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Overview
of
Optical Communications
Dr. Zafrullah
muhammad.zafrullah@ee.uol.edu.pk

 Optics is an old subject involving the
generation, propagation & detection of light.
 Three major developments are responsible for
rejuvenation of optics & its application into the
modern technology:
1 – Invention of Laser
2 – Fabrication of low-loss optical Fiber
3 – Development of SC Optical Devices
 Electro-Optics: is generally reserved for optical
devices in which electrical effects play a role,
such as lasers, electro-optic modulators &
switches

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… ) 3 – Detection of Light (coherent & incoherent) 4 – Processing of Light Signals (modulation. fibers. It reflects the importance of the photon nature of light PHOTONICS & ELECTRONICS clearly overlap since electrons often control the flow of photons & conversely. Optoelectronics: refers to devices & systems that are essentially electronics but involve lights. receivers & signal processors. 4 2 . imaging systems. …)  Photonic Communications: describes the applications of photonic technology in communication devices & systems. photons control the flow of electrons 3 Optical Communication  The Scope of Photonics: 1 – Generation of Light (coherent & incoherent) 2 – Transmission of Light (through free space. amplification. frequency conversion. switching. liquid crystal displays & array photodetectors  Lightwave Technology: describes systems & devices that are used in optical communication & signal processing  Photonics: in analogy with electronics. transmission media. involves the control of photons in free space and matter. such as LED. such as transmitters. waveguides.

E=hν c = λ ν = constant 5 6 3 .

Note the relation between frequency & energy c=λν E=hν 7 Wavelength Bands of Interest 50 nm (UV) – 100 μ m (IR) 400 nm – 700 nm (visible region) 800 nm – 1600 nm (1.55µm) range 8 4 .

3 dB/km)  System Reliability and Ease of Maintenance: high performance active & passive photonic components such as tunable lasers. radar systems. very sensitive photodetectors. dBm For Fibers  Pz = P0 exp (− αp z) where αp = (1/z) ln [(P(0)/P(z)].Attenuation Units  Ratio of optical output power Pout [P(z)] to optical input power Pin [P(0)] G = 10 log [P(z)/P(0)] dB.4343) 9 Why Optical Communications?  Extremely wide bandwidth: High carrier frequency ( a wavelength of 1552.  Low Cost systems for data rates in excess of Gbps 10 5 .343 αp (Hint: Log (e1) = 0. power electronic systems. (dB/km) = (10/z) log [(P(0)/P(z)] Prove that α = 4. couplers. airborne systems. (per cm)  α = attenuation coefficient.5 nm corresponds to a center frequency of 193. filters.25 to 0.1 THz)  Small size & light weight  Immunity to Interference: Electromagnetic interference (high voltage transmission lines. …)  Signal Security  Lack of EMI cross talk between channels  Ruggedness and Flexibility  Low Transmission loss (0.

g. WDM toward DWDM 11 Optical Fiber Transmission Windows 12 6 . lighting  1960s: Research on lowering the fiber loss for Telecom applications  1970s: Development of low loss fibers. SC light sources & photodetectors  1980s: Single mode fibers (OC–3 to OC–48) over repeater spacing of 40 km  1990s: Optical Amplifiers (e. EDFA).Evolution of fiber optic systems  1950s: Imaging applications in medicine & non-destructive testing.

Operating range of 4 key components 1 Optical Fibers 2 Optical Sources 3 Optical Amplifiers 4 Optical Detectors 13 Optical Fiber 14 7 .

Major elements Of typical photonic comm link ? 15 Installation of Fiber optics 16 8 .

Submarine Systems 17 Basic Communication & Digital Data Concepts Analog Signal Digital Signal RZ & NRZ Formats ? 18 9 .

Basic Communication & Digital Data Concepts (cntd) Analog Signal Quantized Sample Digital Stream 19 Basic Communication & Digital Data Concepts (cntd) 5 Channels in 15 µSec TDM FDM at their own turn Multiple frequencies at the same time 20 10 .

84 Mbps data rate  Higher-rate SONET signals are obtained by byte-interleaving N STS-1 frames. Higher-rate SDH signals are achieved by synchronously multiplexing N different STM-1 frames to form STM-N signal 22 11 .Concept of Wavelength Division Multiplexing WDM Multiple wavelengths at the same time on a single fiber 21 SONET & SDH Standards Synchronous frame structure for sending multiplexed digital traffic over fiber  SONET (Synchronous Optical NETwork):  used in North America  The basic building block of SONET is called STS-1 (Synchronous Transport Signal) with 51. which are scrambled & converted to an Optical Carrier Level N (OC-N) signal  SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy):  The basic building block of SDH is called STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module) with 155.52 Mbps data rate.

