0 views

Uploaded by Danrlley Maciel

resposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacinaresposta teoria abacina

save

- computing
- relations and functions
- Data Structures 1
- TOC Lecture Note2 (1)
- 3.8
- Regular Expressions
- 148
- slides7-sort.pdf
- The SIL French/English Linguistic Glossary. Théorie des opérations énonciatives : définitions, terminologie, explications
- An.introduction.to.the.theory.of.Surreal.numbers
- Marco Gori and Franco Scarselli- Are Multilayer Perceptrons Adequate for Pattern Recognition and Verification?
- 002 - Module 1 Introduction to Theory of Computations
- Fuzzy Logic an Introductory Course for Eng - Enric Trillas
- a2 Handout
- Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic Theory and Applications
- expressoes_numericas_in.doc
- Em 12 Funcao Exponencial_(1)
- Lista de Exercícios - RECUPERAÇĀO de MATEMÁTICA 1 - Primeiro período - DETERMINANTES - Turma 2201
- GABtestematrizdeterm1abril2009.doc
- Questões de Prova Sargento
- Frações - Td Nº04
- 12993-40060-1-PB
- Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems Enabling Tech
- doc_matematica__1756475888.doc
- Solucao Semelhanca de Triangulos
- Rev Isao
- 12993-40060-1-PB.pdf
- Revisão 5 - Exercícios de Leitura de Gráficos.doc
- Teste Para Os Professores
- modelo-pronto-resenha.doc
- 1listaEstAlg2017
- 1listaTN2017
- 1osim2013comenemdomingocomentada-130818131004-phpapp02
- exer_resol.pdf
- 36 Ocm Ensino Fundamental-1981 a 2013
- Plano de Aula Nível 1
- 4120e010
- Algebra Chico
- resposta teoria abacina
- absalg3
- 37 Ocm Ensino Médio de 1981 a 2013
- 571091
- OCM NÍVEL 1
- prednaska6prik

You are on page 1of 6

1. N OTATION

Notation 1. Here is a list of some common notation that we will be using throughout the course.

(1) The notation ∈ should be read as either “an element of” or “in”. E.g. x ∈ A can be read as “x is an

element of A” or “x is in A.”

(2) N is the set of natural numbers: N = {1, 2, 3, . . .}. (We will often consider 0 as a natural number.)

(3) Z is the set of integers: Z = {. . . , −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, . . .}.

(4) Q is the set of rational numbers: Q = { ba : a, b ∈ Z and b 6= 0}.

(5) R is the set of real numbers.

(6) C is the set of complex numbers: C = {a + bi : a, b ∈ R}.

(7) For sets A, B we denote the cartesian product by A × B; we also call this the direct product. The

product of A and B is the set of ordered pairs: A × B = {(a, b) : a ∈ A and b ∈ B}. We often denote

A × A by A2 .

(8) For a set A and a natural number n ∈ N, An is the set of n-tuples of elements in A: An = {(a1 , . . . , an ) :

a1 , . . . , an ∈ A}.

(9) Quantifiers: ∀, ∃ denote the universal (for every) and existential (there exists) quantifiers.

(10) A ⊆ B means A is a subset of B, that is every element of A is an element of B.

(11) A ∩ B means the intersection of A and B: A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A and x ∈ B}.

(12) A ∪ B means the union of A and B: A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A or x ∈ B}.

(13) Given a set A, the collection of all subsets of A is a set called the power set and denoted by P(A).

(14) There is a unique set with no elements. This is called the empty set and is denoted by 0. /

Remark 2. Remember to use your logic skills. The following is a sample of important proof techniques.

(1) Logic of Conditionals.

(a) To prove the statement P → Q is true, first assume that P is true and prove either directly or

indirectly (contradiction) that Q is true.

(b) To prove the bi-conditional P ↔ Q involves both proving the necessity P → Q and sufficiency

Q → P.

(c) Remember that the contrapositive of the statement P → Q is ¬Q → ¬P. A statement and its

contrapositive are tautologically equivalent.

(2) DeMorgan’s Laws: i) ¬(P ∧ Q) is tautologically equivalent to ¬P ∨ ¬Q and ii) ¬(P ∨ Q) is tauto-

logically equivalent to ¬P ∧ ¬Q

(3) The negation of the statement “∀xP(x)” is equivalent to the statement ∃x¬P(x). Similarly, ¬∃xP(x)

is equivalent to ∀x¬P(x).

