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Tourism - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of
touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining
tourists, and the business of operating tours.[1] Tourism may be
international, or within the traveller's country. The World Tourism
Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond
the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity
only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual
environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business
and other purposes".[2]

Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has
both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of A tourist taking photographs and
payments. Today, tourism is a major source of income for many
video at an archaeological site
countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries,
in some cases being of vital importance.[3]

Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the
late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of
2009, and the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus,[4][5] but slowly
recovered. International tourism receipts (the travel item in the balance
of payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (740 € billion) in 2011,
corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010.[6]
International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists
globally for the first time in 2012,[7] emerging markets such as China,
Russia and Brazil had significantly increased their spending over the
previous decade.[8] The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade

Backpacking tourists in Vienna
1 Etymology
2 Significance of tourism
3 Definitions
4 World tourism statistics and rankings
4.1 Total volume of cross-border tourist travel
4.2 World’s top tourism destinations
4.3 International tourism receipts
4.4 International tourism expenditure
4.5 MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index
4.6 Euromonitor International Top City Destinations
5 History

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Tourism - Wikipedia

5.1 Antiquity
5.2 Middle Ages
5.3 Grand Tour
5.4 Emergence of leisure travel
6 Cruise shipping
7 Modern day tourism
7.1 Winter tourism
7.2 Mass tourism
7.3 Niche tourism
8 Recent developments
8.1 Sustainable tourism
8.2 Ecotourism
8.3 Pro-poor tourism
8.4 Recession tourism
8.5 Medical tourism
8.6 Educational tourism
8.7 Creative tourism
8.8 Experiential tourism
8.9 Dark tourism
8.10 Social tourism
8.11 Doom tourism
9 Growth
9.1 Space tourism
9.2 Sports tourism
9.3 Latest trends
10 Destination image
11 See also
12 Notes
13 References
14 Further reading
15 External links

The word tourist was used by 1772[10] and tourism by 1811.[11] It is
formed from the word tour, which is derived from Old English turian,
from Old French torner, from Latin tornare; 'to turn on a lathe,' which is
itself from Ancient Greek tornos; 'lathe'.[12]

Significance of tourism
Tourism is an important, even vital, source of income for many regions
1922 postcard of tourists in the High
and countries. Its importance was recognized in the Manila Declaration
Tatras, Slovakia.
on World Tourism of 1980 as "an activity essential to the life of nations
because of its direct effects on the social, cultural, educational, and

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[19] In 1994. In this context. shopping malls. such as airlines. such as amusement parks. including hotels and resorts. The service industries which benefit from tourism include transportation Germany. to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. casinos.[15] In 1941. It includes movements for all purposes. Definitions In 1936."[18] In 1981. and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations. short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. and entertainment also local manufacturers (like those venues. amended this definition in 1945. but such as accommodations."[16][17] In 1976.Wikipedia https://en. This is in addition to goods bought by tourists. by including a maximum stay of six months. insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are Drawa National Park in Poland. traveler is often used as a sign of distinction. Not only does the service services.[14] Strandkorb chairs on Usedom Island. retailers. cruise ships. involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism. involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism. but implies a more purposeful journey. the Tourism famous for its canoeing routes Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary. image of a location can benefit a lot. the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics:[20] Domestic tourism. sector grow thanks to tourism. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively. the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home. accounting for 30% of the world's trade of services. music producing the strandkorb). the real estate sector and the general including souvenirs.Tourism . involving residents traveling in another country The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours".[21] World tourism statistics and rankings Total volume of cross-border tourist travel 3 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 ."[2][13] Tourism brings in large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists.[6] It also creates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism. hospitality services. By contrast.wikipedia. The sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. and 6% of overall exports of goods and services. and taxicabs. not connected with any earning activity. the United Nations. Its successor. travel has a similar definition to tourism. Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents. venues.

7% decline in international tourism receipts.2 trillion in 2014. International UNWTO tourist Rank Country Region [22] arrivals (2016)[23] 1 France Europe 86. and ended up only 2% for the year. growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008.1 million 3 Spain Europe 75.4 million 2 United States North america 80.4 million 7 Germany Europe 37.[4] The negative trend intensified during 2009.wikipedia. resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.8 million 10 Russia Europe 32. up from over 996 million in 2011. After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008.Tourism .Wikipedia https://en.[7] In 2011 and 2012.5 million International tourism receipts International tourism receipts grew to US$1.2 million 5 Italy Asia 62. compared to a 7% increase in 2007. international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession. exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus. and 952 million in 2010. corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.[5] World’s top tourism destinations The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travellers in 2016.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals.1 million 8 United Kingdom Europe 35.8 million 6 Turkey Europe & Asia 37.6 million 9 Mexico North America 32.4 million 4 China Asia 74. where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. and a International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012.7% from 2013.[6] The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top twelve tourism earners for the year 2015: 4 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 .

