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436-351 Thermofluids 2

Unit 1: Potential Flow

Preliminaries

Main Text

Anderson J. D. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, McGraw-Hill

Suggested Reading

Vallentine H. R. Applied hydrodynamics

Lamb Hydrodynamics

Streeter Fluid dynamics

Milne & Thomson Theoretical Aerodynamics

70 % End of semester examination

20 % Assignment

10 % Prac

1

2

Contents

1 Introduction 5

2.1 Concept of steady and unsteady flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.2 Pathlines and Streamlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.3 Concept of total derivative (substantial or Lagrangian derivative) . . 9

2.4 Vorticity and Angular Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

3.1 Pressure Forces: Bernoullis Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

4.1 Concept of a stream function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

4.1.1 How does behave alone a streamline . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

4.1.2 What is the physical meaning of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.1.3 What is the relationship between u, v and . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.2 General equation for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

4.3 Concept of a scalar point function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

4.4 Concept of velocity potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

5.1 Some simple solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5.1.1 Parallel flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5.1.2 Source flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

5.1.3 Sink flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

5.2 More complex flow solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

5.3 Singularities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

5.4 Source and Sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5.4.1 Superimpose flow right to left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

5.4.2 Superimpose flow left to right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

5.5 Flow past a circular cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

5.5.1 The doublet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

5.5.2 Doublet with uniform flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

5.6 Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

5.7 The point vortex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

5.8 Flow past a circular cylinder with circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

5.8.1 Pressure distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

5.8.2 Magnus effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

5.9 Method of images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

5.10 Vortex pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

5.11 Velocity Field in terms of velocity potential function . . . . . . . . 69

5.12 Electrical analogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

3

4

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

6.2 Velocity components from w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

6.3 Example - Stagnation point flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

6.4 Example: flow over a circular cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

7 Conformal Transformations 85

7.1 Conformal Transformation of velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

7.1.1 Example-Flow over a Flat Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

7.2 Flow Over An Airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Chapter 1

Introduction

We wish to predict fluid motion, that is the flow patterns and associated forces they

create (eg. lift and drag). In many cases this is a difficult task and several different

approaches may be required.

OC MB

C B

C B

Simplify equations Model the physics that Test scale models

is not understood

Here we will consider the analytical method known as classical hydrodynamics. This

involves the study of ideal fluids, by ideal we mean incompressible and frictionless

(inviscid), ie. =constant and = 0.

For example consider flow around a cylinder,

Classical model

Drag= 0

5

6

due to influence

of viscosity

initially largely ignored the classical approach. However in many fluid flows friction

is only important in regions such as boundary layers and wakes. Outside of these

regions the fluid may be considered frictionless.

A more useful application would be a streamlined body.

Classical Model

Better

agreement

Actual flow

thin wake

Chapter 2

In general the velocity field consist of three velocity components,

V = u i + v j + wk (2.1)

If the velocity components are a function of space alone and are not a function of

time we have steady flow, ie V = V(x, y, z). Consider continuity

dA

Control volume V

Z

V cos dA =0 (steady flow)

A

Z

d

= dV (unsteady flow)

dt V

7

8

V =0 (steady flow)

= (unsteady flow)

t

Since we limit ourselves to incompressible flow (ie. =constant)

V = 0

u v w steady or unsteady

+ + = 0 .

x y z

k

z

NB:

j

w

y

u

x

V = i u + j v + kw

In Fluid mechanics, it is important to visualise the flow field. Many fundamental

concepts of Fluid mechanics can be understood by sketching how the flow looks like.

In order to visualise the flow field, it is critical that one comprehend the concept

of streamlines and pathlines.

direction of the velocity vector at that point. It is the snapshot of the flowfield

at any instant in time. For unsteady flows the streamline pattern is different

at different times.

A pathline is the line traced out by fluid particle as it moves through the flow

field. It represent the path of a massless fluid particle moving in a flow field.

For steady flow, pathlines and streamlines coincide. They do not coincide for un-

steady flows.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 9

Exercise 2.1: Show that for a three-dimensional (sometimes written as [3]) flow

field, the mathematical equation for stream line can be written as

wdy vdz = 0

udz wdx = 0 (2.3)

vdx udy = 0

u is the velocity in the x direction and v is the velocity in the y direction and w

is the velocity in the z direction. For two-dimensional (sometimes written as [2])

flows, only the third relatioship is important

Exercise 2.2: Find the equations for streamlines and pathlines for the flow field

given by the following expressions

(a) V = x i y j

(b) V = x i + yt j

grangian derivative)

Differentiation following the motion of the fluid.

y

v v v

v+ dt + dx + dy

t x y

u u u

v A0 u+ dt + dx + dy

t x y

dy

A u

x

dx

10

Du Change in u velocity

ax = =

Dt dt

u u x u y

= + +

t x t y t

u u u

= +u +v

t x y

D

Note we use Dt

to denote the total derivative, ie.

D

= +u +v

Dt t x y

similarly in ydirection

Dv v v v

ay = = +u +v

Dt t x y

When we consider steady flow all derivatives of velocity with respect to time are

zero

Du u u

ax = =u +v (2.5)

Dt x y

Dv v v

ay = =u +v (2.6)

Dt x y

Consider fluid element dx

y

v

v+ dx

x

v

1

dx

x

its angular velocity is

v

v+ x

dx v

1 =

dx

v

= .

x

Similarly consider fluid element dy

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 11

y u

u+ dy

y

dy

2

x

its angular velocity is

u

uu y

dy

2 =

dy

u

= .

y

Hence

v u

= 1 + 2

x y

and the above is called vorticity or rotation and is denoted by

v u

= . (2.7)

x y

It is defined to be the sum of the angular velocities of two mutually perpendicular

fluid lines.

12

Chapter 3

equations of motion

Forces on a particle

Consider [2] flow, frictionless fluid and ignore body forces (gravity).

p

p+ dy

y

dy p

p p+ dx

x

dx

p

Fx =pdy p + dx dy

x

p

= dxdy ,

x

similarly

p

Fy = dxdy .

y

Now Newtons equation of motion says

max =Fx

may =Fy

13

14

and the mass of the element is m = dxdy. Using Eqs. (2.5) and (2.5) the following

two equations are obtained

u u p

dxdy u +v = dxdy

x y x

v v p

dxdy u +v = dxdy

x y y

u u 1 p

u +v =

x y x These are the Euler equations

v v 1 p of motion in [2] steady flow

u +v =

x y y (Cartesian coordinates).

u u u 1 p

+u +v =

t x y x These are the Euler equations

v v v 1 p of motion in [2] unsteady flow

+u +v =

t x y y (Cartesian coordinates).

