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Sistemul limfatic

Organe si tesuturi limfoide

Cells of the specific immune
system
T cell B cell

•Involved with cell mediated
immunity •Involved with humoral
•Two types: immunity

helper T cells (CD4) •Secrete antibodies
cytotoxic T cells (CD8)
•Generally eliminate
•Generally eliminate extracellular pathogens
intracellular pathogens

Lymphatic System: Overview

Function:

 Drain fluid from
around cells
 Absorb fat from
intestines
 Circulate lymph
 Filter lymph
 Immunity

bone marrow and thymus (yellow) – immune responses occur in the secondary organs (blue) .ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM  The immune system is localized in several parts of the body – immune cells develop in the primary organs .

The bursa of Fabricius in birds .

3.6 G CSF IL 3 Progenitor Basofil Macrofag limfoid IL 5 Celula dendritica IL7 B Neutrofil NK Timus Mastocit Eosinofil CD8 CD4 T T Plasmocit . Originea celulelor implicate în răspunsul imun Celula stem Hematopoietica Progenitor mieloid Monocit GM CSF M CSF IL1.

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Lymphocyte Maturation .

and other “stuff” to present to lymphocytes  Lymphatic vessels – collect fluid (lymph) that has “leaked” out from the blood into the tissues and returns it to circulation . ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM  Bone marrow – blood-producing tissue located inside certain bones (5% BW) – blood stem cells give rise to all of the different types of blood cells  Thymus – glandular organ near the heart – where T cells learn their jobs  Spleen – serves as a filter for the blood – removes old and damaged red blood cells – removes infectious agents and uses them to activate cells called lymphocytes  Lymph nodes – small organs that filter out dead cells. antigens.

B-CELL DEVELOPMENT .

B-CELL DEVELOPMENT .

Thymus  A bilobed organ in mediastinum above the heart  The size of the thymus varies with age – In infants. it is found in the inferior neck and extends into the mediastinum where it partially overlies the heart – It increases in size and is most active during childhood – It stops growing during adolescence and then gradually atrophies .

T-CELL DEVELOPMENT .

T-CELL DEVELOPMENT .

Positive selection occurs in the thymic cortex T cells (CD4+CD8+) that recognise foreign antigen presented in the form of antigen/MHC complexes by antigen-presenting cells within the thymus are allowed to live MHC self- recognition molecules This is called positive selection . Steps in T cell development Step 1.

Negative selection occurs in the thymic medulla. T cells are presented with self antigen/MHC complexes by antigen-presenting cells within the thymus If T cells bind and recognise these self antigens they are destroyed by apoptosis The immune system destroys T cells specific for self-antigen This is called negative selection .Steps in T cell development Step 2.

T-CELL DEVELOPMENT The result is a T cell repertoire that recognises foreign antigen and is tolerant towards self antigen .

Know your Flow! .

Spleen  Largest lymphoid organ  In upper left quadrant of abdomen  Has a hilum and a capsule  Sinuses contain blood instead of lymph  Filters blood – Worn out RBC – Bacteria  Lymphocytes  Monocytes .

macrophages. and huge numbers of erythrocytes and platelets  Two distinct areas of the spleen are: – White pulp – area containing mostly lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers and involved in immune functions – Red pulp – remaining splenic tissue (MQ) concerned with disposing of worn-out RBCs and bloodborne pathogens . it has trabeculae that extend inward and contains lymphocytes. Structure of the Spleen  Surrounded by a fibrous capsule.

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Additional Spleen Functions  Stores breakdown products of RBCs for later reuse – Spleen macrophages salvage and store iron for later use by bone marrow  Site of fetal erythrocyte production (normally ceases after birth)  Stores blood platelets .

1-10 mm Filter lymph. Cancer cells. Lymphocytes Monocytes .Lymph Fluid of the lymphatic system Similar to blood plasma and interstitial fluid Lymphatic Vessels Transport lymph Lymph is returned to the circulatory system at either the right or left subclavian veins Lymph Nodes 500-600. Microorganisms.

Lymph Nodes  Lymph is filtered through lymph nodes  Found in clusters  Vary in size  Principal groupings in deep thoracic. abdomen and cervical. axillary.  Provide biological filtration  Site of cancer growth and metastasis . inguinal regions.

Lymph Node Capsule. cortex and medulla:  Cortex contains lymph nodules  Follicular dendritic cells  Germinal centers – B cells proliferate  Lymphatic vessels enter node on convex side  Lymph passes through irregular channels called sinuses  Leaves node through one or two efferent vessels at the hilum or hilus .

Flow of lymph .

tonsils. and the appendix (digestive tract) – Lymphoid nodules in the walls of the bronchi (respiratory tract)  MALT protects the digestive and respiratory systems from foreign matter .MALT  MALT – mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue is composed of: – Peyer’s patches.

forming blind-ended crypts  Crypts trap and destroy bacteria and particulate matter .Tonsils  Lymphoid tissue of tonsils contains follicles with germinal centers  Tonsil masses are not fully encapsulated  Epithelial tissue overlying tonsil masses invaginates.

form a ring of lymphatic tissue around the pharynx  Location of the tonsils – Palatine tonsils – either side of the posterior end of the oral cavity – Lingual tonsils – lie at the base of the tongue – Pharyngeal tonsil – posterior wall of the nasopharynx – Tubal tonsils – surround the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx . Tonsils  Simplest lymphoid organs.

similar to tonsils – Found in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestine – Similar structures are found in the appendix  Peyer’s patches and the appendix: – Destroy bacteria.Aggregates of Lymphoid Follicles  Peyer’s patches – isolated clusters of lymphoid tissue. preventing them from breaching the intestinal wall – Generate “memory” lymphocytes for long- term immunity .

Gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) . adenoids. Peyer’s patches.tonsils. appendix .

appendix . adenoids.Gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) .tonsils. Peyer’s patches.

Lymphatic vessels Resemble veins (same 3 layers) Found throughout body except: – Avascular tissues – Central nervous system – Splenic pulp – Bone marrow .

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Lymphatic vessels join to form lymphatic trunks Lymphatic trunks join to form : •Thoracic duct (3/4 of body) •Right lymphatic duct (drains right arm. neck and upper torso) These empty into subclavian veins at junction with internal jugular vein. . and right side of head.

. and the fluid is called chyle. Fluid Movement Formation of lymph: Fluid leaves capillaries by diffusion and filtration Escaped proteins If lymph flow blocked = tissue swelling or edema Specialized lymphatic capillaries in vili of small intestine transport lipids - they are called lacteals.

Edema  Accumulation of interstitial fluid Causes of Edema  Blockage of lymphatic system  Increased pressure in veins  Lack of albumin – Decreases fluid returning to blood capillaries by osmosis  Inflammation .

6.) . p. Overview of the immune response: Antibody mediated Cell (humoral) mediated (CMI) (Fig. 762. Madigan et al. 22.

Antigen Recognition Provides the key for the immune system to recognize the presence of intracellular microorganisms MHC proteins are ignored by T cells if they are complexed with self protein fragments .

Antigen Recognition If MHC proteins are complexed with endogenous or exogenous antigenic peptides. they: – Indicate the presence of intracellular infectious microorganisms – Act as antigen holders – Form the self part of the self-antiself complexes recognized by T cells .

g.. CD4 and CD8 help maintain coupling during antigen recognition) .T Cell Activation: Step One – Antigen Binding  TC cells are activated by antigen fragments complexed with class I MHC proteins  APCs produce co-stimulatory molecules that are required for TC activation  TCR that acts to recognize the self-antiself complex is linked to multiple intracellular signaling pathways  Other T cell surface proteins are involved in antigen binding (e.

16 .T Cell Activation: Step One – Antigen Binding Figure 21.

it must recognize one or more co- stimulatory signals  This recognition may require binding to other surface receptors on an APC – Macrophages produce surface B7 proteins when nonspecific defenses are mobilized – B7 binding with the CD28 receptor on the surface of T cells is a crucial co- stimulatory signal  Other co-stimulatory signals include cytokines and interleukin 1 and 2 .T Cell Activation: Step Two – Co-stimulation  Before a T cell can undergo clonal expansion.

co-stimulators can cause T cells to complete their activation or abort activation  Without co-stimulation.T Cell Activation: Step Two – Co-stimulation  Depending on receptor type. T cells: – Become tolerant to that antigen – Are unable to divide – Do not secrete cytokines  T cells that are activated: – Enlarge. proliferate. and form clones – Differentiate and perform functions according to their T cell class .

Cytokines  Mediators involved in cellular immunity. including hormonelike glycoproteins released by activated T cells and macrophages  Some are co-stimulators of T cells and T cell proliferation  Interleukin 1 (IL-1) released by macrophages co- stimulates bound T cells to: – Release interleukin 2 (IL-2) – Synthesize more IL-2 receptors .

which sets up a positive feedback cycle that encourages activated T cells to divide – It is used therapeutically to enhance the body’s defenses against cancer  Other cytokines amplify and regulate immune and nonspecific responses .Cytokines  IL-2 is a key growth factor.

Helper T Cells (TH) .

Helper T Cell
 TH cells interact directly
with B cells that have
antigen fragments on
their surfaces bound to
MHC II receptors
 TH cells stimulate B cells
to divide more rapidly and
begin antibody formation
 B cells may be activated
without TH cells by
binding to T cell–
independent antigens
 Most antigens, however,
require TH co-stimulation
to activate B cells
 Cytokines released by TH
amplify nonspecific
defenses

Cytotoxic T Cell (Tc)
 TC cells, or killer T cells, are the only T cells
that can directly attack and kill other cells
 They circulate throughout the body in search
of body cells that display the antigen to which
they have been sensitized
 Their targets include:
– Virus-infected cells
– Cells with intracellular bacteria or parasites
– Cancer cells
– Foreign cells from blood transfusions or
transplants

T-CELL FUNCTIONS

T-CELL FUNCTIONS .

b .Mechanisms of Tc Action Figure 21.18a.

the smaller cytotoxic T cell or Tc (arrow) is attacking and killing a much larger virus-infected cell. The T cell will survive while the infected cell is destroyed.A Cytotoxic T Cell Attacking and Killing a Virus- Infected Target Cell CELLS alive! Here. .

which suppress the activity of both T cells and B cells Gamma delta T cells (Tgd) 5 – 10% of all T cells found in the intestines that are triggered by binding to MICA receptors .Other T Cells Suppressor T cells (TS) – regulatory cells that release cytokines.

 The selected B cell divides rapidly to make lots of copies of itself. that type of B cell is selected. . The copies make lots of antibodies against the pathogen. Selection of B cells by antigen (clonal selection) Different types of B cells have different receptor molecules.  When a pathogen (germ) “locks on” to a receptor.

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Plasma cells secrete antibody at a high rate but can no longer respond to antigen or helper T cells. .

 Others become memory cells that secrete antibodies during the secondary response. Clonal Selection Theory (continued)  Some of the cells become plasma cells that secrete primary response.  Antigens select lymphocytes that are already able to make antibodies. .

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Memory & specificity – key features of the adaptive immunity .

Cinetica răspunsului imun la o infecţie virală tipică .