Wikipedia https://en.9 billion 5 United Kingdom Europe $45.Tourism .6 billion 7 Italy Europe $39.9 billion 7 Canada North America $29.5 billion 4 France Europe $45.5 billion 2 China Asia $114.2 billion 2 United States North America $112.3 billion International tourism expenditure The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten biggest spenders on international tourism for the year 2015. 5 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 .3 billion 5 France Europe $38.5 billion MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index Based upon air traffic.1 billion 3 Spain Europe $ International UNWTO tourism Rank Country/Area Region [22] receipts (2015)[23] 1 United States North America $204.0 billion 9 Italy Europe $24.4 billion 6 Russia Europe $34.4 billion 8 South Korea Asia $25.4 billion 10 Australia Oceania $23. the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index reports the following cities as the top ten most popular destinations of international tourism worldwide.9 billion 9 Hong Kong Asia $36.5 billion 4 United Kingdom Europe $63.wikipedia.4 billion 8 Germany Europe $36.9 billion 3 Germany Europe $77.2 billion 10 Macau Asia $31.5 billion 6 Thailand Asia $44. International UNWTO tourism Rank Country Region [22] expenditure (2015)[23] 1 China Asia $292.

59 million 4 Singapore Singapore 17.77 million 2 Bangkok Thailand 22.32 million 7 Dubai United Arab Emirates 14.[25] 6 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 .19 million 2015[25] International Rank City Country tourist arrivals[25] 1 London United Kingdom 2017[24] International Rank City Country tourist arrivals[25] 1 Hong Kong Hong Kong 27.02 million 6 Macau Macau 14.35 million 10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 8.56 million 6 New York City United States 12.12 million 9 Seoul South Korea 10.66 million MasterCard reports the following cities as the top ten biggest earners on international tourism worldwide in 2015.wikipedia.41 million 9 New York City United States 12.24 million 3 Paris France 16.06 million 4 Dubai United Arab Emirates 14.27 million 7 Singapore Singapore 11.69 million 3 London United Kingdom 18.82 million 2 Bangkok Thailand 18.55 million 5 Paris France 15.Wikipedia https://en.Tourism .30 million 10 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 12.30 million 8 Istanbul Turkey 12.88 million 8 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 11.26 million 5 Istanbul Turkey 12.

kings praised themselves for protecting roads and 7 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 . learn new languages. works of art. to see great buildings.78 million 5 Paris France 15.6 billion 6 Barcelona Spain $13.8 billion 7 Bangkok Thailand $12. however.58 million 2 Singapore Singapore 22. who at times travelled to distant parts of the world.6 billion 10 Istanbul Turkey $9.2 billion 5 Singapore Singapore $14.26 million 7 New York City United States 11.2 billion 2 New York City United States $17. As early as Shulgi.3 billion 8 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia $12.46 million 4 London United Kingdom 16.0 billion 9 Dubai United Arab Emirates $11.12 million History Antiquity Travel outside a person's local area for leisure was largely confined to wealthy classes.20 million 6 Macau China 14.45 million 3 Bangkok Thailand 17.70 million 9 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 11.6 billion 4 Seoul South Korea $15.Wikipedia https://en.Tourism .org/wiki/Tourism International Rank City Country tourists spending[25] 1 London United Kingdom $20. experience new cultures. and to taste different cuisines.wikipedia.3 billion Euromonitor International Top City Destinations Ranking Euromonitor International released its rankings of the most visited cities in the world based upon international tourists in January 2015:[26][27] International Rank City Country tourist arrivals[28] 1 Hong Kong Hong Kong 25.3 billion 3 Paris France $16.85 million 8 Shenzhen China 11.18 million 10 Antalya Turkey 11.