23 24 12 .

000 telephone calls 25 26 13 .Standard Bit Rates 1 telephone call = 64 kbps 155 Mb/s = 2000 telephone calls 620 Mb/s = 8000 telephone calls 2.000 telephone calls 10 Gb/s = 120.000 telephone calls 40 Gb/s = 480.5 Gb/s = 30.

27 Digital Transmission Hierarchy 28 14 .

3.2 dB/km.2.6 x 10 − 19 Joule Homework Exercise 1 29 Exercise 1 1: Calculate the carrier frequency for optical communication systems operating at 0.88. and 2000 dB/km.61 x 10 -7 per cm & L = 50 km) 30 15 . No of Audio Channels = At a bit rate of 1% of the carrier Bit rate vs Frequency ? No of Photons Sampling and Quantization in Digital Communication C=λν E = h ν (in Joules (watt x Sec)) 1 eV = 1. 1. Assuming that the optical power decreases as exp( – α L). the photon energy = 1.55 μm. and 1. αp = 4.41 eV) 2: Calculate the transmission distance over which the optical power will attenuate by a factor of 10 for three fibers with losses of 0. (with loss of 0.88 μm. calculate α (in cm − 1) for the three fibers. 20. What is the photon energy (in eV) in each case? (at 0.

The transmitter launches 2 mW of average power into the fiber cable. How many audio channels at 64 kb/s can be transmitted over a microwave carrier at 5 GHz and an optical carrier at 1. Assuming that 1 and 0 bits are equally likely to occur. and 16 mA.55-μm fiber-optic communication system is transmitting digital signals over 100 km at 2 Gb/s. 36.3: Assume that a digital communication system can be operated at a bit rate of up to 1% of the carrier frequency. Estimate the total number of bits assuming a delivery rate of 200 words per minute and on average 5 letters per word.55 μm? (N = 781.3 dB/km. Write the corresponding digital signal (a string of 1 and 0 bits) by using a 4-bit representation for each sample. at 5 GHz) 4: A 1-hour lecture script is stored on the computer hard disk in the ASCII format. while 1 bits are in the form of a rectangular pulse occupying the entire bit slot (NRZ format). How long will it take to transmit the script at a bit rate of 1 Gb/s? (0.50 mA is digitized by sampling it at 8 kHz. 21. How many photons are incident on the receiver during a single 1 bit? Assume that 0 bits carry no power.5 mSec) 5: A 1. having a net loss of 0.55 μm digital communication system operating at 1 Gb/s receives an average power of – 40 dBm at the detector. The first four sample values are 10. (Np = 15625) 32 16 . (Np = 1560) 31 6: An analog voice signal that can vary over the range 0. calculate the number of photons received within each 1 bit. (0011 0110 1011 0101) 7: A 1.

3-μm optical transmitter is used to obtain a digital bit stream at a bit rate of 2 Gb/s. How many wavelengths of 820 nm light will fit into this distance? How does this compare 50 μm – dia optical fiber? 13: A wave is specified by y = 8 cos 2 π (2t – 0. Determine the minimum power that must be launched into the fiber. What is the duration of the shortest and widest optical pulse? (Duration of the shortest pulse = 0.5 dB/km. Assume the NRZ format and a rectangular pulse shape.003 in.8-μm optical receiver needs at least 1000 photons to detect the 1 bits accurately.8z) μm.8: Sketch the variation of optical power with time for a digital NRZ bit stream 010111101110 by assuming a bit rate of 2.3 μW at the receiver. angular frequency and the displacement at t = 0 and z = 4 μm 34 17 .2 dB. Find the amplitude. thick.4 nSec) 9: A 0. What is the maximum possible length of the fiber link for a 100-Mb/s optical communication system designed to transmit –10 dBm of average power? The fiber loss is 2 dB/km at 0. (0.23 dBm  Pin = 0.62 x 10 7) 33 11: A 50-km fiber link requires at least 0. Assume that the 0 bits carry no energy. Calculate the number of photons contained in a single 1 bit when the average power emitted by the transmitter is 4 mW. Fiber is spliced every 5 km and has two connectors of 1–dB loss at both ends. The fiber loss is 0. Splice loss is only 0. (Np = 2.5 Gb/s.8 mm. (19.3 μW = – 35.535 km) 10: A 1.227 mW) 12: A typical sheet of paper is 0.