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Live Attenuated

Oriana Danby, p. 1
February 21, 2017
An attenuated
vaccine is a vaccine
created by reducing
the virulence of a
pathogen, but still
keeping it alive.
Production (Tissue Culture)
1. Use the tissue culture to grow new viruses
a. Must be similar enough to stimulate an immune response,
but not so similar that it brings on the disease
b. Is a weakened version of virus

2. Fill the syringe with a strain of the virus that has
desirable characteristics
a. A strain is selected that grows slow enough in humans
to allow the immune system to eliminate it
Stop! You have committed crimes

● Weaker version of the virus so against Skyrim and her people.
What say you in your defense?

memory cells will be prepared to
fight the next time
● Immunity usually produced in
one dose
● Virus must replicate (grow) in
vaccinated person
● May not always develop
correctly because of antibody
can interfere with replication
● Normally do not require booster
Historical Background
● Edward Jenner
○ Noticed milkmaids had contracted
cowpox (caused blistering)
● May 14, 1796
○ Took fluid from cowpox blister,
scratched it into eight year old boy
● James Phipps (boy) had a single blister, but
● July 1, 1796
○ Phipps inoculated with smallpox, but no
disease developed
Yellow Fever
● Viral infection in Africa and South America
● 15% of those who get yellow fever have bleeding, shock,
organ failure, etc.
● Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793 in Philadelphia
○ 5,000+ people died
● August 27, 1900 - Dr. James Carroll allowed infected
mosquito to feed on him
○ Colleague Walter Reed proved mosquitoes
transmit it
● 99% of people develop lifelong immunity with one month
of vaccination
○ $150-$350 total cost
● Usually takes only one vaccine
● Vaccine needed to enter Costa Rica, Guatemala, South
Africa, Jamaica, Ecuador, etc.
Interesting Facts
● Live oral polio vaccine has reverted to its original form
● The Greek king Mithridates VI attempted suicide by poisoning himself, but
failed because he acquired immunity to many poisons that he took in small
doses throughout his life.
● Farm kids have both better immunity and resistance to allergies
● When Louis Pasteur was working on the Rabies vaccine, there was a rule in
place that if he or his assistants got infected, they were to be shot in the
● Dr. Andrew Wakefield claimed that there was a link between autism and
vaccines had his medical license removed when he was found to have
fabricated the evidence. It was found that he was paid £400,000 to do so
by a group of lawyers looking to sue the manufacturers.
Works Cited
(n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2017, from

Written by Colleen StoryMedically Reviewed by. (n.d.). Yellow Fever. Retrieved February 23, 2017, from

U.S. Army Physicians Discovered the Cause of Yellow Fever. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2017, from

(n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2017, from

Riedel, S. (2005, January). Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination. Retrieved February 23,
2017, from

25 Interesting Facts About Immunization and Vaccines. (2016, April 25). Retrieved February 23, 2017, from

(n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2017, from

11 Facts About Vaccines. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2017, from