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VOLUMEN ESPECIAL 1 - 2014

ISSN 1850 373X

Contents

Volumen especial 1 - 2014
¿Qué tipo de ciencia contribuimos a construir? Estrategia editorial de Intersecciones en Antropología 05

¿What kind of science are we contributing to produce? Editorial strategy of Intersecciones en Antropología 09

Articles
Multi-service taphonomy. Shells, garbage, and floating palimpsests - L. A. Borrero 13

Taphonomic analysis of archaeomalacological assemblages: shell middens on the northern coast of Santa Cruz (Patagonia,
Argentina) - H. Hammond 21

Taphonomy in the kitchen: culinary practices and processing residues of native tuberous plants of the South-Central
Andes - M. P. Babot, J. Lund and A. V. Olmos 35

Post-depositional processes studies of wooden artifacts from the 18th century Swift shipwreck site (Patagonia, Argentina)
M. Grosso 55

Taphonomy of a village: the early 20th century site of Mariano Miró (Chapaleufú department, La Pampa, Argentina)
C. Landa, V. Pineau, E. Montanari and J. Doval 71

Trampling, taphonomy, and experiments with lithic artifacts in the southeastern Baguales Range (Santa Cruz, Argentina)
C. Balirán 85

Trampling fragmentation potential of lithic artifacts: an experimental approach - C. Weitzel, K. Borrazzo, A. Ceraso and
C. Balirán 97

Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record
Guest editors
Karen Borrazzo and Celeste Weitzel

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Editorial Board
Intersecciones en Antropología – Special Issue 1 – Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record

Editors in Chief
María A. Gutiérrez, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia
de Buenos Aires (UNCPBA) – Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Paleontológicas del Cuaternario
Pampeano (INCUAPA) – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)
Ramiro Barberena, CONICET, Laboratorio de Paleoecología Humana,
Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo.

Guest Editors
Karen Borrazzo, CONICET – Instituto Multidisciplinario de Historia y Ciencias Humanas (IMHICIHU),
Buenos Aires, Argentina. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras,
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina (UBA).
Celeste Weitzel, CONICET – Área Arqueología y Antropología, Museo Ciencias Naturales,
Municipalidad de Necochea, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Associate Editors
María Clara Álvarez, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, INCUAPA, CONICET, UNCPBA.
Karen Borrazzo, IMHICIHU, CONICET, UBA.
Adolfo F. Gil, Museo de Historia Natural de San Rafael, CONICET.
Mariela González, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, INCUAPA, CONICET, UNCPBA.
Agustina Massigoge, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, INCUAPA, CONICET, UNCPBA.
A. Francisco Zangrando, Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas (CADIC), CONICET, UBA.

Editorial Advisory Comitee
László Bartosiewic, School of History, Classics and Archaeology, The University
of Edinburgh. Edimburgo, Scotland. Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
Robert L. Bettinger, Department of Anthropology, University of California. Davis, California, USA.
Guillaume Boccara, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique,
L’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (CNRSEHESS). Paris, France.
Luis. A. Borrero, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Historia y Ciencias Humanas - CONICET. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Claudia Briones, Universidad Nacional de Río Negro (UNRN) - CONICET. Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.
Felipe Criado-Boado, Laboratorio de Patrimonio (LaPa), CSIC. Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
Magarita Díaz-Andreu, ICREA - Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
Tom D. Dillehay, Anthropology Department, Vanderbilt University. Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
Alejandro Grimson, Instituto de Altos Estudios Sociales, Universidad Nacional
de San Martín – CONICET. San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Alejandro Isla, Programa Antropología Social y Política de FLACSO – CONICET.
Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Robert L. Kelly, Department of Anthropology, University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming, USA.
Alberto Mendonça, Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas,
Físico-Químicas y Naturales, UNRC - CONICET. Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina.
Walter Neves, Laboratorio de Estudos Evolutivos Humanos, Departamento
de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo. São Paulo, Brasil.
Gustavo Politis, INCUAPA-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, UNCPBA y
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, UNLP. Olavarría, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Calógero M. Santoro, Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá. Arica, Chile.
Robin Torrence, The Australian Museum. Sydney, Australia.
Robert H. Tykot, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida. Tampa, Florida, USA.

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English Revision
Raven Garvey, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, USA.

Reviewers of this special issue
Huw Barton, School of Archaeology and Ancient History, University of Leicester, United Kingdom.
Silvana Buscaglia, CONICET-Instituto Multidisciplinario de Historia y Ciencias Humanas (IMHICIHU), Buenos Aires,
Argentina. Universidad de la Patagonia Austral – Unidad Académica San Julián (UNPA-USAJ), Santa Cruz, Argentina.
Diego Carabias, Director of ARKA - Arqueología Marítima, Valparaíso, Chile.
Marcelo Cardillo, CONICET-Instituto Multidisciplinario de Historia y Ciencias Humanas (IMHICIHU), Buenos Aires,
Argentina. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Gabriel Cocco, Área arqueología, Departamento de Estudios Etnográficos y Coloniales, Ministerio de Innovación y Cultura
de la Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina.
Kelly Dixon, Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, USA.
Catherine Dupont, CNRS Researcher, UMR 6566, CReAAH, Centre de Recherche en Archéologie Archéosciences Histoire,
Rennes, France.
Nora Flegenheimer, CONICET-Área Arqueología y Antropología, Museo Ciencias Naturales, Municipalidad de Necochea,
Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Irene Garibotti, CONICET- Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales, Mendoza, Argentina.
María Gutierrez, INCUAPA-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de
Buenos Aires, Olavarría (Buenos Aires, Argentina)
Thomas Jennings, University of West Georgia, USA.
Carina Llano, CONICET-Laboratorio de Geoarqueología - Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina.
Martijn Rene Manders, University of Leiden & Head of the Maritime Programme Cultural Heritage Agency of the
Netherlands (RCE).
Laura Miotti, CONICET- Departamento de Arqueología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de
La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Gaurav K. Mishra, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lichenology Lab, Lucknow, India.
Justin Pargeter, Interdepartmental Program in Anthropological Sciences, Stony Brook University, New York, USA. Honorary
Research Fellow, Center for Anthropological Research at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
Maria Raviele, Institute of Museum and Library Services, Washington DC, USA.
Mark Staniforth, School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University. Australia.
Marcelo Weissel, Departamento Humanidades y Artes, Universidad Nacional de Lanús. Fundación de Historia Natural Félix
de Azara, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
A. Francisco Zangrando, CONICET-Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas (CADIC), Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.
Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
And anonymous reviewers.

Article editor
María Milena Sesar

Design
Mario Pesci

Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires
Rector: Cr. Roberto Tassara
Vicerrector: Ing. Agr. Omar Losardo

Indizaciones
Anthropological Literature (HOLLIS 009867824); Directorio y Catálogo LATINDEX (Folio No. 15044); Núcleo Básico de
Revistas Científicas Argentinas (Resolución 1071/07, CAICYT-CONICET); Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ); Social
Science Citation Index; Arts & Humanities Citation Index; SCOPUS; Zoological Record
Portal SciELO Argentina

Intersecciones en Antropología es propiedad de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional
del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Prohibida la reproducción de artículos sin su expreso permiso.
Domicilio postal: Avda. del Valle 5737 - B7400JWI Olavarría, Argentina.
ISSN 1850 373X (versión on line)

Inscripta en el Registro de Propiedad Intelectual Expte. 869051.

La versión on line de Intersecciones en Antropología está disponible en el Portal SciELO Argentina (www.scielo.org.ar)

.................. taphonomy.........................85 Trampling fragmentation potential of lithic artifacts: an experimental approach ... Pineau...C... Argentina) .......... Argentina) .... Weitzel........ Copyright © Facultad de Ciencias Sociales .................... V... Doval.....55 Taphonomy of a village: the early 20th century site of Mariano Miró (Chapaleufú department............................................. V........... A............ Hammond.......................C........M............... Argentina) ... P.................. Balirán........... Ceraso and C............. Borrazzo..................L.. Lund and A... K...................... J....H..................... Borrero...... Babot......... Grosso...................................... 2014.... Landa...M............................. Shells.................. Olmos.......... | 3 Contents ¿Qué tipo de ciencia contribuimos a construir? Estrategia editorial de Intersecciones en Antropología........... La Pampa................. Argentina) ...........UNCPBA ..............................09 Articles: Multi-service taphonomy. A....................13 Taphonomic analysis of archaeomalacological assemblages: shell middens on the northern coast of Santa Cruz (Patagonia.............. and experiments with lithic artifacts in the southeastern Baguales Range (Santa Cruz.....Special Issue 1: 03-03.....C.......... Balirán............................................ Montanari and J.... garbage..................................... E.............Argentina .....................................97 Intersecciones en Antropología ................ ISSN 1850-373X Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record..........................................35 Post-depositional processes studies of wooden artifacts from the 18th century Swift shipwreck site (Patagonia............21 Taphonomy in the kitchen: culinary practices and processing residues of native tuberous plants of the South-Central Andes ......71 Trampling......05 ¿What kind of science are we contributing to produce? Editorial strategy of Intersecciones en Antropología................................ and floating palimpsests ................

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que refleja la evolución de las los que nos enfrentamos en la actualidad. que tienen un proceso de evaluación cuyos ejes temáticos giran casi exclusivamente en diferente. desde esta perspectiva. el primer Volumen Especial de Intersecciones en Celebramos que las editoras hayan elegido nuestra Antropología (IeA). irrestricta o total. conchas. y esta maduración. Este volumen entonces. como vía de respuesta a interrogantes arqueológicos generales. Esta evolución es visible en diversos niveles.Argentina . presentar con gran orgullo y alegría a llamar Tafonomía sin límites. O una suma de pequeñas en una integración cada vez más fuerte de la tafonomía decisiones en función de un objetivo de largo plazo. La Argentina constituye un país pionero de América Latina en la propuesta y conducción de estudios tafonómicos. titulado Taphonomic Approaches revista para esta propuesta innovadora y provocadora. etc. | 5 ¿Qué tipo de ciencia contribuimos a construir? Estrategia editorial de Intersecciones en Antropología Comité Editor Esta breve introducción cumple dos funciones. Justamente. Copyright © Facultad de Ciencias Sociales . Número de contribuciones publicadas en Intersecciones en Antropología   a los que es posible abordar (años 2000-2014). ISSN 1850-373X Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record. que nos permitirán. utilizamos este contexto de fueron invitadas Karen Borrazzo y Celeste Weitzel. Sobre 1980. la madurez que se observa aspiramos a contribuir. 2014. así como tampoco los obituarios). refleja esa madurez que ha alcanzado la disciplina en nuestro país. con una propuesta cuya aplicación trasciende a los restos óseos exclusivamente. Intersecciones en Antropología . Un rápido tratar de resolver problemas arqueológicos desde análisis visual de esta información marca la evolución una perspectiva tafonómica. almidones. Los artículos de este volumen muestran la diversidad de evidencias (madera. reflexión nos conducirá a plantear algunos aspectos desde el desarrollo de las investigaciones originales de la historia de IeA.) Figura 1. El amplio y variado desarrollo Breve historia y objetivos de temprano de la zooarqueología en nuestro territorio Intersecciones en Antropología ha permitido la rápida integración y expansión de En la Figura 1 presentamos el número de trabajos esta disciplina. Esta términos de la inversión de trabajo que representa.UNCPBA . a la que Borrero ha comenzado En primer lugar. ¿Qué hay detrás de ella? Un desde esta perspectiva. por sobre todo. El reconocimiento temprano de sus publicados desde el volumen 1 del año 2000 hasta contribuciones a las interpretaciones arqueológicas ha el volumen 15 del año 2014 (no se incluyen las permitido la consolidación de líneas de investigación reseñas de libro. aplicaciones tafonómicas en la Argentina desde los el proceso que lleva a la creación de este volumen primeras investigaciones realizadas en la década de especial es una parte central de esa realidad. ha estimulado la incorporación de los aspectos teóricos y metodológicos de la tafonomía a otros registros arqueológicos. las herramientas metodológicas determinado concepto de investigación al que empleadas y. a la vez. líticos. presentación del primer volumen especial para Este volumen es una contribución pionera de una reflexionar sobre algunos aspectos del quehacer destacable diversidad en su contenido y robusta en editorial en el ámbito de nuestra disciplina. de la mano de dos jóvenes investigadoras. describimos algunos aspectos de nuestra van desde los tipos de evidencia y contextos estudiados estrategia editorial. to the Archaeological Record. al mismo hasta el exhaustivo trabajo editorial que han realizado tiempo.Special Issue 1: 05-07. que esta base. para cuya edición En segundo lugar. contextualizar y comprender los desafíos a las editoras a cargo.

contribuciones a esta revista ha cambiado y crecido entre otras). ya que no se incluyen Buscando canalizar esta necesidad. comunidad donde se inserta. Esto requirió. el Universidad. construyen El perfil académico que adopta una revista en nuestra estrategia editorial: qué mensaje buscamos el largo plazo no se desarrolla en aislamiento de transmitir y cuáles son los receptores que aspiramos las condiciones económicas y sociológicas de la alcanzar. Estamos de acuerdo en que. particularmente de clasificar una revista son la calidad científica y a partir del volumen publicado en el año 2006. nacional e internacional. se puede verificar un notorio Estrategia editorial de IeA aumento en la magnitud de trabajos publicados en publicaciones consideradas de alta calidad en sus Todo sistema de evaluación sano y eficiente se respectivos ámbitos. La situación se puede resumir ¿Qué se publica en IeA? en dos grandes dimensiones. entre otras). en el que se duplicó el número de contribuciones. las cual buscará absorber una parte de la producción áreas vinculadas a las Ciencias Sociales y Humanas se usualmente enviada a la publicación tradicional.e.. debate y diálogo entre autores. medida de calidad de las publicaciones en nuestra cambios en la estructura y estrategia editorial de la disciplina. han puesto sobre cómo se construyen los índices y cuál es su en marcha una serie de desafíos para los autores.Special Issue 1 (2014) 05-07 explosiva que experimentó la revista. SCOPUS. Directorio y Catálogo LATINDEX. Hay dos tendencias que inciden en múltiples publicaciones científicas en forma global. Un rápido análisis en Science basa en criterios objetivos y precisos. editorial. función real. Las variables fundamentales a la hora . se trabajó desde las contribuciones que no fueron aceptadas para un comienzo para que IeA fuera indexada en las bases publicación cada año. Núcleo o las Universidades Nacionales se refleja claramente Básico de Revistas Científicas Argentinas. La han hecho eco. Estos un sistema de evaluación.Intersecciones en Antropología . y diseñar caminos académico determinado. Los nuevos requisitos de estas que soslaya los objetivos comerciales que algunas de instituciones para acceder. com/journal-of-archaeological-science-reports/). términos de la tarea editorial.elsevier. al ser parte de las propias empresas a la carrera del investigador. a los fines prácticos de Este crecimiento continúa hasta la actualidad. económicos disponibles en las instituciones públicas Las revistas son medidas a través del sistema de que financian muchas de estas revistas no han podido indexación. Sin embargo. que. de datos nacionales e internacionales más prestigiosas Por otra parte. En nuestras instituciones (i. para otorgarles el lugar adecuado como evaluadores y editores. Es lógico realizar Direct del número de trabajos publicados por el críticas −muchas veces acertadas− a determinados Journal of Archaeological Science (Elsevier) desde criterios de evaluación de la calidad de un trabajo la década de 1980 hasta la actualidad muestra un o de una revista científica. cabe afirmar que los recursos crecido la demanda de publicar en revistas indexadas. Directory of en estos números. creemos que ejemplo evidente (http://www. de las exigencias pautadas Public Library of Science (PLOS) es otro ejemplo. que funciona como una base de datos crecer en forma equivalente a la magnitud de la especializada. sabemos también que las en forma ostensible desde el inicio de este período indexaciones han adquirido un rol en dicho sistema hasta la actualidad. permanecer o promocionar estas conllevan. y aún requiere. sumadas. En este sentido. Redalyc. Esto ha llevado en forma que aspire a superarse a sí mismo en el tiempo. si bien con particularidades y tiempos irrupción en gran escala de las diversas ramas de la propios de la disciplina. Reports (http://www. Anthropological académicas o de investigación tales como el CONICET Literature. Es así como ha En segundo lugar. 6 Comité Editor . categorización docente o editoriales.com/ estos criterios son necesarios en un sistema científico science/journal/03054403). el crecimiento que experimenta a escala mundial (Social Science Citation Index. reciente al lanzamiento de un nuevo formato de Las revistas científicas nacionales no son ajenas a publicación denominado Journal of Archaeological las exigencias y evaluaciones de calidad de carácter Science.sciencedirect. Es necesario mejorar el conocimiento para financiar proyectos de investigación.journals. deben existir formas de medir números muestran sólo la punta del iceberg en calidad y otorgar puntajes a nuestras publicaciones. creemos que urge un revista. Estos objetivos se materializan a través de innumerables decisiones pequeñas tomadas en forma permanente. que se construye sobre la conjuntos que unan intereses diversos. para otras áreas del conocimiento. FONDECyT. La comunidad académica que envía Open Access Journals. la visibilidad y la accesibilidad. Dicho esto. Zoological Record. En primer lugar. base de los objetivos de largo plazo establecidos por el Comité Editorial. CONICET. editores y evaluadores a fin de reflexionar sobre estos aspectos particulares de Cada publicación científica tiene un perfil las Ciencias Sociales y Humanas. Arts & la comunidad científica vinculada a instituciones Humanities Citation Index.

