip strip
Conducting material

Probe

V
Voltage source

Voltage divider

2. Establish a voltage drop along the conductor between the flow entrance and
exit boundaries.
3. Use a potentiometer or voltmeter probe to locate line of constant potential.
To locate the lines of constant we swap the conducting strips with the insulators
and repeat the above.

conducting strip

Insulator

Line of constant
72
Chapter 6

## The complex potential function

6.1 Introduction
In order to extend the range of patterns we can analyse it is useful to define the
complex potential function
w = + i
 OC
 C
 C
Potential Stream
function function

Applies only to flows which have both a stream function 2 dimensional and
a velocity potential function irrotational.
z is the complex variable

z =x + iy
=rei ,

it can be interpreted as a position vector. The complex potential function can then
be expressed as a function of the complex variable z, ie put
w = f (z)
where f is an analytic function ( finite number of singularities).
We need to prove an analytic function given by w = f (z) = + i gives the
solution to 2 dimensional irrotational flow (for example is w = cz 2 a valid solution
?)
Consider
w = A + iB = f (z)
where z = x + iy. Differentiate with respect to x
w dw z dw
= =
x dz x dz
differentiate with respect to y
w dw z dw
= =i .
y dz y dz

73
74

Hence
dw w 1 w
= = (6.1)
dz x i y
Also
w A B
= +i and
x x x
w A B
= +i
y y y
Hence from (6.1)
 
A B 1 A B
+i = +i
x x i y y
A B B A
+i = i
x x y y
Equating real and imaginary parts

A B
=
x y

Cauchy-Riemann equations
B A
=

x y
Hence,
2A 2B 2A 2 B
= and =
x2 xy y 2 xy
therefore
2A 2A
2 A = + =0.
x2 y 2
Similarly show
2 B = 0 .
Hence we can choose A = and B = and
w = + i
Example: complex potential function for a point vortex
From earlier lectures we have derived that

= ln(r)
2

=
2

w= i ln(r)
2 2

= ( i ln(r))
2
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 75

## Complex potential function Flow pattern

w = U z Uniform Flow

Q
w= 2
ln(z) Source

i
w = 2 ln(z) Potential vortex (anticlockwise circulation)

K
w= z
= z
Doublet
 
a2
w = U z + z
Flow past a cylinder of radius a
 
a2 i
w = U z + z
2
ln(z) Flow past a cylinder of radius a with circulation

## Table 6.1: Examples of complex potential functions.

Now

ln(z) = ln(rei )
= ln(r) + i
i ln(z) = i ln(r)

Hence
i
w= ln(z) complex potential for point vortex
2

Exercise 6.1:
Follow the steps outlined in the above example and show that some complex po-
tential functions of some of the flows you have seen before are as given in the Table
6.1.

## 6.2 Velocity components from w

From earlier lectures

= =u
x y

= =v
y x
76

Now

dw w x
=
dz  x z 

= +i 1
x x

= +i
x x
dw
=u iv
dz

dw
=0 for z
dz

## 6.3 Example - Stagnation point flow

w =cz 2
=c(x + iy)2
w =c(x2 y 2 ) + i2cxy

## But w = + i, equating real and imaginary parts

)
= c(x2 y 2 )
both satisfy Laplace equation
= 2cxy

Velocity

dw
=u iv
dz
=2cz note stagnation point at z = 0
=2c(x + iy)

## equate real and imaginary parts

u =2cx
v =2cy
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 77

y
=2cxy


=c(x y )


2 2

x


## NB: lines of constant and intersect at right angles.

Exercise 6.2:
A very long processing vat in a factor is giving off poisonous fumes at a rate of
Qf cubic units per unit length of vat. This vat is located at x = 0 and y = 0. At
a height h directly above the vat, a long exhaust duct with uniform distributed
openings along its length exist. This duct is sucking Q cubic units/unit length. The
source of fumes from the vat can be regarded as a point source in two-dimensional
flow and the exhaust duct can be regarded as a point sink.

(a) Write down the complex potential function for this problem. Remember that
you HAVE TO use a sink image and a source image (the method of images)
in order to correctly model the problem.

(b) From your answer in part (a), derive expressions for the u and v components
of the velocity field.