The above equations can be derived in other coordinate systems eg. streamline

curve linear co-ord.

R + R

R Instantaneous streamlines 0

z }| {

Vn Vn Vn

Vn + dt + ds + dn

t s n

Vn

n

dn

s Vs 0

z }| {

Vs Vs Vs

ds Vs + dt + ds + dn

t s n

Note: dn = ds tan(d) dsd 0

Vn Vs

, Vn = 0

s R

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 15

Vs Vs 1 p

+ Vs = These are the Euler equations

t s s of motion in [2] unsteady flow

2

Vn Vs 1 p (streamline curve linear coor-

+ =

t R n dinates).

In many engineering applications, it is important to calculate the pressure forces at

various points in the fluid. For inviscid flows, Bernoullis equation is usually used

to calculate pressure forces. Bernoullis equation is given by

1

p + V 2 = constant (3.1)

2

For an inviscid fluid, Eq. (3.1) is valid along a streamline.

Proof:

u u 1 p

u +v =

x y x

Multiply the above equation by dx gives

u u 1 p

u dx + v dx = dx

x y x

Using Eq. (2.4) on the second term on the LHS of the above equation gives

u u 1 p

u dx + u dy = dx

x y x

u u 1 p

u dx + dy = dx

x y x

1 p

udu = dx

x

1 2 1 p

du = dx (3.2)

2 x

Repeating similar steps for the y momentum equation gives

1 2 1 p

dv = dy (3.3)

2 y

Adding Eqs. (3.2) and (3.3) gives

1 1 p p

d u2 + v 2 =

dx + dy

2 x y

16

1 1

d V 2 = dp

2

dp = V dV (3.4)

where V 2 = u2 + v 2 . If we assume that is a constant, we can integrate the above

equation along a streamline to obtain

Z p2 Z V2

dp = V dV

p1 V1

1 1

p1 + V12 = p2 + V22 (3.5)

2 2

Exercise 3.1: The analysis above show that Bernoullis equation (Eq. (3.1)) is

valid only along a streamline. However, if the flow is inviscid and irrotational, it

can be shown that Eq. (3.1) is valid anywhere in the flow field. Prove that the

previous statement is true.

Chapter 4

function

The stream function is related to the rate at which fluid volume is streaming across

and elementary arc, ds.

For Incompressible [2] flow.

n

ds

I I

V

| cos

{zds} = 0 or V n

ds = 0

d

where V = |V|

ie. d = V cos()ds = V n

ds

This means I

d = 0

17

18

d = dx + dy

x y

y

O x

I Z B Z A Z O

d = d + d + d = 0

OBAO O B A

=(B O ) + (A B ) + (O A )

A V n

Hence A = B

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 19

y

O x

B O = volume flux crossing OA

If AB is a streamline the above fluxes must be equal. This means that the difference

in between two points = the volume flux across any line joining the two points.

Therefore a streamline is like a fence, across which flow cannot occur. Also the

volume flux across a path between two streamlines is independant of the path.

d

Have = V cos = V n

ds

Here ds = dx

x

20

then ds = dx and

Vn

= v

= v

x

Say we move a small amount in the y-dir

V

y

Here ds = dy

n

x

then ds = dy and

Vn

=u

=u

y

Alternative derivation;

B

ds

dy

u

A dx

v

Let d = flux crossing AB

d = udy vdx

|{z}

|{z} |{z}

flux in across AB flux out side flux in bottom

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 21

d = dx + dy .

x y

Equating coefficient of dx and dy gives

= v =u

x y

In polar coordinates

u

ur

Convention

ur = radial component

u = tangential component

Note ur and u correspond with u and v when = 0

dr

u

ds B

y

dr

u B

ur ds

A rd

r

d

r ur

rd

x A

d = flux across AB

d = ur rd u dr

but d = dr + d

r

22

= u

r

1

= ur

r

If we had considered compressible flow

= v = u

x 0 r 0

1

= u = ur

y 0 r 0

where 0 is some reference density arbitraily chosen at some point in the flow. For

incompressible flow /0 = 1

Exercise 4.1: For the flow defined by the stream function = V y:

(c) Find the volume flow rate per unit width flowing between the streamlines

y = 1 and y = 2.

wall at y = 0. The stream function is

(4.1)

(c) Find the pressure distribution on the plane wall surface, given that p = 0 at

[0, 0].

Exercise 4.3: The flow around a corner can be defined with the streamfunction,

= kxy

(a) Find the value of k if you are given that the volume flow rate of a line drawn

between (0,0) and (1,1) is 2m3 /s.

(c) Given that the pressure at (0,0) is p0 , what is the pressure distribution along

the two walls.

(d) Pretend that the streamline going through the point (2,3) is a wall. Find the

pressure distribution along this wall.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 23

It has been shown that along a streamline is constant. Therefore if we can deter-

mine the stream function we are then able to plot (or sketch) the streamlines for a

given flow.

Use Eulers equation of motion to determine a general equation for . Assum-

ing steady flow we have;

u u 1 p

u +v = (4.2)

x y x

v v 1 p

u +v = . (4.3)

x y y

1 2p u u 2u v u 2u

= +u + +v 2 (4.4)

xy y x yx y y y

2 2

1 p u v v v v 2v

= +u 2 + +v (4.5)

yx x x x x y xy

1 2p 1 2p

= ie. p is a regular function

xy yx

v u v u u v v u

0=u +v + +

x x y y x y x y x y

u v

+ =0

x y

hence

v u v u

u +v =0

x x y y x y

D v u

OR =0 (4.6)

Dt x y

n o

v

The term x u

y

is the vorticity which was defined in section 2.4

Note in streamline coordinates

Vs Vs

=

R n

Therefore (4.6) says that

D

=0 (4.7)

Dt

24

This means if we follow a fluid element its vorticity () does not change. Since

this is steady flow following a fluid element travelling on a streamline. Hence

streamlines are lines of constant as well as .

Since we have u = y

, v =

x

substituting into (2.7)

2 2

= 2

x2 y

= ( ) 2 = Laplacian operator

2 2

= 2 = 2+ 2

x y

2 =

Equation (4.7) becomes

D 2

=0 Helmholtzs equation

Dt

This is effectively the Euler equation and continuity expressed in terms of the stream

function () for the case of incompressible [2] flow.

Exercise 4.4: Repeat the steps above and show that Helmholtzs equation is valid

for inviscid, incompressible AND unsteady flows.

1. Uniform vorticity upstream

y

u = ky

Here every streamline has the same vorticity and since remains constant

along a streamline then is constant everywhere.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 25

Occurs quite a lot in practice ie

U = U1 U1

=0

Velocity profile as seen

by observer moving with wing

everywhere we have irrotational flow.

