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Statistics and their distributions

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**Random variable and Observation
**

Random Sample

Statistic

Sampling Distribution

Exercises

Chapter 6 - Lecture 1

Statistics and their distribution

Andreas Artemiou

January 11th, 2010

Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 - Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution

Outline Random variable and Observation Random Sample Statistic Sampling Distribution Exercises Random variable and Observation Definitions Example Random Sample Statistic Definition Sampling Distribution Definition Finding Sampling Distributions Example Exercises Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 .Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution .

n = 3 and let’s say the values are x1 = 2... so if I get a random sample of size 3. Xn . .. I What is the difference between X1 and x1 ? Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 . x2 = 1.Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution . I n denotes the sample size. x3 = 1. X2 . Outline Random variable and Observation Random Sample Definitions Statistic Example Sampling Distribution Exercises Sample size and Question I I have a random sample X1 .

Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution . Outline Random variable and Observation Random Sample Definitions Statistic Example Sampling Distribution Exercises Random variable and Observation I X denotes a random variable which is unknown. I x denotes the observed value of the random variable which is known and might be different from sample to sample. Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 .

Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 . I Any value depending on random variables will be expected to differ from sample to sample.Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution . I That means two things: I You do not know what the value of a random variable is until you actually see the observed value in the sample. Outline Random variable and Observation Random Sample Definitions Statistic Example Sampling Distribution Exercises Random variable and Observation I Random variables have an uncertainty for their values.

Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution . Outline Random variable and Observation Random Sample Definitions Statistic Example Sampling Distribution Exercises Example Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 .

that is they are identically distributed I In short. we write iid. which means independent and identically distributed Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 .Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution . Outline Random variable and Observation Random Sample Statistic Sampling Distribution Exercises Random sample = iid I What a random sample is? I All random variables are independent I All random variables come from the same distribution.

That means a statistic is a function of random variables from our random sample. Outline Random variable and Observation Random Sample Definition Statistic Sampling Distribution Exercises Definition of Statistic I We call statistic any quantity whose value can be calculated from sample data.Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution . I Do you think a statistic should be denoted with an upper case letter or a lower case letter? Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 .

Which feature of random variables makes them important? Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 . Outline Random variable and Observation Random Sample Definition Statistic Sampling Distribution Exercises From Stat 318 I In Stat 318 we have learn that random variables are important.Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution .

Outline Random variable and Observation Definition Random Sample Finding Sampling Distributions Statistic Example Sampling Distribution Exercises Sampling Distribution I The probability distribution of a statistic is called sampling distribution to emphasize the fact that it describes how the statistic varies from one random sample to another. Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 .Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution .

I Using known theorems (which is considered an extension of the first case). Outline Random variable and Observation Definition Random Sample Finding Sampling Distributions Statistic Example Sampling Distribution Exercises How we find the sampling distribution of a statistic I Using Probability Rules. Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 .Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution . I Simulation Experiments.

Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution .2 page 282 Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 . Outline Random variable and Observation Definition Random Sample Finding Sampling Distributions Statistic Example Sampling Distribution Exercises Example 6.

Outline Random variable and Observation Random Sample Statistic Sampling Distribution Exercises Exercises I Section 6.Lecture 1 Statistics and their distribution . 6 Andreas Artemiou Chapter 6 . 4(a).1 page 290 I Exercises 1. 5. 3. 2.

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