(4) To prove a universally quantified sentence ∀xP(x) take an arbitrary x and prove that P(x).

(5) Axiom of Extensionality. Two sets A and B are equal if every member of A is a member of B and

every member of B is a member of A. We usually do this in two steps. Take an arbitrary member

of A and explain why in B, then the reverse.

(6) To prove that the conditional P → (Q ∨ R) is true you can start your proof by assuming that P is

true while Q is false. Then you need to show that R is true.

(7) (The Principle of Mathematical Induction) When trying to prove a statement about the natural

numbers use induction: i) Basis Step – prove true for n = 1 ii) Induction Step – assume true for n

(or 1, 2, . . . , n) and prove true for n + 1.

(8) Define by Recursion, prove by induction.

Exercise 1. Let A, B and C be sets. Prove that A ∩ (B ∪C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩C).

Exercise 2. Prove that if A is a set with n elements, then P(A) has 2n elements.

Exercise 9 (Shan). iii) transitive relation. Consider the relation on N defined by divisibility: R = {(a. . vi) partial order. How many binary operations on a set with n elements? Example 7. Exercise 3 (Amy). if b1 . Shan). Supply a definition for the following: i) reflexive relation.] We usually write f : A → B and say f is a function from A to B. 0. ii. 3. Exercise 4 (Rachel). Definition 4. (a. . For any n ∈ N an n-ary operation on A is the function f (a1 . Supply a definition for a function f : A → B to be: i) injective (one-to-one). an n-ary operation on A is a function ∗ : An → A.. Exercise 10 (Class). Exercise 8. Suppose A and B are two sets with n-elements. . 2.. Given sets A and B a relation from A to B is a subset of A × B. Determine the number of bijections from A onto B. The set of permutations of the set A is denoted SA . Exercise 6. Prove that R is a partial order. How many unary operations on a set with n elements? Exercise 11 (Class). . iv) equivalence relation. How many binary operations on a set with 2 elements? 3..n} we write Sn . . Exercise 7 (Harrison). A is called the domain of f and B is called the co-domain. For all a ∈ A there is a b ∈ B such that (a. b1 ). then b1 = b2 . 2. n} instead of writing S{1. In this case. Given sets A. O PERATIONS Definition 6. 1. unary. For the most part we will be interested in binary operations on sets. B. We also use the terms tertiary (or ternary). Exercise 5 (Rachel. an ) = a1 . and nullary for n = 3. ii) surjective (onto). 1. Definition 5. ii) symmetric relation. A bijection from a set onto itself is called a permutation. The most important class of relations are the functions. v) anti-symmetric relations. the composition of f and g is the function g ◦ f : A → C defined by (g ◦ f )(x) = g( f (x)). Relations on A are subsets of A × A. . 1. 2.2.. [Vertical Line Test. Prove that the composition of two injective functions is injective. b) ∈ N2 : ∃k ∈ N such that ak = b}. . When A = {1. R ELATIONS AND F UNCTIONS Definition 3. For any a ∈ A. We can discuss discuss different kinds of relations from A to B.2 2. Recall that addition on Q is defined by ba + dc = ad+bc bd . Recall that the relation R from A to B is a function if it satisfies i. while multiplication is defined by ac bd = ac bd . 3. How many binary operations on a set with 1 element? 2. On the sets N and Z two natural binary operations are addition and multiplication. b2 ) ∈ R.C and functions f : A → B and g : B → C. Prove that the composition of two surjective functions is surjective. Prove that the composition of two functions is again a function. . b) ∈ R. Notice that when n = 2 we call this a binary operation instead of 2-ary. Determine the size of the set Sn for n ∈ N. b2 ∈ B such that (a. iii) bijective. Given a set A and a n ∈ N. 1. .