México y luchado por trascender esta escala local de difusión del EEUU. En los siguientes años. La publicación la revista se enfrentará a la necesidad de redefinirse de ciertas contribuciones en inglés es. Un ejemplo reciente que este volumen marcará un hito en la historia de es el paso de Archaeology in Oceania. creemos que.au/arts/ volúmenes especiales como herramientas de difusión publications/oceania/about. Actualmente. España. Existen excelentes Y es también el caso de numerosas publicaciones ejemplos en la arqueología mundial (Current de Arqueología en el mundo. y así lo es vez más específicos.U8vsS4B5M0c). preocuparnos al enfrentar sistemas poco exigentes de selección editorial (aún cuando. podemos dar mayor alcance a nuestro pensamiento IeA pone especial énfasis en el proceso de local. ya que ha sido adquirida por Taylor & ¿A quiénes se dirige IeA? Francis pero permanece bajo la órbita académica de dicha universidad (http://www. En la actualidad. Y aspiramos a exponer la investigación del sustentadas. Con el de Buenos Aires de la República Argentina. trascender la imposición de fronteras artificiales en la Creemos que una exigencia elevada sólo puede difusión del conocimiento. ¿Qué tipo de ciencia contribuimos a construir? Estrategia editorial de Intersecciones en Antropología 7 producción científica que canalizan en la actualidad. Dependiendo de la decisión de Intersecciones en Antropología. fundada por la disciplina. sentido.com/toc/ Podemos analizar esta pregunta a partir de otra. campos temáticos específicos. Journal of Archaeological Science. diverso y multinacional. En este marco. que han pasado de Anthropology. Forum. Creemos firmemente los revisores convocados. al que consideramos una de las etapas procedentes de otros ámbitos académicos del mundo. Nuestro banco de Creemos que es una virtud exponer nuestras ideas a evaluadores es amplio. aunque lógicamente no se elimina el sur de Sudamérica en un contexto global. ámbitos de sustentación exclusivamente universitarios International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. Este es el caso de Taphonomic empresas editoriales que cubren los costos y ofrecen Approaches to the Archaeological Record. Anthropological del conocimiento arqueológico. Creemos canales más amplios de difusión. en este sentido. Esto implica carácter subjetivo del proceso de revisión por pares. Este es el caso de IeA. si son adecuadamente Esto genera una asimetría creciente entre los diseñados y evaluados. hemos utilizado el espacio que brinda con un mínimo de tres revisiones y toda decisión este primer volumen especial para comentar ciertos sobre un manuscrito se basa en un balance de las aspectos que hacen a la estrategia editorial de opiniones recibidas. de Sudamérica y aspira a trascenderla. circunstancialmente. alcanzó oportunamente la escala del sur resulta cada vez más hercúlea. en ciertos aspectos. en IeA se reciben y evalúan más de Intersecciones en Antropología es una publicación 60 manuscritos por año. entre otros países. actualiza constantemente.tandfonline. En este crecimiento de la comunidad científica en la Argentina. y se una multiplicidad de ámbitos académicos diferentes. creada en 1963 en el ámbito de la University of Western Australia. IeA trabaja En síntesis. el largo plazo. De este modo se aplicación de criterios explícitos y “universales” de minimiza el peso de evaluaciones arbitrarias o poco exigencia. Esto ha generado la necesidad sustentada desde un punto de vista institucional y de ampliar el Comité Editorial. se llega a contar con cinco en un sistema académico perfectible mediante la o más evaluaciones para un trabajo. y una afluencia creciente de actualmente. Desde el punto de vista de la salud de un sistema académico en La génesis del conocimiento es local. aunque esto provee tan económico por la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de sólo una solución parcial. IeA cubrió la Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia todas las ramas de las Ciencias Antropológicas. entre a otros que implican diversas formas de asociación a muchos otros). beneficiar a la disciplina en su conjunto. Sin embargo. Esto resulta imprescindible para una herramienta clave. Es el medio a través del cual garantizar su viabilidad en un mediano y largo plazo. clave del proceso editorial. canf20/current#. nuestra postura es simple: sólo debemos Su difusión y evaluación deben ser globales. Uruguay.shtml).edu. esto nos lleve a enfrentar el rechazo de manuscritos). IeA ha contribuciones de Chile. es lógico que el principal receptor sea la el surgimiento de nuevos campos disciplinares cada comunidad científica de la Argentina. Radcliffe-Brown en 1930. así como un camino de ida en nuestra Alfred R. provee un caso particularmente interesante. así como dar lugar a la publicación de trabajos evaluación. reconocemos que esta tarea pensamiento. . Desde sus inicios. de la University tarea editorial a través de la incorporación de estos of Sydney a Wiley en 2013 (http://sydney. ¿Existen fronteras en la producción y difusión del conocimiento? Nuestra respuesta es un NO rotundo. los volúmenes especiales requerimientos que marca una comunidad académica en publicaciones periódicas proveen una poderosa determinada y los recursos económicos y humanos herramienta de transmisión de información sobre disponibles para satisfacerla. desde un comienzo.

Special Issue 1 (2014) 05-07 .Intersecciones en Antropología .8 Comité Editor .

This volume is a pioneer contribution central aspect of this reality. reflects the linked with academic or research institutions. edited by two young researchers. Copyright © Facultad de Ciencias Sociales . we take this opportunity to make some considerations on several points   of the editorial work in our Figure 1. Throughout this reflection we will bring first place. and specially. Figure 1 shows the number of papers that were Argentina is a pioneer country in the application of published in the journal since volume 1 in 2000 until taphonomic studies in Latin America. The papers in this volume show the various materials (wood. 2014. We celebrate that the guest editors have chosen our journal for this innovative proposal. with a proposal CONICET or the State Universities. is clearly reflected that goes beyond the application of taphonomy exclusively to faunal remains. starch. These numbers are just the ‘tip of from a taphonomic perspective. This growth continues research focused in solving archaeological problems in the present. since the early research in the 1980’s. with Karen Borrazzo and Celeste Weitzel as that led to the creation of this special volume is a guest editors. in the INTERSECCIONES EN ANTROPOLOGÍA maturity shown by the increasing incorporation of taphonomy to answer broad archaeological questions. like maturity of the discipline in Argentina. particularly since 2006. Or the sum of innumerable small decisions aimed development of taphonomic approaches in Argentina at a long-term goal. contributions of taphonomy to archaeological when the number of published papers doubled in interpretation led to the consolidation of lines of comparison to previous issues. Intersecciones en Antropología . ISSN 1850-373X Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record. What underlies in terms of the efforts invested. the process Record. as rejected stimulated the incorporation of the methods and theory papers are not included here. etc. lithic. both in the original an editorial strategy? We suggest that a particular research and the thorough editorial work carried conception of science to which we aspire to contribute out by the editors. On this basis. we proudly present the first special up some aspects of the history of IeA that allow us to volume of Intersecciones en Antropología (IeA): contextualize and understand the editorial challenges Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological that we face in the present.special Issue 1: 09-11.) that can be approached from a taphonomic perspective as part of what Borrero defines as ‘unbounded Taphonomy’.UNCPBA .and obituaries are not included). In the discipline. The early and volume 15 in 2014 (book reviews –with a different varied development of zooarchaeology in Argentina reviewing process. Precisely. shells. In the second place. enabled a prompt incorporation and expansion of A glimpse of this information reveals the bursting the discipline. we present with a remarkable diversity of contents and solid some tenets of our editorial strategy. of taphonomy to varied archaeological records.Argentina . the diversity BRIEF HISTORY AND GOALS OF of methodological tools applied. This first volume reflects the to. This The growth experienced by the scientific community volume. This evolution is evident in the remarkable range of contexts and materials studied from this perspective. This development the iceberg’ regarding the editorial work. | 9 What kind of science are we contributing to produce? Editorial strategy of Intersecciones en Antropología Editorial board This brief introduction plays two roles. The recognition of the substantial evolution of the journal. Number of papers published by Intersecciones en Antropología (years 2000-2014).

Two trends influence countless small decisions. Arts & canf20/current#. The essential variables Alfred R. quality control. with Wiley in 2013 (http://sydney. And it is also the case of many knowledge. FONDECyT.sciencedirect. represents a particular case since it was Since the beginnings we worked to get IeA indexed taken over by Taylor & Francis but it remains in hands in the most prestigious national and international of that University (http://www. the editorial Básico de Revistas Científicas Argentinas. We specific fields. and still requires. In the first summarized in two major dimensions: which message place. A quick analysis in Science an editorial strategy. the advent of numerous new and are part of the publishing companies themselves.au/ visibility and access. Secondly. Anthropological We agree with quality control and ranking measures Forum. the economic resources of the public institutions funding many of these journals have not National scientific journals are not divorced experienced a similar growth to that of the current from the national and international requirements of scientific community and its published production. Recently. However. since they scientific community. This the global requirements ruled by other fields of is the case of IeA. a growing demand for to publishers with the capacity to cover the costs and publishing in indexed journals has developed. we believe Public Library of Science (PLOS) is another example. Directorio y Catálogo LATINDEX.Special Issue 1 (2014) 09-11 in these numbers. Reports (http://www. there is a notorious increment in the number do we want to communicate and who are the receivers of articles published in journals considered of high we are aiming for. In this way. España. The academic community that indexations their appropriate place as a measure of submits papers to IeA has grown ostensibly from the the scientific quality of our publications. for authors. changes in the journal’s structure and editorial strategy. It is valuable -and elsevier. research diverse interests and aspects of Social Sciences and fellow or to obtain funding have set several challenges Humanities with the global indexation requirements. as well as the increasing number of need to improve our knowledge on how the indexes contributions received from Chile.The massive irruption of the or of a scientific journal. Nevertheless. with the growth of the Argentine commercial goals that some of them entail. we are also aware that included all the disciplines within Anthropological indexations have taken a role that contributes to the Science. on unbiased and precise criteria. Redalyc.com/toc/ data-bases (Social Science Citation Index. but this is only a Open Access Journals. partial solution.edu. created in 1963 in the University of Western for our publications as a part of an evaluation system. founded by a specialized journals data-base. Núcleo papers over a year. built according to long-term goals set by the term is not isolated from the economic and social editorial board. The sum of these two factors builds quality within each field. Anthropological Currently IeA receives and reviews more than 60 Literature. Uruguay.com/journal-of-archaeological-science-reports/) usually correct. of Sydney. Australia. that these criteria are a key part of a scientific system that seeks to improve itself over time. We believe beginning of this period to the present. reviewers and editors. A recent example are ranked through an indexation system in the form of is the merge of Archaeology in Oceania. 10 Editorial board . Zoological Record. These goals are achieved through conditions of its community. EDITORIAL STRATEGY OF IeA com/science/journal/03054403). This creates an increasing asymmetry between the CONICET. Direct of the number of papers published in the Journal of Archaeological Science (Elsevier) since the 1980’s to the present depicts this trend (http://www. editors and requirements of national research institutions for reviewers are needed to design paths that combine the admission and promotion as a researcher. The latest that a dialog and debate among authors. are built and which is their actual role in order to give . This required. About IeA Every scientific publication has a specific academic The academic profile of a journal in the long- profile. Since its beginning the scope of IeA among others). arts/publications/oceania/about. Having said this. As a first measure. although considering the special features Archaeology journals in the world that had to recur of each discipline. among others).U8vsS4B5M0c). In our own institutions (Universities. this led to the creation of a new publication format: Journal of Every healthy and efficient editorial system is based Archaeological Science. The situation could be scientific publications in a global manner. Social requirements of the scientific community and the Sciences and Humanities areas have followed available economic and human resources. Journals offer broader worldwide diffusion. Radcliffe-Brown in 1930 in the University for ranking a journal are scientific and editorial quality.journals.to discuss and criticize particular that incorporates part of the manuscripts usually sent criteria about the revision of the quality of a paper to the original journal. Humanities Citation Index. Directory of board had to enlarge its team.tandfonline. SCOPUS.Intersecciones en Antropología .html).

IeA its main receiver. Journal of Archaeological Science. In the following years the journal will have to We can analyze this topic by answering the face a redefinition of some aspects. Buenos Aires de la República Argentina. We believe that a rigorous review process worldwide. la Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de a stage that we consider key in the editorial process. We are confident that this special issue will become a milestone in the discipline. considers three revisions per manuscript as a minimum since the beginning. we have taken the opportunity provided by when dealing with undemanding editorial systems of this first special issue to comment on several central scientific selection (even though when. Therefore. From the point of view to multiple and different academic spheres. Editorial strategy of Intersecciones en Antropología 11 México and the USA. production and diffusion? Our reply is: absolutely not. Its diffusion and evaluation have to be global. IeA is funded by the Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de IeA pays special attention to the review process.and long-term. is natural that the Argentine scientific community is and is updated on a permanent basis. this in world archaeology (Current Anthropology. reaching the scale is based on a balance of all reviewers’ comments. This is also the case of Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record. en Antropología. This is imperative following question: Are there boundaries in knowledge to guarantee its viability in the mid. also representing a one-way path in our editorial work through the incorporation of special issues as a tool in broadcasting archaeological knowledge. International The production of knowledge is local. However. We firmly believe in a perfectible academic system by means of explicit and ‘universal’ Within this framework. the final decision on attempting to transcend it. although it does production. it Our reviewer board is wide. Publishing papers written a manuscript can be based on five or more reviews. and it actually is indeed. And we look forward to show southern issues of periodic journals are appropriately reviewed South American research in a global scale. of the long-term health of any academic system. There are very good examples of knowledge diffusion. and currently According to reviewers’ opinions. We consider a virtue to bring local ideas benefits the discipline globally. as well as to incorporate works produced not remove the subjective character of the peer-review by researchers from other scientific communities process. Journal of Osteoarchaeology. among many others). of southern South America opportunely. IeA has struggled to go beyond the number and the final editorial decision on each paper local scale of knowledge diffusion. we believe that if special quality criteria. this aspects of the editorial strategy of Intersecciones leads to the refusal of manuscripts). our Who is IeA addressed to? editorial work is becoming an increasingly demanding task. diverse and multinational. . in English language is a key factor in this endeavor. our position is quite simple: we only need to be concerned In sum. This they provide a powerful tool of information transmission implies to transcend imposed artificial boundaries for on specific fields. eventually. Currently. This process minimizes the relative incidence of This is the means to widen the scope of our local biased or poorly sustained reviews. among other countries.

