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international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116

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Performance of an automotive air conditioning
system with the variation of state-of-charge of
the storage battery

S.P. Datta a,*, P.K. Das b
a
Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS Pilani- Hyderabad Campus, 500 078, India
b
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, 721 302, India

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Article history: In an automotive air conditioning system (AACS), the evaporator blower and the con-
Received 7 March 2016 denser fan are powered by a DC power supply containing a storage battery. The unique mutual
Received in revised form 9 January interaction between the battery and the AACS, when the battery is isolated from the ex-
2017 ternal power supply, has been investigated experimentally. As the prime movers draw power,
Accepted 14 January 2017 the charge level of the battery falls and in turn the speed of the prime movers drops con-
Available online 17 January 2017 tinuously. This deteriorates the performance of the condenser and the evaporator. Besides,
a Matlab/Simulink based model has been developed to study the characteristics of the said
Keywords: electromechanical system during the charging and discharging cycles of the battery. Steady
Lead-acid battery state performance of the system has also been studied at different battery voltage to supple-
Automotive air conditioning system ment the dynamic data. The study reveals the typical deterioration of the cooling capacity
Simscape model and the COP of the system during the gradual derating of the supply voltage.
Battery discharge © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.
Battery state-of-charge
Coefficient of Performance

Performance d’un système de conditionnement d’air
automobile avec variation de l’état de charge de la batterie
d’accumulateurs
Mots clés : Batterie d’accumulateurs au plomb ; Système de conditionnement automobile ; Modèle Simscape ; Décharge de
l’accumulateur ; État de charge de la batterie d’accumulateurs ; Coefficient de performance

functions ranging from cooling, lighting and crucial safety
1. Introduction systems to the car entertainment system. For example, in most
of the Automotive Air Conditioning Systems (AACSs), though
In traditional automobiles, run by combustion engines, aux- the compressor is directly powered by the car engine, the evapo-
iliary electric power is required for a variety of onboard rator blower and the condenser fan are run by DC motors

* Corresponding author. Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS Pilani- Hyderabad Campus, 500 078, India. Fax: +91 040 66303998.
E-mail address: spdatta@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in (S.P. Datta).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2017.01.012
0140-7007/© 2017 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