## 6.4 Example: flow over a circular cylinder

From previous lectures, it was shown that the combination of a doublet with uniform
flow gives a flow pattern that is similar to that of a uniform flow past a circular
cylinder (see Fig. (6.1)). In this example, the flow over a circular cylinder will be
analyse using the complex potential function w introduced in the previous lecture.
For this flow, the complex potential function is given by the sum of the complex
78

## w= wuniform flow + wdoublet

= U z+
  z

U
= U z +
z

Hence
a2
 
w=U z+ (6.2)
z
where r

a=
U
is there radius of the cylinder. Note that for large values of z,

## limz w = U z = wuniform flow .

This mean that the flow pattern is approaches uniform flow at large distances from
the origin. The stream function and velocity potential for this flow in cartesian
coordinates can be obtained by substituting z = x + iy into Eq. (6.2), so

a2
 
w =U x + iy +
x + iy
a2 (x iy)
 
=U x + iy + 2
x + y2

## separate real and imaginary parts to get

a2 a2
   
w =U x 1 + 2 +iU y 1 2
x + y2 x + y2
= +i

Equating the real and imaginary parts to the the velocity potential and stream
function for a flow past a cylinder going from left to right.

a2
 
= U x 1 + 2
x + y2

a2
 
= U y 1 2
x + y2
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 79

0
y

5
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x

Figure 6.1: Flow over a circular cylinder obtained from the complex potential func-
tion w = z + a2 /z

## To obtain the velocity field, calculate dw/dz. From Eq. (6.2),

a2
 
dw
= U 1 2
dz z
a2
 
= U 1
(x + iy)2
a2
 
= U 1 2
(x y 2 + i2xy)

Exercise 6.3:
Show that the above expression simplifies to

a2 (x2 y 2 ) 2U a2 xy
   
dw
=U 1 +i
dz (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2
=u +i(v)

Hence
a2 (x2 y 2 )
 
u = U 1
(x2 + y 2 )2
and
2U a2 xy
 
v=
(x2 + y 2 )2
80

## Figure 6.2: Cartesian and polar coordinate system

Sometimes, it is more convenient to work in polar coordnates (see Fig. 6.2). Let
z = rei . Substitute this into Eq. (6.2) to obtain

a2 i
 
i
w =U re + e
r
a2
 
=U r(cos( + i sin ) + (cos i sin )
r

## Grouping real and imaginary parts will give

a2 a2
    
w= r+ cos + i r sin
r r

Hence, the velocity potential and the stream function are given by

a2
 
= r+ cos
r

a2
 
= r sin
r
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 81

## To obtain the velocity field,

a2
 
dw
= U 1
dz z2
a2 i2
 
= U 1 e (use z = rei )
r2
a2
 
= U 1 (cos(2) i sin(2))
r2
= u iv
Equating real and imaginary parts will give
a2
 
u = U 1 2 cos(2) (6.3)
r
 2 
a
v = U sin(2) (6.4)
r2
Note that u and v are the Cartesian velocity components and NOT the radial and
tangential velocity components.
Exercise 6.4:
Prove that
a2 a2 (x2 y 2 )
   
u = U 1 2 cos(2) = U 1
r (x2 + y 2 )2
and
a2 2U a2 xy
   
v = U sin(2) =
r2 (x2 + y 2 )2
From Eqs. (6.3) and (6.4) the speed, V , of the fluid at any point is given by
V 2 = u2 + v 2
2 2
a2
  2
2 2 a
= U 1 2 cos(2) + U sin(2)
r r2
a2 a4
 
2 2 2 2
= U 1 2 2 cos (2) + 4 (cos (2) + sin (2))
r r
2
a4
 
2 a
= U 1 2 2 cos(2) + 4
r r
2
a4
 
2 a
= U 1 2 2 cos(2) + 4
r r

## On the surface of the cylinder, r = a, so

V 2 = U
2
(2 2 cos(2))
2
= 2U (1 cos(2))
2
= 2U (1 cos(2))
2
= 4U sin2 () (remember that cos(2) = cos2 sin2 )
82

3.5

2 2.5

2
V

1.5

0.5

0
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
(degrees)

## Figure 6.3: V 2 distribution of flow over a circular cylinder

V 2 distribution on the surface of the cylinder is shown in Fig. 6.3. The velocity of
the fluid is zero at = 0o and = 180o . Maximum velocity occur on the sides of
the cylinder at = 90o and = 90o .
Pressure distribution on the surface of the cylinder can be found by using Be-
noullis equation. Thus, if the flow is steady, and the pressure at a great distance is
p ,

1 2 1
p + U = pcylinder + V 2
2 2
1 2
= pcylinder + 4U sin2 ()
2
therefore
1 2
pcylinder = p + U (1 4 sin2 )
2
and
pcylinder p
Cp = 1
 = 1 4 sin2
U 2
2

## A plot of Cp vs is shown in Fig. 6.4. The value of Cp is 1 at the front stagnation

point ( = 0). As the side of the cylinder, = /2 and the value of Cp drops to -3.
Cp then increases to 1 at the rear stagnation point of the cylinder ( = ).