12 Editorial board .Intersecciones en Antropología .Special Issue 1 (2014) 09-11 .

BASURA Y PALIMPSESTOS FLOTANTES. Argentina. 2011: 4). arguing that it is critical to study of different classes of materials within this framework. His view is flawed in at least and that “the non-organic materials of archaeological two ways. Accepted 14 February 2014 ABSTRACT We discuss the importance of widening the scope of taphonomy. select the most appropriate scale of analysis. Luis Alberto Borrero. Saavedra 15. In particular. piso (1083ACA). Shells. ISSN 1850-373X Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record. Broadening the scope of taphonomy is desirable since taphonomy goes well beyond supplying principles of it will facilitate comparative research (Coumont et al. Tsunami. Second. site formation.com Intersecciones en Antropología . for example. Ratto and Carniglia 2013). Palimpsest. establishing links between behavior and discard. tension between preservational and destructive Eren et al. 1981). but on these tensions as recorded inference” (Schiffer 1987: 8). in different materials. It 2010. Instead. Se desarrolla en particular el caso de los desechos derivados de la acción de tsunamis.Special Issue 1: 13-20. 2011). such distortions rarely can be (and palaeontological) sites might also be studied rectified. The goals of taphonomy are the subject of adding an interest in preservation that goes beyond intense discussion (Lyman 2010. 2010). Schiffer also suggested Moreover. Buenos Aires. Se presentan varios ejemplos. As I have is becoming clear that this extension of taphonomic said elsewhere. generating independent paleobiological. formation (Schiffer 1987: 8-9). with ethnoarchaeology or experimental archaeology− Borrazzo 2006) who are developing systematic studies that inform our understanding of the principles of site of taphonomic effects on lithic tools. 2011. INTRODUCTION The concept of “site formation processes” is necessary media” (Borrero 2011: 270). VALVAS. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). Instituto Multidisciplina- rio de Historia y Ciencias Humanas (IMHICIHU). and floating palimpsests Luis Alberto Borrero Received 20 August 2013. The focus is not on “to build a sound foundation for archaeological bones specifically. RESUMEN TAFONOMÍA MULTISERVICIO. however. According to Schiffer. Thiébaut et al. we focus on debris generated by tsunamis Keywords: Taphonomy. Copyright © Facultad de Ciencias Sociales . Dominguez-Rodrigo et al. they can be understood and used to taphonomically” (Dominguez-Rodrigo et al. 2014. 5to. (2011) recently that what we see today is a distorted image of what was noted that taphonomy has broadened its referential deposited in the past and that these distortions can be scope to incorporate humans as taphonomic agents. Se presenta una discusión acerca de la importancia de ampliar el campo de la tafonomía. E-mail: laborrero2003@yahoo. Palabras clave: Tafonomía. This is coincident with the efforts taphonomy is one of several research strategies −along of Peter Hiscock (1985) and others (Bordes 2003. | 13 Multi-service taphonomy.Argentina . Garbage. Dominguez-Rodrigo et al. “taphonomy studies the constant studies is operative at several levels (Borrazzo 2011a. considerando distintas clases de materiales. Tsunami. Palimpsesto. Basura.UNCPBA . garbage. This objective is more or less convergent with paleoclimatological and palaeoecological data (Gifford the goals of classic formation studies (Schiffer 1987). First. relacionados con la depositación de valvas marinas y el estudio de la basura en diferentes contextos. rectified (Schiffer 1976). We introduce several examples related to the deposition of marine shells and garbage.

all of these studies are between paths. TAZs to the more common archaeological situations (2010) on pollen found on coprolites. it could the taphonomic study of bones can guide our be useful to classify archaeological shell-middens in expectations for other materials (Borrero 2011: 269. Importantly. A.). 14 L. it is a useful exercise to examine the ethnoarchaeological record HIGH− AND LOW−ENERGY TAPHONOMY associated with the discard of mollusks by the Ambarra on the Australian coasts with TAZ criteria in mind It is useful to refer to the Taphonomically Active (Meehan 1982). the conditions of my model are not always differences are incomplete since it is an understanding met and its applicability is limited to locations where of the processes that led to the differences that is really those conditions exist. Blanco and Lynch (2011) on the ways It is important to bear in mind that taphonomic of producing rock art. TAZs are appropriate places to learn about the But there is also a taphonomy of non-organic materials formation and preservation of the archaeological such as photographs −including the study of formation record. Naturally. in turn. The importance of creating extract the environmental information implied by those relevant frames of reference cannot be exaggerated very markers of little disturbance. where destructive potential is high.Special Issue 1 (2014) 13-20 Taphonomy should integrate studies of different is unlikely from those areas within a region where material types. art (Brady and Gunn 2012). corrosion. the utility of any such modeling exercise and expanded by experimentation. vertebrate bones. what we learn through preservation is likely to be good. but it is applicable to other regions. Borrero . in other words. the places were animals died. ethnoarchaeology can provide a clearer picture of formation processes. a comparison between corroded and a true TAZ. be it a paucity of (Dominguez-Rodrigo 2012). The high ratio of archaeological sites well-preserved plumbing also provides information contaminated with recently incorporated guanaco about the environment in which each is found. For example. Borrazzo (2011b) away from such places. and the focused on differential preservation. What is required mildly affected or relatively unaffected by the main is a theoretical and methodological program to make taphonomic processes. Indeed a number defined TAZ. Identifying some cases associated with the exploitation of Batissa TAZs is a way to separate areas where preservation violacea and Crassostrea amara “usually only flesh. of ways. neither new disciplines nor new but we also need to know which places are only terminology is required to do the job. 2013). This likelihood of preservation of mollusks discarded by is a common concept in discussing preservation of the Ambarra and. and this concept upper intertidal zone.. and the information that can be gleaned from (Lama guanicoe) and some degree of overlap those tensions. rock expectations for preservation. even slight variations in important (Behrensmeyer and Kidwell 1985). but Combining disciplines like taphonomy and also serve more than one discipline (Hayashida 2005). Experiments can then be designed of taphonomic studies of non-bone organic materials to reproduce the conditions in the TAZ and derive already exist. examples that not only work at different scales. including pollen (Campbell 1999). to differentiate of “multi-service taphonomy” has applications even shell-middens within and distant from the locally beyond the realm of archaeology. in a sense. but . Still. places with principles are derived from the Ambarra study: (1) in high incidence of carnivore activity. For example. Of course. etc. on the morphological changes to artifacts deposited on the surface. VanDerwarker and Peres 2013).e. those conditions help us develop new criteria that can be useful for identifying intrusive bones (Borrero 2001). marks. I will introduce some weathering. For example. A number of factors can contribute The subject of all these discussions is the same: to such contamination including. or any other process. We know approach to taphonomy may be useful in a number something about areas where disturbance is high. inform comparisons with shell beds (Ritter et al.Intersecciones en Antropología . and Pickering and Egeland processes occur in both high and low energy (2006) on percussion marks on bones. We must also be ready to taphonomy fully operative. bones indicated the importance of the observation. This should help us understand the Zone (TAZ). For example. of them are simultaneously interested in decoding Of course. All these approaches to taphonomy can be improved So. Good examples of is the ability to go from obvious cases represented by such research are the studies by Fernández Jalvo et al. I generated a model of processes and posterior alterations (Fiore and Varela contamination of archaeological sites by modern 2009: 21)− and of lithics. but only some distributions of prehistoric settlements (Borrero 1990). Studies restricted to the description of preservational However. At least two important depositional a variety of other situations as well (i. This broad environments (Petraglia and Nash 1987). trampling. I was able to recognize this process in a the environmental signal associated with taphonomic place where all −or most− of these factors coincide. terms of their topographic location or distance from the 270. as I have mentioned. and even oil (Lipps 2008). generally the tensions between preservationa­l and destructive associated with the regular use of paths by guanaco media.

more systematic approach to garbage was become what we generically call microplastic (Erikson developed (Rathje and Murphy 1992). 2012: 41). It clearly states that ecological issues like the oceanic distribution of the palimpsests of cultural and natural processes are to be five million tons of waste generated by the March 11. (2) It was observed that “shells were relocated several times during a single occupation. Some of the most impressive sources of highly becoming intermixed with shells from previous mobile debris are tsunamis. a classic actualistic approach Not all five million tons of waste was strictly to site formation. Secret Service agents arrested 205). 2013: 9). or else they were washed away by high must identify the records that are generated by the tides” (Meehan 1982: 117). or the individual assemblages aside it is important to learn about garbage. Returning to Weberman. I intend of stone tools that make up a layer in a stratified to demonstrate this by examining a particular class of cave. but concluded that in the post-Watergate times indicates the existence of more than one depositional that action was acceptable. had been dispersed across the landscape. the infamous garbologist. Multi-service taphonomy. Shells. GARBOLOGY and circle back to Hawaii in 2014 to 2016” (NOAA 2011: 1). depending on “how much of basic element for the construction of discard theories. otherwise difficult to like other institutions along the Pacific coast. from the tsunami. This material will slowly disintegrate. many garbage: floating garbage. Leaving legal problems make up a large mound. is carried back to home at some point he asked himself if he was trespassing base” (Meehan 1982: 117). that “debris could pass near or wash ashore in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in spring 2012. . garbage is not the floating materials can be separated in “high” restricted to bones. to focused. one beach debris. explaining which were dangerous. but even a Harley- pulled out of Dylan’s garbage was a half-finished letter Davidson in a container was found.“If the individual episodes of shellgathering that him (Rathje and Murphy 1992). Beyond the implication processes associated with these hazards and recognize that our expectations for finding ordered occupational what will be preserved” (Arcos et al. 1980: 1). In contrast. issued obtain but nonetheless important for understanding bulletins with instructions on how to deal with debris the archaeological record. Needless to say. From a taphonomic point of view success of the approach. Similar observations are the rights of other people (or specifically those of Bob available from ancient sources (Cook 1946: 51). this constitutes a particular archaeological phenomenon: a spatial FLOATING PALIMPSESTS palimpsest. when he setting for mollusk shells. In Bailey’s words. it says something about the location of 2011 tsunami in Japan. Undoubtedly. This Dylan). which were also present− or other and especially polyethylene and polypropylene that destructive materials. Weberman. the information provided by words. Unfortunately. The debris is classifiable into items that have processes and taphonomy are closely aligned For sunk and flotsam –floating garbage− which. and floating palimpsests 15 sometimes a few shells as well. it is exposed to the wind” (Erikson 2012: 20). In other sequences should be low. The NOAA agency modeled the deposits. there written by Bob Dylan to Johnny Cash” (Weberman are taphonomic processes acting on these materials. cover thousands of square kilometers (United Nations Since Weberman’s discovery. the expectations for associated artifacts the potential distribution of that waste. a less “owner”. only one of which would be applied the same tactics in 1980 to the garbage of ex- archaeologically visible. This scavenging garbage from Bob Dylan’s garbage can: “I material −after a long stay in the ocean environment− lifted the lid … I reached in and the first thing … that I was mostly restricted to plastic. 15 months example. The They offer evidence of factors like “messiness of the Ministry of Environment of British Columbia. many remains decayed swiftly. It was recently stated occupations or dead shells that formed a normal part of that “to accurately predict future coastal hazards. Weberman’s great discovery −the Dylan letter− was Generally speaking. perforating organisms accelerate the this approach requires a taphonomic approach. approach the West Coast of the United States in 2013. garbage. particularly wood. garbage studies are a and “low-windage”. and will be affected by destructive processes. after the tsunami. had already reached the coasts of describes his rapid discovery of the benefits of North America. It goes without saying that the utility of For example. we must remember that ultraviolet between items that preserve in the long-term and those rays will swiftly break up plastic in desert environments that preserve in the short-term was crucial for the (Weisman 2007). items discarded” (Murray 1980). clearly demonstrate that formation floating. up preserved because it was not in contact with humid to the point when they were reduced to floating glass rejects –like diapers. would now be lost to view”. Obviously. indicating and the energy of the processes involved. between California and Alaska. Also. sinking of different materials. As asserted by Bailey (2007: president Richard Nixon. The distinction 2012). Canada. expected. Garbage studies1. taphonomy is required to understand important this study is basically taphonomic.