ing process. 2012.. 2007). discharge current. The lead-acid battery. In addition. eva Evaporator (2007) considering a polarization resistance instead of a po- in Inlet larization voltage. The supply of these auxiliary powers is ensured by the road vehicles powered by an electric traction system. open h Enthalpy (kJ kg−1) i Battery current (A) circuit battery voltage. the model was included in a number of electronic switches. in such case. Piao et al. whereas LiFePO4 ex- as it replenishes the same from the car engine through a charg. camshaft sensor. Due to the current interest in electric and hybrid cars. valve. generator is determined and controlled by the algorithm to save tial supply of power and that to continuously for a prolonged electrical energy and to protect the lead-acid battery. if Filtered current (A) K Polarization constant (V (Ah)−1) or 2013). 2014) polarization resistance (Ω ) and their combinations using a model-based estimation ap- m Mass flow rate (kg sec−1) proach (like Kalman filter) (Hu et al. internal resistance. relays and sensors related to the SimPowerSystems simulation toolbox of Matlab and was the AACS. re- It is. and SOC (Chen and Rincón-Mora. . as a power source is important. which considers the R Internal resistance (Ω ) u(t) Charge or discharge mode mutual interaction between the battery and the car air con- U Uncertainty ditioning system. Not its state-of-charge (SOC) is very important for the flawless only the dynamic performance of battery of an electric or hybrid onboard operation of several automotive systems including the vehicle. DC power is also used the battery and experimentally validated the prediction for four to engage and disengage the compressor clutch and to empower different kinds of batteries. As some of the operations cannot be performed if the management is very crucial for the new generation cars. Xiong et al... there are different approaches Exp(t) Exponential zone voltage (V) like stabilized float current. etc. cond Condenser The Shepherd model was further modified by Tremblay et al. the electrical circuit based model can be useful V Voltage to track the variation of battery voltage. current. In the past. oxygen Zhang et al. Some of the limitations of the above model were removed by Tremblay and Dessaint (2009) who developed a generalized model to estimate the charging and discharging dynamics of requiring auxiliary DC power. as an es- Nomenclature sential safety feature the ECM does not allow the car to start. 2008. canister purge solenoid valve. Zhang and Xia. This system can also take care of some of two different type of lithium batteries (Li[NiCoMn]O2 and of the power demands even when the engine is not running. B Exponential zone time constant inverse 2000). and it is valid only under steady state.. international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116 105 battery voltage is below a certain limit. 2009). fuel injectors. Electric power is also used in Engine Control Module used in a detailed simulation of an electric vehicle based on (ECM). Though the power requirement of many for a vehicle generator and lead-acid battery system. For on- period. the grating the regulation method. Till date. hibits a better discharging characteristics. (2012) proposed a novel method of regulation sensor heaters. Finally.. 2001) and voltage-based correction (Cho et al. LiFePO4) with that of a lead-acid battery. Coulometric measurement. This model uses only the battery SOC as a out Outlet state variable to estimate the charging and discharging voltage. 2014. By inte- of the functions listed above is nominal and occasional. ref Refrigerant side The major limitation of this model is that it considers a con- * Non-dimensional parameter stant current as an input. 2013. apart from the experimental techniques. Leksono et al. 2012. 2006. Neural network methods (Bo et al. 2011) have also been tried. Chen and W Compressor work (kW) Rincón-Mora (2006) proposed a battery model with two resistor- capacitor (RC) parallel networks and claimed that it is capable Subscripts/superscripts of predicting the variation of battery voltage and current in real- air Air side time. They are based on electrochemical analysis and Cact ∫ i (t ) dt = actual battery capacity ( Ah ) E0 Battery constant voltage (V) equivalent electrical circuit (Tremblay et al. Shepherd (1965) developed a generalized model batt Battery for charging and discharging in terms of terminal voltage.. They observed that The storage battery can ensure the continuous supply of power Li[NiCoMn]O2 shows a high charging rate. open comp Compressor circuit voltage. employed by many of the automo- AACS Automotive air conditioning system biles. Again for electrical circuit based model. fuel pump. therefore.. Chenglin et al. the output voltage of the evaporator blower and the condenser fan demands a substan. Capasso engine itself through a system which contains an alternator and Veneri (2014) experimentally compared the performance and a storage battery. is an electrical storage device that uses a reversible COP Coefficient of performance chemical reaction to store energy. Q Cooling capacity (kW) In the context of the present work. there (Ah)−1 C Battery capacity (Ah) are two major approaches to analyze the performance of a storage battery. It uses a combination of lead SOC State-of-charge plates and an electrolyte consisting of diluted sulfuric acid to A Exponential zone amplitude (V) convert electrical energy into chemical potential energy (Ceraolo. but also its thermal AACS. Kang et al... Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) a hybrid fuel cell–battery power source. loaded battery voltage (Pang et al.. needless to say that the battery voltage and search in the automotive comfort has gained a new vigor. and SOC.

