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Rafał Kaczmarek, Karol Kaczmarek, Jacek Słania, Ryszard Krawczyk

Performing of Ultrasonic Tests Using the TOFD Technique
in View of the Requirements of Related Standards

Abstract: The article concerns the time of flight diffraction testing technique
(TOFD), which is, next to the simultaneous TOFD + Phased Array testing, one of
the most effective methods of volumetric non-destructive tests. The article dis-
cusses the advantages of the TOFD technique as well as the basis of diffraction
phenomenon and the formation of imaging signals. In addition, the article pre-
sents a TOFD image of a welded joint and describes its characteristic elements.
Also, the article discusses the TOFD-related testing standards and analyses their
requirements related to welded joints and their acceptance criterion, i.e. the qual-
ity level according to PN-EN ISO 5817. The target readers of the article include
NDT personnel, inspectors, welding engineers and welding equipment manu-
facturers wishing to implement an effective tool enabling the detection of weld-
ing imperfections.

Keywords: time of flight diffraction, TOFD, non-destructive testing of welds, ul-
trasonic tests.

doi: 10.17729/ebis.2016.4/6

Introduction terms of workmanship and as regards the as-
Increasing requirements in terms of the re- sessment of test results. For this reason, the
liability of welded products and structures TOFD technique is likely to become increasingly
require the use of new more advanced test- popular in industry. Undoubtedly, factors in-
ing techniques allowing the verification of creasing the application potential of TOFD tech-
quality and workmanship. Modern ultrason- nique-based tests in Poland include relatively
ic techniques, such as TOFD, Phased Array low testing equipment costs, possibility of ob-
and Full Matrix Capture (also known as To- taining funds from the National Centre for
tal Focusing Method) are becoming increas- Research and Development (within implemen-
ingly important. Each of the above-presented tations of innovative projects) and the initia-
techniques is at a different stage of develop- tion (in 2016) of training courses for operators
ment. The TOFD technique, widely used for of TOFD technique-based ultrasonic tests at the
many years in English-speaking countries, has Welding Education and Supervision Centre of
become internationally standardised, both in Instytut Spawalnictwa in Gliwice.

dr inż. Karol Kaczmarek (PhD (DSc) Eng.); dr hab. inż. Jacek Słania (PhD (DSc) hab. Eng.), Professor at IS
– Instytut Spawalnictwa, Welding Education and Supervision Centre; mgr inż. Rafał Kaczmarek (MSc Eng.),
dr inż. Ryszard Krawczyk (PhD (DSc) Eng.) – Częstochowa University of Technology; Welding Department