Needless to say. More impressive. A probably many Robinson Crusoe-style stories in which recent “Pepsi label from plastic bottle” and other wreckages offer more than construction material. that was related to alternative hostile scenarios between 1727 and 1779-1783 were found So far I have presented a detailed example focused (Rodríguez-Vidal et al. . Any improvement on the last high impact tsunami on the coasts of in the taphonomy of tsunamis should be useful in the Japan. it was reported that “It is extremely foraminifera within a Late Quaternary deposit. In the that can be made with those materials is to understand case of the 1755 tsunami on the Gibraltar coast there and. control them. there are sediments (Pilarczyk and Reinhardt 2012: 129). when discussing the effects of specific like wastewaters. debris helped to identify “the reworking of the upper However. the 18th Century”. survive and where. the main point is that the best contribution sediments” (Pilarczyk and Reinhardt 2012: 130). “large chunks of debris immediately observation rate of different debris in the ocean was recognizable as intrusive” should be found (Renfrew high for the last several decades. a depositional record testifying different raw materials by discipline. For example. articulated bivalves (out of life position)”. There are other classes of materials. Perhaps some indications can be found where flotsam is likely to appear in the future. In This is not always the case. and 229 for taphonomic evaluations. within this 2013: 133 ss. However. A. Chile (Solari 1992). concept of taphonomy is necessary for these evaluations. at least 245 tsunamis palimpsests are going to be the basis of future for the Pacific between 1900 and 1983. was those resulting from storms. floating garbage wreckage sites a combination of “concentrations of angular shell may have constructive uses as well. However. 2013). flotsam taphonomy for this evaluation cannot be understated.Special Issue 1 (2014) 13-20 No doubt on the basis of taphonomic and forensic were evidences of palimpsests in the form of Pliocene considerations. a subject all of which are the stuff of taphonomy. Also. Hutchinson and MacMillan 1997). A wide and comparative the Mediterranean in historic times (Auger 1993: 119). like that of Japan. that are discharged into the oceans events. that has received general treatment (Renfrew 1979. from what Arcos and collaborators call “amalgamated The preservational-destructive tensions in those diverse deposits” (palimpsests. 16 L. and locations detect. but clearly indicates this way we can learn about the velocity and direction the tsunamis can sometimes be easily recognized. The by a tsunami. of drift in the ocean. 1996. Also. Estevez 2005). Rick and Erlandson 2008). to which access is restricted. and tsunamis (Clague and Bobrowsky 1994. information on to the existence of tsunamis and related phenomena the distribution of plastic is useful in the evaluation of was found at the Peruvian coast (Spiske et al.). the importance of crossings of the papyrus boat Ra in 1969-1970. Arcos et al. but this is only one of many examples. In 2005. An endless assemblages of artifacts will determine which will variety of artifacts result from the action of tsunamis. 2013). Borrero . There at archaeological sites disturbed or destroyed by are short −and long− term ecological implications. However. Cole et al. In cases like that of the 1975 Makran panorama of garbage and extensive contamination. but they are not the that when excavating an archaeological site affected only forces circulating materials in the ocean. For program of understanding and maintenance of the example. unlikely any human remains from the tsunami will the remains of a hand grenade that “was in use during reach Canada” (Ministry of Environment 2012: 1). Unfortunately. there is almost no way humans as coevolutionary agents (Odling-Smee et al. there are records of Summing up my impression of the debris resulting 22 tsunamis for the Galápagos Islands between 1960 from tsunamis. was recorded every day (Heyerdahl 1972). for example. I cannot see any utility in separating the study of On the other hand. in Chile there are records of tsunamis at oceans. materials’ resistance to and while other times they are nearly impossible to persistence through different processes. It was generally accepted that tsunamis debris can be even the supposedly limpid environment of Kingman easily identified and isolated from other deposits like reef in the Pacific. it is possible to identify in massive amounts and that have even a greater items of Japanese origin (United Nations 2012). be elucidated. 2013). of telling the age of floating microplastic (Humes 2003. their relationships usually their link with specific phenomena can only with the survival of different materials still needs to be achieved through contemporaneous testimonies. not Trench tsunami in the northern Arabian sea it was everything is negative. Colin Renfrew writes I have focused on tsunamis. For example. 2013: 16). During the Atlantic 1979: 578). it must be stated that these floating and 2011 (Arcos et al. but ecological impact (George 2009). if possible. there are also different lifecycles for different materials. 2011: 187). the destiny of other classes of debris.Intersecciones en Antropología . Inspection of the oceans constantly as demonstrated by the study of Galápagos (Arcos et reminds us of the recently recognized importance of al. difficulty arises heavily affected by the plastic “rain” (Weisman 2007). is archaeological evidence for opportunistic scavenging particle size and a predominance of foraminiferous of wood from European wreckages to construct huts marine taxa that was used to identify the relevant at Herschel Island. there fragments. least since the 1550s (Urrutia de Habun and Lanza Lezcano 1993).

and Celeste Weitzel for their kind invitation to 2006 Tafonomía lítica en dunas: una propuesta para participate in their Symposium at the XVIII Congreso el análisis de los artefactos líticos. In the end. CONICET- IMHICIHU. M. Argentina). Arreaga. In Bosques. palimpsests. Borrero and K. pp. garbage. K. E. what I am suggesting Blanco. most of our difficulties in accepting this. Archaeopress. F. BAR International that is the reason why palimpsests are not our worst Series 9. palimpsests and the archaeology (Borrero 2011). timescales and explanations in economic interpretations as a fingerprint. Acknowledgements Lisboa. T. yet. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 26: the usual plangent cries that go with the discovery of 198-223. Stratigraphies. the name of (1): 9-21. is not based exclusively on its offer of different levels Paleobiology 11: 105-109. T. Weiss and P. Cambridge. I would Behrensmeyer. ecology or paleontology. were very helpful in clarifying aspects of this chapter. pp. They are so important that instead of of time. R. In The Chronology of the is always danger in ignoring the need to “proceed Aurignacian and of the Transitional Technocomplexes: taphonomically”. R. Rivera- the notion that the range of applications of taphonomy Hernández. that “exacerbate confusion and misunderstanding” Implicancias en el arte rupestre de la localidad (Lyman 2010: 1). A. Intersecciones en Nacional de Arqueología Argentina. The Importance of the do not know as much as we believed. However. but the valuable preserved parts of the record 2007 Time perspectives. . and floating palimpsests 17 CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES I have presented some examples trying to convey Arcos. and V. always solved and usually we learn that we really 1993 The New Catastrophism. Press. K. I want to thank Raven Garvey who helped 2011b Tafonomía lítica en la estepa patagónica: improving the translation to English. that if this claim for a unity of taphonomy is wrong. 2011 Experimentos replicativos de grabados en piedra. Cambridge University speaking. I also Antropología 7: 247-261. In accordance with Lyman. D. Academic form in which the record is presented to us for study. problems are not Auger. I want to express my gratitude to Karen Borrazzo Borrazzo. only a footprint. the link between the archaeological record and our 1981 Concepts. J-G. Comments by the reviewers la península El Páramo (Tierra del Fuego. the discipline is not important. edited by J. Binford 1981. experimentación y registro arqueológico de superficie. B. Quaternary Research wide array of taphonomic studies that currently exists. P. What is important is Bordes. V.. Buenos Aires. but Binford. France). enemies. Borrazzo. somewhat related to ethnoarchaeology. Zilhao and F. 80: 9-19. Shells. M. A. Lynett should be unrestricted. there and Le Piage (Lot. package enabled by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami in El garbology or ecology. of organization not appreciated at the ethnographic scale (Bailey 1981. want to thank Ivana Ozán for her help during the 2011a Tafonomía lítica y pseudoartefactos: el caso de preparation of this chapter. 223-244. montañas y cazadores. Press. Ancient Men and Modern Myths. 2003 Lithic taphonomy of the Châtelperronian/ no major harm will be done to the disciplines of Aurignacian interstratifications in Roc de Combe archaeology. New York. En Economic Archaeology. Galapagos Islands. 127-153. edited by A. Instituto Português de Arqueologia. Finally. Dating. Generally Rare Event in Geological History. result from viewing Bailey. Multi-service taphonomy. pp. Lynch here can be read as a misuse of the term taphonomy. Results are not always spectacular. among others). N. I feel that real confusion arqueológica de Piedra Museo (Santa Cruz. edited by L. Bailey. R. d’Errico. La Rioja. and S. as a way to demonstrate the Garrapatero. Cultural Implications. Investigaciones arqueológicas en Patagonia Meridional. G. I chose to focus on actualistic 2013 An amalgamated meter-thick sedimentary cases. when in fact it is prehistory. Trabalhos de Arqueologia 33. MacInnes. or even accepting that taphonomy is a crucial component of our research agenda. Argentina). it is predicated on the notion that they are the usual 1981 Bones. Kidwell like to emphasize that my defense of the palimpsest 1985 Taphonomy´s contribution to paleobiology. Intersecciones en Antropología 12: 155-166. Oxford. we should hear cheering shouts. 97-117. L. arises when we try to maintain our trade within the Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino 16 narrow confines of tradition. We should not expect precision and Sheridan and G. M.

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J. Rodríguez-Vidal. Averbouh indicator in a shallow arid system lagoon: Sur. The neglected process in University of New Mexico Press. B. M. Journal of Taphonomy 8 (1): 1-16. 2003 Niche Construction. F. A. 2013 Propiedades del registro y tafonomía de conjuntos 1989 A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge líticos: el caso del norte de la Provincia de Santa Cruz University Press. Cambridge. Oxford. and D. Archaeological Record.. Administration. Reinhardt 31-44.htm (Accesed February 2. C. sites. edited by D. L. and floating palimpsests 19 Lipps. and C. T. D. Marine Debris. and A. http://palaeo-electronica. Nash and M. 2012 Managing post-disaster debris: the Japan edited by A. R. Ratto. T. B. 2010 What Taphonomy Is. Antiquity 45: 490-502. Murphy taphonomie. Cáceres. Ruiz. C. Quaternary International 305: Pilarczyk. M-P. C. garbage. Egerland Spiske. 485-494. 2008 Human impacts on Ancient Marine Ecosystems. Coumont. Feldman 1987 Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record. González-Regalado. Marine Geology 295-298: 128-136. Schiffer. pp. A. C. New York Odling-Smee. Piepenbreier. Meehan. and C. Actes du workshop no 16 . M. Tívoli. J. K. Grayson. B. processing by humans. R. 565-585. Pickering. and E. D. Rodríguez-Llanes and G. 1987 The impact of fluvial processes on experimental Behavior. Australian Institute of Ritter. Brazil. J. L. J. 1976 Behavioral Archeology. Shells. La Noria. Journal of Archaeological inverse modeling and optically stimulated Science 33: 459-469. G. Barberena. Bailey. luminescence dating. Santiago de Chile. M. In Natural Formation Processes and the Solari. pp. M. Lanza Lezcano Natural de San Rafael. Albuquerque. Carniglia Trigger. 2012 Testing foraminiferal taphonomy as a tsunami Thiébaut. Bulletin de la Société Botanique 352. Canberra. Steffahn damage on bones: implications for inferences of carcass 2013 Historical tsunami deposits in Peru: Sedimentology. Nash 1999 The Material Life of Human Beings. . Lyman. Francaise 139: 407-419. American M. E. In (2). L. Renfrew. Chili. M. United Nations. B. W. pp. Artifacts. 1993 Catástrofes en Chile 1541-1992. R. P. What it Isn’t. H. and Communication. R. Otaola. San Rafael. M. K. London. Geneva. BAR International Series du cap Horn. 1992 Anthracologie et ethnoarchéologie dans l’archipel D. 2014). In Tendencias teórico-metodológicas y United Nations Environment Programme casos de estudio en la arqueología de la Patagonia. Paleo . G. Princeton University Press. Multi-service taphonomy. Petraglia. Miller Petraglia. Berkeley. N. and C. Gil. P. G. M. Lisbonne. Routledge. C. 1982 Shell Bed to Shell Midden. edited by P. Finlayson. New York.. Quaternary International 305: 5-14. Princeton. F.Supplément Perennial. Abad. Giardina. Academic Press. Canada. Academic Press. 2008 Taphonomy of Oil. G. Harper International de l’UISPP. D. Columbia. 2006 Experimental patterns of hammerstone percussion Bahlburg and J. Paleontologia Electronica 11 1979 The Eruption of Thera and Minoan Crete. M.. T. C. and D.org/2008_2/commentary/ Volcanic Activity and Human Ecology... Rio Grande do Sul 2012 What to do if you find tsunami debris. Luna. Erthal and J. Silver Spring. M. Mise en commun des approches en Rathje. do N. Archaeopress. M. Kunz. 2011 The recorded evidence of AD 1755 Atlantic NOAA Marine Debris Program tsunami on the Gibraltar coast. evolution. New York. Fa. Benavente. 1980 Discard Location: The ethnographic data. L. Finlayson. and J. M. experience. 108-130. Neme. 2013 Taphonomic signatures in molluscan fossil assemblages from the Holocene lagoon system in the Ministry of Environment northern part of the coastal plain. 2010 The Taphonomic Approach: an Archaeological Sultanate of Oman. (Argentina). University of California Press. Laland and M. Salgán and A. Erlandson (editors) Taphonomists Should Care about the Difference. F. Zangrando. N. J. Coimbra Aboriginal Studies.XVe Congrès 1992 Rubbish! The Archaeology of Garbage. British State. 3: 21-28. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Schiffer. C. R. S. Murray. Necessity. and Why Rick. Museo de Historia Urrutia de Habun. Paulides. E. F. and A. T. L. W. oil. A Global Perspective. Sheets and D. Journal of Iberian 2011 Frequently Asked Questions: Japan Tsunami Geology 37 (2) 2011: 177-193. J.

1. Picador. A. and T. but also its archaeological 2007 The World Without Us. Stonehill Press. from a millisecond to a million years or more” (Schiffer and Miller 1999: 52). that the study of ongoing cultural systems is archaeological 1980 My Life in Garbology. there are strong methodo- logical reasons to maintain not only its relevance for the Weisman. Methods. New York. A. . New York. Not all archaeologists agree Weberman. A. Borrero . Nonetheless. Such a study is A Consideration of Issues. A. (Trigger 1989: 371). understanding of the deep past.Special Issue 1 (2014) 13-20 VanDerwarker. 20 L.. M. elapsed time. M. and Cases. Peres (editors) NOTES 2013 Integrating Zooarchaeology and Paleoethnobotany.The archaeological study of modern refuse. archaeological in the sense that “past” denotes any amount of Springer Verlag. New York. character per se (Gould and Schiffer 1981). J.Intersecciones en Antropología .

The Gutiérrez Zugasti 2008). Procesos de formación.Special Issue 1: 21-34. Aguirre et al. Aguirre et al. ISSN 1850-373X Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record. Orquera Argentina (hereafter NCSC. This methodology aims to isolate taphonomic variables affecting archaeomalacological records to aid identification of the agents and processes involved in shell midden formation and to improve interpretations of the human activities performed at the sites.UNCPBA . Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900). Costa norte de Santa Cruz. among others). and terrestrial mammals. División Arqueología. Concheros. preservation potential (Waselkov 1987. taphonomic modifications to mollusc shells can near the present-day shoreline. E-mail: heidihammondunlp@gmail. artifacts. Taphonomy.Argentina . así como para evaluar la integridad de los conjuntos. Palabras clave: Arqueomalacología. INTRODUCTION shells’ calcareous composition affords them high Studies on the northern coast of Santa Cruz Province. Figure 1) identified a large and Piana 1999. Además estos análisis son significativos para realizar interpretaciones paleoambientales. Northern Coast of Santa Cruz. 2005). Keywords: Archaeolomalacology. Argentina). clarify the natural and anthropic process that affected fish. Shell middens are provide information about past human activities and located on geomorphological features in areas where formation processes at archaeological sites. Laboratorio 1. Patagonia argentina. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo. ARGENTINA). charcoal and. These analyses are also relevant to paleoenvironmental and paleoecological reconstructions. En este trabajo se presenta una propuesta metodológica para el estudio de conjuntos arqueomalacológicos de concheros y su aplicación en el análisis de restos recuperados a partir de excavaciones sistemáticas en sitios ubicados al sur de la ría Deseado. Tafonomía. 2014. 2009). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). The study of number of shell middens distributed along the coast. seabirds. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Claassen 1998. Formation Processes.com Intersecciones en Antropología . Heidi Hammond. Accepted 26 March 2014 ABSTRACT This paper proposes a method of studying archaeomalacological assemblages from shell middens. | 21 Taphonomic analysis of archaeomalacological assemblages: shell middens on the northern coast of Santa Cruz (Patagonia. and describes an application of this method in the analysis of remains recovered from systematic excavations at sites located south of the Ría Deseado estuary (northern coast of Santa Cruz Province. 2011). are composed of different archaeological materials in As such identification of taphonomic variables can a sedimentary matrix: animal bones (seals. Shell middens. La Plata. as well as food resources such as molluscs and pinniped colonies paleoenvironmental and paleoecological conditions are abundant (Zubimendi et al. primarily. Argentina) Heidi Hammond Received 20 August 2013. Shell middens (Kidwell 1991. paleoecológicas. Esta metodología se focaliza en el estudio de diferentes variables tafonómicas que afectan el registro arqueomalacológico para avanzar en la interpretación de los agentes y procesos involucrados en la formación de las estructuras de concheros y sobre las actividades humanas desarrolladas en los sitios. RESUMEN ANÁLISIS TAFONÓMICOS DE CONJUNTOS ARQUEOMALACOLÓGICOS: CONCHEROS EN LA COSTA NORTE DE SANTA CRUZ (PATAGONIA. Museo de Ciencias Naturales. lithic archaeological assemblages (Fernández López 1999. and to interpretations of site variability through assessments of assemblage integrity and structure. interpretar las características estructurales y la variabilidad de los sitios. mollusc shells. en la costa norte de Santa Cruz. Copyright © Facultad de Ciencias Sociales .

