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TTS Integrated
Training System
Module 1
Licence Category B 1 and 82

Mathematics

1.3 Geometry

~ U se and/or disclosure is Module 1.3 Geometry 3-1
govemed by th e s1a1emen1 TTS Integrated Training System
on page 2 of this chapter ©Copyright 2011 .

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Copyright Notice

© Copyright. All worldwide rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any other means whatsoever: i.e.
photocopy, electronic, mechanical recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of
Total Training Support Limited.

Knowledge Levels- Category A, 81, 82 and C Aircraft
Maintenance Licence
Basic knowledge tor categories A, B1 and B2 are indicated by the allocation of knowledge levels indicators (1, 2 or ---..,
3) against each applicable subject. Category C applicants must meet either the category B1 or the category B2
basic knowledge levels.
The knowledge level indicators are defined as follows:

LEVEL 1
A familiarisation with the principal elements of the subject.
Objectives: The applicant should be familiar with the basic elements of the subject.
The applicant should be able to give a simple description of the whole subject, using common words and
examples.
The applicant should be able to use typical terms.

LEVEL 2
A general knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject.
An ability to apply that knowledge.
Objectives: The applicant should be able to understand the theoretical fundamentals of the subject.
The applicant should be able to give a general description of the subject using, as appropriate, typical
examples.
The applicant should be able to use mathematical formulae in conjunction with physical laws describing the
subject.
The applicant should be able to read and understand sketches, drawings and schematics describing the
subject.
The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in a practical manner using detailed procedures.

LEVEL 3
A detailed knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject.
A capacity to combine and apply the separate elements of knowledge in a logical and comprehensive
manner.
Objectives: The applicant should know the theory of the subject and interrelationships with other subjects.
The applicant should be able to give a detailed description of the subject using theoretical fundamentals
and specific examples.
The applicant should understand and be able to use mathematical formulae related to the subject.
The applicant should be able to read, understand and prepare sketches, simple drawings and schematics
describing the subject.
The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in a practical manner using manufacturer's
instructions.
The applicant should be able to interpret results from various sources and measurements and apply
corrective action where appropriate .

3-2 Module 1 .3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is ,....--,
TTS Integrated T raining System governed by th e statement
© Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter

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Table of Contents

,-. Module 1.3 Geometry 5
Trigonometry 5
Trigonometrical Relationships 5
The Sine Curve 10
The Cosine Curve 10
~
The Tan Curve 11
-~
Other Trigonometric Functions 12
To Find the Length of an Unknown Side 13
Coordinates and Graphs 21
The x and y Axis 21
Graphical Representations of an Equation 27
.-----.. The Straight Line 39
Derivation of the Equation y = mx + c 45
Cartesian and Polar Coordinates 51
Cartesian Coordinates 51
Polar Coordinates 51
r--'
Converting 52

Use and/or disclosure is
Module 1.3 Geometry 3-3
governed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System
on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011

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Module 1.3 Enabling Objectives and Certification Statement

Certification Statement
These Study Notes comply with the syllabus of EASA Regulation 2042/2003 Annex Ill (Part-66)
A ppen d.1x I, an d th e assoc1a
. t ed K nowe
I d~e Leve Is as spec1T1ed beow:
I
EASA66 Level
Objective
Reference 81 82
Geometry 1.3
(a) 1 1
Simple geometrical constructions
(b) 2 2
Graphical representations; nature and uses of
graphs, graphs of equations/functions
(c) 2 2
Simple trigonometry; trigonometrical
relationships, use of tables and rectangular and
polar coordinates

3-4 Module 1.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is
TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement
© Copyright 2011 on paga 2 of this ch apter

Integrated Training System
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Module 1.3 Geometry
Trigonometry
Trigonometrical Relationships

1. By using Pythagoras, you are now able to partially solve right-angled triangles, i.e. you
can find the third side of a right-angled triangle when given its other 2 sides. This
chapter is concerned with establishing the basic trigonometrical concepts which will later
enable you to completely solve right-angled triangles, i.e. to find all their 6 elements
(angles and sides).

2. Similar triangles are triangles which are the same shape, one is simply an enlargement
of the other. Two important properties of similar triangles are:

a) their corresponding angles are equal.

b) their corresponding sides are proportional.