No. 4/2016 BIULETYN INSTYTUTU SPAWALNICTWA 47

occurs in cases of most common tests utilis- od. longitudinal wave (in al volumetric tests. performed by the Method Netherlands Institute of Welding (NIL).g. incomplete fusions) perpendicu- 66% and 15% for RT-X accordingly [1]. 4/2016 . as is the case with angle the above named imperfections was later con. methods. The authors have ably oriented discontinuities. POD and FCR amounted to when ultrasonic beams are reflected from flat 52% and 22% for UT. is not possible to ensure if a signal appearing The possibilities and advantages of TOFD on the defectoscope screen comes from the tests call for the replacement of convention.g. One of the most important advan. The TOFD technique is characterised by of NDT personnel as to the use of modern UT a number of advantages justifying its imple. as regards non-destructive complete standardisation of TOFD tests as re- tests. allay fears mentation for verifying the quality of weld. transducers of transverse waves. amounting is the echo technique utilising the phenome- to 82% and 11% accordingly. Both the probability of detection the ultrasonic waveform. TOFD Conventional ultrasonic tests utilise the laws tests were compared with manual ultrasonic of geometric optics. where possible. with the the examples discussed). Such a situation the imperfections detected using the RT meth. primary wave type. In cases of unfavour- building pipeline DN1000 [2]. As regards the other vol. The presence of ic wave is generated. cases where more than one type of ultrason- sions) in the radiographic tests. may be reflected in another direction and not line welds tested using both the TOFD technique return to the transducer. lar to the direction of an ultrasonic beam and The valuable and interesting comparison of from rectangular reflectors (e. e. an incident beam compared the test results concerning 356 pipe. 48 BIULETYN INSTYTUTU SPAWALNICTWA No. Such a phenomenon TOFD technique. in order for this to is undesirable as it impedes the interpretation happen. particularly of flat discontinuities. One of the examples (POD) and the false call rate (FCR). gards the workmanship and the assessment of ty. and at the same time. it is necessary to raise the awareness of indications. TOFD detectability has been verified by results of research programmes aimed to confirm the TOFD Technique versus Conventional effectiveness and reliability of TOFD tests.e. reflection law. a crack reach- the TOFD technique possibilities and those of ing the surface or incomplete penetrations in RT-γ also results from experience gained when the Y-bevelled weld root). The reason for such a large discrepancy of ing simple transducers of longitudinal waves test results was ascribed to the low detectability and angle transducers of transverse waves. The high the quality of joints. ic wave. However. Poland). refrac- tests (UT) and X-ray radiographic (RT-X) and tion law and transformation law in relation to (RT-γ) tests. related to the implementation of new and ed joints to a significantly greater degree than previously rarely used testing techniques (in presently. Conventional techniques of ultrasonic tests ing the TOFD technique (in case of the same aim to leave only one type of wave generated in welds) was almost 3 times greater than that of a material subjected to a test. the analysis firmed (at the repair stage) by magnetic particle of indications can cause some difficulties as it tests of weld segments subjected to grinding [2]. The total length of imperfections detected us. In of flat discontinuities (primarily incomplete fu. High signal amplitudes are obtained umetric methods. thus not giving the sig- and the RT method and the source of Ir192. In Ultrasonic Tests Based on the Echo one of such programmes. 60% and 11% for RT-γ and surfaces (e. This task is by far facilitated by the tages of the method.g. speak for the use of non of the directional reflection of an ultrason- the TOFD technique. i. is the very high and repeated detectabili. nal of discontinuity on a defectoscope.

Signals obtained from each Fig. Back-wall reflection Discontinuity ent source of spherical waves (Fig. ty imaging. the most fre. Diffracted waves dent beam [3]. i. partial reflec- can be used in analysis. Spherical waves have a low amplitude. tion and the excitation of diffracted waves (black markers) quently used are longitudinal waves. could Figure 2a presents the front of a longitudinal easily represent recorded disturbances. 4/2016 BIULETYN INSTYTUTU SPAWALNICTWA 49 . in the TOFD technique the ure 2 presents the insertion of ultrasonic waves amplitude of signal is not used for assessing the into soda-lime glass using a TOFD transducer size of analysed material discontinuities. are excited in a ma- terial being tested. How- and transverse wave before reaching a gap. because of appropriate setting of defectoscope gain only similar velocities of longitudinal and transverse aims to ensure the obtainment of good quali- waves (5800 m/s and 3450 m/s accordingly). This may lead to the obtainment of signals of unfavourably oriented discontinui- ties. unacceptable for quality levels B and C according to PN-EN ISO 5817.e. transverse and a) b) surface (Rayleigh) waves. Fig. presence of a discontinuity in the material and b) longitudinal wave after passing the gap. in the echo method. Such a centre (soda-lime glass). diffracted waves continuity edges is of primary importance. as this could deteriorate the quality of al reflection of a longitudinal wave from a flat TOFD images. However. the value of gain must not be excessive- turn. propagat- ing (in a material being tested) within the wide Fundamentals of TOFD Tests ranges of angles. longitudinal and transverse. in TOFD technique-based tests various types of ul- trasonic waves. waves on discontinuity edges flat discontinuities such as cracks and incom- plete fusions. ly high. propagate within the wide range of angles. in particular. that a TOFD image. Similar to other techniques of ultrasonic discontinuity surface along with the transfor- tests. Schematically presented generation of diffracted the conventional echo technique. and their generation only slightly depends on the angle of an inci. at the tops of the gap. the TOFD technique is aimed at the re- Figure 1 presents the schematic generation ception of imaging (diffraction) signals. Annex B of standard [5] presents No. 2. Unlike in the ultrasonic echo technique. However. Generation of diffracted waves on the edges of of these waves provide information about the a gap (1 mm x 3 mm) in soda-lime glass [4] a) longitudinal wave (red marker) before reaching the gap. longitudinal. also as lateral waves. each centre point reached by a wave (including atoms at the top of the centre) becomes the independ. In accord- ance with the Huygen’s principle. Unlike of diffracted waves on discontinuity edges. As a rule. The [3]. In ever. the phenomenon verse wave as well as the excitation of. the TOFD technique utilises the laws of mation of the longitudinal wave into a trans- geometric optics. both of the generation of diffracted waves on dis. the detection of which is problematic using Fig. 1). Such waves are generated as a result of striking the edge of discontinuity by a high amplitude Incident wave Diffracted waves wave emitted from a transmitter. 1. Figure 2b presents the partial direction. using the grey scale. The gain should be high enough so well reflects phenomena taking place in steels.