. and to the south by the Bahía Laura archaeological locality (Castro et al. belonging to the Magellanic Biogeographic Province The focus is on identification of taphonomic processes are available. Major archaeomalacological assemblages provide a test concentrations of archaeological materials are found in case for the proposed methodology. Archaeological sites mentioned in the text. boulder beaches interspersed with porphyritic outcrops of the Bahía Laura Formation. 2003). results of analyses of three but uneven use by hunter-gatherer populations. The area south of Ría Deseado is geomorphologically variable with large sand and Figure 1. Northern coast of Santa Cruz Province and archaeological locations mentioned in the text. bounded to the north by the boundary between Chubut and Santa Cruz Provinces. Geomorphologically. The assemblages areas where animal resource availability −particularly were recovered from three archaeological localities on marine resources− tends to be high (Zubimendi et al. Bahía del Oso Marino −Las Hormigas site (LH)−. that affect archaeological shells and the method is offered as a preliminary approach to assessing both Archaeological materials from sites located the integrity of shell middens and the formation south of Ría Deseado are used here as case studies. the NCSC: Puerto Jenkins −Puerto Jenkins 2 site (PJ2)−. and average precipitation of 200 mm. 22 H. Predominant winds are from Figure 2. Vegetation is of the Patagonian Province of the Andean-Patagonian domain and characterized by shrub steppes composed of grasses and coirones (Stipa humilius and S.Special Issue 1 (2014) 21-34 the west and are strongest during the summer months. Mollusc shoals The aim of this paper is to present a methodology develop in this area and species of edible molluscs for the study of archaeomalacological assemblages. STUDY AREA The NCSC study area comprises approximately 420 km of coastline. Additionally.Intersecciones en Antropología . and rocky tidal flats where mollusc shoals (restingas) develop. the Atlantic coast extends to the Ría Deseado estuary and is characterized by beaches and small intertidal zones with some mollusc shoals. processes associated with these features within the Archaeological records in this area indicate intensive study area. Hammond . and Isla Lobos −112 site (S112)− (Figure 2). speciosa) and interrupted by patches of mata negra shrubs (Verbena tridens). the San Jorge gulf consists of wide sand or boulder beaches. falling largely as winter rain. The area is characterized by an arid to semiarid climate with average temperatures between 4 °C and 17 °C. To the south of the Cabo Blanco area.

where shell middens (Gutiérrez Zugasti 2008). Bahía del Oso Marino. Therefore. sculpture and decoration. ideally to the species level Bahía del Oso Marino locality. PJ2 is located anatomical and taxonomic identification is based in the Puerto Jenkins archaeological locality (Figure 2) firstly on distinctive features of the shells. archaeological locality (Castro et al. it is the hinge or the umbo. Once a 400 m from the modern shoreline (Zubimendi et al. On bivalves the identifiable further analysis in the laboratory (Bowdler 2009). hinge features. Middens are found up to secondly on biogeographical distributions. is located 100 identification proceeds using diagnostic features m from the Ría Deseado shoreline. and identified mollusc shoals. Recovery of small items was fragments were assigned to one of two categories. to be differentiated right from left. characteristics of the umbilicus years BP and located at 16 masl and 80 m from the and aperture. one cephalic. The site is radiocarbon dated to 370 ± 40 shape of the shell. and characteristics of ornamentation. present coastline. Argentina) 23 2005). individuals can be counted taking between massive levels of mollusc shells may be the highest value of cephalic or caudal plates. width. Description of archaeological sites presented in this paper. classification and quantification 1. . such as where numerous shell middens are concentrated near morphology. excavating by artificial levels aids detection • Diagnostic shell fragments (VFRA) are shells less than of differences in high-density shell lenses that may not 90% complete but that still contain an NRE. On the NCSC. shell has been identified anatomically. biometric measurements are made. NRE include the apex.5 43 be considered in Jenkins −PJ2− (LP-2603) sandy cover burdensome any taphonomic Bahía del Oso Las Hormigas 370 ± 40 aeolian mantle on approach to 1 55 Marino −LH− (LP-2504) Holocene terrace archaeomalacological Site 112 2870 ± 60 Isla Lobos Aeolian mantle 0. and thick lenses of archaeological materials. 2) FAPI are fragments that include apex or portions of it. columella. Bejega García (2010). According to are composed of eight plates. mollusc shells. 100 m away from the current shoreline and 11 masl. PJ2. one caudal. Anatomical and taxonomic identification and quantification of archaeological shellfish SHELL MIDDENS assemblages Table 1 provides a contextual description of the In archaeological shellfish assemblages. and height of the shell. IFRA contain after sieving− was collected for classification and the apex and part of the shell. LH is located in the that permit assignment. absence of particular species defines the stratigraphy. Among Nacella magellanica. On based on biological composition where the presence or complete shells.25 17 assemblages. An NRE is a part of a shell that is diagnostic Excavation for each species or genus. where shell number and arrangement of muscular impressions. It also describes different taphonomic agents (Lyman 1994) and lists Archaeological Archaeological Age 14C Excavated Stratigraphic Location selected taphonomic locality site (years BP) área (m2) thickness (cm) cord of coastal variables that should Puerto Puerto 690 ± 60 boulders with Jenkins 2 0. and quantification of Fernández 2007). 2003). Punta Medanosa areas (Figure 2). S112 is located in the Isla Lobos (for bivalves) shape of the shell. shell middens are composed of very In gastropods. In bivalves. taxonomic 2004). categories according to their preservation: • Complete shells (VCOM) are those exhibiting more than 90% of the original shell and an individual diagnostic element. −S112− (LP-2141) Table   1. dated to 690 ± 60 years BP. color. Mason MATERIALS AND METHODS et al. and (for polyplacophorans) shape of the shell and Fragments of charcoal associated with archaeological ornamentation (Gordillo 2007). S112 is located and ornamentation (Moreno Nuño 1994: 16). stratigraphic differences and six intermediate. classification. as in the Isla Lobos.1) IFRA performed using a 2 mm mesh sieve (Claassen 1998). so excavations foramen. shell middens analyzed in this paper. fragments were subdivided into: VFRA (fragmented shell) The following section details the methodology and FCHC (fragment of umbo or hinge complete) (Álvarez for identification. Shells are grouped into materials date to 2870 ± 60 years BP (Table 1). and Mollusc shell analyses: identification. including length. Gastropod be identified otherwise. Taphonomic analysis of archaeomalacological assemblages: shell middens on the northern coast of Santa Cruz (Patagonia. which can be counted a number of times to infer the presence of an individual. Polyplacophorans (chitons) proceeded in 5-cm artificial levels. middens cluster near the coastline. known as a Non-Repetitive Element (NRE. 1998). Taxonomic features used in are heterogeneously distributed (Zilio and Hammond the identification of the molluscs are: (for gastropods) 2013). are fragments with intact columella ends but that lack the and the “bottom sieve” −the smallest items remaining buccal area.

which specimens (complete shells plus fragments). weight is sometimes al. Biometric analysis A taphonomic agent is a source of force applied to materials. which effects (Schiffer 1983) that can be inferred (Nash and decreases as age increases (Claassen 1998). Vegetation may also cause sampled population. Moreover. affects different species at different rates. The author the minimum number of individuals for each genus or notes that the older the site or the more acidic the species. Aguirre 2003. and it is necessary analysis (length. Weight of the remains chemical dissolution (Gutiérrez Zugasti 2008). At NCSC Petraglia 1987). and height) of complete to identify the agents and processes responsible for any shells is required. Magellanic penguins in bivalves.). Glassow 2000). such as descaling or precipitation of calcium identified species or taxa (Claassen 1998. Assemblage diversity is the number of archaeomalacological remains and the weight of individuals (NISP or NMI) distributed across all the shells. 24 H. and polyplacophorans− using specific archaeological levels within a site. biometric have their own taphonomic histories. and Chaetophractus villosus) are among the animals biometric analyses are used to interpret the processes that modify remains and their spatial arrangements in of overexploitation. Mytilus edulis (blue mussel). Such modifications can authors (Claassen 1998. and armadillos (Zaedyus pichiy the umbo to the distal end of the shell. and identify rare or uncommon movement and mixing of archaeological remains. shell middens by moving and scattering archaeological for estimating season of harvest (Claassen 1998). and following the nomenclature of the World Taphonomic agents and taphonomic processes Register Marine Species (WoRMS 2012) database. the microenvironment in which the archaeological record have predictable physical it developed. Archaeological materials archaeomalacological assemblages. taphonomic studies in shell middens. and ontogenetic growth rate. . Hammond . 1998. and fragmentation explore the mode of harvest. Shell size is related to the age signs of modification. At NCSC. Mason et al.Intersecciones en Antropología . others). Claassen (1998: 107) points elements. and MNI. Lyman 1994). Fragments can contribute to measures of out that criticisms of shell weight quantification center abundance including NISP. In this way. width. fossorial rodents (Ctenomys sp. Álvarez Fernández the highest value between left and right VFRA. we have estimating abundance. root growth in fissures or cracks may fracture shells. and species at archaeological sites (Claassen 1998). • Anthropic: Human populations can modifiy the The weight of archaeomalacological assemblages archaeological record in several ways. The modern introduction of livestock (sheep) Occasionally these analyses have also been used to is another factor that disturbs shell middens. Dupont 2003). estimate the size of the of archaeological remains. and the physical cause of modification Following taxonomic identification of (Morlan 1984. in studies of growth environments. al. Aulacomya formation of archaeological sites (Borrero 1988). These animals can also introduce foreign and to determine whether there may have been size remains through the caves they excavate (Hammond et selection during harvesting (Álvarez Fernández 2009). all of which can mechanically change the original structure of deposits. 2005. atra (ribbed mussel). Fragments are also used to calculate (2007) indicates that we must consider that different taxonomic richness. Usually. the most abundant conchological archaeology contribute to our understanding of the species are Nacella magellanica (limpet). whether is a variable that has been widely discussed by many deliberately or accidentally. For gastropods. weight values are​​ still important identified three groups of molluscs −gastropods. For bivalves. 2009 and Gordillo 2007 for polyplacophora. MNI is calculated according soil. carbonate and matrix acidity. base of the shell is measured in Nacella magellanica. 2013). literature (Castellanos 1970. displacement. Aguirre et if a sample is highly fragmented. 1. material. trampling causes the removal. defined as the total number of taxa taphonomic agents and processes that could affect in a collection. In the same way. and Perumytilus purpuratus (Zubimendi et al. 2000. the maximum diameter of the flora are considered among biological agents. Agents that modify materials in of the individual. Taphonomic agents 2. and a comparative collection consisting of both modern and archaeological specimens (Bejega García 2010). Hammond and Zubimendi 2013). as they may reflect changes in the shell composition of bivalves. among the only available criterion of analysis. maximum diameter is measured from (Spheniscus magellanicus).Special Issue 1 (2014) 21-34 • Fragments (FRAG) are pieces of shell that lack diagnostic 2000. A variety of taphonomic agents alter the remains Zubimendi 2012. the greater the loss of calcium carbonate and to the formula: VCOM + FAPI + IFRA. conchiolin and the greater the differential loss of MNI is calculated as VCOM + FCHC + VFRA (taking calcium carbonate between species. that compose shell middens: • Biological: Fauna (both vertebrates and invertebrates) and To gauge shell size. Bejega García (2008) notes that despite the limitations of weight for In the NCSC contexts analyzed to date. the number of identifiable primarily on the loss of weight with diagenesis. Álvarez Fernández 2007). Roots between the shells can also trigger 3.

and moisture) pH and the relative proportion of organic matter. sun. resulting in the modification of Preservation of the periostracum on archaeological shells site morphology and structure. and its main function is to affecting shell middens are water and wind. example. analysis of taphonomic processes that have affected archaeological remains is a means of Figure 3. carbonate and salt. periostracum altered according to chemical conditions within the loss will progress through time. causes a neutral or slightly alkaline pH. Moisture and sunlight are other agents contexts is also determined by conditions within the that may alter the remains. can be studied to assess easily. • Chemicals: Archaeological remains can be chemically Under unfavorable conditions of burial. archaeological remains. This ban growth. High salinity and high levels of organic matter within the midden matrix cause a higher incidence of corrosion. 2. fractures and falls off phosphate. C. Taphonomic processes on shells People and animals are geomorphological agents that produce archaeological sediments. B. Taphonomic analysis of archaeomalacological assemblages: shell middens on the northern coast of Santa Cruz (Patagonia. A variety of variables. This organic layer is secreted by a • Physical-geological: The primary physical agents mantle portion of molluscs. ur- some gastropods and bivalve molluscs (Figure 3A). Aulacomya atra shells with preserved periostraca. rain. 2012). that affect assemblages. The identification of natural and anthropic components is therefore critical to the interpretation of formation processes at archaeological sites. including environmental conditions (wind. storms. fluvial processes and wind can transport hazards including acidic substances (Camacho 2007). and cultural components of which require identification and interpretation (Butzer 1982: 66). of which shells are composed. and the use of vehicles in coastal areas are membrane is especially visible in the shells of species also agents of archaeological site destruction (Ceci 1984. When exposed to sedimentary matrix. A. Stein 1987). . and pH). However. fragmentation. the periostracum dries quickly. and mobilization of the shells 2013). For this reason. shell accumulations are considered archaeosediments (Butzer 1982. Wind erosion. within the family Mitilidae. an abundance of calcium carbonate. organic content. Shells with evidence of surface corrosion. For archaeological deposit. is interpreted as a sign of the record’s integrity and of and sudden changes in temperature can accelerate the rapid burial (Zubimendi 2012. trampling of archaeomalacological remains post-deposition can cause considerable fragmentation and horizontal displacement. Shells with evidence of surface understanding their origins and the changes abrasion. Thus. Preservation of this membrane in stratigraphic (Claassen 1998). Stein (1987) suggests that soil pH is affected by the amount of organic waste introduced by people during site occupation. and other chemical processes present (1) or absent (0). pollution. Subsequent reoccupation Taphonomic variables of archaeological sites can further modify preexisting •Preservation of periostracum: The periostracum is an outer structures. Generally. Argentina) 25 be divided into ones produced during occupation of they have undergone throughout the formation of the the site and those that occur after abandonment. Hammond and Zubimendi degradation. which tends to preserve many organic remains (Orquera and Piana 2000). particularly Aulacomya atra Zubimendi et al. sedimentary matrix (moisture. The pH level of the matrix affects the preservation of certain archaeological remains. membrane composed of protein that covers the shells of Excavation by non-specialists. In open-air protect the limestone part of the shell against various shell middens. The preservation of periostracum is recorded as conservation. biogenic. construction of roads. the physical. and Mytilus edulis. a highly alkaline environment creates unfavorable conditions for the preservation of organic remains such as bone because it induces collagen hydrolysis (Favier Dubois and Bonomo 2008).