Consider the triangles:

(1) (2)

B

3
c
4 8

'"' 3. The above triangles are similar since they are equiangular and the ratios of their
corresponding sides are constant, i.e.

BC 3 EF 6 3
a) - =- =- = -= -
,.---.,
AB 5 DE 10 5

AC 4 OF 8 4
;---.
b) -=-= -
AB 5 DE
=-
10
= -5

,...--. BC 3 EF 6 3
c) - - -- - = - -- -
~
AC 4 DF 8 4

Use and/or disclosure is
Module 1.3 Geometry 3-5
governed by the statement TIS Integrated Training System
on page 2 of this chapter ©Copyright 2011

3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter . side adjacent that angle tan A = opposite = a adjacent b The above are the fundamental trigonometrical ratios for right-angled triangles and must be remembered . In a right-angled triangle the ratio: side opposite the angle a) is called the SINE of the reference angle hypotenuse opposite a sin A = = hypotenuse c side adjacent to the angle b) is called the COSINE of the reference angle hypotenuse adjacent b cos A= = hypotenuse c side opposite the angle c) is called the TANGENT of the angle. the ratios a . Now consider the following similar triangles: In both cases side 'c' is the hypotenuse. the ratios of corresponding sides are constant. b and a are the same for all similar right-angled triangles. Taking angle A as the reference: Taking angle Bas the reference: a) Side 'a' is the side opposite a) Side 'b' is the side opposite b) Side 'b' is the adjacent side b) Side 'a' is the adjacent side Since the triangles are similar.com question practice aid 8 8 a c A b b 4.. A convenient method to help you to remember them is 'SOHCAHTOA' or 'SoHCAHToA' where S=sin. c c b 5. C=cos and T=tan 3-6 Module 1. i.e.Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.

We will now investigate how the values of sin. hyp c When angle A is zero. sin A =0 adj b (2) cos A = = and b::: c. cos A =1 Use and/or disclosure is Module 1. a) When angle A is very small: B a A .3 Geometry 3-7 gov<>rned by the statement TIS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this Chapter © Copyright 2011 . C opp a (1) sin A = hyp = c and is very small. When angle A is zero.com question practice aid Example: For the triangle shown find: a) sine of angle B b) cosine of angle B c) tangent of angle B 4 A 3 c opp 3 a) sin B = = = 0. cos and tan vary with the magnitude of the angle. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. b .75 adj 4 6. = 0 .8 hyp 5 opp 3 c) tan B = = = 0.6 hyp 5 adj 4 b) cos B = =.

hyp c (2) cos A = adj =E_ and is small. cos A= 0.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 o f this ch apter •' .Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. tan A = 0 b) When angle A is large: B a A b c (1) sin A = opp =a and a c. tan A == We can summarise the above: ANGLE sin 0 1 cos 1 0 tan 0 CXl Note: The maximum value of sin and cos is 1 . hyp c When angle A = goo. (3) tan A = opp =~ and is very large. 3-8 Module 1. but the maximum value of tan is infinity (= ). adj b When angle A is zero.com question practice aid opp a (3) tan A = = and is very small. adj b When angle A = goo.

8660 hyp 2 2 adj 1 b) cos 60° = = = 0. equilateral triangle ABC of sides 2 units. Consider the .7321 = 0.. B = 30° and D = 90° B sided = 2 (given) side b = 1 (half of AC) side a = ~2 2 f (Pythagoras) a = .5774 adj Module 1.--.J3 = f) tan 30° 0.J3 = 1..5000 hyp 2 c) tan 60° = opp = . Designed in association with the club66pro.J3 Thus. We have seen that trigonometrical ratios vary as the angle varies and have calculated values for 0° and 90°.8660 hyp 2 2 opp 1 = = .3 Geometry 3-9 Use and/or disclosure is governed b y the stat ement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 ..~- - .--.J3 = 1.---. in right-angled triangle ABO: a) sin 60° = opp = .com question practice aid r-- 8...7321 adj 1 opp 1 . We will now calculate the values for 30° and 60°.7321 = 0..= 0. r--< Integrated Training System .5000 hyp 2 e) cos 30° = adj = J3 = 1.--. B Line BD bisects ABC and is perpendicular to AC 2 In triangle ABO... A= 60°.__ d) sin 30° = = . ..