for air movement through the condenser and the evaporator • Alternator – Once the engine is running. Kim et al. 1 – Typical electrical power distribution for a conventional car (Modified Firestone. 2012. we propose to assess both the phenomena which are highly interrelated and intricately Fig. • Starter – The battery supplies a small amount of power to charging of battery on the performance of an AACS has not the starter motor to start the vehicle. voltage will fall continuously reducing the speed of the blower and the fan. the supply voltage have also been reported. They observed that in cold and of the storage battery. Due to the finite storage capacity of the battery. as well as power is also (Capasso and Veneri. battery is limited. Omar et al. It provides power modeling and its application in electric or hybrid vehicles to the ignition and fuel systems. 1 schematically describes the electrical power supply of coupled using a stationary test facility for AACS. The change of the battery still having a charged state. 2012. generated by the alternator as it is driven by the same belt charging characteristics of the battery have been investigated. drive. Performance (COP) with the gradual decrease of the battery this eventuality will have two implications. First. Hung and Wu. Veneri fan. . evaporator blower. driven by it (Firestone. In the present work. Particularly. Then it takes care all the required electrical loads of The discharging occurs while the battery is made to supply the the vehicle and also maintains the state of the charge of power to the prime movers. 2015). condenser Moseley. radio. Lead-acid battery and its power two prime movers will impose a typical discharge pattern of distribution to the prime movers the battery. power drains out process parameters of the air conditioning cycle and the de- from the battery to run the evaporator blower and the con- terioration of the cooling capacity and the Coefficient of denser fan. Second.. which turns the crankshaft and begins the The present work considers an AACS with its prime movers movement of the engine’s pistons. 1997. Though there are a number of literature related to battery lone power source for the entire vehicle. The starter then rotates been studied. The details of the power generation com- hot climates. the continuous running of these 2. 2011). Smith and Wang. electric power is powered by a lead-acid storage battery. Fig. respectively. electric power generated by the alternator takes care of sensitivity of battery electric vehicles (BEV) utility to driver ag. the effect of charging and dis.106 international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116 Neubauer and Wood (2014) used the “Battery Lifetime Analy. ponents along with power distribution of the battery to the efficient cabin heating system and the high peak on-road AACS are described below: battery temperature. provided to the headlights. 2015).. the battery performance degraded due to the in. electrical sensors and to some auxiliary compo- et al. simulations of the charging and the discharging processes as well as the performance assessment of the AACS during dis- If the power supply from the alternator is hindered with charge through an elaborate experimentation. the lead-acid battery is the SOC. 2012. Xing et al. 2006. (2014) developed a temperature based battery model to estimate the effect of the ambient temperature on the open circuit voltage (OCV) and • Battery – Until the car starts. The investigation comprises of the storage battery. 2014. literature on the conventional lead-acid storage nents subject to the engine is off.. thus degrading the performance of the air con- ditioning system. In the normal operating condi- sis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V)” to examine the tion. The facility a car and the prime movers of the air conditioning system is described below. all electrical loads and also maintains the state of the charge gression and climate effects. the flywheel. The charging and dis.

2) for the a) The fully charged battery (SOC = 100%) is allowed to dis- AACS has been developed to apprise its steady state and charge at a fixed compressor speed until the evaporator dynamic performance under both healthy and faulty condi. At the same time. the condenser fan operates at a constant speed are conducted at all the three blower speeds. . the discharge compressor of the refrigeration system is powered by a characteristics of the battery loaded with the demand of the programmable variable speed drive while the motors of the air conditioning system could be studied. However. set 2 System interfaced with LabVIEW (2010) platform with a sam- and set 3. pling rate of 10 Hz. 36 Ah). A fully instrumented stationary test bench (Fig. international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116 107 Three different kinds of experiments were planned as elabo- 3. blower or the condenser fan stops. This gives an opportunity to inves- arrangement of sensors.. experiments volt. elaborate experiments have been conducted power supply during the normal operation. 3. Refrigerant R134a is used as the compressor ceases running once the battery voltage drops working fluid of the present test rig with a critical charge of down to 8 volt. The battery char- (1750 rpm). 2013). During each of (Datta et al. (2013). actuators and a dedicated data tigate the performance of the AACS during the continuous acquisition system as described in Datta et al. the electrical module has to operate the compressor clutch. It may be noted that. whereas the blower could be operated at three acteristics along with the system parameters are continuously different speeds of 2208. the battery voltage was kept relays as can be seen in Fig. Experimental facility and test procedure rated below. 3092 and 3475 rpm with the help of monitored through a National Instruments Data Acquisition the existing manual control switch denoted as set 1. These operations are done constant at different steady state values by regulating the exactly according to the protocol followed in the actual car current supply through the DC power source. At the prescribed battery charge level (12 the experimental runs and for any voltage level. The discharge of the battery. in addition to 12 to 8 volt. 3. a number of switches and For the last set of experiments. The test bench uses the basic hardware needed for the running the motors of the blower and the fan up to a much air conditioning of a four-seater car along with an elaborate lower battery voltage. running the blower and the fan. it is connected with a regulated DC c) Additionally. It may be noted that the tions (with simulated faults). 2 – The pictorial view of the developed AACS. evaporator blower and the condenser fan receive the DC b) The charging characteristics of the battery in the absence supply from a 12-volt car battery. still the battery is capable of 530 g. The in-house to determine the steady state performance of the AACS at developed electrical module along with the controller is different charge level over a range of battery voltage from depicted in Fig. Fig. charging of the battery. To mimic the continuous of any external loads have also been studied separately.