This leads to what is know as potential flow and we can say if the flow is

irrotational ( = 0) the stream function () will satisfy the Laplace equation.

The beauty of the Laplace equation is that it is LINEAR. This means if we

have a series of simple flow solutions eg. 1 , 2 , 3 then the solution to more

complex flows can be obtained by superposition of the simple flows eg.

= 1 + 2 + 3 +

|{z} | {z }

complicated flow simple flows

1 2 2

2

2 1

= 2 2+ + 2 +

r r r r z 2

| {z }

In the case of polar cylindrical

Vorticity is really a [3] vector

= i + j + k

=curl (V)

= V

i

j k

=

x y z

u v w

w v u w v u

=i +j +k

y z z x x y

26

v u

=k , || =

x y

If we have a scalar point function, ie. = (x, y, z) then surfaces of constant will

form plates.

eg. surfaces of constant temp

surfaces of constant voltage

is perpendicular to

the contours

1 2 3 4

Often we can denote a vector field by

V =

=grad

where

= i +j +k .

x y z

There are many vector fields in nature that can be defined this way;

Vector field Scalar function

Current flux Voltage potential

Heat flux Temperature

Gravitational force Potential energy

The scalar function is called the potential for the vector field and if a vector field

possesses a potential it is called a conservative field.

Often in fluid flow (but not always) the velocity field is a vector point function

V(x, y, z) which possesses potential scalar function (x, y, z),

V(x, y, z) = (x, y, z) .

When this happens such a flow is called potential flow and is referred to as the

velocity potential.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 27

The velocity potential is analogous to the stream function. The stream function is

related to the rate of flow across an small arc, ds, but the velocity potential, is

related to the rate of flow along ds.

Let d = V ds sin

Z B

then A B = V sin ds

A

d

or = V sin

ds

ds V

A n

Here ds = dx

then ds = dx and

V sin = u

=u

x

28

V

y

Here ds = dy

n

x

then ds = dy and

V sin = v

=v

y

Now V = i u + j v

=i +j

x y

V = (= grad )

v

v+ dy

y

u

u u+ x

dx

dy

dx

From volume flux balance (ie. what goes in must come out)

u v

udy 1 + vdx 1 = u + dx dy + v + dy dx

x y

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 29

u v

+ =0 continuity equation

x y

But

u 2

u= =

x x x2

and

v 2

v= = 2

y y y

2 2

+ =0

x2 y 2

2 = 0

Therefore the velocity potential function like the stream function follows the

Laplace equation (harmonic functions). Hence we can use superposition of solutions,

ie. to obtain a complex flow just add simple flows together.

30

Chapter 5

We will find the solution (ie. stream function ) for some simple flows.

For the parallel flow with uniform velocity U shown in Figure 5.1, we have

u= and v=

y x

In this case u = U , v = 0

= 0, = U

x y

This gives two partial differential equations which can be solved by integration

=0

x

= f1 (y)

and

= U

y

= U y + f2 (x)

where f1 (y) and f2 (x) are functions of integration. These equations are compatible

only if f2 (x) = k where k is an arbitrary constant. For convenience the value of

is normally set to zero when y = 0 K = 0. Hence

31

32

In source flow we have Q m3 s1 emerging from a point and flowing in the radial

direction ie.

u ur

C.V

Source

Strength= Q m3 s1

The volume flow rate through the control volume surface with unit depth is given

by

2r 1 ur = Q (vol. flux)

hence

Q

ur = , u = 0 By definition of a source

2r

. We have

1

= u , = ur

r r

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 33

1 Q

=0, =

r r 2r

=0

r

= f1 ()

and

1 Q

=

r 2r

Q

= + f2 (r) .

2

Q

= source in polar coordinates

2

In cartesian

Q y

= arctan

2 x

Usual to have 16 8

> >

20 =4

24 =0

-20 -4

Note the =

S/L has a discontinuity

-16 -8

-12

34

Q

=

2

Sink

Strength= Q m3 s1

Exercise 5.1: Follow the steps outlined above and see if you can derive the stream

function for typical flows shown in Figure 5.2.

y y

y=-Uy y=Vx

x x

y

y=W(y cos a-x sin a)

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 35

Source combines with uniform stream

Uniform flow, U

y

Source, Q

Q Q y

For source 2 = = arctan

2 2 x

Since the Laplace equation is linear we can add these solutions to get the solution

for the new flow

= 1 + 2

Q y

= U y + arctan

2 x

We want to sketch this flow, ie. plot lines of constant . To do this we first find the

stagnation points, which are points where u = v = 0. The velocity components

in the new flow are;

u=

y

Q 1 1

= U +

2 1 + y2 x

x2

Q x

= U + (A)

2 (x + y 2 )

2

36

and

v =

x

Q 1 y

=

2 1 + y 2

x2

x2

Q y

= (B)

2 (x2 + y 2 )

Lets assume the stagnation point(s) occurs at x0 , y0 .

From (B)

Q y

0=

2 (x + y 2 )

2

and from (A)

Q x

U =

2 (x2 + y 2 )

Q

x0 =

2U

Q

So there exists one stagnation point at ( 2U

, 0).

Streamlines that pass through the stagnation points are called sepratrix stream-

lines. The value of on the sepratrix must be constant = |x0 ,y0 and in this case

|x0 ,y0 = 0. Lets plot this streamline

Q y

= 0 = U y + arctan

2 x

The solution has two branches

y=0

2U y

and x = y cot

Q

Q

Q 4U

2U Separtrix streamline x

stagnation point

Q

x=

2U

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 37

Locate x intercepts

y

x =lim

y0

2yU

tan Q

1

x =lim

y0

2U

sec 2 2yU

Q Q

Q

x= ie. the stagnation point, as expected

2U

Locate y intercepts (x = 0)

Q

U y + =0

2 2

Q

y=

4U

We can now sketch the overall flow pattern

To aid sketching;

Find stagnation points and note at a stagnation point 2 streamlines come in

and two streamlines come out

sketch sepratrix streamline

consider flow close to origin (ie. source dominates) and in far field (ie. uniform

flow dominates)

streamlines cannot cross each other

adjacent streamlines must flow in the same direction.

38

Now any streamline can be replaced by a solid boundary, eg. we can replace the

= 0 streamline with a solid boundary. Hence we have solved the flow field about

a body whose shape is

2U y

x = y cot

Q

and such a shape is called a Half-Rankine body (or semi-infinite body) ie.