Exercise 6.5:
Determine the points on the cylinder where pcylinder = p
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 83

0.5

0.5
Cp

1.5

2.5

3
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
(degrees)

## Figure 6.4: Cp distribution of flow over a circular cylinder

Exercise 6.6:

Show, from first principles, that the radial and tangential velocity compo-
nents of the flow is related to the complex potential function, w by

dw
ei = ur iu (6.5)
dz
The complex potential function, w, of the flow over a circular cylinder can
be expressed a combination of free stream velocity U and doublet with
strength, .

w = U z + (6.6)
z
Differentiate Eq. (6.6) and use Eq. (6.5) to find the expression for ur
and u on the surface of the cylinder expressed in cylindrical coordinates.
Find the pressure coefficient, Cp , on the surface of the cylinder.
84

Exercise 6.7:
A mathematical model of the flow in a factory with an exhaust duct (of strength
Q) and a fume bed (of strength Qf ) with cross flow (U ) is given by the complex
potential function
Qf Q
w = U z + ln z [ln(z ih) + ln(z + ih)] (6.7)
2
where h is the distance between the exahust duct and the fume bed.

(a) Use the Root Locus analysis (c.f. refer to your Control Theory lecture notes)
to locate the stagnation points in the flow field.

(b) Indicate how the location of the stagnation point changes for different values
of Qf /Q and Q/U .

(c) Sketch the flow pattern for various values of Qf /Q and Q/U .
Chapter 7

Conformal Transformations

A large amount of airfoil theory has been developed by distorting flow around a
cylinder to flow around an airfoil. The essential feature of the distortion is that the
potential flow being distorted ends up also as potential flow.
The most common Conformal transformation is the Jowkowski transformation
which is given by
c2
f (z) = z +
z
To see how this transformation changes flow pattern in the z (or x y) plane,
substitute z = x + iy into the expression above to get

c2
= + i = z +
z
c2
= x + iy +
x + iy
(x + iy)(x iy) c2 (x iy)
= (x + iy) +
(x + iy)(x iy) (x + iy)(x iy)
(x + iy)(x2 + y 2 ) + c2 (x iy)
=
(x2 + y 2 )
c2 c2
   
=x 1+ 2 + iy 1 2
x + y2 x + y2

## This means that

c2
 
=x 1+ 2
x + y2
and
c2
 
=y 1 2
x + y2
For a circle of radius r in the z plane, x and y are related by

x2 + y 2 = r 2 ,
hence,

85
86

iy i -plane
z-plane

-r r a b
x

Jowkowski

Transformation

## Figure 7.1: Jowkowski Transformation, f (z) = z + c2 /z, applied to a circle on the

z-plane of radius r. In this figure, a = (r + c2 /r) and b = (r c2 /r).

c2
 
=x 1+ 2
r
and
c2
 
=y 1 2
r
So in the z plane,
 x 2  y 2
+ = 1,
r r
and in the plane
2 2
 +
c2 2 c2 2
 =1
r+ r
r r

The circle of radius r in the z-plane is seen to transform into an ellipse with semi-
axes a = (r + c2 /r) and b = (r c2 /r) in the -plane (see Fig. (7.1)), provided
c < r. In the special case where r = c, a = 2c and b = 0. This means that if the
circle in the z-plane that we wish to transform has a radius c, it will be transformed
to an infinitely thin plate of length 4r in the -plane.
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 87

y2 1

5
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
2

1
y2

5
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x
2

1
y2

5
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x2

Figure 7.2: Flow over an ellipse obtained by applying the Jowkowski transformation
on flow over a circular cylinder. The top figure was calculated with c=0.8, middle
figure with c = 0.9 and the bottom figure with c = 1.0.
88

z1 0
y

plane 1

5
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x

5
z2 =-iz 1
4

z2 0

plane 1

5
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

2
5
a
z3 =z 2 + z
4 2
3

z3 0

plane 1

5
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Figure 7.3: Figure showing the various conformal transformation used to obtain the
flow over a flat plate.
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 89

z2 = iz1 (7.1)

## rotates a flow 90o in the clockwise direction.

The result above could be used to analyse the flow over a flat plate. If the flow
in the z1 plane is rotated by 90o by the transformation z2 = iz1 , the flow in the
z2 -plane will still be a flow over a circular cylinder but with the main flow direction
going from top to bottom (see Fig. 7.3). If the z3 = z2 + a2 /z2 is now applied to
the flow in the z2 -plane, the flow pattern perpendicular to the flat plate is observed.
The successive transformation leading the flow over a flat plate is
a2
w = z1 +
z1
z2 = iz1

a2
z3 = z2 +
z2

## 7.1 Conformal Transformation of velocities

In the z-plane, the components of velocity, u and v, are given by the expression
dw
= u iv. (7.1)
dz
In the -plane, the components of velocity, u and v, are given by
dw
= u i
v. (7.2)
d
Using Eq. (7.1), Eq. (7.2) can be rewritten as