.50 0.. 11~0 ~ 3p sp gp 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 3 0 v -0 .Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.50 -0.. this 0 I peaks at 0°Where the sine curve peaks at 90'). 3) 6) gf'\ 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 2~0 3 0 3 0 3E 0 v -0 .87 -1.86 -0.86 0.86 1.e...00 -0.5 -1 " ' ..50 0.50 -0..87 1..50 0. .86 0./ 3-10 Module 1.86 -1..50 0. this curve is in a wave form.00 v This is the curve drawn when you put all ~ ""'" "1\ the figures on the graph from the table v 0......00 0. The Sine Curve xo 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 0 sin X 0.5 -1 The Cosine Curve xo 0 30 60 90 " 120 .5 above..00 .5 except it is a different section (i. 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 cos X 0 1..87 -0. We can now collect all our information and show graphically how the basic trigonometrical ratios change as the angle increases from zero to 90°. You should know how to sketch them all and know how to use them.00 0. The functions all give graphs which are important. ~ If you look at this curve you can see it is / ' 1\ actually the same as the sine curve 0. As you can see.com question practice aid - 9.00 -0.00 0.50 0.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is ~ TIS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 201 1 on page 2 of this chapter .00 -0. This wave can continue past 0 360° and go into the negatives ..50 0..00 -0.00 0..

10.5000 b) sin 45° = cos 45° = 0. 10 The tan curve is very different from the 8 I t others.--. Module 1 . e.3 Geometry 3-11 Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 . use a graph to find the sin and cos of angles between 0 and 90°.. Again .58 0 .00 0 .8660 d) sin 80° = cos 10° and so on.u L' •u L• iU r~ ou ~ .g. -6 I I -8 -10 I ! l r""""\ From the curves we can see there is always more than one possible value for any 1 number you are working out the inverse of ( sin. You should note from the curves of y = sin andy = cos that there is a definite relationship between sin and cos...00 0. You can .58 1.73 00 -1 .. For tan... 4 J breaks as the value at the breaking point 1 -v J (when x=90° or x=270°) is infinity. 2 0 -2 -4 '"' u ..... The problem is that your calculator only gives you one of the values (the one below 90~..73 -0..7071 c) sin 60° = cos 30° = 0.J._ .5 = 30°or 150°). this is only practical (because of length of axis) up to about 45°.00 .73 00 -1.> r ~ •u fU oU -v L In . . It is a non-continuous which 6 r--.73 -0 .. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro...58 0.. You must remember the curves to find the position of the second angle.58 1.0. : a) sin 30° = cos 60° = 0..JI o section from x=90° to x=270° repeated.com question practice aid The Tan Curve xo 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 tan X0 0. ru this curve can be continued with the . of course.

These terms are called cot (cotangent).3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integra ted Training System governed by lhe slatemenl © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter . sec (secant) and cosec (cosecant).Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid Other Trigonometric Functions Although less often used. other trigonometrical terms can be derived from the basic terms sin and cos. tan 2 =1 cosec2 . They are determined as follows: sin tan = cos cos cot = sin Reciprocal relations: 1 sin = cosec 1 cosec = sin 1 cos = sec 1 sec = cos 1 tan = cot 1 cot = tan Square relations (also known as the Fundamental Identities): sin 2 + cos2 =1 sec2 .coF =1 3-12 Module 1.

... Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.. B ......--..... a =b tan ~ .13 gove rne d by t he stateme nt TTS Integrat ed Training Sy stem on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 ..--..--._ ..-..-- .. cosine and tangent of angles. .-. . .. . -------. 2.... ... angled triangle. opp ~ c) tan = adj d) By Pythagoras: ..... given any side and 2 angles....... given the 3 sides of a right-angled triangle...com question practice aid To Find the Length of an Unknown Side 1...-.--...-.......-.....-... a) sin = opp b) cos = adj hyp hyp _. In the following text it is shown how to solve completely a right- r----._ a c2 + b2 tan = b = a2 .3 Geometry 3..--._ r-- a . a b r-" sin = c cos = c ... Use and/o r disclosure is Module 1. A c From the triangle shown: r-- ........ a =c sin b =c cos . So far we have evaluated the sine....-..--....