Exercise 5.2: Repeat the derivation outlined in Section 5.2 with the free stream

velocity going from left to right. Assume that Q/(2U ) = 1. In addition, plot

the pressure coefficient, Cp , along the centerline of the body. The solution to this

exercise is shown in Figure 5.3.

5.3 Singularities

There are in general two types of singularities

1. Irregular singularity eg. Source/Sink, Vortex u = v =

2. Regular singularity (or saddle), u = v = 0 stagnation point

Irregular singularity

and we cannot Taylor Series expand about this point.

Also a discontinuity exists

Regular singularity

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 39

5

4

3

2

1 /2

Y

0

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

-5 0 5 10

X

5

3

y

0

-5 0 5 10

x

1.0

0.5

Cp

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-5 0 5 10

x

Taylor Series expand about this point

Also all functions are continuous as we

go through this point. This point is also

known as a saddle.

the singularity, ie. rectangular hyperbolae.

Note; 90o only if vorticity is zero.

40

Note: Sources and sinks are called irregular singularities since they cannot occur

in practice (ie. u = v = ). However they can be used to approximate certain

practical situations.

Example

Fan

approximated by sink Q2

Fume bed

approximated by source Q1

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 41

y

Sink Q Source Q

y

P

A x

B

s s

Have

Q

A = A

2

Q

B = B

2

hence

=A + B

Q

= (A B )

2

Q

=

2

Plot the streamlines, ie. lines of = constant = constant. It can be show that

the locus of = constant corresponds to circles all intersecting the xaxis at s

and +s.

42

eg.

2s

Exercise 5.3: Show that lines of = const. (ie. = const.) gives the family of

equations

2

s 2 2 1

x + y =s 1+ 2

a a

where a = tan = tan (2/Q)

q

1

s 1+ a

0, as

Source

Sink

s s

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 43

Now let us add a flow from right to left, then the new flow stream function is

Q

= U y + (A B ) .

2

Know,

tan A tan B

tan(A B ) =

1 + tan A tan B

( y y

)

A B = arctan xs yx+s 2

1 + x2 s2

( y y

)

Q

= U y + arctan xs yx+s2 .

2 1+ 2 2 x s

It can be shown that the stagnation points lie on the = 0 streamline and this

is called the separatrix streamline, lets sketch it. The solution for = 0 has two

branches;

y=0

2 2 2 2U y

and x + y s = 2ys cot

Q

x2 y 2

2y U s y

ie. + 2 1= cot 2 = 0 Oval shape (5.1)

s2 s s Q s

44

n o

x2 y2 2y y

s2

+ s2

1= s

cot 2 UQ

s

s

Like before the = 0 streamline can be replaced by a solid body. Hence we have

infact solved the problem of flow past a body whose shape is given by equation (5.1).

This is called a full Rankine body. The shape of the body depends on the non-

dimensional parameter UQ s

while the scale (size) depends on the length scale s.

Exercise p

5.4: Show that the stagnation points for the full Rankine body occur

at x = s Q/(U s) + 1.

The flow pattern changes dramatically if the free stream flow is in the opposite

direction. Consider the case when the flow is from left to right

( y y

)

Q xs

x+s

= U y + arctan y2

.

2 1+ x2 s2

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 45

=0 and =0

y x

It turns out (exercise show this) that the location of the stagnation points depends

on the strength of the parameter UQ s

, there are three cases;

U s

p

1. Q

> 1/, then the stagnation points are on the xaxis at x = s 1 Q/(U s).

Q

=

2

Q

=0

U

46

U s

2. Q

= 1/, then the stagnation points are at the origin (repeated root) this

is a degenerate case (unstable saddle)

(note 3 S/L in, 3 S/L out)

U s

p

3. Q

< 1/, then the stagnation points are on the yaxis at y = s Q/(U s) 1.

is varied the saddles (stagnation points) move, merge

and split. When this happens it is called a bifurcation.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 47

This is a special case of the Rankine body where the spacing between the source

and sink goes to zero.

When a source and sink of equal strength are superimposed upon one and other we

get a doublet. First consider source/sink pair spaced 2s apart;

y

P

r

Sink Q B x

B A

A

s Source Q

s

then let the source and the sink move together (ie. s 0), such that the product

Qs remains constant (K). Then as s 0

AM 2s sin

= =

r r

We know (from last lecture)

Q

=

2

Q 2s sin

=

2 r

Hence

Qs sin K sin

= = Doublet .

r r

Note as s 0, Q so that Qs = K remains a constant. In Cartesian coordinates

y

sin = 1

(x2 + y 2 ) 2

1

r = (x2 + y 2 ) 2

48

Ky

=

(x2 + y 2 )

Streamlines are a family of circles, whose centres lie on the yaxis and which pass

through the origin.

Now we are going to add parallel flow from right to left to the doublet. Hence the

stream function for this flow is

Ky

= U y +

(x2 + y 2 )

r

K

x= , y=0.

U

Consider the sepratrix streamline, it passes through the stagnation point and cor-

responds to the = 0 streamline. The solution for = 0 has two branches

y=0

r

K K

and x2 + y 2 = = a2 equation to a circle with radius a =

U U

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 49

x 2 + y 2 = a2

q q

K K

U U

Again we can replace the = 0 streamline with a solid body and hence we have

solved for the flow past a circular cylinder.

Exercise 5.5: Find an expression for the velocity on the surface of the cylinder

( = 0 streamline). Use this expression to find the pressure distribution and hence

the lift and drag forces on the cylinder.

Exercise 5.6:

Two half cylinders of outer radius a are joined together in a uniform potential

flow, as shown in figure 5.4. A hole is to be drilled at an angle such that there

will be no nett force between the half cylinders at the joints. Determine the angle

assuming the internal pressure Pint to be equal to the static pressure on the

external surface of the cylinder at the point where the hold is drilled.

Hint: Remember from potential flow theory that the predicted pressure on the

surface of a cylinder is given by

1 2 2

P = P + U 2U sin2 (5.1)

2

Exercise 5.7: Integrate Eq. (5.1) and show that the lift and drag on a circular

cylinder as predicted by potential flow theory is zero.

5.6 Circulation

We wish to solve flow about bodies that produce lift. This can be achieved by

introducing circulation around the body. Circulation is the line integral of velocity

around a closed loop. Suppose we are in a flow field where the velocity at one of the

points is V .

50

Joint

t

Pint

Joint

ds V

A n

Line integral of velocity from A to B is equal to the component of velocity along the

line from A to B, and we will denote this integral by LAB ie

Z B

LAB = V sin ds .

A

Z B

work done = F sin ds .