1. Fig. 3.108 international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116 Fig. U = U ( Xi ) 4. . W  comp .52%. Charging and discharging process of the battery 2 ⎛ ∂U n ⎞ Before describing the experimental observations. These uncertainties can be estimated using the principal of propagation of error as suggested by Moffat (1988). 4 shows a generalized discharge where. 3 – Electrical wire diagram of the AACS powered by 12-volt lead-acid battery.air and COPair pacity and charge level. 4 – Typical discharging characteristics of a battery. Battery model can be determined from the uncertainties of the indepen- dent measurements using the following relationship: 4.68% and As the performance parameters are predicted from a number 7. served at the beginning of discharging. According to this method the uncertainty in U. it would be δU = ∑ ⎜⎝ ∂X δ X ⎟⎠i (1) appropriate to briefly describe the charging and discharging i =1 i processes of the battery.39%.1. are 1. its ca- typical uncertainties of Q eva. Uncertainties in air side calculation are more of experimental measurements. the representing this region depends on the battery type. 1. Xi denotes a typical independent measurement and δXi characteristic of a battery.ref . Experimental uncertainties for a particular test condition at compressor speed of 1200 rpm and blower speed at set 3.44% respectively. The area under the curve Based on the accuracies for various measured variables. 4. ciating with them.52%. An exponential voltage drop is ob- is the associated error. COPref . 5. due to higher errors in the relevant measurements. some uncertainties are asso. Q eva. The next zone is more consistent and Fig.

stable until the voltage drops below the battery nominal voltage. [ − Exp (t ) + A. whereas. 6 is modified by bypassing the evaporator blower and the condenser fan and incorporating a DC power 4. the battery of an automotive air conditioner. one “Rotational Electromechanical Converter Block” to connect The dynamic relationship between voltage and current of the electrical circuit with the physical mechanical circuit. the current consumption decreases gradually. A the lead-acid battery during charging and discharging can be dynamic load as a function of motor speed is introduced in expressed by following the (Tremblay and Dessaint. The based platform with the Simscape library functions as shown duration of the battery to get fully charged is around two hours. Steady state experiments have state-of-charge (SOC) can be defined as.disch arg e = E0 − R ⋅ i − K (Cact + i f ) + Exp (t ) (3) C − Cact 5. 6 also Vbatt. window. it is 0% for a fully dis.ch arg e = E0 − R ⋅ i − K if − K Cact + Exp ( t ) (2) Cact − 0. 5 – Charging or discharging model of the lead-acid battery.2. To start with. a 12- plete charging or discharging model of the lead-acid battery volt DC lead-acid battery source. 5. The battery capacity is time variant and is dependent upon the current profile. For most 5. the electrical components are a which modified the analysis of Shepherd (1965). i (t ) . the battery voltage drops rapidly. described in Fig. To initialize the model. used in the AACS as obtained from the experimental mea- system with two electrical in/out terminals and one plot surements as well as from the simulation. The is shown in Fig.5 A. in the third phase. t = 0. Results where. Charging state of the analyses. the current. Experimentally obtained time dependent current data is used as the input parameter to the current C C sensor for the initialization of the model simulation. the Simscape battery model charged battery. the charg- ing of the battery (when it does not support any load) has been ⎛ 1 t ⎞ studied.u (t )] Exp (4) the transient condition have been planned in this investiga- tion to visualize the effect of battery charge on the performance Assuming a constant battery terminal voltage. The main model window contains two mechanical Fig. Model description source in the circuit. in Fig.1. To simulate the process of charging. The com. an evaporator blower and a condenser fan sub. and a current sensor. current-voltage and a voltage-current Simscape interface. mea- sured at the battery terminal with the AACS off. Inside these blower and fan subsystems there exists Finally. is used. A large number of experiments covering both the steady and  ( t ) = B. C Vbatt. the charging of the battery takes place by using a DC movers connected to it have been modeled as a combination power source with an initial current of 2. international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116 109 Fig. the present battery with the variation of battery charge is also investigated. it is assumed that the SOC for a fully charged battery is 100% at time. 7 depicts the charging characteristics of the lead-acid battery components. the cooling effect inside the car cabin As per the manufacturers’ specifications. 6. This exercise helps to characterize the battery and also SOC = 100 ⎜ 1 − ∫ i ( t ) dt⎟ (5) ⎝ C0 ⎠ lends an opportunity to verify the battery model against the experiment. Besides. .1 C C − Cact contains a “Solver Configuration Block” consisting of param- eters relevant to the numerical algorithms for Simscape Battery discharge: simulation. Fig. In addition. 2009) model each subsystem. As the battery of electrical and mechanical components in Matlab/Simulink gets charged. physical parameters of the battery are incorporated in the “Lead- Battery charge: Acid Battery Block”. been done at different charge levels. has the capacity (C) of 36 Ah. In the The lead-acid battery used in the present test rig and the prime test rig.