it is necessary to use relatively high technique-based tests of welded joints are pre- gain (usually 80-100 dB). transduc- Because of the low amplitude of imaging er angles and sizes when performing the TOFD signals. which when entering only for the detection of indications.nals which covered the entire distance from the ducer. In typical TOFD tests. i. 3. section point corresponds to 2/3 of the thick. 4). is known.cess of sizing requires the knowledge imperfections in a sheet) cause the directional of wave velocity at which a given signal propa- reflection of a beam emitted by a transmitting gated.reflection and the transformed wave are used gent beam in the wedge. only the fragment of a ness of an element subjected to a test. where only signals without dividing into zones. In practice. trasonic beam. Sizing can be performed only using sig- transducer in the direction of a receiving trans. si- multaneously generates a Transmitter Receiver longitudinal wave within lateral wave the wide range of angles as well as transverse and surface waves.continuities does not pose difficulties within ing elements having thicknesses up to 50 mm. A small transducer diam. Such an arrangement er than that of a transverse and surface wave. The typical configu. 4/2016 . When test. frequencies amounting to or higher Fig. only discontinuities This is important because of practical reasons parallel to the scanning surface (e. cerning the adjustment of frequency.sented in Table 2 of PN-EN ISO 10863 [5]. Recommendations con- proper gain values. TOFD image between the lateral wave and lon- the TOFD technique involves the use of strongly gitudinal back-wall reflection can be used for dampened transducers having a small diameter assessing the deposition depth of a discontinui- (usually 3 or 6 mm). As a result. ration of TOFD transducers consists of two an.lations. such a linearization range. backwall reflection incident wave ventional ultrasonic tests and amounts to 1-15 MHz. of transducers minimises the number of signals As a result. In practice.ceiving transducer and gives an impulse as first.examples of TOFD images with proper and im. a longitudinal wave reaches the re- coming from the directional reflection of an ul. longitudinal.are present.e.of one ultrasonic wave type. the sizing of dis- ly used angle amounts to 70° or 60°. ducer as one wave type as it is only then that In cases of joints having thicknesses restricted the signal velocity. the beam inter. The in a push-pull system at the constant distance velocity of a longitudinal wave is by twice fast- from each other (Fig. The range incident wave difracted wave of transducer frequency is higher in comparison with that used during con. necessary for further calcu- within the range of 6-50 mm. laminar as the pro. the signal of a longitu- gle transducers of longitudinal waves mounted dinal wave is of the greatest importance. Scheme of A type image generation during the TOFD technique-based tests 50 BIULETYN INSTYTUTU SPAWALNICTWA No. In cases of thicknesses up to 50 mm.ty (Fig.g. 3). Usually. a material being tested. the most frequent.transmitting transducer to the receiving trans- ers is restricted within the range of 40° to 70°. The fragment between the back-wall eter ensures the generation of a strongly diver.than 3 MHz are used. An angle of the refraction of transduc.