A

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 51

ds line of integration

I

= V sin ds

The above expression can also be expressed in terms of the velocity components u

and v ie. I I

= V sin ds = (udx + vdy)

Proof:

B

y

s

ds V

x

A n

| {z } | {z } | {z } | {z }

u dx v dy

=V ds(cos( ))

=V ds sin

Actually circulation is closely related to vorticity, infact

Z

= dA

A

element and evaluate the line integral around this element.

52

y

u

u+ dy

y

dy

v

v v+ dx

x

u

x

dx

v u

d =udx + v + dx dy + u + dy (dx) + v(dy)

x y

v u

d = dxdy

x y

d = dxdy circulation = vorticity area

Hence we can say vorticity = circulation around an element per unit area.

What is the area integral of vorticity over a finite area ?

yu

v1 v2

Finite area

dA

yl

x

x1 (y) x2 (y)

Integrate over the area,

ZZ

v u

dxdy

A x y

ZZ ZZ

v u

= dxdy dxdy .

A x A y

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 53

ZZ Z yu Z x2

v v

dxdy = dx dy

A x x

Zylyu x1

= (v2 v1 )dy

Zylyu Z yl

= v2 dy + v1 dy

Iyl yu

= vdy .

ZZ I

u

dxdy = udx

A y

hence ZZ I

v u

dxdy = (udx + vdy)

A x y

This expression implies the area integral of vorticity = line integral of velocity on a

closed circuit around the area.

We wish to introduce circulation into potential flow problems but this requires we

introduce vorticity since Z

= dA .

A

However we want a irrotational flow field so put all the vorticity at a single point

called a point vortex (this will be a singularity in the flow field). For a point vortex

A 0 while such that remains finite, ie. vorticity is concentrated at a

point.

H

V sin ds =

Point vortex ()

H

V sin ds = 0

54

Derivation of the stream function for a point vortex with circulation (or strength)

.

u

Point vortex ur = 0

I

= V sin ds

Z 2

= u rd

0

=2ru

1

= u and = ur

r r

1

=0

r

= f1 (r)

and

=

r 2r

= ln(r) + f2 ()

2

Above are compatible if f2 () = const, choose the constant such that = 0 at r = b

where b is some arbitrary value

r

= ln stream function for a potential vortex

2 b

Check whether the point vortex satisfies the Laplace equation ie.

2 = 0

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 55

In polar coordinates

2 1 2 1 2

= 2 2 + + 2

r r r r

For the point vortex we have

2 2

= , 2

= and =0

r 2r r 2r2 2

Hence,

12

= +

r 2r 2r2

=0

56

It has been shown that flow around a cylinder can be generated from a doublet in

a uniform flow

K y = U y

=

x + y2

2

K y

1 = U y +

x + y2

2

K 1

= U sin r

U r

r

K

a=

U

In order to obtain lift we have to add circulation to the flow, this can be achieved

by introduction of a point vortex. To achieve positive lift for the above configuration

we require positive circulation (ie. anti-clockwise). The stream function for a vortex

placed at the origin is

r

2 = ln .

2 b

Hence the combined flow is

=1 + 2

a2

r

= U sin r ln

r 2 b

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 57

a2

1 1

ur = = U cos r

r r r

2

a

= U cos 1 2 (5.1)

r

a2

1

u = = U sin 1 + 2 + (5.2)

r r 2 r

Now we want to find the stagnation points ie. ur = u = 0. From (5.1)

a2

U cos 1 2 = 0

r

solutions are r = a or =

2

Check if u = 0 has solutions for r = a, from (5.2);

a2

U sin 1 + 2 + =0

a 2a

sin = solutions exist for <1

4U a 4U a

This means when the non-dimensional parameter 4U a < 1 there exists two stagna-

tion points located on the surface of the cylinder (r = a) and at 0 = sin1 ( 4U

a

),

ie.

y

For <1

4U a

x

0

58

For 4U a

= 1 these two stagnation points merge and are both located at

1 4U a

= sin = , r=a

4U a 2

y

For =1

4U a

a2

U 1+ 2 + =0

r 2r

r2 + r + a2 = 0 2 real solutions exist for >1

2U 4U a

This means when the non-dimensional parameter 4U a > 1 there exists two stag-

nation points located on the yaxis (one at |r| < a and one at |r| > a) ie.

y

For >1

4U a

r = a, = 0

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 59

Note for all of the above cases the shape of the = 0 streamline is preserved as

a circle of radius= a. If we looked at the streamlines inside the circle we would see;

<1 =1 >1

4U a 4U a 4U a

In order to determine the lift generated we need to know the pressure distribution

around the cylinder. Let pp be the static pressure at some point P1 (a, ) and q be

the resultant velocity (q = u2r + u2 ).

p = patm

q = v0 U

P1

a

x

surface.

1 0 1 2

p + v 2 = p + U = pt = total pressure

2 2

1 0

p = pt v 2

2

60

u = 2U sin +

2a

2

1

p =pt 2U sin +

2 2a

2

1 2 2 2U sin

=pt 4U sin + + 2 2

2 a 4 a

Z 2

L= pad 1 sin (lift per unit length)

0

Z 2

2U sin2 2

1 2 3

= pt a sin + a 4U sin + + 2 2 sin d

0 2 a 4 a

Z 2

2

1 2 U

= pt a sin + a U (3 sin sin 3) + (1 cos 2) + 2 2 sin d

0 2 a 4 a

1 U

= a 2

2 a

L =U

total lift = U l

The cylinder with circulation flow can be approximately achieved by spinning a

cylinder in cross flow. The lift that results is called the Magnus effect.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 61

boundary layers

bound vortex

Wake

L U

D 6= 0

Exercise 5.8:

A cyinder of diameter 2.5 cm rotate as indicated at 3600 rpm in standard air which

is flowing over the cylinder at 30 ms1 . Estimate the lift per unit length of the

cylinder.

L

FreeStream

AngularVelocity

Often we want to study flow patterns in the vicinity of a solid plane boundary. To

get the correct flow requires that the boundary corresponds to a streamline. This

can be achieved by treating the boundary as a mirror and placing images of the flow

structures behind the mirror.

For example say we have a sink located near a plane wall;

62

This would happen if it was a line of symmetry

acts as a mirror

A a a A0

=A + A0

Q Q

= A A0

2 2

Q y y

= arctan + arctan

2 x+a xa

which gives;

We get the required S/L which represent5s the wall

infinite series of images (ie. like looking into a mirror when there is another mirror

behind you)

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 63

a a a a

X Q

= i

i=1

2

64

Imagine we have a vortex pair held fixed in space with a uniform flow superimposed.

We can analysis the flow pattern by finding the stagnation points and sketching the

flow.