This gives rise to a voltage differ- is reached and the evaporator blower or the condenser fan ence which cannot be considered in the present model. the simulation shows a slow and gradual increase of the battery As the battery gets fully charged. whereas. It may be noted that the measured voltage does not closely of SOC as could be estimated from the measured current and follow the simulation curve at the inception of charging. current. The agreement between the two is reasonably well. initially. This variation in the exponential zone is due to a drop in potential at the begin- ning of the battery discharge and is not captured in the present discharge model (Eq. (3)). lapping each other. the measured and simulated SOC are over- Fig. While voltage using Eq. (5) is predicted very accurately by the model. Fig. Change stops. However. 8(b).110 international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116 Fig. the fully charged battery toward the bottom of the cell creating a gradient of specific (SOC = 100%) is allowed to discharge until the limiting voltage gravity (ANSI/IEEE. the measured voltage reaches the saturated value with and remains constant even with overcharging. It is also noted that the fall of SOC remains . the magnetic clutch of the compressor disengages at a voltage level of the battery around 8 volts as a safety measure. Discharging state this initial discrepancy. 8(a) shows the simulated characteristics along with the experimental results for the voltage. There could be a number of reasons for 5. sulfuric acid with higher specific gravity is generated during the charging and sinks During the discharging stage. (5)). 7 – Charging performance of the lead-acid battery. As the SOC is a function of battery current only (Eq. a few step changes. power consump- tion. 6 – Simscape model of the lead-acid battery coupled with the prime movers of the AACS. it is well matched after this zone throughout the discharging period. Though the AACS runs from the inception of the dis- charging process. The correspond- ing errors between the experiments and the simulations are also depicted in Fig.2. 1987). the SOC approaches unity voltage. the discharge characteris- tics of the battery depend on its health conditions which the model fails to take care of. For example. the blower and the fan continue to run till the battery supports their operation. and SOC of the battery during discharge at a particular compressor speed and blower settings (set 3). A certain variation in the experimental and simulated results is observed in the zone of exponential fall of the battery voltage. Further.

