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KEMAHIRAN BERFIKIR

(FCE3204)

NAMA PELAJAR: NURHAFIZA BINTI CHE ISMAIL
NO. MATRIK: 184814
NAMA PENSYARAH: DR NOR ANIZA BINTI AHMAD

TITLE: HOW THE BRAIN WORKS AND HELPS IN LEARNING
DEFINITION OF
BRAIN
The part of the
nervous system
that is inside the
skull, consists of
grayish nerve
cells and whitish
nerve fibers, and
is the organ of
thought and the
central control
point for the
nervous system
FACTS ABOUT
HUMAN BRAIN
Sensory
Working and integration and
prospective proprioception
memory

Sight

Autobiographical
memory
STRUCTURE OF
BRAIN
BRAIN
STRUCTURES

Brain
Stem
Cerebrum

Limbic
Cerebellum System
STRUCTURE OF BRAIN
Frontal Lobe- associated with
reasoning, planning, parts of
speech, movement, emotions,
and problem solving

Temporal Lobe- CEREBRUM : The
associated with largest part of the Parietal Lobe-
perception and associated with
recognition of human brain,
associated with higher movement,
auditory stimuli, orientation,
memory, and speech brain function such as recognition,
thought and action. perception of stimuli

Occipital Lobe-
associated with visual
processing
Associated with The cerebellum, or "little
regulation and brain", is similar to the
coordination of cerebrum in that it has two
movement, posture, and hemispheres and has a
balance. highly folded surface or
cortex.

Animals which scientists
The cerebellum is assume to have evolved
assumed to be much prior to humans, for
older than the cerebrum, example reptiles, do have
evolutionarily. developed cerebellums.
Hypothalamus- part of the Thalamus- a large mass of gray
diencephalon, ventral to the matter deeply situated in the
thalamus. The structure is forebrain at the topmost portion
involved in functions including of the diencephalon. The
homeostasis, emotion, thirst, structure has sensory and motor
hunger, circadian rhythms, and functions. Almost all sensory
control of the autonomic nervous information enters this structure
system. In addition, it controls where neurons send that
the pituitary. information to the overlying
cortex. Axons from every
sensory system (except
olfaction) synapse here as the
last relay site before the
Amygdala- part of the information reaches the cerebral
telencephalon, located in the cortex.
temporal lobe; involved in
memory, emotion, and fear.
The amygdala is both large and Hippocampus- the portion of
just beneath the surface of the the cerebral hemisphers in
front, medial part of the The limbic system, often referred to as the basal medial part of the
temporal lobe where it causes "emotional brain", is found buried within the temporal lobe. This part of the
the bulge on the surface called cerebrum. Like the cerebellum, evolutionarily the brain is important for learning
the uncus. This is a component structure is rather old. and memory
of the limbic system.
Medulla Oblongata- this
structure is the caudal-most
Pons- part of the
part of the brain stem,
metencephalon in the
between the pons and
hindbrain. It is involved in
spinal cord. It is responsible
motor control and
for maintaining vital body
sensory analysis. It has
functions, such as breathing
parts that are important
and heartrate
for the level of
consciousness and for
sleep. Some structures
within the pons are linked *Midbrain- the rostral part of
to the cerebellum, thus the brain stem, which
are involved in movement includes the tectum and
and posture. tegmentum. It is involved in
functions such as vision,
hearing, eyemovement, and
Underneath the limbic system is the body movement
brain stem. This structure is responsible
for basic vital life functions such as
breathing, heartbeat, and blood
pressure.
HOW THE MEMORY WORKS IN
LEARNING

RETRIEVAL
ENCODING

➢ Recovering
➢ Storing a memory encoded trace from
storage
trace STORAGE ➢ Using available
➢ Perception leaves
representation in knowledge in
memory cognition/action
➢ Retaining trace
in memory
➢ Latent, available
for use
Very temporary

MEMORY storage of information
we receive for our
SYSTEM senses
Limited period of
time and limited
capacity
SENSORY Working memory
MEMORY

Can retain
information for along
SHORT-TERM period of time
MEMORY(STM) Elaboration
rehearsal is required

LONG-TERM
MEMORY(LTM)
COMMON
CAUSES OF
MEMORY LOSS
HOW TO
IMPROVE YOUR Activities
Food
MEMORY

➢ Green tea Healthy ➢ Listen to music
balance ➢ Learn new
➢ Cofee Exercise
➢ Grass-fed beef lifestyle information
➢ Cacao benas ➢ Quick mental
➢ Greek yogurt exercises
➢ eggs ➢ Puzzle games
➢ Stimulates 5
senses
➢ Regular physical ➢ Get solid rest
activity ➢ Take up new sports
➢ Shortphysical and hobbies
activity
HOW THE BRAINS Taxonomy Knowledge ,Comprehension ,Application

WORKS Bloom ,Analysis ,Synthesis , Evaluation , Creating

Cognitive
Receiving, Responding, Valuing, Organizing,
Krathwohl (1973) Categorization by value set