whereas the term of a back-wall i. where the direction of cation reaching the surface opposite in relation scanning is parallel to the weld. usually transversely in relation Standardisation of the TOFD to the weld axis. and currently ISO 16828. Due to the twice lower ance criterion being a quality level according to ISO 5817. Technique-Based Tests A typical TOFD image contains signals of The oldest standardisation document concerned a subsurface and back-wall reflection. the TOFD-based tests are performed velocity of a transverse wave. of penetration on 115 mm of the joints) as well location and space orientation of a discontinui. the TOFD image contains two internal indica- ally. and non-parallel scans can be obtained. where. The correlation Lateral wave Indications between quality levels. incomplete fusions. specify- and entering the receiving transducer. i. Afterwards. cerning tests of welded joints were developed.e. flight diffraction technique A-scan represents the area marked with the cursor (blue line) in B-scan as a method for detection and No. the above named using a scanner provided with an encoder. In addi. formed in the direction determined by the axes of transducers. Time-of- Fig. non-parallel scans (in relation to the beam tions of large incomplete side fusions. der the surface. consti. specifying primary re- reflection stands for the part of a longitudinal quirements as well as defining test levels and wave beam reflected from the opposite surface classifying indications and ISO 15626. obtained when ing on the direction of scanner movement in testing a 15 mm MAG welded joint fragment. The specifying the fundamentals of the TOFD tech- term of a lateral wave stands for the part of nique-based tests. it may be useful to make a parallel scan per. with the TOFD technique was British standard tuting a very comfortable reference point at the BS7706. a lateral wave and linearization. 4. one indi- axis) are performed. The source of primary guidance on performing tests using the TOFD tech- Transformed wave nique is PN-EN ISO 16828 Non-destructive testing. test levels and acceptance lev- els in relation to the TOFD technique-based tests is Back-wall reflection presented in Table 1. ing acceptance levels corresponding to quality tion. as several point indications of short interlayer ty. standards con- a longitudinal wave beam running directly un. sents a TOFD image after the synchronisation of tion of test results in 2D images. The last two stand- the transformed wave contains signals which ards constitute the basis for using the TOFD have covered at least some part of the path technique in acceptance tests with the accept- as a transverse wave. TOFD image of a welded joint composed of B-scan (right) and A-scan (left). The signals are moved to longer times. parallel addition to the above named constant signals. standard ISO 10863. 4/2016 BIULETYN INSTYTUTU SPAWALNICTWA 51 . Ul- trasonic testing.e. Normally. If it is necessary to the scanning surface (indication of the lack to obtain further information about the nature. In relation to the ultrasonic beam axis. The standard was replaced by Europe- stage of TOFD image linearization and the di. Figure 4 pre- use of an encoder enables the graphic presenta. 4). Usu. depend. an standard EN 583-6. mensioning of indication depth (Fig. the range from the back-wall reflection to levels according to ISO 5817.

which was of master samples for the verification of equip- initially used for the sizing of fatigue cracks in ment settings and detectability in tests utilising elements other than welded products. The standard defines the requirements related to the quality of obtained two primary types of TOFD scans. i. wedge refraction angle. 4/2016 . Each subsequent test level from A to D requires better document- sizing of discontinuities. B. C and D set out in PN-EN and techniques used for adjusting the gain of a ISO 5817 accordingly. provides guidance scans. It should be noted and summing as well as presents three alter- that standard PN-EN ISO 16828 is not specialised native techniques of measurement cursor po- as regards tests of welded joints but only con. the frequency and size of a transduc. A. The standard urement uncertainty related to the deposition also discusses the principles of dimensioning depth of discontinuity edge.e. The standard de- B C 1 fines the primary principles and requirements C at least B 2 concerning tests of joints and specifies four test D at least A 3 levels. ed confirmation of the correct adjustment of the standard provides primary definitions. parallel test results (TOFD images). the source of guidelines concerning the design lated to the history of the technique. The standards also provide guidance allel to the axis of ultrasonic beams. the only reference direction for the Guidance on the evaluation of welded joints scanner movement was the orientation of the based on the TOFD test results is described in axis of an inserted ultrasonic beam. unlike in tains general guidance on TOFD tests. In addition. Standard PN-EN ISO 16828 contains guidelines Time-of-flight-diffraction technique (TOFD). Ultrasonic testing. perfections. where acceptance 52 BIULETYN INSTYTUTU SPAWALNICTWA No. the standard constitutes logical convention has been adopted. on the interpretation of indications and useful provides information on principles of deter- mathematical formulas enabling the calculation mining the length and height of a discontinuity of scan resolution. The standard contains guidance specifies the primary symbols and definitions. This is re. i. size of dead zone and meas. ification. Use of time-of-flight- ISO 5817 ISO 10863 ISO 15626 diffraction technique (TOFD). conventional ultrasonic tests. sitioning. 2 and 3. of results. Welded joint quality levels with corresponding test and acceptance levels when performing the TOFD The primary standard concerning tests of technique-based tests [6] welded joints involving the TOFD technique Quality level Test level Acceptance level is PN-EN ISO 10863 Non-destructive testing of according to according to according to welds. products. where the scanner does not move in par. be noted that the non-parallel scan defined personnel qualification. PN-EN ISO 15626 Non-destructive testing of welds.e.e. in ceptance levels. gen. and provides higher assurance of discon- as well as requirements related to equipment tinuity detection. vided to the operator prior to the performance ed joints) along a weld. ceptance levels. where the scanner moves in parallel to on the interpretation and classification of de- the axis of ultrasonic beams and a non-parallel tected imperfections as well as on the reporting scan. equipment and detectability of welding im- eral information concerning the test configura. information to be pro- above is usually performed (when testing weld. In such the TOFD technique. time window settings to quality levels B. It should be noted that. It should on identifications at the test specification stage. i. Among other things. the standard defectoscope. The standard specifies three ac- particular. 1. i. of a test and requirements concerning test spec- One might wonder why such an apparently il.e. being the object of interest in such tion of TOFD. parallel to its axis. The standard also specifies and testing personnel. on the basis of TOFD test results. Ac- concerning the adjustment of test parameters. the interpretation of TOFD images tests. In addition. C and D. corresponding er. Table 1.

