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MAS 4301H Honors Modern Algebra

1. N OTATION
Notation 1. Here is a list of some common notation that we will be using throughout the course.
(1) The notation ∈ should be read as either “an element of” or “in”. E.g. x ∈ A can be read as “x is an
element of A” or “x is in A.”
(2) N is the set of natural numbers: N = {1, 2, 3, . . .}. (We will often consider 0 as a natural number.)
(3) Z is the set of integers: Z = {. . . , −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, . . .}.
(4) Q is the set of rational numbers: Q = { ba : a, b ∈ Z and b 6= 0}.
(5) R is the set of real numbers.
(6) C is the set of complex numbers: C = {a + bi : a, b ∈ R}.
(7) For sets A, B we denote the cartesian product by A × B; we also call this the direct product. The
product of A and B is the set of ordered pairs: A × B = {(a, b) : a ∈ A and b ∈ B}. We often denote
A × A by A2 .
(8) For a set A and a natural number n ∈ N, An is the set of n-tuples of elements in A: An = {(a1 , . . . , an ) :
a1 , . . . , an ∈ A}.
(9) Quantifiers: ∀, ∃ denote the universal (for every) and existential (there exists) quantifiers.
(10) A ⊆ B means A is a subset of B, that is every element of A is an element of B.
(11) A ∩ B means the intersection of A and B: A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A and x ∈ B}.
(12) A ∪ B means the union of A and B: A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A or x ∈ B}.
(13) Given a set A, the collection of all subsets of A is a set called the power set and denoted by P(A).
(14) There is a unique set with no elements. This is called the empty set and is denoted by 0. /
Remark 2. Remember to use your logic skills. The following is a sample of important proof techniques.
(1) Logic of Conditionals.
(a) To prove the statement P → Q is true, first assume that P is true and prove either directly or
indirectly (contradiction) that Q is true.
(b) To prove the bi-conditional P ↔ Q involves both proving the necessity P → Q and sufficiency
Q → P.
(c) Remember that the contrapositive of the statement P → Q is ¬Q → ¬P. A statement and its
contrapositive are tautologically equivalent.
(2) DeMorgan’s Laws: i) ¬(P ∧ Q) is tautologically equivalent to ¬P ∨ ¬Q and ii) ¬(P ∨ Q) is tauto-
logically equivalent to ¬P ∧ ¬Q
(3) The negation of the statement “∀xP(x)” is equivalent to the statement ∃x¬P(x). Similarly, ¬∃xP(x)
is equivalent to ∀x¬P(x).
(4) To prove a universally quantified sentence ∀xP(x) take an arbitrary x and prove that P(x).
(5) Axiom of Extensionality. Two sets A and B are equal if every member of A is a member of B and
every member of B is a member of A. We usually do this in two steps. Take an arbitrary member
of A and explain why in B, then the reverse.
(6) To prove that the conditional P → (Q ∨ R) is true you can start your proof by assuming that P is
true while Q is false. Then you need to show that R is true.
(7) (The Principle of Mathematical Induction) When trying to prove a statement about the natural
numbers use induction: i) Basis Step – prove true for n = 1 ii) Induction Step – assume true for n
(or 1, 2, . . . , n) and prove true for n + 1.
(8) Define by Recursion, prove by induction.
Exercise 1. Let A, B and C be sets. Prove that A ∩ (B ∪C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩C).
Exercise 2. Prove that if A is a set with n elements, then P(A) has 2n elements.