2l

= ln rA + ln rB U y

2 2

rA

= ln U y

2 rB

1

!

(x2 + (y l)2 ) 2

= ln 1 U y

2 (x2 + (y + l)2 ) 2

2

x + (y l)2

= ln U y

4 x2 + (y + l)2

u= = 0

y

for stagnation points

v= = 0

x

It turns out that we get different flow patterns depending on the strength of the

non-dimensional parameter lU

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 65

<1

lU

2l

s

=f

l lU

=1 6 way saddle - degenerate

lU

(unstable)

Bifurcation

66

Kelvin Oval

>1

lU

To find the shape of the Kelvin Oval consider = 0 streamline, show this gives

" #1

(y l)2 exp 4U y (y + l)2 2

x=

1 exp 4U y

In real physical situations we cannot have vortex pairs fixed in space hence the

pattern is unsteady. This is because the vortices induce each other along with a

velocity.

u =

2(2l)

l

l

u =

2(2l)

u=

2(2l)

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 67

In order to achieve steady flow we must analyse the pattern in a frame of reference

moving with the vortex pair, this implies we see a uniform flow of

U= right to left

4l

=4

U l

and hence the shape of the Kelvin Oval is fixed and the streamline pattern looks

like

l 3 l 3 x

2l 4.174l

streamline pattern looks like

68

of flow patterns. However the maths is more complicated, owing to the vorticity

being distributed over a finite area the vortex core. The velocity of propagation

depends on the size of the vortex core

4D 1

V = ln

D 4

Vortex core

V K

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 69

function

Point vortex

Have,

ur = 0 =

r

1

u = =

2r r

integrating gives

= +c

2

Sketching lines of constant and gives

3

4

2

3

5 2

1 1

6 8

7

The stream function and the velocity potential are orthogonal to each other.

Conjugate harmonic functions.

Source

Q

As an exercise show that the velocity potential for a source is given by = ln r

2

3

4

2

3

5 2

1 1

and lines of constant and look like

6 8

7

70

The table below shows the velocity potential and stream function of some simple

cases.

Uniform flow U y U x

Q

p Q Q Q

Source 2

ln x2 + y 2 = 2

ln(r) 2

arctan(y/x) = 2

p

Potential vortex 2

arctan(y/x) = 2

2 ln x2 + y 2 = 2 ln(r)

(anticlockwise circulation)

K x K cos K y K sin

Doublet x2 +y 2

= r x2 +y 2

= r

(anticlocwise top, clockwise bottom)

The flow of electrical current in a two dimensional conductor is analogous to irrota-

tional flow and follows the Laplace equation

2V 2V

2 V = + =0

x2 y 2

where V is the electrical potential and is the counterpart of the velocity potential

. Therefore we can use the electrical analogy to obtain the flow pattern through a

conduit.

Flow

Method

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 71

= const.

Insulator

Conducting Conducting

strip strip

Conducting material

Probe

V

Voltage source

Voltage divider

2. Establish a voltage drop along the conductor between the flow entrance and

exit boundaries.

3. Use a potentiometer or voltmeter probe to locate line of constant potential.

To locate the lines of constant we swap the conducting strips with the insulators

and repeat the above.

conducting strip

Insulator

Line of constant

72

Chapter 6

6.1 Introduction

In order to extend the range of patterns we can analyse it is useful to define the

complex potential function

w = + i

OC

C

C

Potential Stream

function function

Applies only to flows which have both a stream function 2 dimensional and

a velocity potential function irrotational.

z is the complex variable

z =x + iy

=rei ,

it can be interpreted as a position vector. The complex potential function can then

be expressed as a function of the complex variable z, ie put

w = f (z)

where f is an analytic function ( finite number of singularities).

We need to prove an analytic function given by w = f (z) = + i gives the

solution to 2 dimensional irrotational flow (for example is w = cz 2 a valid solution

?)

Consider

w = A + iB = f (z)

where z = x + iy. Differentiate with respect to x

w dw z dw

= =

x dz x dz

differentiate with respect to y

w dw z dw

= =i .

y dz y dz

73

74

Hence

dw w 1 w

= = (6.1)

dz x i y

Also

w A B

= +i and

x x x

w A B

= +i

y y y

Hence from (6.1)

A B 1 A B

+i = +i

x x i y y

A B B A

+i = i

x x y y

Equating real and imaginary parts

A B

=

x y

Cauchy-Riemann equations

B A

=

x y

Hence,

2A 2B 2A 2 B

= and =

x2 xy y 2 xy

therefore

2A 2A

2 A = + =0.

x2 y 2

Similarly show

2 B = 0 .

Hence we can choose A = and B = and

w = + i

Example: complex potential function for a point vortex

From earlier lectures we have derived that

= ln(r)

2

=

2

w= i ln(r)

2 2

= ( i ln(r))

2

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 75

w = U z Uniform Flow

Q

w= 2

ln(z) Source

i

w = 2 ln(z) Potential vortex (anticlockwise circulation)

K

w= z

= z

Doublet

a2

w = U z + z

Flow past a cylinder of radius a

a2 i

w = U z + z

2

ln(z) Flow past a cylinder of radius a with circulation

Now

ln(z) = ln(rei )

= ln(r) + i

i ln(z) = i ln(r)

Hence

i

w= ln(z) complex potential for point vortex

2

Exercise 6.1:

Follow the steps outlined in the above example and show that some complex po-

tential functions of some of the flows you have seen before are as given in the Table

6.1.

From earlier lectures

= =u

x y

= =v

y x

76

Now

dw w x

=

dz x z

= +i 1

x x

= +i

x x

dw

=u iv

dz

dw

=0 for z

dz

w =cz 2

=c(x + iy)2

w =c(x2 y 2 ) + i2cxy

)

= c(x2 y 2 )

both satisfy Laplace equation

= 2cxy

Velocity

dw

=u iv

dz

=2cz note stagnation point at z = 0

=2c(x + iy)

u =2cx

v =2cy

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 77

y

=2cxy

=c(x y )

2 2

x

Exercise 6.2:

A very long processing vat in a factor is giving off poisonous fumes at a rate of

Qf cubic units per unit length of vat. This vat is located at x = 0 and y = 0. At

a height h directly above the vat, a long exhaust duct with uniform distributed

openings along its length exist. This duct is sucking Q cubic units/unit length. The

source of fumes from the vat can be regarded as a point source in two-dimensional

flow and the exhaust duct can be regarded as a point sink.

(a) Write down the complex potential function for this problem. Remember that

you HAVE TO use a sink image and a source image (the method of images)

in order to correctly model the problem.

(b) From your answer in part (a), derive expressions for the u and v components

of the velocity field.