· 3-14 Module 1. If we have made an error in calculating angle A. to solve right-angled triangles. The following examples involve the use of trigonometry.Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. By using Pythagoras. a) In the right-angled triangle ABC. find angle A and side c B A 5 (1) To find angle A. to find side 'c'. this is the ratio we use. or combinations of trigonometry and Pythagoras. adj opp tan A = adj 12 tan A = 5 tan A = 2. we are given the side opposite and the side adjacent. Since opp = tan. we use only given information and thus the possibility of 'carrying' an error is eliminated.4 A = 67° 23' (after using a calculator or tables) (2) To find side c Note: If we use trig.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter . Note: In terms of angle a. it necessitates our using angle A which we have just found.com question practice aid 3. this would also result in an error in side 'c' .

Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.3 Geometry 3-15 govemed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter ©Copyright 2011 .com question practice aid c2 = a2 + b2 c ~a2 + b2 c ~12 2 + 52 c ~144 + 25 c ~169 c 13 Use and/or disclosure is Module 1.

com question practice aid Intentionally Blank 3-16 Module 1.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter .Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.

...... For the triangle shown..-._ B c 6 ------ .3 Geometry 3-17 g ov e rned by the stat eme nt TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter ©Copyright 2011 . .. ~ ~ r-'\ Use and/or disclosure is Module 1. cosine and tangent of A and C..---.... Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. .. ...... A 8 r-...... .com question practice aid Worksheet 1. find the sine.

Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid Intentionally Blank 3-18 Module 1.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement ©Copyright 201 1 on page 2 of this chapter .

8 cos c 0.3 Geometry 3-19 Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement TIS Integrated Training System on page 2 ol this chapter ©Copyright 2011 . Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.6 sin C = 0.33 /\ Module 1 .com question practice aid Answers 1.8 cos A = 0.6 tan A = 0.75 tan C 1. sin A = 0.

3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the sta tement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter .Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid Intentionally Blank 3-20 Module 1.

a point is defined by its coordinates which are written in the form (a. y axis 0 x axis Along the x andy axes we can mark off units of measurement (not necessarily the same on both axes). Coordinate axes (illustrated below) consist of a horizontal line (usually referred to as the x axis) and a vertical line (usually referred to as they axis). the second.2) l 0 Module 1. The point of intersection of these two lines is called the origin (usually denoted by the letter '0').----. the x coordinate. The y axis takes positive values above the origin and negative values below the origin. In general.3 Geometry 3-21 Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement TIS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 . is defined as the vertical distance of the point from the x axis. the y coordinate. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. (3.com question practice aid Coordinates and Graphs The x and y Axis An equation involving two variables can be represented by a graph drawn on 'Coordinates Axes'. The x axis takes positive values to the right of the origin and negative values to the left of the origin.. is defined as the horizontal distance of the point from the y axis. The first. b).. Any point on this diagram can be defined by its coordinates (consisting of two numbers). The origin takes the value zero on both axes. 2) may be plotted on the coordinate axes as follows:- y 2 -----. Example: The point (3.

2) E (-5.A . 1) F (3. E and F above are defined by their coordinates as follows: A (1' 4) D (-4. 1) B (3. C.D -fi -5 -4 .Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid Example: Consider the following diagram y .?. D.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TIS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter . The points A. B. -2 . -3) c (2. -2) .F.~ 3-22 Module 1.

Plot the following points on coordinate axes.. Worksheet 1. 3) ii) (1 . Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. 0) x) (-4.----.com question practice aid . -3) viii) (0.4) iii) (5. 2) v) (3. i) (2. -3) Use and/or disclosure is Module 1 .3 Geometry 3-23 governed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 ol this chapter ©Copyright 2011 . 4) vii) (-1. 0) iv) (0. 1) xi) (-3. -1) xii) (3.-1) vi) (-2.-4) ix) (-5.

3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System govem 9d by the statement © Copyright 201 1 on page 2 olthis Chapter .Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid Intentionally Blank .- 3-24 Module 1.