Exercise 9 (Shan). iii) transitive relation. Consider the relation on N defined by divisibility: R = {(a. . vi) partial order. How many binary operations on a set with n elements? Example 7. Exercise 3 (Amy). if b1 . Shan). Supply a definition for the following: i) reflexive relation.] We usually write f : A → B and say f is a function from A to B. 0. ii. 3. Exercise 4 (Rachel). Definition 4. (a. . For any n ∈ N an n-ary operation on A is the function f (a1 . Supply a definition for a function f : A → B to be: i) injective (one-to-one). an n-ary operation on A is a function ∗ : An → A.. Exercise 10 (Class). Exercise 8. Suppose A and B are two sets with n-elements. . 2.. Given sets A and B a relation from A to B is a subset of A × B. Determine the number of bijections from A onto B. The set of permutations of the set A is denoted SA . Exercise 6. Prove that R is a partial order. How many unary operations on a set with n elements? Exercise 11 (Class). . iv) equivalence relation. How many binary operations on a set with 2 elements? 3..n} we write Sn . . Exercise 7 (Harrison). A is called the domain of f and B is called the co-domain. For all a ∈ A there is a b ∈ B such that (a. b1 ). then b1 = b2 . 2. n} instead of writing S{1. In this case. Given sets A. O PERATIONS Definition 6. 1. unary. For the most part we will be interested in binary operations on sets. B. We also use the terms tertiary (or ternary). Exercise 5 (Rachel. an ) = a1 . and nullary for n = 3. ii) surjective (onto). 1. Definition 5. ii) symmetric relation. A bijection from a set onto itself is called a permutation. The most important class of relations are the functions. v) anti-symmetric relations. the composition of f and g is the function g ◦ f : A → C defined by (g ◦ f )(x) = g( f (x)). Relations on A are subsets of A × A. . 1. 2.2.. [Vertical Line Test. Prove that the composition of two injective functions is injective. b) ∈ N2 : ∃k ∈ N such that ak = b}. . When A = {1. R ELATIONS AND F UNCTIONS Definition 3. For any a ∈ A. We can discuss discuss different kinds of relations from A to B.2 2. Recall that addition on Q is defined by ba + dc = ad+bc bd . Recall that the relation R from A to B is a function if it satisfies i. while multiplication is defined by ac bd = ac bd . 3. How many binary operations on a set with 1 element? 2. On the sets N and Z two natural binary operations are addition and multiplication. b2 ) ∈ R.C and functions f : A → B and g : B → C. Prove that the composition of two surjective functions is surjective. Prove that the composition of two functions is again a function. . b) ∈ R. Notice that when n = 2 we call this a binary operation instead of 2-ary. Determine the size of the set Sn for n ∈ N. b2 ∈ B such that (a. iii) bijective. Given a set A and a n ∈ N. 1. .

c)) = ∗(∗(a. 2. Let a ∈ A. Is this operation associative? Is it commutative? Does it rule (r1 . Denote this set by AA . say +. a ∗ b = pa + qb + r (where p. Exercise 13 (Rachel). a is a right zero element if for all b ∈ A. for commutativity. Suppose A is equipped with two operations. Determine when it is commutative. s2 ) = (r1 s1 + pr1 s2 . Let A be a (nonempty) set and consider the set of all functions from A back into A. Similarly. Prove that ∗ is not associative. r2 )(s ˙ 1 . s2 ) = (r1 s1 . Determine whether the cross-product on R3 is associative or commutative. 3 Definition 8. Suppose A is a (nonempty) set and ∗ is an operation on A. Let A = R × R and consider the operation on A defined by the rule (r1 . a is an identity element if it is both a left identity and right identity. b) we write a ∗ b. Exercise 23. r1 s2 + r2 s1 ). r2 )(s distribute over coordinate-wise addition. 1. We say 1. b2 ) = (a1 + b1 . 3. Exercise 14. Exercise 18 (Alden). 4. a2 + b2 ). a ∗ (b ∗ c) = (a ∗ b) ∗ c. Prove that composition. r2 )(s r1 s2 . The operation ∗ is called associative if for all a. Is this operation associative? Is it commutative? Does it distribute over coordinate-wise addition. a ∗ b = a. 2. ˙ 1 . 4. [Amy] Which of the following operations on N are associative? 1.. a is a right identity element if for all b ∈ A. s2 ) = (r1 s1 − Exercise 22. say ∗ : A2 → A. c ∈ A. Is this operation associative? Is it commutative? Does it distribute over coordinate- wise addition. b ∗ a = a. 2. Exercise 17 (Harrison). a ∗ b = b.. Let A be equipped with a binary operation. Consider the operation on A defined by the ˙ 1 . Let A = R × R and consider the operation on A defined by the rule (r1 . q. b. Define what it means for ∗ to distribute over ◦. ◦. 6. a is a zero element if it is both a left and right zero element. r ∈ N are fixed). r1 s2 + r2 s1 ). a ∗ b = a. How about a set with 3 elements? Which of these are commutative? Exercise 16 (Raymond). r1 s2 + r2 s1 ). a is a left identity element if for all b ∈ A. Exercise 15 (Alden). Exercise 19 (Shan). . Let A be equipped with a binary operation. b). ∗(b. 5. say +. r2 s2 ). c). a ∗ b = 50. s2 ) = (r1 s1 +r1 s2 +r2 s1 . 3. b1 + b2 ). Exercise 21 (Harrison). instead of writing ∗(a. a ∗ b = a. Let A = R × R and let p be a (fixed) prime. hopefully now you know why we use the notation a ∗ b. Prove that ⊕ is associative if and only if + is associative. Is this operation associative? Is it commutative? Does it distribute over coordinate-wise addition. a is a left zero element if for all b ∈ A. When we talk about binary operations. a2 ) ⊕ (b1 .) Exercise 12. Let A = R × R and consider the operation on A defined by the rule (r1 . S PECIAL E LEMENTS R ELATIVE TO AN O PERATION Definition 9. b2 ) = (a1 + a2 . Exercise 20 (Amy). r2 )(s ˙ 1 . Which of the operations in Example 12 are commutative. is an associative binary operation on AA . a ∗ b = ab . Define a commutative operation on a set. On A2 the operation (a1 . On A2 we define the coordinate- wise + as the operation (a1 . 4. (Notice that we don’t write ∗(a. Find all (binary) operations on a set with two elements that are associative. ◦. a2 ) ∗ (b1 . say ∗.