assessments are for laminar imperfections in sheets. amounts to area is tantamount to the area most likely to zero. which. 4/2016 BIULETYN INSTYTUTU SPAWALNICTWA 53 .e. This the moment of signal initiation. i. which weld axis. The notion of time window are concerned is the assurance of detectabili. it may be necessary ing (in accordance with the requirements of to perform additional scans further from the EN-583-6 [presently PN-EN ISO 16828]). and the same cou. as it is not connected with the simple geometry and the narrow excess weld shift of the time base in TOFD imaging. e. represents a time interval.g. TOFD tests. the standard requires that the depth weld metal on the opposite side. notion of range. master sample. as the latter is used to depict ing of welded structures. Some attention should also be paid to cer- tee the coverage of the entire area of interest. tain inconsistencies in PN-EN ISO 10863. When testing objects a distance and is expressed in millimetres. In such cases. but is metal (of the face or root) on the side oppo. referred to as lines concerning the positioning of transducers. would imply the adjustment of gain in relation fy detectability using appropriate master sam. when test. It is necessary to use a constant reference fication of detectability.1. According to PN-EN ISO 10863 also appearing in standards concerning the The primary requirement as far as TOFD tests TOFD technique.4. guaran. This notion cannot be identified with the contain discontinuities formed during the mak. presented in Table 2 of standard [5]. widely used in the TOFD technique is wedge de- jected to a test.1. a weld along with the adjacent area including It also means that the time lag. whichever is greater. range and sensitivity be adjusted prior to test- ing thick X-bevelled joints. plitude of a lateral wave amount to 40-80% of bration of a defectoscope. to the level of structural noise and the veri- ples. item 10. In In cases of joints characterised by wide excess item 10. delay should not be identified with the shift of tion) signals from discontinuities. is ing welded joints during their formation it is detalised and recorded. in system.1. as based on the height. only used for the conversion of time at which site to the surface subjected to scanning. Tests utilising the the screen height. linearization in English language publications. the standard requires that the am- pling system as the one used during the cali. In during their operation. In cases of joints characterised by echo technique. received by a receiving transducer (receiver).is conditioned by the amplitude and length TOFD technique do not require previous search of indications. In the TOFD technique. guide. length and location of in. in fact. defined as the 10 mm on each side of the weld or the entire delay of the time base zero point in relation to heat affected zone. It is worth paying attention to specific termi- Primary Requirements of TOFD Tests nology used in the ultrasonic echo technique. imposes the No. in TOFD tests. should the the time base zero point (time lag) used in the latter occur. At the same time. a beam reaches a specific depth. during which a signal ty over the entire area of interest. the standard allows the PN-EN ISO 10863. the notion of range or depth reduction of the above-presented test area and range is used to depict the range of observa- requires the identification of the minimum size tion defined as the depth range. that the zero point of the time base corresponds to the required area contains the entire volume of the moment of transmitting signal initiation. assumed. When test. accordance with valid standards. The notion of wedge interest and the obtainment of imaging (diffrac. Another notion of a discontinuity to be detected in an area sub. if any. such imperfections are easily detectible using dications (reaching the surface or internal). it is necessary to veri. lay representing the time during which an ul- The positioning of transducers during tests trasonic beam passes through the wedges of should ensure the coverage of the entire area of ultrasonic transducers.