The tradition was extended to include more of the middle class after rail and steamship travel made the journey less of a burden. the Grand Tour's main destinations were to those centres. For physician Dr John Moore and the these reasons. The 10th. which was a traditional trip around Europe. and other overseas youth joined in. US. In this period. France and Greece provide excellent examples. The custom flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale rail transit in the 1840s. on his Grand Tour with his art of which Italy. The Burgundian poet Michault Taillevent later composed his own horrified recollections of a 1430 trip through the Jura Mountains. and was associated with a standard itinerary.[29] During the Roman Republic. undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means. history. It served as an educational opportunity and rite of passage. Portrait of Douglas. Xu Xiake continued the practice. Painted by Jean where upper-class students could find rare examples of classic art and Preudhomme in 1774.Tourism . In ancient China. The Islamic hajj is still central to its faith and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Wu Cheng'en's Journey to the West remain classics of English and Chinese literature. all five Sacred Mountains. Christianity. Johann Joachim Winckelmann's theories about the supremacy of classic culture became very popular and appreciated in the European academic 13th-century Song dynasty also saw secular travel writers such as Su Shi (11th century) and Fan Chengda (12th century) become A Japanese tourist consulting a tour guide and a guide book from Akizato popular in China. spas and coastal resorts such as Baiae were popular among the building waystations for travelers. (especially Germany and Italy). Pausanias wrote his Description of Greece in the 2nd century AD. Artists. nobles sometimes made a point of visiting Mount Tai and. The Grand Tour became a real status symbol for upper class students in the 18th and 19th centuries. 8 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 . 8th Duke of writers and travellers (such as Goethe) affirmed the supremacy of classic Hamilton. and Islam all had traditions of pilgrimage that motivated even the lower classes to undertake distant journeys for health or spiritual improvement.[31] Grand Tour Modern tourism can be traced to what was known as the Grand Tour. Buddhism. on occasion. and from the second half of the 18th century some South American.Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia. seeing the sights along the way. similar trips were made by wealthy young men of Protestant Northern European nations on the Continent. and Thomas Cook made the "Cook's Tour" a byword. Under the Ming.[30] In medieval Italy. latter's son John. Though primarily associated with the British nobility and wealthy landed gentry. Middle Ages By the Middle Ages. mainly from Western and Northern European countries. Francesco Petrarch also wrote an allegorical account of Ritō's Miyako meisho zue (1787) his 1336 ascent of Mount Ventoux that praised the act of traveling and criticized frigida incuriositas ("cold lack curiosity").

being legal contracts between company and passenger. A pioneer of the travel agency business. Hotel Carlton. they commissioned paintings. this applied to the owners of the machinery of production. perfected their language skills and mingled with the upper crust of the Continent.wikipedia. This was the first privately chartered excursion train to be advertised to the general public. and to the aristocratic and fashionably polite society of the European continent. unadvertised. Thomas Cook arranged for the rail site. culture and the roots of Western civilization. 1845) continental Europe. Emergence of leisure travel Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom – the first European country to promote leisure time to the increasing industrial population. Cook was paid a share of the fares actually charged to the passengers. it was believed. largely on the same eleven miles away. Lessons From the Frugal Grand Tour. private excursion trains.[32] Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to be formed in 1758. Cook himself acknowledging that there had been previous.Tourism . the long esplanade along the seafront is known to Englishman in the Campagna by Carl this day as the Promenade des Anglais.built in to a rally in Loughborough.[33] The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many place names. one of the first and best-established holiday resorts on the French Riviera." New York Times 5 September 2008. Matt. old. well-established palace hotels have names like the Hotel Bristol. food for this train journey. The primary value of the Grand Tour. aristocratic connections and months (or years) to roam. In Nice.Wikipedia https://en. With the opening of the extended Midland Counties Railway. This success led 9 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 . he arranged to take a group of 540 Panels from the Thomas Cook temperance campaigners from Building in Leicester. or Hotel Majestic – reflecting the dominance of English customers. Thomas Cook's idea to offer excursions came to him while waiting for the stagecoach on the London Road at Kibworth. displaying Leicester Campbell Street station excursions offered by Thomas Cook Leicester railway station . the company to charge one shilling per person that included rail tickets and origin for many of Cook's early tours. laid in the exposure both to the cultural legacy of classical antiquity and the Renaissance. in many other historic resorts in Spitzweg (c. — Gross.. With nearly unlimited funds.[32] Initially. 1894 to replace. the economic oligarchy. wealthy young Englishmen began taking a post-Oxbridge trek through France and Italy in search of art.[34] During the following three summers he planned and conducted outings for temperance societies and Sunday-school children. could not have been issued at his own price. In 1844 the Midland Counties Railway Company agreed to make a permanent arrangement with him provided he found the passengers. These comprised the new middle class. The New York Times recently described the Grand Tour in this way: Three hundred years ago. as the railway tickets. Campbell Street station. On 5 July 1841. the factory owners and the traders.