(b): Error in simulation of battery discharge. With the reduction of battery voltage in the evapo- rator side. the experimental results depicted in the figure for a given power supply. Fig. i. slow and its value is relatively high even at the end of the rpm depending upon the battery voltage. The continuous curves in Fig. Xiong et al. and the discrete data rator blower and the condenser fan during the discharge of the points indicate the experimentally measured speeds.b)). there exists scope for its refinement. served changes are very marginal. As the battery. Obviously. the error between the mea- sured and the simulated evaporator blower and condenser fan speed is small. 8(a. the figure denote the simulation results. 9 depicts the gradual decrease of the speed of the evapo. It may be noted that while the blower can be oper. at compressor inlet. It may be noted that despite the relative large error between simulation and measurement in battery voltage. As a result. 2001. but it also signifies that the cases of steady state and transient opera- tions of the prime movers are consistent when the rpm of the motors are identical at a given battery voltage. Mass flow rate of the refrigerant is continuously moni- tored with the help of a Coriolis mass flow meter. the condenser fan runs at a single have been obtained during the steady state operation of the prime movers at the corresponding voltage level of the battery. it indicates that though the present model predicts the general trends fairly well. 9(b) depicts the process. Fig. international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116 111 Fig.. test rig does not have a facility of monitoring the motor speeds ated at three different set points. a drop in evaporator outlet refrigerant temperature Fig. The comparison not only indicates a close agree- ment between the experiment and the simulation. normal- ized by the flow rate corresponding to the battery voltage of 12 volts.. a marginal increase in . 9 – Fall of speed of the evaporator blower and is observed which will result in an increase of refrigerant density condenser fan with battery discharge. For other set points. the ob- 2014). at three different speeds continuously. 8 – (a): Discharging performance of the lead-acid battery. The reasons for such mismatch are similar to those are explained above (Fig. 10 shows the variation of the refrigerant mass flow rate ( m  ref * ) .e. the evaporator is set at “set 3”. This is also not an unusual characteristic as has been variation of speed of the condenser fan when the blower of reported by other researchers (Pang et al.

12 – Variation of refrigerant pressure and temperature at the evaporator outlet with a continuous battery voltage drop. battery voltage is chosen as it is a directly measurable parameter. The refrigerant flow rate of “set 2” is observed highest in some cases as it is normalized with respect to its sure and temperature of the refrigerant at condenser exit maximum and minimum range. this may have two serious implications. increase as is commonly expected due to reduced cooling. entry of wet refrigerant to the compressor cannot be ruled out. Further. In extreme conditions. However. 10 – Variation of normalized refrigerant mass flow rate with battery voltage. non-dimensional mass flow rate is observed as the battery dis- charges gradually. It may be noted that the ab. Consequently. with the fall of the degree of superheat of the refrigerant. at its exit exhibit different characteristics (Fig. experiments were conducted at three different blower set points. 11 – Variation of refrigerant pressure and temperature The air flow rate at a cross-section of the duct has been es- at the condenser outlet with a continuous battery voltage timated by the measurement of velocity at different points by drop. All the above- mentioned experiments were conducted at a compressor speed of 1200 rpm with an average ambient temperature of 30 to 32°C and a relative humidity of 70 to 80%. 12). At a very low air inlet temperature.112 international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116 Fig. With the gradual reduction of air flow through the condenser decreases gradually hindering the rate. rator and finally the refrigerant temperature at the exit in a ant temperature at the condenser outlet. Fig. during discharge. Fig. the exit temperature of refrigerant from the evaporator falls. solute value of refrigerant mass flow rate for blower set point The evaporator pressure and the refrigerant temperature 2 is not the maximum. Fig. speed is nonlinearly related to the air flow rate which on the nents of the AACS during battery discharge are presented. the dynamic characteristics of different compo. the refrigerant mass stant while the exit temperature drops gradually. one may select SOC as the inde- pendent variable as it gives a true representation of the charging state of the battery. instead of battery voltage. 11 other hand influences the rate of heat transfer to the evapo- shows the variation of condenser pressure and the refriger. heat transfer to the refrigerant in the evaporator reduces. cooling of the refrigerant passing through it. The blower Next. Both the pres.3. The evaporator pressure remains almost con- runs at a constant rpm. In each battery voltage. These trends flow rate changes only marginally. 5. As the compressor complex manner. traversing a hot wire type probe both length wise and height . But the rate of air flow can be readily explained. In the present work. this may lead to the frosting of the evaporator. The reported results are plotted against battery discharge voltage. Effect of battery charge on system performance Experiments were conducted keeping the terminal voltage of the battery constant at five different values within a range of 12 to 8 volts by varying the battery charging current from the DC power source.