c)) = ∗(∗(a. 2. Let a ∈ A. Is this operation associative? Is it commutative? Does it rule (r1 . Denote this set by AA . say +. a ∗ b = pa + qb + r (where p. Exercise 13 (Rachel). a is a right zero element if for all b ∈ A. for commutativity. Suppose A is equipped with two operations. Determine when it is commutative. s2 ) = (r1 s1 + pr1 s2 . Let A be a (nonempty) set and consider the set of all functions from A back into A. Similarly. Prove that ∗ is not associative. r2 )(s ˙ 1 . s2 ) = (r1 s1 . Determine whether the cross-product on R3 is associative or commutative. 3 Definition 8. Suppose A is a (nonempty) set and ∗ is an operation on A. Let A = R × R and consider the operation on A defined by the rule (r1 . a is an identity element if it is both a left identity and right identity. b) we write a ∗ b. Exercise 23. r1 s2 + r2 s1 ). r2 )(s distribute over coordinate-wise addition. 1. We say 1. b2 ) = (a1 + b1 . 3. Exercise 14. Exercise 18 (Alden). 4. a2 + b2 ). a ∗ (b ∗ c) = (a ∗ b) ∗ c. Prove that composition. r2 )(s r1 s2 . The operation ∗ is called associative if for all a. Is this operation associative? Is it commutative? Does it distribute over coordinate-wise addition. a ∗ b = a. 2. ˙ 1 . 4. [Amy] Which of the following operations on N are associative? 1.. a is a right identity element if for all b ∈ A. s2 ) = (r1 s1 − Exercise 22. say ∗ : A2 → A. c ∈ A. Is this operation associative? Is it commutative? Does it distribute over coordinate- wise addition. b ∗ a = a. 2. Exercise 17 (Harrison). a ∗ b = b.. Let A be equipped with a binary operation. Consider the operation on A defined by the ˙ 1 . Let A = R × R and consider the operation on A defined by the rule (r1 . q. b. Define what it means for ∗ to distribute over ◦. ◦. 6. a is a zero element if it is both a left and right zero element. r ∈ N are fixed). r1 s2 + r2 s1 ). a ∗ b = a. How about a set with 3 elements? Which of these are commutative? Exercise 16 (Raymond). r1 s2 + r2 s1 ). a is a left identity element if for all b ∈ A. Exercise 15 (Alden). Exercise 19 (Shan). . Let A be equipped with a binary operation. b). ∗(b. 5. say +. r2 s2 ). c). a ∗ b = 50. s2 ) = (r1 s1 +r1 s2 +r2 s1 . 3. b1 + b2 ). Exercise 21 (Harrison). instead of writing ∗(a. a ∗ b = a. Let A = R × R and let p be a (fixed) prime. hopefully now you know why we use the notation a ∗ b. Prove that ⊕ is associative if and only if + is associative. Is this operation associative? Is it commutative? Does it distribute over coordinate-wise addition. a is a left zero element if for all b ∈ A. When we talk about binary operations. a2 ) ⊕ (b1 .) Exercise 12. Let A = R × R and consider the operation on A defined by the rule (r1 . S PECIAL E LEMENTS R ELATIVE TO AN O PERATION Definition 9. b2 ) = (a1 + a2 . Exercise 20 (Amy). r2 )(s ˙ 1 . Which of the operations in Example 12 are commutative. is an associative binary operation on AA . a ∗ b = ab . Define a commutative operation on a set. On A2 the operation (a1 . On A2 we define the coordinate- wise + as the operation (a1 . 4. (Notice that we don’t write ∗(a. Find all (binary) operations on a set with two elements that are associative. ◦. a2 ) ∗ (b1 . say ∗.