The following year he started his 'grand circular tours' of Europe. France.g. only in the 1970s when winter tourism took over the lead from summer tourism in many of the Swiss ski resorts.g.Tourism . Modern day tourism Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to seaside resorts at their nearest Prinzessin Victoria Luise. up to one third of all guests (depending on the location) consist of non-skiers. Poland. Bulgaria. New York) Lebanon. Finland. Slovakia.[35] sailing from Southampton to destinations such as Gibraltar. Cruise shipping Cruising is a popular form of water tourism. 10 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 . Canada. Malta and Athens. him to start his own business running rail excursions for pleasure. Montana. Moritz. he planned his first excursion abroad. Wyoming. Japan.[39] Major ski resorts are located mostly in the various European countries (e. Croatia. so that greater numbers of people could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time. whereby the traveller went independently but his agency charged for travel. Italy. when he took a group from Leicester to Calais to coincide with the Paris Exhibition. Armenia. Four years later. Spain. New Hampshire. Utah. Latvia. which allowed the transport of large numbers of people in a short period of time to places of leisure interest. however. During the 1860s he took parties to Switzerland. Switzerland became the cradle of the developing winter tourism in the 1860s. built in Hamburg. Switzerland. Coastal areas in the tropics are popular both in the cruise ship of the world. being the first seaside resort. In Continental Europe. Leisure cruise ships were introduced by the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O) in 1844. early seaside resorts include: Heiligendamm. Even in winter. Romania.wikipedia. hotel manager Johannes Badrutt invited some summer guests from England to return in the winter to see the snowy landscape. June 1900 in Hamburg (Germany) Winter tourism St. food and accommodation for a fixed period over any chosen route. thereby inaugurating a popular trend. Chile. Such was his success that the Scottish railway companies withdrew their support between 1862 and 1863 to try the excursion business for themselves. Germany. Vermont. taking a percentage of the railway tickets. Turkey). popularised by the people of Brussels. Cook established 'inclusive independent travel'. Mass tourism Mass tourism developed with improvements in technology. the United States (e. Colorado.[37][38] It was. Boulogne-sur-Mer and Deauville for the Parisians.Wikipedia https://en. Serbia. Taormina in Sicily. one of the first purpose-built cruise ship was Prinzessin Victoria Luise. Norway. South Korea. Greece. Slovenia. Sweden. Austria. Egypt and the United States. In 1900. New Zealand. Czech Republic. Italy. the first coast or further apart. Cyprus.[36] In 1891. German businessman Albert Ballin sailed the ship Augusta Victoria from Hamburg into the Mediterranean Sea. Iceland. founded in 1793 at the Baltic Sea. Lithuania. California. Bosnia-Herzegovina. and Argentina. Ostend. launched in summer and winter.

This. is one of the largest Medical tourism religious tourism sites in the world. New Jersey and Long Island. Many of Reisepläne (Travel plans) by Adolph these have come into common use by the tourism industry and Menzel (1875) academics.Wikipedia https://en. including the Maldives. caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. for example some retirement-age people sustain year round In the United States. low-cost airlines. Thousands of lives were lost including many tourists. each with its own adjective. The developments in technology and transport infrastructure. New York. that there are around half a million people on board aircraft at any given Mecklenburg. hit the Asian countries on the Indian Ocean. while others want more specialised holidays. [41] There have also been changes in lifestyle. Examples of the more common niche tourism markets include: Agritourism Nautical tourism Astronomy tourism Pop-culture tourism Birth tourism Religious tourism Culinary tourism Sex tourism Cultural tourism Slum tourism Extreme tourism Virtual tourism Geotourism War tourism Heritage tourism Wellness tourism The Shrine of Our Lady of Fátima. such as in Bali and several European cities. some people prefer simple beach vacations. together with the vast clean-up operations. in LGBT tourism Wildlife tourism Portugal. on 26 December 2004. Niche tourism Niche tourism refers to the numerous specialty travel forms of tourism that have emerged over the years. For example. Tourists have a wide range of budgets and tastes. The WHO estimated in 2009 Yacht Harbour Residence in Rostock. Other terms used for niche or specialty travel forms include the term "destination" in the descriptions. family-oriented holidays. Also. This is facilitated by internet sales of tourist services. time. Some sites have now started to offer dynamic packaging. and terms such as location vacation. in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested by the customer upon impulse. such as jumbo jets. such as destination weddings.[40] Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain popular usage.wikipedia. and a wide variety of resorts and hotels have developed to cater for them. There have been a few setbacks in tourism. quieter resorts. especially in Europe. where international travel for short breaks is common. stopped or severely 11 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 . or niche market-targeted destination hotels. the first seaside resorts in the European style were at Atlantic City. such as the September 11 attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations. Recent developments There has been an up-trend in tourism over the last few decades. and more accessible airports have made A destination hotel in Germany: many types of tourism more affordable. a tsunami.Tourism .