the air temperature will rise with the reduction in air flow rate as can be seen in Fig. the evaporator pressure remains more or less un- affected (Fig. it is about two where the refrigerant mass flow rate is obtained from the mea- times in case of the evaporator for considering all the three surement. discharge. the estimation of degree of at condenser outlet with battery voltage. after. Though the system is critically charged. It is well known that the reduced cooling of the condenser of a vapor compression cycle increases the condensing temperature and gives rise to a hike in discharge pressure.out − heva. The reduced rate of heat trans- fer is manifested through a reduction in its degree of superheat. Further. mance under the same conditions. 16b). it reduces suddenly with further discharging of the battery ferent values of the battery terminal voltage. the deterioration in air flow rate across the condenser  ref (heva. wise at that section. we focus on assessing the system perfor- tor and the condenser.1 (2010) which may lead to some error in measurement or calculation. Inter- estingly. 15. the thermostatic expansion valve tries to maintain a nominal rate of cooling by adjusting the refrig- erant flow rate even when a lesser amount of air flows through the evaporator. 14. For both the cases. across the evaporator and the constant between the battery terminal voltages 12 to 10. air velocity decreases with the drop in battery voltage. its degree of superheat is more due to the enhanced length of tubing and incorporation of additional sensors and compo- nents which are usually not present in any actual automotive Fig. It is observed in Fig. 16a) and gives a lower degree of superheat (Fig. 13 shows the air flow rate. However. The primary effect of a reduction in air flow rate through these two heat exchangers is deterioration in heat transfer. It may be noted that the air flow rate is After observing the effect of battery voltage on individual measured at both upstream and downstream of the evapora. On the other hand. owing to the lack of air flow. blower set points. Using the measured temperature and pressure data. In case of the con- denser. 13 – Variation of normalized air flow rate with battery battery discharge. 18(a) normalized with respect to its maximum value (as observed that the system cooling capacity obtained from Eq. There- condenser surface induced by their corresponding fans at dif. (6) is almost at the full charge of the battery). 14 – Variation of condenser outlet air temperature with Fig. process parameters. Fig. 17). The air exit temperature also falls as air passes through the cold evaporator at a low flow rate. 15 – Variation of refrigerant temperature and pressure air conditioning system. Whereas. superheat is rather indirect with the help of REFPROP 9. This reduces the refrigerant exit temperature (Fig. international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116 113 Fig.ref = m (6) surface is almost five times for a decrease in battery termi- nal voltage from 12 volts to 8 volts. the manifestation of this effect on the per- formance of the condenser and the evaporator is different as has been discussed in the previous section. .in ) Q eva. Whereas. This is well depicted in Fig.