◦) prove that an element is a left unit if and only if it is surjective. In the semigroup (AA . On N consider the operation gcd. Recall from Matrix Theory that the set of n-matrices over R is denoted by Mn (R). ∗) has a. ∗) is a semigroup”. So abstractly we use multiplication as our operation and 1 as its identity. When we say (A. Prove that every element is idempotent. Must it be true that a = b if both a and b are left (right) identity elements? Exercise 26. b). For a ∈ A we set a1 = a. Suppose (A. A semigroup is a set A with an associative operation *. b ∈ A for which a is a left identity and b is a right identity. Prove that for an element a ∈ A and n ∈ N. If there is an identity for ∗. left (right) identity. ∗. Exercise 27 (Rachel). Prove that if x is a right inverse and y is a left inverse. Suppose that (A. for a. For the associative operations on the set A = {a. I. ∗. ∗) is a semigroup. Exercise 34. 0) is a monoid. b ∈ A for which a is a left zero and b is a right zero. ∗) a monoid. 5. b ∈ N. We will write “(A. We say a is a left unit if there is some x ∈ A such that a ∗ x = 1. and is equipped with matrix addition and matrix multiplication. An element in a monoid that is both a left unit and right unit is called a a unit. that is. ∗. Example 14. 1) is a monoid and that a is a unit. Let (A. a2 = a ∗ a. Prove that (a∗b)n = an ∗ bn . Definition 12. Suppose (A. we define a right unit and a left inverse. The identity matrix is the multiplicative identity. An element x ∈ A for which a ∗ x = 1 is called a right inverse of a. ∗. ∗) be a semigroup. Exercise 31. Suppose (A. Exercise 35. that an+1 = a ∗ an and explain why this might not be true if ∗ is not associative. The zero matrix is the additive identity and a zero element with respect to multiplication. Let (A. Exercise 29. Find the identity and units in Exercise 19 and Exercise 20. Then suppose we have defined an and define an+1 = an ∗ a. Must it be true that a = b if both a and b are left (right) zero elements? Exercise 25. Definition 13. II. S EMIGROUPS AND M ONOIDS Definition 10. Prove that gcd is an associative and commutative operation with a zero element. An element a ∈ A for which a2 = a is called an idempotent. Addition is commutative while multiplication is not if n ≥ 2. ∗) is a semigroup. Suppose (A. ∗) is a semigroup and that ∗ is commutative.4 Exercise 24 (Rachel). b} identity the left (right) zero. But in specific examples a different element could be the identity. ◦) prove that an element is a right unit if and only if it is injective. ∗) has a. Conclude that there is at most one zero element for an operation. 1) is a monoid this means two things: i) ∗ is associative and ii) 1 is an identity for ∗. Exercise 28 (Raymond). 1) is a monoid and that a is a unit. Similarly. 1) be a monoid and a ∈ A. Conclude that there is at most one identity element for an operation. if any. Prove that a = b. Characterize the units of M2 (R). the operation sends (a. (Notice that (Z. We will assume that both of these operations are associative. We recursively define exponentiation on A. +. Prove that a = b. In the semigroup (AA . Suppose that (A. Suppose (A. ∗) is a semigroup. b) to gcd(a. Suppose (A. Exercise 33. then we call (A. Exercise 32. Exercise 30 (Alden). . then x = y. then x = y. Definition 11. Prove that if x and y are both right (left) inverses for a.

a ≤ a ∗ b. Exercise 39. then a ? b ≤ z. We just proved that an inverse for a is unique. We denote the inverse of a by a−1 . ?. >. b ∈ L [a ? (a • b) = a = a • (a ? b)]. What is (a−1 )−1 ? Exercise 36. Prove the Law of Exponentiation: for any n. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. The rest of the course will be centered around groups. Let (L. an is a unit. ?. (b • a) ≤ a. If out of all of the upper bounds for S there exists a particular upper bound. b. Both ? and • have zero elements. and ⊥ denote the zero element for •. Suppose (A. (We analogously defined a lower bound for S and greatest lower bound for S). Prove that a−1 is a unit. b ≤ a ? b and if a. Consider the relations R = {(a. say z. Let (L. >. and ii) for all a ∈ L. Prove that i) for all a. that is it satisfies the above axioms. if a ≤ z and b ≤ z. ∗. Definition 18. 1) be a monoid and a a unit of A. then z is called a least upper bound for S. >. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. ∗. then we can equip L with a partial order ≤ so that (L. Exercise 40. b) ∈ R we write a ≤ b. for any pair of elements there is a largest element that is smaller than both elements. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. Thus a ? b is the least upper bound for a and b. Let (L. 6. In this section we consider what are known as bounded lattices. Prove that i) for all a ∈ L. ∗. >. Exercise 43. Exercise 38. Let > denote the zero element for ?. Prove that i) > is an identity for •. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. Prove that for any n ∈ N. •. •. b ∈ L. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. and ii) for all a ∈ L. Prove that the relation defined in Exercise 40 is a partial order. then a ? b ≤ z. The operations satisfy what is known as the absorption law: for all a. Prove that i) for all a. and ii) for all a. 1) is a monoid and that a is a unit. •. Definition 17. ⊥)” to say that L is a bounded lattice. Exercise 42. ⊥≤ a. c. z ∈ L. . ?. ?. if z ≤ a and z ≤ b. What is its inverse? Exercise 37. Let (L. a ≤ 1. b. 1) be a monoid and a. ?. >. Let (A. ∗. ≤) satisfies the properties that for any pair of elements in L there is smallest element in L which is bigger than both elements. b) : a ? b = b} and S = {(a. Throughout this section L denotes a set that has two associative operations on it ? and •. 1) be a monoid and a a unit of A. LATTICES We now begin our study of sets equipped with certain kinds of binary operations. We use “(L. >. Exercise 44. We assume that the operations satisfy the following list of axioms. an ∗ am = an+m . b) : a • b = a}. What we have shown is that if (L. Both ? and • are commutative. 1) is a monoid and that a is a unit. >. b are units of A. >. ⊥) be a bounded lattice. Instead of saying that (a. Let (A. Let (L. 5 Definition 15. b ≤ z. Exercise 41. Let (L. •. s ≤ x. Suppose (A. Prove that R = S. such that z ≤ x for all other upper bounds x. then z ≤ a • b. Definition 16. Given a subset S ⊆ L we that the element x ∈ L is an upper bound for S if for all s ∈ S. Find (an )−1 . •. •. In the example of a lattice we know that a. ?. a. Similarly. Prove that a ∗ b is also a unit. z ∈ L. ?. and ii) ⊥ is an identity for ?. ∗. •. ⊥) is a bounded lattice. m ∈ Z. Let (A. •. b. ?.

