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Patching

Description: An area of pavement that has been replaced with new material to
repair the existing pavement. A patch is considered a defect no matter how well
it performs.
Problem: Roughness
Possible Causes:
 Previous localized pavement deterioration that has been removed and
patched
 Utility cuts

Repair: Patches are themselves a repair action. The only way they can be
removed from a pavement’s surface is by either a structural or non-structural
overlay.
Potholes
Description: Small, bowl-shaped depressions in the pavement surface that
penetrate all the way through the HMA layer down to the base course. They
generally have sharp edges and vertical sides near the top of the hole. Potholes
are most likely to occur on roads with thin HMA surfaces (1 to 2 inches) and
seldom occur on roads with 4 inch or deeper HMA surfaces (Roberts et al.,
1996[1]).
Problem: Roughness (serious vehicular damage can result from driving across
potholes at higher speeds), moisture infiltration
Possible Causes: Generally, potholes are the end result of fatigue cracking. As
fatigue cracking becomes severe, the interconnected cracks create small chunks
of pavement, which can be dislodged as vehicles drive over them. The remaining
hole after the pavement chunk is dislodged is called a pothole.
Repair: In accordance with patching techniques.
Rutting
Description: Surface depression in the wheelpath. Pavement uplift (shearing)
may occur along the sides of the rut. Ruts are particularly evident after a rain
when they are filled with water. There are two basic types of rutting: mix rutting
and subgrade rutting. Mix rutting occurs when the subgrade does not rut yet the
pavement surface exhibits wheelpath depressions as a result of compaction/mix
design problems. Subgrade rutting occurs when the subgrade exhibits wheelpath
depressions due to loading. In this case, the pavement settles into the subgrade
ruts causing surface depressions in the wheelpath.
Problem: Ruts filled with water can cause vehicle hydroplaning, can be hazardous
because ruts tend to pull a vehicle towards the rut path as it is steered across
the rut.
Possible Causes: Permanent deformation in any of a pavement’s layers or
subgrade usually caused by consolidation or lateral movement of the materials
due to traffic loading. Specific causes of rutting can be:

75 in (19mm) and adjacent medium to high severity random cracking. poor mix design or studded tire wear). Edge Cracks Edge Cracks travel along the inside edge of a pavement surface within one or two feet. insufficient compaction. Cracks are >0. Cracks are moderately or severely spalled. insufficient amount of angular aggregate particles) Repair: A heavily rutted pavement should be investigated to determine the root cause of failure (e. Severity Levels LOW An area of cracks with no or very few interconnecting cracks and the cracks are not spalled.25 in (6mm) in mean width. Heavy vegetation along the pavement edge and heavy traffic can also be the instigator of edge cracking. ALLIGATOR CRACKING Description Alligator cracking may be considered a combination of fatigue and block cracking. Cracks in the pattern are no further apart than 1 foot (0.g.g. Slight ruts (< 1/3 inch deep) can generally be left untreated. The most common cause for this type of crack is poor drainage conditions and lack of support at the pavement edge.75 in.. Cracks are <= 0. Cracks in the pattern are no further apart than 6 in. subgrade rutting. FIX: The first stepin correcting the problem is to remove any existing vegetation close to the edge of the pavement and fix any drainage problems. excessively high asphalt content. (6 mm) and <= 0. Alligator cracking develops into a many-sided pattern that resembles chicken wire or alligator skin.  Subgrade rutting (e. Cracks are >0. (150 mm). If it is not compacted enough initially. It is a series of interconnected cracks of various stages of development. Crack seal/fill the cracks to prevent further deterioration or remove and reconstruct to full depth fixing any support issues.. It can occur anywhere in the road lane. . May be sealed cracks with sealant in good condition and a crack width that cannot be determined. excessive mineral filler.328 m).75 in (19mm) or any crack with a mean width <= 0. Cracks may be slightly spalled.  Insufficient compaction of HMA layers during construction. HMA pavement may continue to densify under traffic loads.25 in. MEDIUM An area of interconnected cracks that form a complete pattern. Alligator cracking must have a quantifiable area. As a result underlying base materials settle and become weakened. as a result of inadequate pavement structure)  Improper mix design or manufacture (e. (19 mm) or any crack with a mean width <= 19 mm and adjacent low severity cracking. HIGH An area of interconnected cracks forming a complete pattern.g. Pavement with deeper ruts should be leveled and overlayed.

and 40 are the Maximum Allowable Extents for each severity. These values range from ≥ 0 to ≤ 200. we will allow up to 160% low severity ruts for a 0. resulting in a total of 20 measurements taken for both wheel paths.02 mile * lane width There are no severity levels for patching. high severity Percent of rut measurements within each severity is computed as: Number of ruts within each severity 10 * 100.02 interval for each of 2 wheel paths (left and right). we will allow up to 80% patching for a 0. TABLE 2: Alligator Crack Severity Levels Crack Pattern ALLIGATOR CRACKING SEVERITY LEVELS LOW MED HIGH LOW L M H MED M M H Crack Width HI H H H Patching Index PATCH_INDEX = 100 – 40 * (%PATCHING / 80) Where: The value %PATCHING reports the percentage of the observed pavement (0. low severity %MED = Percent of ARAN-measured ruts in both wheelpaths (20) within a single wheelpath.02 interval before failure. or failure. This value ranges from ≥ 0 to ≤ 100. 80. The values %LOW. Alligator Crack Index AC_INDEX = 100 – 40 * [(%LOW / 70) + (%MED / 30) + (%HI / 10)] . %PATCHING = Percent of total area (primary lane. In other words. or failure. As you can see. Table 2 illustrates this. Based on above description of each severity.A combination of observed crack width and crack pattern is used to determine overall severity of alligator cracking.02 in length) Percent of total area is computed as: square foot area of patching/potholes 0. As you can see. It either exists or does not. medium severity %HI = (Percent of ARAN-measured ruts in both wheelpaths (20) within a single wheelpath. the denominators 160. if any single severity reaches MAE the resulting index value is 60. %MED and %HI report the percentage of the 20 measurements within that severity.In RUT_INDEX. Rutting Index RUT_INDEX = 100 – 40 * [(%LOW / 160) + (%MED / 80) + (%HI / 40)] Where: 10 ARAN rut depth measurements are taken per 0. the denominator 80 is the Maximum Allowable Extent (MAE) for each severity. if patching/potholes reaches MAE the resulting index value is 60. 0. %LOW = Percent of ARAN-measured ruts in both wheelpaths (20) within a single wheelpath.02 mile. the highest level of crack width and crack pattern determines overall severity. In PATCH_INDEX. primary lane) that contains patching/potholes.02 interval before failure. In other words.

low severity %MED = Percent of total area (primary lane. and so on. 30% for medium severity. In other words. we will allow up to 70% of low severity alligator cracking for a 0.02 in length).02 in length).02 mile. medium severity %HI = Percent of total area (primary lane. %LOW = Percent of total area (primary lane.02 interval before failure. . These values range from ≥ 0 to ≤ 100. %MED and %HI report the percentage of the observed pavement (0. if any single severity reaches MAE the resulting index value is 60. 0. 0.02 in length). high severity Percent of total area is computed as: square foot area of alligator crack severity 0.Where : The values %LOW. primary lane) that contains alligator cracking within the respective severities. 0.02 mile * lane width In AC_INDEX. the denominators 70. 30. or failure. and 10 are the Maximum Allowable Extents (MAE) for each severity. As you can see.