From previous lectures, it was shown that the combination of a doublet with uniform

flow gives a flow pattern that is similar to that of a uniform flow past a circular

cylinder (see Fig. (6.1)). In this example, the flow over a circular cylinder will be

analyse using the complex potential function w introduced in the previous lecture.

For this flow, the complex potential function is given by the sum of the complex

78

= U z+

z

U

= U z +

z

Hence

a2

w=U z+ (6.2)

z

where r

a=

U

is there radius of the cylinder. Note that for large values of z,

This mean that the flow pattern is approaches uniform flow at large distances from

the origin. The stream function and velocity potential for this flow in cartesian

coordinates can be obtained by substituting z = x + iy into Eq. (6.2), so

a2

w =U x + iy +

x + iy

a2 (x iy)

=U x + iy + 2

x + y2

a2 a2

w =U x 1 + 2 +iU y 1 2

x + y2 x + y2

= +i

Equating the real and imaginary parts to the the velocity potential and stream

function for a flow past a cylinder going from left to right.

a2

= U x 1 + 2

x + y2

a2

= U y 1 2

x + y2

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 79

0

y

5

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

x

Figure 6.1: Flow over a circular cylinder obtained from the complex potential func-

tion w = z + a2 /z

a2

dw

= U 1 2

dz z

a2

= U 1

(x + iy)2

a2

= U 1 2

(x y 2 + i2xy)

Exercise 6.3:

Show that the above expression simplifies to

a2 (x2 y 2 ) 2U a2 xy

dw

=U 1 +i

dz (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2

=u +i(v)

Hence

a2 (x2 y 2 )

u = U 1

(x2 + y 2 )2

and

2U a2 xy

v=

(x2 + y 2 )2

80

Sometimes, it is more convenient to work in polar coordnates (see Fig. 6.2). Let

z = rei . Substitute this into Eq. (6.2) to obtain

a2 i

i

w =U re + e

r

a2

=U r(cos( + i sin ) + (cos i sin )

r

a2 a2

w= r+ cos + i r sin

r r

Hence, the velocity potential and the stream function are given by

a2

= r+ cos

r

a2

= r sin

r

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 81

a2

dw

= U 1

dz z2

a2 i2

= U 1 e (use z = rei )

r2

a2

= U 1 (cos(2) i sin(2))

r2

= u iv

Equating real and imaginary parts will give

a2

u = U 1 2 cos(2) (6.3)

r

2

a

v = U sin(2) (6.4)

r2

Note that u and v are the Cartesian velocity components and NOT the radial and

tangential velocity components.

Exercise 6.4:

Prove that

a2 a2 (x2 y 2 )

u = U 1 2 cos(2) = U 1

r (x2 + y 2 )2

and

a2 2U a2 xy

v = U sin(2) =

r2 (x2 + y 2 )2

From Eqs. (6.3) and (6.4) the speed, V , of the fluid at any point is given by

V 2 = u2 + v 2

2 2

a2

2

2 2 a

= U 1 2 cos(2) + U sin(2)

r r2

a2 a4

2 2 2 2

= U 1 2 2 cos (2) + 4 (cos (2) + sin (2))

r r

2

a4

2 a

= U 1 2 2 cos(2) + 4

r r

2

a4

2 a

= U 1 2 2 cos(2) + 4

r r

V 2 = U

2

(2 2 cos(2))

2

= 2U (1 cos(2))

2

= 2U (1 cos(2))

2

= 4U sin2 () (remember that cos(2) = cos2 sin2 )

82

3.5

2 2.5

2

V

1.5

0.5

0

150 100 50 0 50 100 150

(degrees)

V 2 distribution on the surface of the cylinder is shown in Fig. 6.3. The velocity of

the fluid is zero at = 0o and = 180o . Maximum velocity occur on the sides of

the cylinder at = 90o and = 90o .

Pressure distribution on the surface of the cylinder can be found by using Be-

noullis equation. Thus, if the flow is steady, and the pressure at a great distance is

p ,

1 2 1

p + U = pcylinder + V 2

2 2

1 2

= pcylinder + 4U sin2 ()

2

therefore

1 2

pcylinder = p + U (1 4 sin2 )

2

and

pcylinder p

Cp = 1

= 1 4 sin2

U 2

2

point ( = 0). As the side of the cylinder, = /2 and the value of Cp drops to -3.

Cp then increases to 1 at the rear stagnation point of the cylinder ( = ).

Exercise 6.5:

Determine the points on the cylinder where pcylinder = p

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 83

0.5

0.5

Cp

1.5

2.5

3

150 100 50 0 50 100 150

(degrees)

Exercise 6.6:

Show, from first principles, that the radial and tangential velocity compo-

nents of the flow is related to the complex potential function, w by

dw

ei = ur iu (6.5)

dz

The complex potential function, w, of the flow over a circular cylinder can

be expressed a combination of free stream velocity U and doublet with

strength, .

w = U z + (6.6)

z

Differentiate Eq. (6.6) and use Eq. (6.5) to find the expression for ur

and u on the surface of the cylinder expressed in cylindrical coordinates.

Find the pressure coefficient, Cp , on the surface of the cylinder.

84

Exercise 6.7:

A mathematical model of the flow in a factory with an exhaust duct (of strength

Q) and a fume bed (of strength Qf ) with cross flow (U ) is given by the complex

potential function

Qf Q

w = U z + ln z [ln(z ih) + ln(z + ih)] (6.7)

2

where h is the distance between the exahust duct and the fume bed.

(a) Use the Root Locus analysis (c.f. refer to your Control Theory lecture notes)

to locate the stagnation points in the flow field.

(b) Indicate how the location of the stagnation point changes for different values

of Qf /Q and Q/U .

(c) Sketch the flow pattern for various values of Qf /Q and Q/U .

Chapter 7

Conformal Transformations

A large amount of airfoil theory has been developed by distorting flow around a

cylinder to flow around an airfoil. The essential feature of the distortion is that the

potential flow being distorted ends up also as potential flow.