dw
u i
v= (7.3)
d
dw dz
= (7.4)
dz d
 
dz
= (u iv) (7.5)
d

## In general, dz/d is a complex quantity. We will just let

dz
= A + iB. (7.6)
d
From Eq. (7.5), we can determine the velocity in the -plane knowing the velocity
in the z-plane. To determine that, we substitute Eq. (7.6) into Eq. (7.5) to obtain

u i
v = (u iv) (A + iB) . (7.7)
90

## Take the complex conjugate of Eq. (7.7) we get

v = (u + iv) (A iB) .
u + i (7.8)
Multiplying Eqs. (7.7) and (7.8) gives

u2 + v2 = u2 + v 2 A2 + B 2 .
 
(7.9)
Hence

dz
q = q (7.10)
d
where

q =u2 + v2 , (7.11)

q = u2 + v 2 (7.12)
and
dz

= A2 + B 2 (7.13)
d
Equation (7.10) shows that the velocity in the -plane can be obtained from the fluid
velocity in the z-plane by multiplying the fluid velocity in the z-plane by |dz/d|.

## 7.1.1 Example-Flow over a Flat Plate

From the previous lecture, it has been found that the flow over a flat plate can be
obtained from the following sequence of transformation
z2 = iz1 = iz (7.14)

a2
= z3 = z2 + (7.15)
z2
From Eqs. (7.14) and (7.15), we obtain

d a2
= i i 2
dz z
a2
= i(1 + 2 )
2
z
d a
= 1 +
dz z2
2

a
= 1 + 2 i2
r e
2

a i2

= 1 + 2 e
r
a2

= 1 + 2 (cos(2) i sin(2))

r
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 91

## on the surface of the cylinder, r = a

d
= |1 + cos(2) i sin(2)|
dz
q
= [1 + cos(2)]2 + sin2 (2)
p
= 4 cos2 ()
= 2 cos()
Hence,

dz
= 1
d d
dz
1
=
2 cos()

Using Eq. (7.10) and remembering from the previous lecture that the velocity on
the surface of the cylinder is V = 2U sin(), we get

dz
q = q
d
1
= 2U sin()
2 cos()
= U tan()
We now need to express tan() in terms of the variables in the -plane, and .
From Eqs. (7.14) and (7.15), we obtain

a2
= iz +
iz
ia2
= iz +
z
ia2
= irei + i
re
ia2 i
= irei + e
r

## On the surface of the cylinder r = a, so

= iaei + iaei
= ia(ei ei )
= ia(cos() i sin() cos() i sin())
= ia(2i sin())
+ i = 2a sin()
92

## Equating real and imaginary parts gives

= 2a sin() (7.16)
Using Pythagoras theorem gives

tan() = p (7.17)
4a2 2
We know previously that

q = U tan()

= U p
4a 2
2

## To obtain the pressure distribution on the plate, use Bernoullis theorem

1 1 2
p + U 2 = pplate +
q
2 2
1 2 2
= pplate + U
2 4a2 2

Hence,

2
 
pplate p
Cp = 1 = 1 2
2
U 2 4a 2

Exercise 7.2:
Show that pplate = p at = 2a

Exercise 7.3: The complex potential function for flow past a circular cylinder
(with flow downwards i.e. in the negative y-direction is given by

a2 ia2
   
w = U iz + = U iz
iz z
Show that the velocity on the surface of the cylinder is given by

V = 2U cos()
Use the Jowkowski transformation to show that the velocity on a the flow past a
horizontal flat plate is given by
U
V = p
4a2 2
436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 93

## 7.2 Flow Over An Airfoil

We have shown that the Jowkowski transformation
c2
=z+
z
transforms a circle of radius ac into an ellipse. If we make c = a, then we find
that the Jowkowski transformation changes the circle into a flat plate. The circle of
radius c in the z-plane is the Jowkowski transforming circle.
The effects of moving a circle of radius a in the z-plane closer and closer to the
Jowkowski transformation circle is shown in Fig. 7.4. It can be seen that when the
circle of radius a touches the Jowkowski transformation circle, that point transforms
to a very sharp trailing edge of an airfoil shaped body.
94

2
2

1
B
1

0
0 A

-1
-1

-2
-2 -2 -1 0 1 2
-2 -1 0 1 2
2 2

B
1 1

Jowkowski
A
0 0
transformation
-1 -1

-2 -2
-2 -1 0 1 2 -2 -1 0 1 2
2 2

B
1 1

A
0 0

-1 -1

-2 -2
-2 -1 0 1 2 -2 -1 0 1 2

Figure 7.4: Figure showing the effects of moving a circle in the z-plane closer and
closer to the Jowkowski transformation circle.