(-4. y X )((1. -5 -4 -..... -3) Use and/or disclosure is Module 1 .2. 4) x{2.. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. 3) .) )( (-3.3 Geometry 3-25 governed by the statement TIS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter ©Copyright 2011 .) x(_~ . _.com question practice aid Answers 1. 1) . 4) (.

3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement ©Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this ctlapter .Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. 3-26 Module 1.com question practice aid Intentionally Blank r--.

the axes must be drawn in a way that takes into account the range of the x-values and the range of the y-values. 2. for example. by means of a graph. you should use steps of. 5 or 10 etc.3 Geometry 3-27 Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement TTS Integrated T raining System on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 . You should avoid using steps along the axes of. the corresponding y values can be calculated from the equation being considered. The points obtained can then be plotted and joined together to form the graph. 1. For a given range of values of x. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.e. for example. units per square depending on the question. Modu le 1.com question practice aid Graphical Representations of an Equation An equation involving two variables can be represented . 7 or 9 units per square as this can complicate the graph unnecessarily. on coordinate axes. If graph paper is used (which is desirable) you should use a scale that involves a sensible number of units per square i. Before plotting the points on a graph.

. By taking x values of 0. (4.. 9). 1). . 5).Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.. 11 ). The points are then joined together to form the graph.. . each point being defined by its x coordinate and its corresponding y coordinate. G raph of y = 2x + 1 y y=2x +l 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 X 3-28 Module 1 .com question practice aid Example Draw the graph of y =2x + 1 for 0 :::. by first evaluating the component parts of the equation. x: 0 1 2 3 4 5 2x 0 2 4 6 8 10 +1 1 1 1 1 1 1 y: 1 3 5 7 9 11 We then plot the points obtained. (5. 1. In this example the points to be plotted are (0. 2.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement ©Copyright 2011 on page 2 ol this chapter . (3. (2.5. 7). x :::.. . we can calculate the corresponding y values. 5... 3). as shown below. (1.

6 and calculating the corresponding y values. 1.(i N. (6. 12)..ax + 12 for 0 ~ X ~ 6 We again take x values covering the given range .. -3). B. (1. V2. x: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x2 0 1 4 9 16 25 36 -8x 0 -8 -16 -24 -32 -40 -48 +12 +12 12 +12 +12 +12 +12 +12 y: 12 5 0 -3 -4 -3 0 We now plot the points obtained and join them together to form the graph..3 Geometry 3-29 Use and/or disclosure is governed by the sta tarrw:mt TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter ©Copyright 2011 . For a more detailed graph we could. 2.. by taking x values of 0. and calculate the corresponding y values from the given equation. 0).. .Sx + 12 6 4 2 4 5 -2 -4 . 5). 0).g. (2.5%.com question practice aid Example: Draw a graph of y =x2 . we could plot nearly twice as many points as we did in the above example Module 1 . -4). . . e. 2%. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. -3). (3. (4. include more points. y 11 10 y = x 2 .. In this example the points to be plotted are (0. 1%. of course.. (5.

' ' Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. we first calculate the corresponding y values from the given equation. Graph of y = x2 + l y y = x2 + 1 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 X 3-30 Module 1.com question practice aid Example: Draw a graph of y =x 2 + 1 for -3 ~ x ~ + 3 Again .3 Geometry Use andfor disclosure is ITS Integrated Training System govem ed by the statement ©Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter . x: -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 X 9 4 1 0 1 4 9 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 y: 10 5 2 1 2 5 10 We now plot the points obtained and join them together to form the graph . taking x values covering the given range.

Draw graphs of the following functions for 0 ~ x~ 5 i) y = 2x + 5 ii) y = 5x + 1 iii) y = 3x. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid Worksheet 1.6x + 5 2 v) y = x .16x2 . Draw graphs of the following functions for -3 ~ x~3 i) y = 2x22 + 7 ii) y = 3x .5 iv) y = x2 .7x + 12 vi) y = 3x2 .3 Geometry 3-31 governed by tha statemenl TIS Integrated Training System on page 2 ol this chapter © Copyright 2011 .7 iv) y = 4x3 . 16x + 64 1 v) y = - x+5 Use and/or disclosure is Module 1.12 3 iii) y =x .21 x + 30 2.

Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid Intentionally Blank 3-32 Module 1.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by tho otatomont on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 .

3 Geometry 3-33 TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 . Use andlor disclosure is govorned by tho ctatomcnt Module 1..

5 EE. 6x + 5 0 1 5 0 -3 y 5 4 J y =x 2 .Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro._ . 6x + 5 _5 2 1 I) X _. -2 -3 -5 3-34 Module 1..-· .3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by lhe Slalemenl ©Copyright 2011 on page 2 of lhis chapler ..com question practice aid 1ii) y =-~X .-::!o:------:- 2 ___ !__.I] )' 10 y = 3x -5 8 4 2 --~~----~--~~------~----~------~-------~ 0 X -2 2 y=x .

2lx + 30 X Use and/or disclosure is Module 1.com question practice aid r- y = x2 . r- Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.3 Geometry 3-35 governed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 or this chapter © Copyright 2011 .: 0 12 1 6 2 2 3 0 4 0 5 2 y 12 10 .7x + 12 r--'\ """'"' v) I. 30 12 0 -{) --6 0 y y = 3x 2 .r----.--- 4 y = x2 -7x + 12 2 0 6 X I~: vi) y = 3xL 21x + 30 0 1 2 3 4 5 r.-- 8 6 . r----.

. i) y = 2x2 + 7 I.12 x: -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 y: 15 0 .9 -12 -9 0 15 y 20 y = 3xL 12 15 10 5 0 X -5 -20 3-36 Module 1.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TIS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapte r ..Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid 2.3 -2 25 15 -1 9 0 7 1 9 15 2 y 30 y = 2x2 + 7 25 5 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 X ii) y = 3x2 .

....160 -~ Use and/or disclosure is Module 1..20 -40 --<iO -80 -100 -120 -140 ...-..~.~~--.-~~~ 1-1.:..:..1~-::64:70_. -4 -1 -2 -1 (I X iv) y = 4x3.l 6x + 64 ---=-~.. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.~-~7.16x2.: 3 -2~~ y 40 y = 4xL 16xL 16x + 64 20 0 X .::.com question practice aid 3 y =X -7 y 3 ~(I y =X -7 l:'i )() 5 L..3 Geometry 3-37 governed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 .

\ y.1 3-38 Module 1. 1/s l/4) l f: ':! 0. 5 y: \A..3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TIS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 201 1 on page 2 of this chapter .~~ ~·) y= ..l(. .com question practice aid . -3 -2 -1 0 2 X-<-.Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.

they intercept). we can substitute y =0 into the equation of the line to find where the line intersects with the x axis (i. Similarly. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.3x = 0 3x= 6 X=2 Use andfor disclosure is Module 1 . Example: Graph of y = 2x y y = 2x 4 . when y =0 6 . -.3 Geometry 3-39 govemed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System on page z of this chapter ©Copyright 2011 .- 2 3 4 X In this example. the x intercept). m =2 and c =0 Note that whenever c = 0.l 6 4 y = 6 -3x 2 0 1 2 3 4 X In this example. the line will pass through the origin. we know that this line cuts the y axis at y = 6 (this can be verified by substituting x =0 into the equation of the line. The point where the line crosses the x-axis is called the x intercept.e. as x = 0 along they axis). Example: Graph of y = 6.e.com question practice aid The Straight Line A straight line is defined as the shortest distance between two points. The equation of a straight line is given by y =mx + c where m represents the slope of the line and cis the point where the line crosses they-axis (i. as y = 0 along the x axis. m = -3 and c =6 As c = 6. We have.3x .

0 = -2 + 4x 4x= +2 X= Y2 Hence the x intercept is x = Y2 Special Cases A straight line parallel to the x-axis takes the form y = constant. that they intercept is -2 (i.. m = 4 and c = -2 We know. These cases are illustrated below: Straight line parallel to the x axis Straight line parallel to they axis y y x =3 _ _ _. a straight line parallel to the y-axis takes the form x = constant..y = 5 0 X 0 3 X 3-40 Module 1. Similarly..3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter . immediately. i.com question practice aid Hence the line cuts the x axis at x = 2 We can now say that they intercept= 6 and the x intercept= 2 Example: Graph or y "'" ....e.t--.Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro..2 + 4x X In this example. the value of c) To find the x intercept..e..::5::. we substitute y = 0 into the equation of the line..

Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.3 Geometry 3-41 Use and/or disclosure is g o ve rned by the sta tement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 .8 Module 1 . i) y = 4x + 5 ii) y= 9x iii) y=8 4 3x iv) Y=- 5 7 6 5x v) y=-- 13 vi) 3y = 9x + 6 vii) 8y = x.com question practice aid Worksheet For each of the following equations identify the gradient and the y-intercept.

Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid Intentionally Blank 3 -42 Module 1.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TT~ lntAgrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter .

13 vi) m = 3.3 Geometry 3-43 governed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 . s c- ._ 7 ' c = . Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.8' c--1 - Use and/or disclosure is Module 1.-13' 6 . .1. c = 2 vii) m-J.com question practice aid Answers m =gradient. c = 5 ii) m = 9. c = y-intercept i) m = 4. c = 0 iii) m = 0.5 v) m. c = 8 iv) m= _2...

3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 .com question practice aid Intentionally Blank 3-44 Module 1.Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.

. (x 1. Module 1. 4) we have 4=m +C (1) likewise.--. simultaneous equations) which we can solve. 10).. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid Derivation of the Equation y = mx + c Given the coordinates of two points.. If the straight line in question passes through the two given points.e. we can calculate the equation of the straight line that passes through these points.3 Geometry 3-45 Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement TIS Integrated T raining System on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 . (i. then each of these points must satisfy the equation of this straight line. y2 ) say. 10) we have 10 =3m+ c (2) Now (1) and (2) give us two equations in two unknowns. we can substitute the coordinates of each point as follows: y = mx + c substituting (1. 4) and (3. Method 1 The general equation of a straight line is given by y = mx + c and it is necessary to find numerical values for m and c. m and c. That is. y 0 X Two methods of calculating this equation are illustrated below: . y 1) and (x2 . substituting (3._ Example: The question is: Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the points (1.

Y1 = 4.3 --.__ y -4 = 3(x. Y2 = 10. y1) and the point (3..comquestion practice aid We have 4=m+c (1) 10 =3m+ c (2) subtracting (1) from (2) to eliminate c we obtain 6 = 2m m=3 substituting this value of m back into (1) we obtain 4 = m +C 4=3+C c = 4-3 C=1 If we now substitute these numerical values of m and c into the equation y = mx + c. 10) corresponding to (x1. 10) corresponded to (x2.1) --.B.Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. 4) corresponded to (x1. the point (1.. y -4 = 3x.. y1) . Y2)...Integrated . we obtain the equation of the straight line passing through the points (1.. . 4) and (3. That is · - y = 3x + 1 Method 2 In general. 3-46 Module 1. In this example. y 2). we can consider any two points (x1 Y1) and (x2. If we had worked through this example with the point (3. and we hence obtain: 10 4 6 m= 3 1 = 2 = 3 and our line becomes . Y2). and the point (1. 10). the answer would have been exactly the same . y =3x + 1 N. The straight line passing through these points can be written as where m = (m is the gradient of the line) Applying this to the points (1. x2 = 3.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is ---- TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement ©Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter . 10) we have X1 = 1. 4) and (3. 4) corresponding to (x2.

(-5. -9) I. 0) and (1. 7) li (0. -47) and (-2.3 Geometry 3-47 Use and/or disclosure is gove rned by lhe stalemenl TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 ol l~is ~apler ·· © Copyright 2011 . (1 . 6) viii. (3. (2. -26) ix. -1) vi.com question practice aid Worksheet 1. (0. (1 . -3) and (-2. 11A) and (2. 2) and (5. 1) and (4. 11) ii. Calculate the equation of the straight line that passes through the following points. (6. 2. 1) vii. -2) and (2. 8) v. -5) and (-1. 22) li (1. 1) and (3. i. (3. 7) and (3. 1) iv. 2%) Module 1. (0. Calculate the equation of the straight line that passes through the following points: i. Integrated Training System Desigrred in association with the club66pro. 6) iii. (0. 6) and (7. 0) and (-2. -2) X. 3) and (3. (1 .

com question practice aid Intentionally Blank 3-48 Module 1 .Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter .

y = 2x..3 vii.com question practice aid Answers 1. y = 2x + 1 11. i. y = -7x + 2 IV. X Module 1.7 .3 Geometry 3-49 Use and/or disclosure is gove rned by the stat eme nt TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter ©Copyright 2011 . y = 7x . y = 6x iii.-_. y =.12 IX. y = 4x + 2 iii. y = 2x + 5 11.5 vi. y= 6 viii. 1. 2.4X V. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. y =X. y = -2x. y= 3~. x =3 (y = mx + c does not work with lines of infinite gradient) X.