used for joints representing quality lev- a minimum of 10% of the depth range.test procedure. In both cases it is not necessary to use of a lateral wave and finish after the first signal test procedures and specimens for the verifica- of a transformed wave. The lowest level. in the case of tests involv. every 4 h during the test and follow.e.Table 2 of standard [5] presents guidelines con- cise and verified result of depth measurement. ing joints representing quality level C and hav- It is required that.the use of the highest requirements in terms of sition depth) is conducted through calibration master samples and the validation of test proce- using a lateral wave reflected at a known sonic dures. it is the most the above named tests on the basis of a written favourable if the conversion of the time of lin.and the beam intersection point. difference in an ultrasonic wave velocity than transducer size. it is necessary to use a master sample for In order to determine the distance between the verification of detectability and performing the centres of PCS transducers.tion related to the necessary number of scans strate the same sonic velocity. nominal beam insertion angle the echo technique utilising a transmitting-re. when a beam reaches the depo. In such a case. It is required that the result of depth ing elements having complicated shapes and measurement be verified using an element of during operational tests [5]. a known depth and that a measurement error not exceed 0. Parameters recommended during the TOFD technique tests Standard PN-EN ISO 10863 defines of butt joints having a thickness of 6 to 50 mm [5] four test levels. Table 2. i. In addition. ° size d.e. mm MHz angle α. time windows should overlap by D. should demon. A.300 mm. Test level D is connected with earization (i.a given joint zone (depth range). mm quire the use of a master (reference) 6 to 10 15 70 2 to 3 sample but only the use of an element >10 to 15 15 to 10 70 2 to 3 having a known thickness allowing the determination of linearization >15 to 35 10 to 5 70 to 60 2 to 6 parameters (flight time–deposition >35 to 50 5 to 3 70 to 60 3 to 6 54 BIULETYN INSTYTUTU SPAWALNICTWA No. i.Joint thickness Frequency f. the standard does Adjustment of Parameters for the not specify the manner of calibration. B. In addition. Joints having ceiving transducer. In cases of test levels C and ed into zones. Test level A can be used only screen height and the achievement of the en. Wedge refraction Transducer t.tion of detectability. at least prior range (from 0 to t). an element on test parameters in relation to the thickness of which the system is calibrated and an element a joint being tested.TOFD scan including the entire joint thickness tional stability. The noise level exceeding 20% of the depth conversion). ing the completion of the test. gain and depth. the beam in- to a test.e. 4/2016 . In such a case. However. The table contains informa- on which calibration is verified. It should also be and parameters of heads used for searching noted that the TOFD technique is significant. Test level B is used when test- the repetition of the test. the is necessary to use a master sample for gain ver- time window start at least 1 µs before the signal ification.2 mm. C and D. i. cerning the adjustment of the TOFD technique an element subjected to a test. In cases of tests divid.tersection point is located at 2/3 of the depth. it ing the single scan of the entire depth range.test gain. It should TOFD Technique be noted that in order to obtain such a pre. e.in cases of 6-50 mm thick joints representing tire screen height by the lateral wave require quality level D. the standard thicknesses of up to 50 mm require a single requires the verification of test fixtures opera.e.g.ing a thickness of 6. ly more sensitive to errors resulting from the the table provides information about frequency. Test level D is recommended when test- velocity. el B. level A does not re.