The most common Conformal transformation is the Jowkowski transformation

which is given by

c2

f (z) = z +

z

To see how this transformation changes flow pattern in the z (or x y) plane,

substitute z = x + iy into the expression above to get

c2

= + i = z +

z

c2

= x + iy +

x + iy

(x + iy)(x iy) c2 (x iy)

= (x + iy) +

(x + iy)(x iy) (x + iy)(x iy)

(x + iy)(x2 + y 2 ) + c2 (x iy)

=

(x2 + y 2 )

c2 c2

=x 1+ 2 + iy 1 2

x + y2 x + y2

c2

=x 1+ 2

x + y2

and

c2

=y 1 2

x + y2

For a circle of radius r in the z plane, x and y are related by

x2 + y 2 = r 2 ,

hence,

85

86

iy i -plane

z-plane

-r r a b

x

Jowkowski

Transformation

z-plane of radius r. In this figure, a = (r + c2 /r) and b = (r c2 /r).

c2

=x 1+ 2

r

and

c2

=y 1 2

r

So in the z plane,

x 2 y 2

+ = 1,

r r

and in the plane

2 2

+

c2 2 c2 2

=1

r+ r

r r

The circle of radius r in the z-plane is seen to transform into an ellipse with semi-

axes a = (r + c2 /r) and b = (r c2 /r) in the -plane (see Fig. (7.1)), provided

c < r. In the special case where r = c, a = 2c and b = 0. This means that if the

circle in the z-plane that we wish to transform has a radius c, it will be transformed

to an infinitely thin plate of length 4r in the -plane.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 87

y2 1

5

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

x

2

1

y2

5

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

x

2

1

y2

5

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

x2

Figure 7.2: Flow over an ellipse obtained by applying the Jowkowski transformation

on flow over a circular cylinder. The top figure was calculated with c=0.8, middle

figure with c = 0.9 and the bottom figure with c = 1.0.

88

z1 0

y

plane 1

5

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

x

5

z2 =-iz 1

4

z2 0

plane 1

5

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

2

5

a

z3 =z 2 + z

4 2

3

z3 0

plane 1

5

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Figure 7.3: Figure showing the various conformal transformation used to obtain the

flow over a flat plate.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 89

z2 = iz1 (7.1)

The result above could be used to analyse the flow over a flat plate. If the flow

in the z1 plane is rotated by 90o by the transformation z2 = iz1 , the flow in the

z2 -plane will still be a flow over a circular cylinder but with the main flow direction

going from top to bottom (see Fig. 7.3). If the z3 = z2 + a2 /z2 is now applied to

the flow in the z2 -plane, the flow pattern perpendicular to the flat plate is observed.

The successive transformation leading the flow over a flat plate is

a2

w = z1 +

z1

z2 = iz1

a2

z3 = z2 +

z2

In the z-plane, the components of velocity, u and v, are given by the expression

dw

= u iv. (7.1)

dz

In the -plane, the components of velocity, u and v, are given by

dw

= u i

v. (7.2)

d

Using Eq. (7.1), Eq. (7.2) can be rewritten as

dw

u i

v= (7.3)

d

dw dz

= (7.4)

dz d

dz

= (u iv) (7.5)

d

dz

= A + iB. (7.6)

d

From Eq. (7.5), we can determine the velocity in the -plane knowing the velocity

in the z-plane. To determine that, we substitute Eq. (7.6) into Eq. (7.5) to obtain

u i

v = (u iv) (A + iB) . (7.7)

90

v = (u + iv) (A iB) .

u + i (7.8)

Multiplying Eqs. (7.7) and (7.8) gives

u2 + v2 = u2 + v 2 A2 + B 2 .

(7.9)

Hence

dz

q = q (7.10)

d

where

q =u2 + v2 , (7.11)

q = u2 + v 2 (7.12)

and

dz

= A2 + B 2 (7.13)

d

Equation (7.10) shows that the velocity in the -plane can be obtained from the fluid

velocity in the z-plane by multiplying the fluid velocity in the z-plane by |dz/d|.

From the previous lecture, it has been found that the flow over a flat plate can be

obtained from the following sequence of transformation

z2 = iz1 = iz (7.14)

a2

= z3 = z2 + (7.15)

z2

From Eqs. (7.14) and (7.15), we obtain

d a2

= i i 2

dz z

a2

= i(1 + 2 )

2

z

d a

= 1 +

dz z2

2

a

= 1 + 2 i2

r e

2

a i2

= 1 + 2 e

r

a2

= 1 + 2 (cos(2) i sin(2))

r

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 91

d

= |1 + cos(2) i sin(2)|

dz

q

= [1 + cos(2)]2 + sin2 (2)

p

= 4 cos2 ()

= 2 cos()

Hence,

dz

= 1

d d

dz

1

=

2 cos()

Using Eq. (7.10) and remembering from the previous lecture that the velocity on

the surface of the cylinder is V = 2U sin(), we get

dz

q = q

d

1

= 2U sin()

2 cos()

= U tan()

We now need to express tan() in terms of the variables in the -plane, and .

From Eqs. (7.14) and (7.15), we obtain

a2

= iz +

iz

ia2

= iz +

z

ia2

= irei + i

re

ia2 i

= irei + e

r

= iaei + iaei

= ia(ei ei )

= ia(cos() i sin() cos() i sin())

= ia(2i sin())

+ i = 2a sin()

92

= 2a sin() (7.16)

Using Pythagoras theorem gives

tan() = p (7.17)

4a2 2

We know previously that

q = U tan()

= U p

4a 2

2

1 1 2

p + U 2 = pplate +

q

2 2

1 2 2

= pplate + U

2 4a2 2

Hence,

2

pplate p

Cp = 1 = 1 2

2

U 2 4a 2

Exercise 7.2:

Show that pplate = p at = 2a

Exercise 7.3: The complex potential function for flow past a circular cylinder

(with flow downwards i.e. in the negative y-direction is given by

a2 ia2

w = U iz + = U iz

iz z

Show that the velocity on the surface of the cylinder is given by

V = 2U cos()

Use the Jowkowski transformation to show that the velocity on a the flow past a

horizontal flat plate is given by

U

V = p

4a2 2

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 93

We have shown that the Jowkowski transformation

c2

=z+

z

transforms a circle of radius ac into an ellipse. If we make c = a, then we find

that the Jowkowski transformation changes the circle into a flat plate. The circle of

radius c in the z-plane is the Jowkowski transforming circle.

The effects of moving a circle of radius a in the z-plane closer and closer to the

Jowkowski transformation circle is shown in Fig. 7.4. It can be seen that when the

circle of radius a touches the Jowkowski transformation circle, that point transforms

to a very sharp trailing edge of an airfoil shaped body.

94

2

2

1

B

1

0

0 A

-1

-1

-2

-2 -2 -1 0 1 2

-2 -1 0 1 2

2 2

B

1 1

Jowkowski

A

0 0

transformation

-1 -1

-2 -2

-2 -1 0 1 2 -2 -1 0 1 2

2 2

B

1 1

A

0 0

-1 -1

-2 -2

-2 -1 0 1 2 -2 -1 0 1 2

Figure 7.4: Figure showing the effects of moving a circle in the z-plane closer and

closer to the Jowkowski transformation circle.

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