3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter .com question practice aid Intentionally Blank 3-50 Module 1.Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.

3 Geometry 3-51 Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter ©Copyright 2011 .com question practice aid Cartesian and Polar Coordinates To pinpoint where you are on a map or graph there are two main systems: Cartesian Coordinates Using Cartesian Coordinates you mark a point by how far along and how far up it is (x and y coordinates): x (x. and what angle it is (rand e coordinates): (r. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.y) ---------f' I I IY I I Polar Coordinates Using Polar Coordinates you mark a point by how far away.e) Module 1.

... to convert from Cartesian Coordinates (x. Example: What is (12..com question practice aid Converting To convert from one to the other. .. -I Use Pythagoras Theorem to find the long side (the hypotenuse): r = 122 +5 2 r = -../ (12 + 5 ) 2 2 r = -. you need to solve a triangle where you know two sides. you need to solve the triangle: To Convert from Cartesian to Polar If you have a point in Cartesian Coordinates (x.Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.~/~ 2£] e -~~ \ L 12 1.6° - So. 8): r = -. 5) in Polar Coordinates? ~~ ·../ (169) = 13 Use the Tangent Function to find the angle: tan 9= 212 e = tan-1 ~ 12 = 22. y) to Polar Coordinates (r. X 3-52 Module 1.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement ©Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter ./ (144 + 25) = -. 8). y) and need it in Polar Coordinates (r./ (x 2 +f) 6=tan-1 Y.

Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid To Convert from Polar to Cartesian If you have a point in Polar Coordinates (r.08 So. 8). 8) to Cartesian Coordinates (x. to convert from Polar Coordinates (r. y) : x =r x cos( 8) y =r x sin( 8) Module 1. and need it in Cartesian Coordinates (x.I Use the Cosine Function for x: X . y) you need to solve a triangle where you know the long side and the angle: Example: What is (13.921 = 11. 231 in Cartesian Coordinates? 1- X .391 = 5.98 Use the Sine Function for y: sin (231 = L13 Rearranging and solving: y = 13 x sin (231 = 13 x 0.3 Geometry 3-53 Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 . cos (231 = - 13 Rearranging and solving: X = 13 X COS (231 = 13 X 0.

3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter .com question practice aid Intentionally Blank 3-54 Module 1.Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.

.. 60° ....._ (c) --Js ft..4° ~ (b) 50 m. Convert the following polar coordinates into cartesian coordinates r---. (a) 13cm.67. .. 10) (c) (1 0.com question practice aid Worksheet 1... 4) (b) (10. Use and/or disclosure is Module 1..---. Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.3 Geometry 3-55 governed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of thi s chapter © Copyright 2011 ......... 0) 2. ..---. Convert the following cartesian coordinates into polar coordinates: (a) (3......~ .. n/2 radians ~ .-. ..

com question practice aid Intentionally Blank 3-56 Module 1.3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TTS Integrated Training System governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter © Copyright 2011 .Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.

Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro. 0° I r-. y =2m Use and/or disclosure is Module 1.3 m (c) x =2m. 53° (b) 14. 2. y = 12 em (b) x = 25 m. (a) x = 5 em. (a) 5.14. y = 43. 45° (c) 10.com question practice aid Answers 1.3 Geometry 3-57 governed by the statement TTS Integrated Training System on page 2 of this chapter ©Copyright 2011 .

3 Geometry Use and/or disclosure is TIS Integrated Training System governed by the statement © Copyright 2011 on page 2 of this chapter . Integrated Training System Designed in association with the club66pro.com question practice aid Intentionally Blank 1 3-58 Module 1.