For thickness t=50÷100 mm it is necessary to requirements of related standards in terms of divide a joint into two zones (Fig. It should be not- quired frequency and angle and by an increase ed that the requirements of both standards are in the transducer size. 5). For the sec. a joint must be divided into standard [5] concerning tests of welded joints. As a rule. joint thickness: 52 mm. For instance. tests of welded joints using a depth of 17 mm. according to PN-EN ISO 10863. ification of detectability. 5. turn. significantly wider than those described above en zone is accompanied by a decrease in re. according to t =100÷200 mm. ranges and. 4/2016 BIULETYN INSTYTUTU SPAWALNICTWA 55 . Exemplary parameters for joints hav. using compatible computer plitude of diffracted waves due to damping and. the beam intersection point is located Standard PN-EN ISO 16828 also provided in- at a depth amounting to 5/6 t. Fig. is the ters must be determined experimentally so that most effective system of detecting. Exemplary design of TOFD technique tests with Summary division into zones using the NDT Setup Builder software developed by Olympus. hence the gradual cantly increasing its efficiency. yet they are parameters. signifi- tions in the TOFD imaging. whereas for thickness t=200÷300 the testing of a 10 mm thick joint requires us- mm it is necessary to divide a joint into four ing the frequency of 15 MHz (Table 2 in [5]). an “off-line” basis. Another impor- reduction of frequency and wedge refraction tant aspect is the possibility of performing tests angle accompanying the increase in joint thick. The first the amplitude of lateral wave as well as of struc- zone includes the range of 0 to t/2. ness of settings using the specimen for the ver- cated at a depth amounting to 1/3 t. using the TOFD technique combined with the ness. The require additional verification of the correct- beam intersection point for the first zone is lo. three zones. for thickness not always coherent. ond zone. for the second pair of heads it is locat. the TOFD technique constitute an advantageous ed at a depth of 43 mm alternative to relatively expensive and prob- Most of the parameters are presented in the lematic X-ray radiographic or conventional ul- form of a range. nected with the use of modern TOFD test sys- es of large beam insertion angles. The precise adjustment of test parame. requires the fre- quency range of 5 to 10 MHz (Table 1 in [7]). Phased Array technique. characteris- the obtained TOFD imaging could satisfy the ing and dimensioning imperfections in welded No. In such a case it seems more favourable to sat- isfy the requirements of the standard concern- ing the testing of welded joints [5] and to use a frequency of 15 MHz. leads to the lack of distinct indica. Test levels C and D second zone includes the range of t/2 to t. a thickness ing a thickness of up to 50 mm are presented of 10 mm is located on the border of thickness in Table 2. is highly dependent on operator knowledge metres entails a significant change in the length and experience. because of that. An additional advantage con- of the wave in the material. particularly in cas. An increase in the depth of a giv. each formation on the recommended test param- of the zones requires the use of different test eter ranges in the TOFD method. This is because of the fact that trasonic tests. presently. which. Similarly. Using high tems is the possibility of evaluating results on frequency waves significantly reduces the am. software. whereas the tural and electronic noise. where the correctness of results a change in the joint thickness of several milli. while the testing equipment can be as a result. used to perform further series of tests. according to PN-EN ISO 16828. beam Because of high detectability and the entire ar- intersection point for the first pair of heads is located at chiving of results. In zones.

2001. Published by Olympus NDT. Temple J. [7] PN-EN ISO 16828:2014: Non-destructive test- [2] Mackiewicz S.. the article analyses the essence of [4] Ginzel E. NDT of welded joints using the TOFD technique. G. Baldock. 56 BIULETYN INSTYTUTU SPAWALNICTWA No. Yaghootian A. P. 4/2016 . Canada. For this reason. ray Ultrasonic Technology Applications R/D ments contained in standards related to the Tech Guideline. Zakopane. quirements related to the performance of tests Iran. The standard documents concerning tests utilising 2ⁿd International Conference on Technical the TOFD technique as well as the primary re. fraction technique as a method for detection Materials of the Seminar “Non-Destructive and sizing of discontinuities Testing of Materials”. Kopiński J. nique (TOFD) – Acceptance levels ies Press Ltd. Second edition.: the formation of discontinuity indications us. [5] PN-EN ISO 10863:2011: Non-destructive test- ing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Use of time- References of-flight diffraction technique (TOFD) [1] Charlesworth J.: Doświadczenia ing – Ultrasonic testing – Time-of-flight dif- z zastosowań ultradźwiękowej techniki TOFD. Honarvar F. 2008.joints.. 2004. the article is concerned [3] Olympus NDT: Introduction to Phased Ar- with discussing the most important require. In addition. Research Stud. 2001.[6] PN-EN ISO 15626:2014: Non-destructive test- ing applications of ultrasonic time-of-flight ing of welds – Time-of-flight diffraction tech- diffraction.. A Study of Time-of-Flight Diffraction Tech- ing imaging (diffraction) signals and discusses nique Using PhotoelasticVisualisation. and the selection of parameters. A. Inspection and NDT (TINDT2008). October. Teheran.: Engineer..