has been receiving increasing attention by those involved in development. Ecotourism Ecotourism.[42] There has also been examples of jurisdictions wherein a significant portion of GDP is being spent on altering the primary sources of revenue towards tourism. biological diversity and life support systems." (World Tourism Organization)[44] Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.[47] Pro-poor tourism Pro-poor tourism. pristine. also known as ecological tourism. This is in contrast to the 'boosterism' and 'economic' approaches to tourism planning. provides funds for conservation. which seeks to help the poorest people in developing countries. to consider both 'plants' and 'people' when implementing the sustainable tourism development process. However.Take only memories and leave only footprints is a very common slogan in protected areas. as has occurred for instance in Dubai. citing its ambiguity and stating that "the emerging sustainable development philosophy of the 1990s can be viewed as an extension of the broader realization that a preoccupation with economic growth without regard to its social and environmental consequences is self-defeating in the long term.wikipedia. directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities.[43] Sustainable tourism "Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic. especially with a strong growth in the hostel market and services like CouchSurfing and airbnb being established. and usually protected areas that strives to be low-impact and (often) small-scale." Thus 'sustainable tourism development' is seldom considered as an autonomous function of economic regeneration as separate from general economic growth. and fosters respect for different cultures and for human hampered tourism in the area for a time. It also involves integrating tourism to match current economic and growth policies so as to mitigate some of the negative economic and social impacts of 'mass tourism'." (World Commission on Environment and Development. Murphy (1985) advocates the use of an 'ecological approach'. the issue has been addressed through small-scale projects in local communities and through attempts by Ministries of Tourism to attract large numbers of tourists. Research by the Overseas Development Institute suggests that neither is the best way to encourage tourists' money to reach the poorest as only 25% or less (far less in some cases) ever reaches the poor. neither of which consider the detrimental ecological or sociological impacts of tourism development to a destination. successful examples of money reaching the poor include mountain-climbing in Tanzania and cultural tourism in Luang Prabang. Butler questions the exposition of the term 'sustainable' in the context of tourism. Laos. Individual low-price or even zero-price overnight stays have become more popular in the 2000s. essential ecological processes. social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity.[46] Tourist destinations are shifting to low carbon emissions following the trend of visitors more focused in being environmentally responsible adopting a sustainable behavior. is responsible travel to fragile.[48] 12 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 . 1987)[45] Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to ecological and social-cultural carrying capacities and includes involving the community of the destination in tourism development planning.Tourism . It helps educate the traveler.Wikipedia https://en.

educational experiences. Spain. Eastern Europe. political instability. Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boom during the recession thanks to comparatively low costs of living and a slow world job market suggesting travelers are elongating trips where their money Community tourism in Sierra Leone travels further.Tourism . the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations such as UNESCO. such as in the International Practicum Training Program. creative tourism has been given its own name by Crispin Raymond and Greg Richards.[52] who as members of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS).wikipedia. India. safety and level of discrimination[51] Creative tourism Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism. France. which saw the sons of aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive. image of host country. Several countries offer examples of this type of tourism development.[52] Meanwhile.g. the Bahamas. More recently. tourism in a responsible manner Playlist (https://www. including the United Kingdom. Its European roots date back to the time of the Grand Tour. have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged. Educational tourism describes the event in which people travel across international borders to acquire intellectual services. drawing on active participation by travelers in the culture of the host communities they visit. Job Medical tourism /playlist?list=PL32A3F6F949A3F26 D) When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure. creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism. reputation. in relation to particular medical procedures (e. authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features of a place. Educational tourism Educational tourism is developed because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of classroom environment. language of instruction. language learning desire. including cultural and crafts tourism. dentistry). Cuba[49] and Canada[50] where there are different regulatory regimes. since the early beginnings of tourism Recession tourism Recession tourism is a travel trend which evolved by way of the world economic crisis. Jamaica. through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences. Recession tourism is defined by low-cost and high-value experiences taking place of once-popular generic retreats. 13 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 . study tours. quality. particularly in Southeast Asia. More recently. have directed a number of projects for the European[51] In educational tourism.Wikipedia https://en. the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture. known as sustainable tourism. They have defined "creative tourism" as tourism related to the active participation of travellers in the culture of the host community. This concept is not widely used in tourism research. Austria. The motivations for this type of tourism activity includes cultural altruism. traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as "medical tourism". or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment. who through the Creative Cities Network. It is → The story of a community in related to the short-lived phenomenon that is more widely known as Sierra Leone trying to manage staycation.