◦) prove that an element is a left unit if and only if it is surjective. In the semigroup (AA . On N consider the operation gcd. Recall from Matrix Theory that the set of n-matrices over R is denoted by Mn (R). ∗) has a. ∗) is a semigroup”. So abstractly we use multiplication as our operation and 1 as its identity. When we say (A. Prove that every element is idempotent. Must it be true that a = b if both a and b are left (right) identity elements? Exercise 26. b). For a ∈ A we set a1 = a. Suppose (A. A semigroup is a set A with an associative operation *. b ∈ A for which a is a left identity and b is a right identity. Prove that for an element a ∈ A and n ∈ N. If there is an identity for ∗. left (right) identity. ∗. Exercise 27 (Rachel). Prove that if x is a right inverse and y is a left inverse. Suppose that (A. for a. For the associative operations on the set A = {a. I. ∗. ∗) is a semigroup. Exercise 34. 0) is a monoid. b ∈ A for which a is a left zero and b is a right zero. ∗) a monoid. 5. b ∈ N. We will write “(A. We say a is a left unit if there is some x ∈ A such that a ∗ x = 1. and is equipped with matrix addition and matrix multiplication. An element in a monoid that is both a left unit and right unit is called a a unit. that is. ∗. Example 14. 1) is a monoid and that a is a unit. Let (A. a2 = a ∗ a. Prove that (a∗b)n = an ∗ bn . Definition 12. Suppose (A. we define a right unit and a left inverse. The identity matrix is the multiplicative identity. An element x ∈ A for which a ∗ x = 1 is called a right inverse of a. ∗. ∗) be a semigroup. Exercise 31. Suppose (A. Exercise 35. that an+1 = a ∗ an and explain why this might not be true if ∗ is not associative. The zero matrix is the additive identity and a zero element with respect to multiplication. Let (A. Exercise 29. Find the identity and units in Exercise 19 and Exercise 20. Then suppose we have defined an and define an+1 = an ∗ a. Must it be true that a = b if both a and b are left (right) zero elements? Exercise 25. Definition 13. II. S EMIGROUPS AND M ONOIDS Definition 10. Prove that gcd is an associative and commutative operation with a zero element. An element a ∈ A for which a2 = a is called an idempotent. Addition is commutative while multiplication is not if n ≥ 2. ∗) is a semigroup. Suppose (A. ∗) is a semigroup and that ∗ is commutative.4 Exercise 24 (Rachel). b} identity the left (right) zero. But in specific examples a different element could be the identity. ◦) prove that an element is a right unit if and only if it is injective. ∗) has a. Conclude that there is at most one zero element for an operation. 1) is a monoid this means two things: i) ∗ is associative and ii) 1 is an identity for ∗. Exercise 28 (Raymond). 1) is a monoid and that a is a unit. Similarly. 1) be a monoid and a ∈ A. Conclude that there is at most one identity element for an operation. if any. Prove that a = b. Characterize the units of M2 (R). the operation sends (a. (Notice that (Z. We will assume that both of these operations are associative. We recursively define exponentiation on A. +. Prove that a = b. In the semigroup (AA . Suppose that (A. Suppose (A. ∗) is a semigroup. b) to gcd(a. Suppose (A. Exercise 33. then we call (A. Exercise 32. Exercise 30 (Alden). . then x = y. then x = y. Definition 11. Prove that if x and y are both right (left) inverses for a.