and involves breakage of shells and separation of the •Bioerosion: The analysis of bioerosion can provide fragments.. climatic fluctuations. 2011). or calcined (3. conditions. which causes them to be according to wind speed. structure.26 H. and involves carbon enrichment. particularly . carbonized by people. for predatory Shells. the location •Fragmentation: Fragmentation is one of the most common of impacts / breakage can be recorded in a way that processes observed in archaeomalacological assemblages permits comparison. along existing features. Thermal alteration of shells is determined by macroscopic depositional processes. burned (1. and barnacles lines (Farinati and Zavala 1995). and dissolution of shells’ mineral components are Different anthropic processes can produce fragmentation greater in areas where salinity is high. by physical changes in the original color of the surface and weight processes or bioerosion (Claassen 1998). a shell. These breaks may be due to the use of an mechanical stress. (2. For example. loss of matrix (Zuschin et al. gastropods. and the on particular taxa. and post. or fractures. Corrosion structure of shells. foraminifera. exposed to. displacement of archaeological remains. such as growth and ornamentation bryozoans. white small gastropods that form natural coastal cords where color) (Villamarzo 2009. When a hard blow is delivered to detach deformation of overall shape (Álvarez Fernández 2009). Fragmentation Moreover. Some gastropods. 2010). molluscs are covered by a layer of very fine information regarding sedimentation at the archaeological gray sediments (Gutiérrez Zugasti 2008). Other factors that may affect the structure to chemical conditions in the environment (Gutiérrez of shells and increase fragmentation of an assemblage Zugasti 2008. particularly those of bivalves. hardness of the abraded surface. By this method.Time of exposure on the land directly to flames. the shellfish (Claassen 1998). Some effects of chemical dissolution amount of organic matter and moisture in the sedimentary of shells are a corroded appearance of surfaces. capable of eroding and modifying shells. harvested (Pailler et al. 2003).. These authors microstructure of the shell and its resistance (Zuschin divide shells of the gastropod Nacella magellanica into et al. production of artifacts or instruments. Figure 3B). This process is enhanced if the sediment column has high Classification and recording of impacts and breakage levels of moisture or organic material.Special Issue 1 (2014) 21-34 •Corrosion: Corrosion occurs when calcium carbonate ornamentation. sponges.Intersecciones en Antropología . breaks along the margin or side may occur. and cracks (Fernández López 1999: 81). to identify which remains were incorporated in to the site original color). and bioturbation is common (Claassen 1998: 59). the faster they will deteriorate and. Villagran et al. 2003). often carbonized. and thinning and development of holes as compression (Claassen 1998). This process can affect anatomic and taxonomic paleoecological information. tend to fragment reasons or otherwise (Figure 5). corrosion can be inferred from analyses of the increases the susceptibility of the particles to size sorting substrate where the remains were deposited. site cleaning (removal of remains). Corrosion and transport by different agents (Claassen 1998: 55). Identification bioturbation and root action) and natural processes (e. Corrasion is abrasion for longer periods are dark gray. dark brown to black color). thickness. also influence increase fragmentation rates. 1997) and its effects vary their structure is very weak. limpets that have not been affected by heat ornamentation. deformation has been observed eight zones and in three areas in relation to the height mainly on limpet shells. and the thereby affecting conservation of the entire assemblage. The higher the temperatures they are is recorded as present (1) or absent (0). as well −in the form of calcite or aragonite (Camacho 2007)− as biostratinomic processes (Claassen 1998. which affect the follows Pailler and colleagues (2007).g. Algae. and caused by wind (Breed et al. size and strength of the shell. At NCSC. shape. bivalves. wind and temperature fluctuations) may conditions in the organism’s habitat or deposition matrix. light brown-gray). fissures. Sediment pressure may cause they grow. of such alterations can indicate the environmental effects of water. instrument to release the molluscs from the rocks where cracks. and/or texture of shells due to (Figure 4A). easily fragmented (Claassen 1998. Many marine organisms are identification of the remains (Gutiérrez Zugasti 2008).g. 2011). and the abundance of •Thermal alteration: Heat alters the crystallographic vegetation in the substrate (Aguirre et al. Sedimentary processes such ornamentation. In particular shell middens •Deformation: Deformation refers to changes in the at NCSC. ultimately. modifying their original texture and are brown whereas those exposed to high temperatures creating porous surfaces (Figure 3C). surface is also a factor. decalcification thinner surface areas. It is important to assess abrasion appearance and color and recorded as not burned (0. Shells affected by thermal exposure experience carbonate. and biological (e. Fragmentation will vary can cause such modifications before and/or after death of according to the morphology. Hammond . •Abrasion: Abrasion refers to the removal of calcium break. Abrasion analysis can provide Typically. concentration of abrasive particles (such as sand). microstructure. of the shell (Figure 4B). Chemical erosion first attacks are exposure to heat (Claassen 1998). This process may cause folds. archaeological sites are sometimes located generally have •Breakage and/or deliberated impact of shells: It has been evidence of marine abrasion and can be integrated as suggested that breakage and/or impact on shells may part of the sedimentary matrix of sites. low. For leads to weathering of shells’ most prominent exterior example. many limpet shells are cracked or broken size. Shell abrasion is be related to the way some species of molluscs were recorded as present (1) or absent (0). of which shells are composed. temperatures are such as trampling. Aguirre et or other mineral components of the shell dissolve due al. and which by natural processes. Villamarzo 2009). 2007). or the mode of Chemical dissolution is also related to sediment moisture shellfish gathering. density and distribution of vegetation and topographic Carbonification is related to the exposure of shells features (Waters 1992). fungi. This process loss relative to unburned shells (Claassen 1998). site. which leads to characteristic shapes and biodegradation (Gutiérrez Zugasti 2008).

Drilling facilitates future fracture of shells (Claassen 1998. near the apex. (3) (Figure 6). among bivalves. A. total color loss by sun exposure can result in either complete perforation or incomplete. and thermal alteration are the main taphonomic processes related to the loss of original shell color. Argentina) 27 embedded on shells collected by human groups. this is usually near the umbo. Balanus sp. which indicates that they were incorporated into the archaeological record after the death of the organism. corrosion. It is important to distinguish the processes involved and their effects because different processes can have similar effects (Lyman 1994: 38). In the archaeomalacological assemblages of the NCSC. and produce erosion and surface marks. Taphonomic analysis of archaeomalacological assemblages: shell middens on the northern coast of Santa Cruz (Patagonia. Perforations are made in exposed or weak areas of shells. and can significantly affect the surface coloration and ornamentation. and among gastropods. total loss Fernández 2009). Bioerosion studies allow understanding the presence of certain species in the malacological assemblage. and the mineralogical composition of shell (Claassen 1998). which could be incorporated to the site Figure 5. “unsuccessful” perforation. Sometimes the encrustations occur on the inner surface of the shells. . Preservation of shells to record the position of impacts and breaks. Sometimes mollusc shells have other epibiont organisms attached to them. Segmentation of a white color superficially. It is important to identify these types of marks to avoid confusion with marks produced by humans. Color loss is determined by different agents. Color loss due to sunlight exposure causes shells to acquire Figure 4. Shells with evidence of impacts and breaks. circular holes with slightly tapered or straight sides (Álvarez partial conservation of the original color (1). Heavy encrustation occurs on dead organisms’ shells exposed at the water–sediment interface in low energy habitats (Claassen 1998). The holes produced by mollusc drilling of original color (2). Such organisms erode and remove the periostracum. is the predominant encrusting species (Hammond and Zubimendi 2013). 2003). Zuschin et al. The preservation of color depends primarily on the chemical composition and stability of the pigment that colors the surface. Completely perforated shells likely entered the deposits dead because of the action of bioeroding organisms to obtain soft tissue or calcium. •Color preservation: This variable is recorded as an indicator of preservation of the remains. B. original shell color was recorded using the naticid and muricid. drill shells with their radula leaving following scale: conservation of the original color (0). Shells with surface bioerosion. Abrasion. The presence of encrustations or epibiont organisms can prevent the effects of bioeroders on shell surfaces (Claassen 1998: 40).

Most of the species are gastropods and Nacella magellanica is the predominant species in all assemblages. The surfaces on which the sites are located are horizontal to subhorizontal. surfaces: lines of coastal boulders with sandy cover and sandy aeolian mantles. Twenty-three species were identified. the rest of the species are represented by a few specimens Figure 6. No preferential No preferential No preferential Orientation orientation orientation orientation and Hammond and Zubimendi Tilt Subhorizontal Subhorizontal Subhorizontal (2013). . Aulacomya atra and Perumytilus purpuratus predominate. In all three case studies. The LH and S112 sites are described as having lenticular geometry affected by erosion and deflation that has exposed the surfaces of archaeological remains.Special Issue 1 (2014) 21-34 shells were recorded in LH and S112. while S112 exhibits RESULTS Variables analyzed Puerto Jenkins 2 Las Hormigas Site 112 Table 2 presents a characterization Thickness 15 cm 8 cm 6 cm Concentrations of shells sandy cover of shells identified in each of the Location burdensome aeolian mantle aeolian mantle middens analyzed in terms of the Geometry Tabular Lenticular Lenticular variables proposed by Favier Dubois Estratigraphy 1 lens of shells 1 lens of shells 1 lens of shells and Borella (2007). 2013). Shell middens are located on different geomorphic Table 2. Excavations profiles. and imbricated limpet shells were recorded in situ at PJ2. Degrees of color preservation of shells. Regarding species richness. Malacological composition of shell middens Table 3 presents mollusc species NISPs and MNIs for each excavation. These features indicate rapid burial without mobilization of the archaeological remains. 28 H. Excavations profiles are Shells articulated Yes Yes Yes in situ presented in Figure 7. The shell concentration at the PJ2 site is described as having tabular stratigraphic geometry with a high density of shells in contact with each other (bioclast-supported structure). and some specimens remain unidentified. These processes generated mound-shaped accumulations formed by a surface layer of shells redeposited above aeolian sediments that compose the dunes (Hammond et al. Hammond . The remaining gastropod species occur in smaller amounts.Intersecciones en Antropología . Zubimendi (2012). Features of shells concentrations at the shell middens. Of the bivalves. Mytilus edulis. individual lenses with high-density archaeological remains were identified in the stratigraphic sequence. LH has the highest conchological diversity. During excavations. each. articulated mussel Figure 7.

and Gasteropodoindet.04%) .35%) 9 lateralis Iothia total loss of color by sun . high incidence of corrosion - Cl. Regarding Pareuthria 2 2 (0. . almost all of 5 5 (0. The PJ2 assemblage has a - SF. a high percentage of Aulacomyaatra 164 101 (2. Gasteropoda 13. half of the assemblage reflects Epitonium a partial loss of original shell .35%) shell color preservation at LH. indicate Table 4 presents the weight of the shell remains at that part of the assemblage was exposed to heat.514 2. . of abraded shells is low in all Richness 13 13 18 18 9 9 of the analyzed assemblages.5%) alteration and corrosion. . the malacological remains have been severely affected by thermal Taphonomic alterations of the Archaeological Weight of the remains of shells (grams) shells Mollusc sites VCOM VFRA FRAG TOTAL Cl.08%) 10 10 (0.9%). plumbea Trophon a very low percentage of the 2 2 (0.02%) 3 3 (0. .9%) 9 9 (0.14%) .7%) 4 4 (0. Bivalvia 4.66%) 72 72 (2. - monodon due to high levels of thermal Kerguelenella 9 (1. well-preserved shell structures suggest the category.07%) . the minimum value.084 5089 9. 1 1 (0. and 94 94 (2. . Bivalvia NISP MMI NISP MNI NISP MNI remains exposed on the surface. 1 1 (0. . 2 2 (0.488 2. accordingly.85%) 35 35 (5. . 1 1 (0. - (Zubimendi and Hammond Hiatellaartica .35%) .05%) 7 7 (0. the latter being both the earliest site and the one with the smallest excavated area.07%) . Argentina) 29 uneven at our study sites Mollusc Puerto Jenkins 2 Las Hormigas Site 112 (Table 5).02%) 18 11 (0.4%) .11%) . Veneridae 1 1 (0. Taphonomic analysis of archaeomalacological assemblages: shell middens on the northern coast of Santa Cruz (Patagonia.513 5. . 5 5 (0.5%) 10 6 (1%) shells (primarily Aulacomya Perumytilus 207 114 (3. while the proportion Neoloricata . Total 4347 3527 4529 2698 1091 602 Abrasion is evident on shells that were exposed on the Table 3. Mytilusedulis 1390 726 (20. The 31 31 (0. Polyplacophora NISP MNI NISP MNI NISP MNI (99. . In the PJ2 and Siphonaria 7 (1. .05%) 5 5 (0. Weight of the remains of shells.840 Preservation of the Cl.4%) 82 50 (8.862 The taphonomic analysis of Puerto Cl. . 3 3 (0.9%) 1658 873 (32. Gasteropoda 1. Darina solenoides . sorted by mollusc class and quantification However.3%) atra) retain their periostraca.02%) .927 our analysis of taphonomic processes Hormigas Cl.25%) 2 2 (0.6%) 1462 761 (28.02%) 3 2 (0. . - geversianus specimens retain their original Buccinanops .2%) 509 509 (18. Polyplacophora 0 0 archaeomalacological remains is Table 4. Cl. corrosion.2%) and more than globosum Adelomelon sp.04%) .14%) 11 11 (0. we focus Las Cl. - coppingeri exposure is very low at LH.5%).4%) .945 191 Cl. .7%) dilatata thermal alteration.8%) in these assemblages are Crepipatella fragmentation. At S112.583 12. 17 11 (0.2%) 941 488 (81%) At LH. 2 2 (0. Species of molluscs at the shell middens (NISP and MNI). possibly . Gasteropoda NISP MNI NISP MNI NISP MNI that have affected the shells Nacella magellanica 2440 2440 (69. . surface and in contact with particles that abraded and polished surfaces. Bivalvia 667 3.615 20. 1 1 (0.315 Jenkins 2 mollusc shells presented here is Cl. The main processes Cl. Thermal alteration among shells from LH. heat exposure may have been of short duration or the temperature relatively low.2%) 709 389 (14. - 2009.45%) 7 lessoni Fissurella sp.07%) . . Polyplacophora 2 1 on complete mollusc shells (VCOM). - Hammond and Zubimendi Petricolaria - patagonica .04%) . 1 1 (0. .16%) S112 assemblages. Zubimendi 2012. color (2. 2013).14%) 12 12 (0. Bivalvia 558 2. 15 4 (0. Polyplacophora 0 0 preliminary and. 1 1 (0.2%) . purpuratus which may indicate rapid burial Ensis macha . each site.4%) 1 1 (0.689 33. Taweraelliptica 1 1 (0. - magellanicum color (68. Gasteropoda 237 44 Site 112 Cl.04%) . - the shells have completely lost Acantina their original color. was observed primarily among Cl.16%) and a high-integrity record Hiatella solida 1 1 (0.04%) .