Learning about the Shoah in Jerusalem offers a different but equally authentic encounter with the subject as visits to sites in Europe. The growing interest of tourists[53] in this new way to discover a culture regards particularly the operators and branding managers. or historically noteworthy death happened. Participants’ evaluations of seminars for European teachers at Yad Vashem indicate that the location is an important aspect of a meaningful encounter with the subject. macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Based on a study at Yad Vashem. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.[60] In this vein.Tourism .[58] Philip Stone argues that dark tourism is a way of imagining the own death through the real death of others'. Georgia.[54] The term “Experiential travel” is already mentioned in publications from 1985[55] . It is argued that a dichotomy between ‘authentic’ sites at the location of a tragedy and ‘created’ sites elsewhere is insufficient.[61] Following this. something new beyond their nearest residential home.) and optimizing the use of existing infrastructure (for example.wikipedia. remembrance. Implications for other cases of dark tourism at in populo locations are discussed. such as battlegrounds. Tourism is in fact an instrument of resiliency that paves the ways for the society to be 14 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 .Wikipedia https://en. Dark tourism remains a small niche market.[59] Erik H Cohen introduces the term populo sites to evidence the educational character of dark tourism. people. etc. such as mourning. city or particular place by connecting to its history. Peter Tarlow defines dark tourism as the tendency to visit places where tragedies. The quest for "Otherness" leads not only to maximize pleasure but also provides a pedagogical message to the us. for example: concentration camps. highlighting the Greg Richards . which continues to impressing our lives. It is an approach to travelling which focuses on experiencing a country. attentive to the possibility of attracting a quality tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites. This is the reason why tourists look for something special. cooking classes.however it was discovered as a meaningful market trend much later. Experiential travel (or "immersion travel") is one of the major market trends in the modern tourism industry. driven by varied motivations. the Shoah (Holocaust) memorial museum in Jerusalem. dark tourism may revitalize the lost trust giving a positive value that helps community in the process of recovery. Maximiliano Korstanje explains that tourism serves as an scape-goat mechanism used in order for society does not collapse.Conferencia Turismo intangible heritage (craft Creativo workshops. a new term—in populo—is proposed to describe dark tourism sites at a population and spiritual center of the people to whom a tragedy befell. Dark tourism One emerging area of special interest has been identified by Lennon and Foley (2000)[56][57] as "dark" tourism. Populo sites transmits the story of vicitimized population to visitors. In context of disasters and tragedies. food and Italy and New Zealand. through the rent of halls and auditorium). This issue cannot be understood without the figure of trauma. education. scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide. Friendship Force visitors from Indonesia meet their hosts in Experiential tourism Hartwell. USA.

Wikipedia https://en. Argentina. trade unions.[62][63][64] Social tourism Social tourism is the extension of the benefits of tourism to disadvantaged people who otherwise could not afford to travel for their education of recreation. at the second Congress of Social Tourism in Austria. It includes youth hostels and low-priced holiday accommodation run by church and voluntary organisations. threatened by environmental factors such as global warming.[67][68][69][70][71][72] Growth The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4%.[66] this type of tourism is believed to be on the rise. [74][75] This has put pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditional shops. Tourism products and services have been made available through intermediaries. tourism products have become one of the most traded items on the internet.wikipedia. A 2010 report into space tourism anticipated that it could become a billion dollar market by 2030. the melting glaciers of Patagonia. Patagonia. although tourism providers (hotels. can sell their services united. Walter Hunziker proposed the following definition: “Social tourism is a type of tourism practiced by low income groups. with only the Russian Space Agency providing transport to date. or in Communist times publicly owned enterprises. and which is rendered possible and facilitated by entirely separate and therefore easily recognizable services". Others worry that travel to many of these threatened locations increases an individual’s carbon footprint and only hastens problems threatened locations are already facing. airlines. including small-scale operators.[73] With the advent of e-commerce. Doom tourism Also known as "Tourism of Doom. This is why any projections of growth in tourism may serve as an indication of the relative influence that each country will exercise in the future.[77] 15 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 .Tourism . It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between tourism expenditure per capita and the degree to which countries play in the global context. overpopulation or climate change. but also as an indicator of the degree of confidence with which global citizens leverage the resources of the globe for the benefit of their local economies.[76] Not only as a result of the important economic contribution of the tourism industry.). Space tourism There has been a limited amount of orbital space tourism. etc. Identified by travel trade magazine Travel Age West[65] editor-in-chief Kenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later explored in The New York Times. Some see the trend as related to sustainable tourism or ecotourism due to the fact that a number of these tourist destinations are considered Perito Moreno Glacier. In May 1959. or the coral of the Great Barrier Reef) before it is too late." or "Last Chance Tourism" this emerging trend involves traveling to places that are environmentally or otherwise threatened (such as the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro.