a ≤ a ∗ b. Exercise 39. then a ? b ≤ z. We just proved that an inverse for a is unique. We denote the inverse of a by a−1 . ?. >. b ∈ L [a ? (a • b) = a = a • (a ? b)]. What is (a−1 )−1 ? Exercise 36. Prove the Law of Exponentiation: for any n. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. The rest of the course will be centered around groups. Let (L. an is a unit. ?. (b • a) ≤ a. If out of all of the upper bounds for S there exists a particular upper bound. b. Both ? and • have zero elements. and ⊥ denote the zero element for •. Suppose (A. (We analogously defined a lower bound for S and greatest lower bound for S). Prove that a−1 is a unit. b ≤ a ? b and if a. Consider the relations R = {(a. say z. Let (L. >. and ii) for all a ∈ L. Prove that i) for all a. that is it satisfies the above axioms. if a ≤ z and b ≤ z. ∗. Definition 18. 1) be a monoid and a a unit of A. then z is called a least upper bound for S. >. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. ∗. then we can equip L with a partial order ≤ so that (L. Exercise 40. b) ∈ R we write a ≤ b. for any pair of elements there is a largest element that is smaller than both elements. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. Thus a ? b is the least upper bound for a and b. Let (L. 6. In this section we consider what are known as bounded lattices. Prove that i) for all a ∈ L. ∗. >. Exercise 43. Exercise 38. Let > denote the zero element for ?. Prove that i) > is an identity for •. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. Prove that for any n ∈ N. •. •. b ∈ L. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. and ii) for all a ∈ L. Prove that the relation defined in Exercise 40 is a partial order. then a ? b ≤ z. The operations satisfy what is known as the absorption law: for all a. Prove that i) for all a. and ii) for all a. 1) is a monoid and that a is a unit. •. Definition 17. ⊥)” to say that L is a bounded lattice. Exercise 42. ⊥≤ a. c. z ∈ L. . ?. ?. if z ≤ a and z ≤ b. What is its inverse? Exercise 37. Let (L. a ≤ 1. b. 1) be a monoid and a. ?. >. Let (A. ∗. ≤) satisfies the properties that for any pair of elements in L there is smallest element in L which is bigger than both elements. b) : a ? b = b} and S = {(a. Throughout this section L denotes a set that has two associative operations on it ? and •. 1) be a monoid and a a unit of A. LATTICES We now begin our study of sets equipped with certain kinds of binary operations. We use “(L. >. Exercise 44. We assume that the operations satisfy the following list of axioms. an ∗ am = an+m . b) : a • b = a}. What we have shown is that if (L. Both ? and • are commutative. 1) is a monoid and that a is a unit. >. b are units of A. >. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. Instead of saying that (a. Let (A. Let (L. 5 Definition 15. b ≤ z. Exercise 41. Let (L. •. s ≤ x. Suppose (A. Prove that R = S. such that z ≤ x for all other upper bounds x. then z ≤ a • b. Definition 16. Given a subset S ⊆ L we that the element x ∈ L is an upper bound for S if for all s ∈ S. Find (an )−1 . •. •. In the example of a lattice we know that a. ?. a. Similarly. Prove that a ∗ b is also a unit. z ∈ L. ?. and ii) ⊥ is an identity for ?. ∗. •. ⊥) is a bounded lattice. m ∈ Z. Let (A. •. b. ?.

Exercise 50. and lattices? . b ∈ P a ∨ b = l. suppose there are elements 0. 0 ≤ a and a ≤ 1. If z is a greatest lower bound for S. Suppose P is a set equipped with a partial order ≤. Exercise 48.b. What is the final conclusion of this section involving partial orders with pairs having a l. not necessarily arriving from a lat- tice structure. and g. Prove that ∨ is an associative operation. then it is the only greatest lower bound for S. We define binary operations on P: for a. b ∈ P a ∨ (a ∧ b) = a ∧ (a ∨ b). Furthermore.{a. Suppose S ⊆ L. Definition 19. 1 ∈ P such that for all a ∈ P.l. Suppose that every pair of elements has a least upper bound and a greatest lower bound. Exercise 47.b. Prove that ∨ and ∧ are commutative operations. b} and a ∧ b = g. Prove that ∨ and ∧ have zero elements. Exercise 51. b}. Prove that for all a.6 Exercise 45.u. Exercise 49. Prove that ∧ is an associative operation.u. Exercise 46.b.l.b.{a.