At PJ2.8% (VFRA) shells of the main species represented at the sites. ash and charcoal. Total of mollusc shells (VCOM) on which color and taphonomic 1948 1752 178 Another approach is assessing the size variables were calculated of fragments to evaluate factors of   Table 5.95%) 3 (2%) shells of Nacella thereof (Moreno Nuño 1994. Fragmentation of archaeomalacological assemblages The malacological assemblages analyzed here all have similar percentages of fragmentation: approximately 70% of Nacella magellanica shells are complete (Figure 8).45%) 0 (0%) Taphonomic variables Presenceofencrustations malacological material in the study 5 (0. we have used weight to 11 (0. Ford 1992. there is a high percentage of Nacella in this paper correspond to single discard events. shells Claassen 1998). whereas only 10% of Mytilus edulis and Aulacomya atra shells are complete at S112 (Figure 8).4%) 489 (27. the shells’ surfaces future studies designed to more thoroughly investigate are light gray to white (calcined). The magellanica shells with impacts or breaks. respectively.25%) 0 (0%) not burned 0 (0%) 406 (23%) 0 (0%) estimate the relative abundance of this Thermal alteratio burned 840 (43%) 1349 (77%) 0 (0%) type of debris (Table 4). To date. and based of archaeological remains with good integrity. Percentages of complete (VCOM) and fragmented this species is complete. During excavation.2% of P. The PJ2 malacological assemblage was also thermally altered. similarity to other excavated sites.6%) 4 (0. creating discrete lenses fractures. and their crystallographic structure has the preservation of shells (Muckle 1985.3%) 18 (1.Intersecciones en Antropología . Mussel shells are best preserved at LH (23% of Mytilus edulis and 30. and the primary encrusting species recorded at the sites is Balanus sp. while at LH and S112 71. which may be the Total color loss by 1 (0. The proportion of shell and S112. while Mytilus edulis and Aulacomya atra shells are highly fragmented.Special Issue 1 (2014) 21-34 Variables analyzed Puerto Jenkins 2 Las Hormigas Site 112 and 73. Color preservation and taphonomic processes that have affected the fragmentation and depositional history malacological remains. Also. 47. interpreted shells were in contact with one another (bioclast- as anthropic alteration due to the irregularity of the supported fabric) at all sites. Signs of in situ Color preservation Partial fragmentation of Mytilus edulis and conservation of 70 (3.05%) 118 (66%) Evidence of abrasion (FRAG) represent large volumes of 6 (0. which accounts for the high percentage of DISCUSSION shells exhibiting total loss of original color. were easily fractured when removed from the sediment. which begin to deteriorate perforation) is insignificant. Hammond .1%) 17 (1%) 0 (0%) result of trampling and/or sediment sun exposure compression.22%) 0 (0%) complete.5%) 649 (37.9%) 3 (2%) color Aulacomya atra shells were observed Total color loss 1877 (96. (Stein 1987. been altered and deteriorated. Periostracum 1 (0.4%) 0 (0%) conservation Unidentifiable fragments Evidence of corrosion 1939 (99. The shell lens was located above a burned of unidentifiable fragments (FRAG) should be part of layer of sediment. Bejega García 2009).9%) 175 (98%) at LH and S112. Some authors n carbonized 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) calcined 1108 (57%) 0 (0%) 178 (100%) identify the remains at the level of the Breakage and/or deliberate impact on species and perform quantification 460 (23. . Fragmentation may be influenced by deterioration of the shells due to thermal alteration. deflation and erosion have exposed the alterations by other marine organisms (encrustation and archaeological materials. purpuratus shells are Original color 0 (0 %) 39 (2. they have lost the the multiplicity of agents and factors that determine original color.5% of Aulacomya atra were complete). Ford 1992). that are brown (43% burned) or are light gray to white (57% The archaeomalacological assemblages presented calcined).1%) 1006 (57. 30 H.3% of Figure 8. At LH on experimental replication.6%) 139 (7. Such analyses alteration. Álvarez magellanica Fernández 2007.6%) 1207 (68. Perumytilus purpuratus shells were differentially preserved at the sites.03%) 0 (0%) Evidence of bioerosion area.3%) 8 (0.

Study of the contributing to discussions of archaeological site NCSC shell middens indicates that mussels usually have formation.and post-depositational) that have the original shell color. thermal from the study of archaeomalacological assemblages alteration. Zilio who made the figures. corrosion. bivalve shells is possible to infer the agents (natural and anthropic) in particular have not preserved periostracum neither and processes (pre. Based on the results of our analyses of original color. and imbricated limpet shells and emphasized the importance of taphonomic studies were found at PJ2. Castro and M.. At S112. the assemblages are fragmentation. by product of particular harvesting techniques. I also want to the archaeological remains. which develop on hard substrates exposure of the archaeological remains. burial was likely rapid also observed low frequencies of various taxa that. which processes that affect shell midden formation in the led to a high percentage of shells exhibiting loss of study area. Moreover. Argentina) 31 rapidly when subjected to environmental conditions. These small molluscs may to environmental conditions (wind. corrosion. Articulated mussel shells were found of shell midden archaeomalacological assemblages. we argue that it by heat. while archaeomalacological assemblages is its applicability Perumytilus purpuratus and Nacella magellanica have to different kinds of archaeological records composed higher percentages of complete shells. M. Hammond and Zubimendi 2013). we presented a proposal for the study the youngest site). Future studies should incorporate Acknowledgements analyses of diagnostic or identifiable (VFRA) mollusc shell fragments to obtain more comprehensive I would like to thank A. and the site surface was covered by vegetation important foods (Nacella magellanica. in Golfo San Jorge. At LH. and evidence Balanus sp. This resulted in the formation of massive food (for example Crepipatella dilatata. Marine Geology 194 (1): 3-30. associated with fragments of charcoal and thermally altered sediments. shells were severely altered malacological assemblages at NCSC. Zubimendi information regarding the processes that have affected for their comments and suggestions. cannot be considered as scattered. higher levels of fragmentation than gastropods such as Nacella magellanica (Zubimendi 2012. Patagonia: molluscan evidence. we also recovered lithic artifacts and faunal remains (generally Aguirre. which suggests that the molluscs may have been exposed to heat for cooking and opening the REFERENCES shells of bivalves. At the three shell middens. indicating that they were not exposed and site formation processes. rapid CONCLUSIONS burial preserved periostraca and original color in high proportions (though it should be noted that this is also In this paper. and the reviewers and editors whose comments on an earlier draft of this Archaeological remains at all three sites are paper helped to improve it. although it must be recognized (Linse 1992) or wood. This could be of molluscs. Taphonomic analysis of archaeomalacological assemblages: shell middens on the northern coast of Santa Cruz (Patagonia. 2005). the archaeological remains are completely malacological assemblages are those identified as buried. Due to their composition. We have of the assemblages is good. water effect) for long have been deposited in the site as an unintentional time. We observed that the predominant taxa in the At PJ2.g. The integrity in the intertidal zone (Zubimendi et al. resistant to disaggregation. Similar trends in fragmentation are observed in all assemblages. . their structure and lead to fragmentation.). highly fragmented) in association with the shell lenses 2003 Late Pleistocene and Holocene palaeoenvironments and charcoal (Hammond y Zubimendi 2013). sediment pressure) can significantly affect extends beyond interpreting the records themselves. Mytilus edulis that fixed the surface sedimentary layer and prevented and Aulacomya atra). and archaeological materials appear not to have been because of their small size. shells are more due to structural and morphological characteristics of resistant than other organic remains such as bone the shells themselves. These species are important because they of abrasion was observed only on shells found in provide information about environmental conditions superficial layers. although the malacological remains are generally well preserved. Iothia coppinheri or At all sites the level of abrasion is low. Mytilus edulis and Aulacomya atra shells The advantage of our methodological approach to have the highest percentages of fragmentation. High percentage of corrosion and in the identification of agents that modify shells and thermal alteration were also recorded at PJ2. thank L. insights gleaned that different processes (e. Siphonaria archaeological deposits. such The taphonomic processes most evident among as collecting in bunches (Orquera and Piana 1999). produced physical and/or chemical modifications on the shells. in situ at the three sites. and thermal alteration. Kerguelenella lateralis. which made them very weak. lessoni.

S. A. M. Ceci. 283-325. In Tratado de Paleontología. Madrid. Hammond . Richiano. edited by Balme. Cantabria). and F. Camacho and M. García.. and C. L. 1998 Shells. S. Zubimendi and P. 13-32. In Arid zone geomorphology. Buenos Aires. Belleli. Argentina). Bejega García. deposits in northern Argentina: Which intrinsic Anales de la Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas 8: and extrinsic factors prevail under different 1-365. Altamira (Santillana del Mar. 1999 Tafonomía y fosilización. Trelew. 2009 Malacofauna Cuaternaria del litoral norte de Santa 2007 Los invertebrados fósiles. Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. (Mactra and Brachidontes) from Late Quaternary 1970 Catálogo de los Moluscos marinos bonaerenses. BAR International Series 157. World 2009 Análisis arqueomalacológico de la cueva de Archaeology 16 (1): 62-74. C. K. Borrero. Geobios 42: 411-434. Meléndez. edited by D. Londres. L. Contribution à l’économie et à l’identitéculturelle 2009 El aprovechamiento de los recursos marinos en des groupesconcernés. Aguirre M. 1992 Interpreting the grain size distributions of 1982 Archaeology as human ecology. Madrid. Ford. C. Freeman. A. Politis. González Echegaray y L. Stein. palaeoenvironmental conditions? Quaternary Castro.. pp. L. In Mollusca. Científicas (CSIC). Iberus 28 (1):1-10. Búsqueda. concheros aplicada a los castros litorales gallegos. E. del Sexto Congreso Argentino de Paleontología y Borrero. Mazzitelli. Cruz (Patagonia. Longobucco. Zavala inédita. In Arqueología contemporánea formación de concheros en la costa norte del Golfo argentina. análisis arqueomlacológico. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones 1997 Wind erosion forms. International 233: 113-129. Provincia de 2009 Mollusk and other shells. H. Andolfo. Favier Dubois. Argentina. 1995 Análisis tafonómico de moluscos y análisis de 2010 La arqueomalacología: una introducción al estudio facies en la serie holocena del río Quequén Salado. A. 32 H. Recolectores del Cono Sur 7: 152-165. pp. Cazadores Yacobaccio. E. G. 20 (1): 55-70. a Coruña): un Archaeopress. 316-337. . edited by H. 1988 Estudios tafonómicos en Tierra del Fuego: su Favier Duvois. R. el Castro Grande de O Neixón (Boiro. G. Z. 284-307. pp. Moreno. Bioestratigrafía. 2000 Quantifying shell: comments on Mason. Thomas. J. Argentina. P. S. Fucks 2011 Taphonomic comparison between two bivalves Castellanos. Zephyrus 60: 43-58. Cambridge.. 1984 Shell midden deposits as coastal resources. A. (Pdos. G. C. Wiley. Cambridge. Giménez. and M. Bonomo 2008 Geoarqueología en la Localidad Nutria Mansa Bowdler. American Antiquity 65 (2): 415-418. Borrella relevancia para entender procesos de formación del 2007 Consideraciones acerca de los procesos de registro arqueológico. G. 247-254. M. España. A. Arqueológica: Dialogando con la cultura material. Malden.Intersecciones en Antropología . pp. C. Comechingonia 11: 9-28. C. pp. M. L. Farinati and F. C. de los restos de moluscos recuperados en yacimientos provincia de Buenos Aires. Whitney and 438-441. Richiano. C. Wiley-Blackwell. A. edited by B. Fundación de Historia Natural Félix de Azara. J. San Matías (Río Negro. In Deciphering a shell midden. Eastoe Camacho. Tesina de Licenciatura Farinati. E. Complutum Claassen. S. S. In Actas arqueológicos. Álvarez and C. L. Alvarado y Lobería. pp. datos de los niveles E y F de la Garma A. archaeological shell. Cantabria): Excavaciones de J. Oxford. 2003 La malacofaune de sites mésolithiques et pp. Academic Press. 293-322. McCauley and M. Peña. and A. 51-107 Breed. Ambrústolo Álvarez Fernández. University Press. In Archaeology in Buenos Aires). practice: A student guide to archaeological analyses. C.. E. Magallania cornisa Cantábrica durante el Gravetiense: primeros 31: 69-94. V.Special Issue 1 (2014) 21-34 Aguirre. Compañía Española de Repografía y néolithiques de la façade atlantique de la France: Servicios. Cambridge Press. 117-122. K. Argentina). Fernández López. Peterson 2008 Composición y metodología de análisis de and Tiffany. New York. De Gral. M. In Actas de las I Jornadas de Jóvenes en Investigación Dupont. Butzer. Universidad de León. 2003 Análisis distribucionales en la costa de Santa Cruz 2007 La explotación de los moluscos marinos en la (Patagonia Argentina): alcances y resultados. Aschero and C. edited by J. edited by H. (Omoño. Paterson. Actualidad y perspectivas. Buenos Aires.

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registro arqueológico en la costa norte de Santa Cruz Zubimendi. Sociedad Argentina Zubimendi. and H. P. M. Ushuaia. edited by M. A. San Rafael. C. Available from Zubimendi. Problemas y perspectivas. In Arqueología de la Patagonia: una mirada y casos de estudio en la Arqueología de la Patagonia. Luna. Otaola.. A.Special Issue 1 (2014) 21-34 Waters. In CD-ROM. Tucson.. Neme.. Gil. Intersecciones en Antropología 6: 121-137. L. M. edited by Press. Hammond and L.. Tívoli. (Patagonia. Álvarez. Hocsman. BAR International Series. XIX Congreso Nacional de Arqueología arqueomalacológico en la Costa Norte de Santa Cruz. Santiago. G. E. 2003 Pattern and processes of shell fragmentation in Zubimendi. Intersecciones en Antropología 13: Zuschin. M. L.marinespecies. M. University of Arizona en Sudamérica. F. Zilio. H. and H. In Tendencias teórico metodológicas Cruz). 34 H. R. pp. Paulides. In press. Salgán and A. Earth-Science 2004 Análisis de la distribución de sitios en la localidad Review 63: 33-82. Archaeopress. Barberena. 535-544. Museo de Historia Natural San Rafael 2012 Identificación de agentes de alteración del e INAPL. Moreno http://www. Castro and E. Salemme. M.. Santa Cruz. Hammond 2013 Distribución de concheros y estructuras de entierro 2009 Análisis de los restos malacológicos en el sitio Los (chenques). S. Oxford. F. WoRMS 2012 World Register of Marine Species. A.org at VLIZ (accessed 25 June 2005 El consumo de moluscos en la Costa Norte de 2012). Chilena. L. M. pp. Utopías. Stanton 359-375.. Escola and S.Intersecciones en Antropología . en la bahía del Oso Marino (costa norte Albatros. M. M. S. Giardina. M. Hammond . Bahía del Oso Marino (Provincia de Santa de Santa Cruz). movilidad y funcionalidad de sitios 1992 Principles of Geoarchaeology. Argentina): aportes para la conservación 2012 Explorando la variabilidad del registro del patrimonio. M. Piana. 865-878. de Punta Guanaco. Costa Norte de Santa Cruz. Artefactos líticos. A. L. Mazzitelli and P. Mansur. Stachwitschand R. Patagonia argentina. Hammond Zubimendi. R. edited by A. desde el último confín. M. A. A. Ambrústolo modern and ancient marine environment. A. Zilio de Antropología. In . Vázquez and M. Zangrando.