Events such as rugby.3% growth in passenger traffic through September. the numerous football events also increased the popularity of football.[81] For many people vacations and travel are increasingly being viewed as a necessity rather than a luxury.Tourism . real travel demand in the United States had fallen 6% over six quarters.[78] By the first quarter of 2009. The drastic interest increase in sports in general and not just one sport caught the attention of travel companies.7% during the first eight months of 2008. with room occupancy declining. Due to the low number of people who actually purchase these packages than predicted. This slowdown on international tourism demand was also reflected in the air transport industry. one of the most popular sports that usually are focused on was Football. Most notably. audience who now realize the variety of sports that exist in the world. Asian Games and football World Cups have enabled specialist travel companies to gain official ticket allocation and then sell them in packages that include flights. Latest trends Tourism Police of Colombia at the Chicamocha National Park. SpaceShipTwo is a major project in the international event such as the Olympics caused a shift in focus in the space tourism.Wikipedia https://en. Commonwealth games. most travel companies were forced to set aside the plan to execute the marketing of any new package features. therefore. With the certain economic state. the decline was at twice the rate as real GDP has fallen. The hotel industry also reported a slowdown. The focus on sport and spreading knowledge on the subject. especially more so recently. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3. it was the Olympics that brought together the different sports that led to the increase in sport tourism. Olympics. the number of purchases decreased once again. strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. international arrivals suffered a Santander. The fluctuation in the number of packages sold was solely dependent on the economic situation.6% globally over 2009. the cost of these packages plummeted initially. evidence suggests that tourism as a global phenomenon shows no signs of substantially abating in the long term. as social life is increasingly networked and conducted at a distance.8%. In the United States. with a negative growth in September 2008 and a 3.wikipedia. sports tourism has become increasingly popular. While this is considerably milder than what occurred after the 9/11 attacks. led to the increase in the sport tourism. hotels and excursions. with growth up to 8% in emerging economies. But.[78] Destination image For the last decade there are many definitions related to destination image created by scholars in tourism studies 16 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 . As the number start to rise slightly the packages increased to regain the lost profits. It has been suggested that travel is necessary in order to maintain relationships. In Asian countries. and this is reflected in tourist numbers recovering some 6.[79][80] However. As a result of the late-2000s Sports tourism Since the late 1980s. This popularity was increased through major events like the World Cups. In 2009 worldwide tourism arrivals decreased by 3. who then began to sell flights in packages.

Mullae). Murals can make the old village more interesting and draw people’s attention to visit. MacKay & Fesenmaier. 10.wikipedia. (http://www. World Tourism Organization. Mullae. Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed. UNWTO World Tourism 2005.). image that made by marketing campaigns 3. in some places in with various approaches (Gallarza et al. August 2010. Retrieved Organization. and consumer behavior patterns. Journal of International Affairs". "International tourism challenged by deteriorating Oxford University Press. In Seoul. UNWTO. World Tourism Tourism Organization. sizes. even imply a special underlying meaning and represent wishes of the creators. Destination image can be is defined as 1. 7 (1). 3. Retrieved 17 November 2011. "tourism". Therefore. Murals are pictures on the walls and along the alley ways.) 5. Past experience is one of the example of primary images that are formed through the experiences when visited the destination. 2002. They range from different shapes. See also Business tourism International tourism advertising Visitor center Notes 1. culture has an important role in determining the way destination image is interpreted. designs to colors and styles. you can find them in 5 main places: Hongdae. 17 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 . on the walls or on the staircases. Retrieved 26 March 2009. a total imagination about whole tourism landscape/destination 2.Tourism . Retrieved 15 June 2012. relaxation. 4. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. Murals is a part of street arts. Retrieved 12 September 2016. It could be a simple cat drawing or a sophisticated abstract one. 1995. combination of real destination experience and impression or evaluation about destination According to the kind of source information. In destination image. cultural background is expected to influence the manner and how people perceived the image of particular destination (Richardson & Crompton. Ihwa mural village. "UNWTO technical manual: Collection of Tourism (PDF). 17 November 2011. lively animated characters from Disney cartoons or a line of leaves. 7 May 2012. January 2009. (Subscription or UK public library membership Barometer. apart from showing pure beauty. Itaewon and Apgujeong Graffiti. 1997). local residents feel annoyed by unexpected visitors who come to see murals there (Ihwa mural village. World Expenditure Statistics" (PDF). flowers and trees.Wikipedia https://en. p. However. since the cultural differential value structures influence the way of thinking and it is expressed through the way of life..oup. destination images can be specified into primary destination image and secondary one. "International tourism receipts surpass US$ 1 trillion Economy and International Affairs | Georgetown in 2011" (Press release). Some paintings.georgetown. while secondary images are the images formed through external sources of information (Phelps. 1986). 1988). September global economy" (PDF). "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer Interim Update" 2. required. "The Growing Importance of Tourism in the Global 6.