Affective

1) Brown (1980) 3 Factors in metacognitive;
2) Gardner (1992) Planning, Conceptualization and Assesment.
Metacognitive 3) Beyer(1992)
COMPONENTS
OF THINKING 1) Dewey (1933)
5 Phases of Reflective Thinking : Identify solution, Analyses
SKILLS
2) Birchall Problem, Generate Hypothesis, Use Reasoning and Tests
Reflective (1992) Hypothseis
3) West (1996)

Critical Ability : Compare and contrast, making categories,
Critical examining the part to whole, sequencing, causal
Thinking explanation, making assumptions, testing assumptions and
validating source of information. Make Decision
and Problem
Creative Solving
Activity in Creativity; Generate ideas, Creating analogy and
Thinking Creating metaphors.
Brain Split-
wave brain
theory theory

Triune Whole
brain brain
theory BRAIN theory
THEORIES
RIGHT BRAIN
LEFT BRAIN SPLIT-BRAIN THEORIES • Control the left
• Control the right Roger Sperry(1965) part of the body
part of the body • Processing
• Analytical thinking information
as in language, through intuition,
numbers, facts creativity and arts
and problem - • Control emotion
solving. and visual
• Scientists, perception and
mathematician, sight in general
chess players, • Artists, dancers,
geographists. sculptors and
musicians.

HOKI (left brain HOKA (right brain
hemisphere) hemisphere)
• Mathematics logic • Visualizing in
• Language, writing, general
reading • Exploring via
• Linear approach imagination
• Analysis • Creativity
• Synthesis
Paul MacLean (1990)

Limbix or
”mammalian” System:
Neocortex: –Emotional tendencies,
–”grey matter” or the motivation, mood, sexual
thinking brain drives, respiration,
–Control and exercise the interaction and blood
intellectual pressure.
–Cause-effect, deduction
and conclusion
–Relationship between
information Reptilian Complex:
–Making visuals. –Oldest and most primitive
–Control acts in a routine
manner, rythm, automatic
acts as in self-survival
Gamma Wave
(ɣ) Delta Wave (δ)
• 40 hertz, higher mental
BRAIN WAVE

activity
The fastest of brain waves, it THEORY • Level while
passes information rapidly Robert Ornstein (1978) sleeping or
• Relates to expanded unconscious
consciousness and spiritual
emergence.
• Running and learning use
same brain waves
Theta Wave (θ)

Beta Wave (β)
Alpha Wave (α) • Level of total
relaxation and
sublimation as in
• 17 –39 hertz , very active yoga
• Level of the conscious mind–mind is • Sleep –not fully
• 8 –17 hertz , calm
very active in solving problems, unconscious
• Level of Relaxation/ reflecting
thinking, giving ideas and analysing while taking bath, prayers
• Not encouraged to be involved in • Decison made is very
decision-making –spontaneous and not accurate in solving problems
very precise and accurate
Ned Herrmann(1995)
Top Left Top Right
Hemisphere Hemisphere
➢ Analyzing facts / data
➢ Formulating concepts /
➢ Thinking through ideas
theories
➢ Reading textbooks
➢ Visual reinforcement
➢ Score:
➢ Flexibility and variety
More rational, logical mode
➢ Score:
of processing data
More emotional, expressive
interpersonal preference

Bottom Left
Hemisphere Bottom Right
➢ Planned structures Hemisphere
➢ Checking details ➢ Interacting with others
➢ Implementing systems ➢ Sharing ideas
➢ Score: ➢ Exercise / movement
More procedural, linear ➢ Score:
preference More conceptual, holistic
and flexible approach
Theory of
Primary Mental Multiple
Abilities Intelligence
Theory(Thurstone (Howard
1938) Gardner 1983)

 Reasoning –making logical  Linguistic intelligence (word smart)
conclusions  Logical-mathematical intelligence
 Perceptual speed –identify TriarchicTheory (number/reasoning smart)
differences and similarities of Intelligence.  Spatial intelligence (picture smart)
between objects (Sternberg  Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (body
 Numerical ability –skilled in 1988) smart)
numbers  Musical intelligence (music smart)
 Word fluency -fluent in giving  Interpersonal intelligence (people
opinions in words expressed smart)
 Componential:
 Associative memory –ability to  Intrapersonal intelligence (self
Analysis of information to solve problems
remember events/episodes smart)
Planning, implementation, procurement
experienced  Naturalist intelligence (nature smart)
 Experiential:
 Spatial visualization –ability to  Emotion intelligent (emotion smart)
Creativity, create new ideas, connect
come up with various forms of
irrelevant statements
imagination
Using past experiences and current skills.
 Contextual:
Practical abilities, using intelligence to
adapt to changes in environment
Adapting to a new change.
BRAIN AND NUTRITION

Dopamine – Serotonin-
Neurohormone Chemical
released by the relaxation
hypothalamus. obtained from
To develop Norepinephrine -It food which
Dendron and is released from contains
Dendrites that noradrenergic carbohydrate
can activate the neurons during
brain synaptic
transmission. As a
stress hormone.
Good nutrition
and learning go The students’
hand in hand. academic
achievement
increase after getting
proper nutrition.

When children's
nutritional needs
are met, it's easier
for them to focus
and learn.
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