Fig. The compres. the compression erant mass flow rate and enthalpy difference. 18 – Variation of system performance with battery discharging voltage: a) cooling capacity and b) compression work. the air side enthalpy is estimated using the above two measurements. continuously work of the system decreases at any level of battery charge.out . which is a ratio of cooling capacity (Eq. the enthalpies of the refrigerant at the inlet and outlet of the evaporator respectively are computed from It is observed that the refrigerant enthalpy at the compres- REFPROP 9. The air dry bulb temperature and relative hu- at the inlet and outlet of the compressor respectively. from a psychrometric chart.out are the enthalpies of the refrigerant superimposed. a function of refrig. The increase of en- the increase of blower speed. 17 – Variation of degree of superheat with battery Fig. midity at the cross-section of the evaporator and the condenser ducting have been estimated at different points by traversing a relative humidity sensor both length wise and height wise at that section.out − hcomp.114 international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116 Fig. increases with the reduction of battery charge. For Fig. Further. . 16 – Variation of refrigerant temperature and pressure at evaporator outlet with battery voltage. Finally. 19 – Variation of system COP with battery discharging voltage. voltage.in and heva. for obvious reasons it has been observed that with whereas the outlet enthalpy increases.in ) Wcomp.ref = m (7) pression work (Eq. Contrary to the cooling compression work with the reduction of battery charge. heva.in and hcomp.1 (2010). 19 shows the variation of Coefficient of Performance (COP). This is depicted in Fig. (7)). sor inlet continuously decreases with the fall of battery voltage. the system compression work. (6)) and com-  ref (hcomp. with the fall of battery charge. Ad- capacity. ditionally. with the increase of blower speed. 18(b). the cooling capacity of the system thalpy difference obviously results in a rise of the system increases at any level of battery charge. Fig. COP obtained from the air side measurements is also where hcomp. In this figure. sion work can be computed as follows.

is a small drop in battery voltage. though the compressor runs Power and Propulsion Conference. Jeong. it has been seen that the rate of increase of compression protection from damage. air flow through the condenser.2008. Appl. This trend shows from two different methods agree very closely signifying the a drastic reduction in the degree of superheat. 41. Mao et al.. there can be a drop in COP as high as 50%. while there was a restriction of thermal performance of automobile air conditioner condenser. charge estimation for lithium-ion batteries under various • As expected. M.P. Chiou. Huiju. As a result. Chenglin. as the cooling capacity also The low battery voltage can lead to several potential mal- reduces simultaneously. • Though. 21.H.013. Coney.2012.. 515–528. Even when there an approximate increase of 30% load on the compressor. Manag. C. Ceraolo. 1983.013. This should robustness of the design of the set-up and the accuracy of the raise a caution as a certain degree of superheat of the re- measurement and analysis.A.1109/ decay though its change with time is fairly linear at a low TEC.. COP calculated of the refrigerant through this component.03. Further.. MI.. O. ANSI/IEEE. frigerant at the inlet to the compressor is essential for its cussed. Airflow mentations. is maintained in turn by the engine. tion of air flow follows a particular trend as it is caused by IEEE Trans. Dearborn. State of charge estimation to investigate the effect of air flow reduction through either based on evolutionary neural network... pp. the refrigeration cycle. This has a direct effect on energy consumption. 1184–1190.. there is a noticeable fall in the outlet temperature evaporator as explained in Datta et al. 1662– at a constant speed.. As a consequence. Binggang.003. 49.. 2008. denser rise with the fall of air flow through it due to reduced Comput. C. Energy 1–10. This combined with increases the energy demand by the AACS though the cooling a low air temperature feedback from the evaporator outlet may effect is substantially reduced. Zhifeng..E. Energy Convers. J. Rincón-Mora. This is associated with the auxiliary energy demand of an automobile. Number of studies have been done Bo. In: The 5th IEEE Vehicle • During the discharge process. L. (2013). Chen. Aganda. A. international journal of refrigeration 75 (2017) 104–116 115 the calculation of COP from air side. The proposed simulation provides a reason- circuit model of LiFePO4 cathode material for lithium ion able prediction of the discharge process. This happens due to the ad- Cho. 2788–2794. the fall of battery voltage. Further. W. In extreme capacity as the battery voltage drops. Conclusion The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of The compressor of an AACS is powered by the engine while General Motors India Science Lab Bangalore under the aegis the condenser fan and the evaporator blower of the same re- of the General Motors-IIT Kharagpur Collaborative Research ceives a DC supply through a storage battery whose charge level Laboratory. 830542. COP conditions. M. . L. the reduc. 2000. H. S. In turn.. at a low flow rate the exit work is much more compared to the rate of reduction of cooling temperature of air from the evaporator reduces. 2009. This trend has also been observed else.. the present study is performance of lithium based batteries for road full electric and hybrid vehicles. Some important observations are discussed below. 2000. Veneri. 2012. 15. 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