In Haedrich. (2008). 46. The Guardian. 46: JSTOR 495194. 189. Grundriß Der 38. 17 December 2012. (2008). "tour (n. 14. Berlin: [u. Retrieved 13 September 2016. "The AIEST. 24. Retrieved 5 July 2015. pp.the new number one tourism source market Insider. Tour in Scotland in 1769". 12. St.expodatabase. 15. "2016 Tourism Highlights". Retrieved 2 June 2016. Manila. Yorker. Verl. "Winter hiking in Switzerland-Graubünden". 37. Euromonitor 2013. (https://www. "Resolution adopted by the General Assembly".1080/10548400802508515. 150. Retrieved 23 December 2011. pp. "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer" (PDF). Retrieved 9 June 2015. Online Etymology poète bourguignon du XVe siècle. Lew. "ITB Berlin: The World's Leading Travel Trade 29. Ingle. Retrieved 9 April 26. Moritz: Kulm Hotel. (1998) Tourists at the Taj. Spode. Or. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Robert. 11 December 1987. Taillevent. Michault (1975). Librairie Droz.).] (PDF). Business 8. etymonline. 34. Wallingford: CAB 41. Douglas. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 Retrieved 23 December 2011. Cadene. New York: United Nations (83): 5. 1/2. Theobald. The Conference of 23. Atlas of the Gulf "Recommendations on Tourism 44. 32. 18. "pohub. January 2013. No. K (1942). Statistics" Check |url= value (help) (PDF). "Some Preliminary Remarks on the Database. World Tourism Organization. Sustainable Future. 16. "Early Winter Tourism". W. Mastercard. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. CNN. Cox & Kings. Retrieved 9 June 2015. 29. Michault Taillevent: Dictionary. 31–32. Retrieved ed. UNWTO. Philippe (2013). "World's most visited cities". 3 March 2015. Tourism Terminology. "Couch-surfing the globe". Edensor. Beaver. 35. 9. 4 April 28. Global Tourism (2nd 36. Griffiths. 27 January 2015. K. Griffiths. 1980. 10 October 33.2307/495194. R. L. Bangor. 1–4.Tourism . 313. Statistical Towards Earth Summit 2002. 1991 Thomas Cook of Leicester. Tradition & History. "MasterCard 2015 Global Destination Cities Index" World Tourism E.wikipedia. "The 20 most visited cities in the world". T. Introduction To Tourism. Hargett. OCLC 243881885. Retrieved 29 March 2008. World Tourism NGOs. in the world". 2012. "Long Tail Tourism: New Tourismus-management: Tourismus-marketing Und geographies for marketing niche tourism products" Fremdenverkehrsplanung (in German). Retrieved 9 June 2015. Stakeholder Forum for a Papers. Articles. Hasso (1998). A Dictionary of Travel and Retrieved 22 December 2011. "Issues in Tourism Industry".ch. 7. 2017.unwto. Krapf. Vol. G. Swine flu prompts EU warning on travel to US International. (3-4): 409–419. Delhi: Isha 13. (1998). "Pennant's Chinese Literature: Essays. Routledge 42/187. 17. Tourismuswissenschaft". 2 February Environment and". M. 6–7. /newsletter/unsd_workshops/tourism/st_ esa p. "China . Retrieved Retrieved 12 July 2010. Oxford [England]: Butterworth–Heinemann. Marx. Deschaux. ISBN 0-7506-4022-7. "2012 Tourism Highlights" (PDF). p. Reviews. Allgemeinen Fremdenverkehrslehre (in German). MasterCard. The New Tourism. The Monthly Review. M+A Expo 30. /8477508). "Top 100 City Destinations Ranking". William F. International Association of Scientific Experts in 42. Report of the World Commission on 22. ISBN 0-85199-582-9. "Geschichte der graubuenden. Organization. Tourism Conference. 21. August 2002. 43. Singh. 22 January 2012. 11 (1).theguardian. pp. Show". DOI 10. 40. "Global Destination Cities Index" (PDF). ISBN 978-81-8205-478-3. World Tourism (PDF). Retrieved 15 March 2014. June Headstart History 2012. London: 45. Griffiths. "Sustainable Tourism: Turning the Tide" (PDF). UNWTO 25. 1994. "CRUISE NEWS JUNE 2012". Manila Declaration on World Tourism (PDF). 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 18 of 20 29/03/2017 22:09 . 39. doi:10. OCLC 301675778. World Books. 1985. Harper. June 2015. Literary Journal.. 27. 19. Alan A. www. London: Printed for R. Retrieved 4 August 2016.Wikipedia https://en. Allan (2002). its character and aims". 28 April 2009. p. 7. Retrieved 17 June 2012. Pinterest. édition et étude. Travel Records of the Song Dynasty (960-1279)" in 10. Patricia.a. Günther. Retrieved 9 April 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2011. Zurich: Polygr. 20. "Morgan Gamble". (1772). _stat_ser_M_83. ISBN 3-11-015185-5. "History: Centuries of Experience". November 2012. Retrieved 21 January Organization. Fundamental of Tourism and Travel.)". OCLC 40330075. "Birthplace of winter tourism". James. 31. Philippines. pp. International. OCLC 180109383. Hunziker. Un 11. 67–93. 25 de Gruyter.

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