Exercise 50. and lattices? . b ∈ P a ∨ b = l. suppose there are elements 0. 0 ≤ a and a ≤ 1. If z is a greatest lower bound for S. Suppose P is a set equipped with a partial order ≤. Exercise 48.b. What is the final conclusion of this section involving partial orders with pairs having a l. not necessarily arriving from a lat- tice structure. and g. Prove that ∨ is an associative operation. then it is the only greatest lower bound for S. We define binary operations on P: for a. b ∈ P a ∨ (a ∧ b) = a ∧ (a ∨ b). Furthermore.{a. Suppose S ⊆ L. Definition 19. 1 ∈ P such that for all a ∈ P.l. Suppose that every pair of elements has a least upper bound and a greatest lower bound. Exercise 47.b. Prove that ∨ and ∧ are commutative operations. b} and a ∧ b = g. Prove that ∨ and ∧ have zero elements. Exercise 51. b}. Prove that for all a.6 Exercise 45.u. Exercise 49. Prove that ∧ is an associative operation.u. Exercise 46.b.l.b.{a.

- computingUploaded byJesun Sahariar Firoz
- relations and functionsUploaded byapi-385689437
- Data Structures 1Uploaded byKind Krishna
- TOC Lecture Note2 (1)Uploaded byJAYVIJAYJOBANPUTRA
- 3.8Uploaded byRathinam K Krishnan
- Regular ExpressionsUploaded byRichard Lepiten
- 148Uploaded bySilviu
- slides7-sort.pdfUploaded by252966576
- The SIL French/English Linguistic Glossary. Théorie des opérations énonciatives : définitions, terminologie, explicationsUploaded bygclaplata
- An.introduction.to.the.theory.of.Surreal.numbersUploaded bymfiarkeea
- Marco Gori and Franco Scarselli- Are Multilayer Perceptrons Adequate for Pattern Recognition and Verification?Uploaded byAsvcxv
- 002 - Module 1 Introduction to Theory of ComputationsUploaded byHowell Erivera Yangco
- Fuzzy Logic an Introductory Course for Eng - Enric TrillasUploaded byWaldez Da S. S
- a2 HandoutUploaded byethan werther
- Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic Theory and ApplicationsUploaded byamsubra8874

- expressoes_numericas_in.docUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- Em 12 Funcao Exponencial_(1)Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- Lista de Exercícios - RECUPERAÇĀO de MATEMÁTICA 1 - Primeiro período - DETERMINANTES - Turma 2201Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- GABtestematrizdeterm1abril2009.docUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- Questões de Prova SargentoUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- Frações - Td Nº04Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- 12993-40060-1-PBUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems Enabling TechUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- doc_matematica__1756475888.docUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- Solucao Semelhanca de TriangulosUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- Rev IsaoUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- 12993-40060-1-PB.pdfUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- Revisão 5 - Exercícios de Leitura de Gráficos.docUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- Teste Para Os ProfessoresUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- modelo-pronto-resenha.docUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- 1listaEstAlg2017Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- 1listaTN2017Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- 1osim2013comenemdomingocomentada-130818131004-phpapp02Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- exer_resol.pdfUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- 36 Ocm Ensino Fundamental-1981 a 2013Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- Plano de Aula Nível 1Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- 4120e010Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- Algebra ChicoUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- resposta teoria abacinaUploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- absalg3Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- 37 Ocm Ensino Médio de 1981 a 2013Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- 571091Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- OCM NÍVEL 1Uploaded byDanrlley Maciel
- prednaska6prikUploaded byDanrlley Maciel