Almidón. Tucumán. | 35 Taphonomy in the kitchen: culinary practices and processing residues of native tuberous plants of the south-central Andes María del Pilar Babot.olmos@gmail. Oxalis tuberosa and Ullucus tuberosus. Palabras clave: Tafonomía. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo. E-mail: adriana. in this case the boiling and cooking al rescoldo of fresh tubers. Instituto de Arqueología y Museo. Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (IAM. San Miguel de Tucumán. Starch. Instituto Superior de Estudios Sociales ..es Adriana Valeria Olmos. Instituto de Arqueología y Museo. Tubers. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo.Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas-UNT (ISES-CONICET-UNT). Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo. Tucumán. Finalmente. Argentina. We use a broad concept of taphonomy that includes the study of plant modifications resulting from the preparation of food. Procesamiento de plantas. Julia Lund and Adriana Valeria Olmos Received 20 August 2013.Argentina . Realizamos experimentos de cocción controlados y comparamos los resultados con muestras frescas. Argentina. discutimos la posibilidad de reconocer las técnicas de cocción a partir del análisis microscópico de vestigios de tubérculos. we discuss the possibility of recognizing cooking techniques from microscopic analysis of tuber remains.UNCPBA . Presentamos material comparativo para la identificación de residuos culinarios de tubérculos cocidos de Solanum sp. Oxalis tuberosa y Ullucus tuberosus. aquellas que se deben al hervido y cocción al rescoldo de tubérculos frescos.valeria. E-mail: julialund13@yahoo. Técnicas culinarias. en este caso.Special Issue 1: 35-53. Tucumán. E-mail: pilarbabot@yahoo. Describimos las modificaciones en los atributos morfológicos y ópticos de tejidos y partículas intracelulares resultantes de nuestros experimentos de cocción. Keywords: Taphonomy. Finally. ISSN 1850-373X Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record. Argentina. San Miguel de Tucumán. UNT). Culinary techniques. Instituto de Arqueología y Museo.   María del Pilar Babot. UNT). FCN e IML. Accepted 14 February 2014 ABSTRACT We present comparative material for the identification of culinary residues of cooked tubers of Solanum sp. Plant processing. Tubérculos. FCN e IML. Partimos de un concepto amplio de tafonomía que incluye el estudio de las modificaciones de las plantas resultantes de la preparación de alimentos. San Martín 1545 (4000).com Julia Lund. RESUMEN TAFONOMÍA EN LA COCINA: PRÁCTICAS CULINARIAS Y RESIDUOS DEL PROCESAMIENTO DE PLANTAS TUBEROSAS NATIVAS DE LOS ANDES CENTRO-SUR. Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (IAM. Copyright © Facultad de Ciencias Sociales . Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (IAM. UNT). We undertake a number of controlled cooking experiments and compare the results with fresh samples.. San Martín 1545 (4000). 2014. We discuss morphological and optical modifications of tissue fragments and intracellular particles resulting from our cooking experiments. FCN e IML.com Intersecciones en Antropología . San Lorenzo 429 (4000). San Miguel de Tucumán.

2011. of starch and other vegetable intracellular particles.. Haslam modification” of organisms. pH. Barton and Matthews 2006. It is worth noting and integrity of such food remains as recovered from that the transformations and agents involved in such archaeological contexts. Babot et al. tuberosus Caldas (Basellaceae). so TRANSFORMATIONS that they can be genuine sources of archaeological information (Lewarch and O’Brien 1981.Special Issue 1 (2014) 35-53 A TAPHONOMIC APPROACH OF CULINARY differential preservation in archaeological contexts. González Oxalis tuberosa Mol. Current Perspectives 2012: 241). and with methods of tuber preparation.. as modes of transformation. We are particularly interested in assessing how over a decade ago (Babot and Korstanje 2001. Humphreys et al. although the perspective of this work is culinary.g. 36 M. 2003. and identify which new elements culinary performance (Babot et al.g. among others). 2011. (Solanaceae). Borrazzo   This work is part of a series of studies initiated 2006). the circumstances of its use. Gong et al. The components are ingredients in traditional culinary preparations and of a recipe are its ingredients in relative amounts recipes. as medicinal or ritual uses can also be important. Some taphonomic researches focus on the were transformed into food and their subsequent ways various biological (e.. and in recipes.. tubers become food. processes that affect the structure and the properties Thus. which allowed us to formulate expectations with other plant. 2012). . Thus. The taphonomic study of plant microfossils The taphonomic study of food residues gives us a and their archaeological associations is a versatile unique perspective on how plants. According to the “unrestricted taphonomy” conditions. cooking) go beyond the scope of be explained in terms of different physico-chemical food. animal and mineral ingredients. for archaeological cases. 2) observe how aspects of the fresh tissue and combinations. and the methods (boiling and cooking al rescoldo until spatio-temporal context and the actors involved in the completely cooked).g. moisture and temperature analysis. a consequence of two traditional food preparation the implements required throughout the process. 2011. animals and minerals approach. the modes and techniques of of potato.g. and 2004.. Previous techniques. We began with an ethnobotanical approach that references therein. 3) compare the two sets of observations to identify Preparation sequences are not rigid or linear because taphonomic signatures of these culinary practices in a food element can be associated with multiple recipe archaeological situations. “oca” and Ullucus and Frère 2004. soil fauna and roots) and history to the point of archaeological recovery and environmental agents (e.] as investigation aimed to: 1) characterize fresh tissues of a more or less flexible or open formula to achieve a different varieties of potato. We developed experiments to In this study. Raviele 2011. 2012). the various stages of We rely on a broad concept of “recipe” “[. Babot et al. In particular. . oca and ulluco change or disappear as preparation and service. which condition the appearance native to the south-central Andes.Intersecciones en Antropología . oca and ulluco. aimed at generating comparative material human practices. López et al. “So. explaining these on the components. Hart 2003. the emphasis is on how and histological elements (Babot 2003). we characterized the anthropic/ obtain tubers cooked al rescoldo and boiled tubers. their preparation and presentation [. Thus. rather THE TAPHONOMY OF MICROFOSSILS than to strict and closed models of the ingredients. our approach focuses on the micro-morphological central Andean region and the various means by which characterization of such modifications.. pathways of different length and complexity (Babot 2009). for preparing animal or vegetable foods (e. we refer to approximations to the modes of preparing foods. culinary modifications of micro-particles and tissue which may themselves constitute simple foods. when we refer to old recipes. we consider the modifications for identifying plant processing techniques from of plants’ useful parts associated with different methods microscopic analysis of preserved residues of plants of food preparation. of the processes leading to their accumulation and 2013. salt precipitation and transport) alter the approach (Borrero 2011) we use a broad definition microfossil record and affect its survival and integrity of the concept as the study of the decomposition “or (Therin 1994. this is only circumstantial. or be part of complex preparations genera. their parts or products. 2012: 242). Of all these appear in processed foods. since these preparation” (Babot et al. Babot such a perspective can inform our interpretation of past 2003). Osterrieth et al.. this paper deals with tubers as ingredients basis of the physico-chemical processes involved. Musaubach and Babot 2014. “potatoes”. Such modifications can preparations (e. affect matter work has demonstrated the utility of taphonomic and (Pazzarelli 2012). Lantos et al. experimental approaches to the macroscopic and This study deals with the cooking of tuberous plants microscopic analyses of the modes and procedures of the genus Solanum L. considers the traditional uses of plants in the south. based on fragments in different varieties of tubers of three a single ingredient.]” (Babot et al. P. “ulluco” or “papa Lovis et al. (Oxalidaceae). 2012 and lisa”..

Coil et al. Tassara and Osterrieth 2008. where the microfossil alter starch have a long history. a Other taphonomic studies closely related to the residue could indicate 1) the last recorded use of an analysis of use residues on archaeological artifacts artifact (Haslam 2006). both in archaeology and other fields. or 2) successive use episodes assess the survival rates and prospects of starch -one of recorded in the stratification of the remains (Musaubach the main microfossils useful for these purposes. rather than a priori use which occurs during combustion (Juan-Tresserras residues) as dynamic systems that can provide data 1992). applications (Babot and Korstanje 2001. the transformation contextual approaches and we consider residues of calcium oxalate crystals into calcite pseudomorphs. losses and modifications of material that occur at of taphonomic researches have focused on analysis of the interfaces between object. including other processes that may from the perspective of paleoecological. Zucol and Loponte 2008. an artifact or in an archaeological matrix. differential decay of components and (Lu 2003. precautions taken during sample extraction transformation. Taphonomy in the kitchen: culinary practices and processing residues of native tuberous plants of the south-central Andes 37 These studies also consider humans. and the the tearing and disarrangement of plant fibers during manufacture of associated artifacts (the latter when mastication (Musaubach and Babot 2014). protocols with particular attention to archaeological histological or intracellular. 2009. Barton exchanges between the environment. Previous work has also extracted and analytical data are obtained. or burning (Therin 1994. micro-charcoals (Babot and Haros 2008. Korstanje 2003. since they can modify plants and their and the criteria used to interpret manufacture. and considering the passage of resulting from repeated use. we consider that interpreting the 2003. among others). These kind gains. 1984). Hart 2011). agriculture. such interfaces would be artifact/residue/ Analyses of the physico-chemical processes that can sediment matrix after deposition. Babot et al.g. Related to   taphonomic studies but following different approaches are archaeologically or bromatologically inclined A taphonomic approach to plant microfossils histological studies designed to understand the and anthropogenic manipulations feasibility and reliability of identifying plant tissues A small number of studies have discussed the exhibiting different degrees of fragmentation and transformation of tissues and intracellular particles preservation (Pochettino and Scattolin 1991. or 3) random averaging (in a broad different conditions of entrapment. calcium phytoliths and starch must be considered. Babot et al. first case.. linked initially to “signal” attributable to the raw materials would decrease biological and food industry interests (e. Whistler et al. 2012). Cortella resulting from anthropogenic manipulation of plants. use residue and matrix biosiliceous particles. These studies have to use would decrease from the surface of the artifact addressed aspects including starch grains’ loss of to the sediment matrix. 2012). In this regard. the fracture of biosiliceous particles as a result about use. among others). manipulation of the natural environment. the object’s mass and Matthews 2006. The formation microfossils are included in the artifact raw materials) of new products during cooking (e.. In other words. degradation byproducts and new products microfossil assemblages that are ultimately observed resulting from interactions with the sedimentary under the microscope.g. Babot 2007. This applies to different types of also involved revision of sample extraction and treatment elements contained in the residues. whether chemical. (meaning remains in general. Torrence and Barton 2007. places. Osterrieth et al. Langejans 2010. plus laboratory treatments (Babot The potential for post-depositional contamination has 2007. Many of these recent studies matrix (Jones 2009). the “signal” related 1943. Hart 2011. and the residue. Parr et al.g. processes subsequent to deposition. European grains). it would Starch is one of the most studied intracellular hypothetically be possible to identify interfaces. use and microfossil remains through residential use of certain context are very important (Babot and Haros 2008. 1999). also been discussed (Barton et al.under and Beron 2012). 2008. 1998). Radley from the artifact mass to its surface. history of the object under analysis. the contemporaneous context for such of activities such as grinding (Checa et al. through the would follow an opposite tendency to that of use. and use. included study of the effects of different laboratory burial conditions can promote the preservation of manipulations on the integrity and composition of residues. as an agent of Hence.. among others). sediment sense rather than referring to statistical significance) compaction and exposure. In the particles. The exchanges. and the “signal” of the matrix structure and birefringence properties through contact . etc. depth. when considering plant residues located on 2003. partial cleaning between time according to the nature of the processed substance successive uses.). and particle clumps) has also been documented (Babot Thus. Sometimes. pedological occur between the time archaeological remains are and archaeological problems. Korstanje and nature of a residue requires knowing the particular Babot 2007. Examples include the identification of striae on the We are optimistic about the possibility of obtaining surface of silica phytoliths obtained during threshing of archaeological information from taphonomic and silica-rich taxa (e. and Pochettino 1994). Babot and Bru de Labanda 2005.

chemical changes to the granules. sprouting of underground organs. in general. starch and we suggest it is possible to rank those descriptors by other intracellular elements can survive multiple food grouping them following hierarchical categories: a) preparation processes.e. on the same individual starch granule or on different the action of enzymes during seed germination. removal as well as the natural and cultural causes of the of saponins-. starch grains (alongside those recovered intact). and. and produce optical and final state of the mass of material processed. Babot’s research also observed changes. These damage (Radley 1943. these processes and the specific patterns of damage which are present as damage patterns superimposed and changes that may be identified histologically and . Also... along with the work of Babot (2003). where the taphonomic agents are the distinct damage patterns seem to result from different physical. Henry et Such studies have recognized certain traits that have al. heat in the presence of water. research Henry et al. which refers to unaltered grains. severity of the damage. including bread and yeast residues. (2009) documented the progression of starch damage a taphonomic rather than taxonomic origin. modify their completeness triggered by human activities and their results or the and degree of crystallinity.). particularly brewing. d) morphological and optical damage and While the damage caused by different food processing modifications or changes that are verified in starch techniques may look similar. Cortella and Pochettino 1994) studies. etc. However. . 2012. Crowther (2012) discussed the influence recovered (Babot 2003).g. the greater the are the default participants in technical manipulation. (2011) and Crowther on ancient starch has shown that it is possible to (2012). Damage patterns have also starch. Loy 1994. Previous publications have proposed descriptors for These studies of cultural manipulations have modified starches. (2011) studied food remains from been used to evaluate contamination by assessing exceptionally well preserved mortuary offerings. and although sometimes grains within the mass (Table 1). In addition. desaponification/washing -i. and the granules within a sample. preserved. Following Lyman’s the same process can alter the starch from different (1994) terminology. appropriate and specific includes recognition of various cooking practices from terminologies for the description of alteration processes starchy residues. it is sometimes Finally. 1999). morphological changes in some grains (Babot 2003). freezing. Beck and to structural weaknesses resulting from physico- and Torrence (2006). it has been shown that. it has been documented in the transformation of grains. 2009). ICSN 2011). P. and the by humans. boiling.Intersecciones en Antropología . Fullagar (2006) evaluated 2011]). The the paths of starch when used for different purposes International Code for Starch Nomenclature [ICSN in various cultural contexts. Juan- of the grains’ interior via cracks associated with the Tresserras 1992. (2009). and fermentation have proposed that damaged starch is a source of of domesticated legumes and grass seeds. applied techniques and resulting biological sources in different ways (Babot 2003. toasting. sun drying. Babot et al.. although they are modified. and has focused on the optical and Ancient starch analyses with a taphonomic morphological effects of various processing techniques perspective have increasingly focused on damaged on starch (e. Gong et al. Babot’s (2003) research crystalline structure survives the passage of time even aimed to develop modern comparative standards for when damaged. In addition. are directly related to our research. the taphonomic effects are the results of possible to infer the consecutive stages of processing. 38 M. as they recover damaged grains from both modern and consider the effects past anthropogenic manipulation archaeological contexts. c) physico-chemical processes changes in those particles. In this case humans that the more intense the process. but when studying human practices shown that. ashing. b) agents other than humans -the latter formation of ice crystals. Beck and Torrence (2006) considered and damage have been adopted (Babot 2003.g. as this carbohydrate’s pseudo- of plants had on their starches. well-preserved starch. and Samuel (2006) discussed referred to as resistant starch1 have been distinguished various ways in which modified starch has been from native starch. heating. and grinding). The first applications Damaged starch grains are more susceptible to of this knowledge to archaeological situations were hydrolytic agents and fungal and bacterial activity than related to questions about food. Fullagar (2006). This is attributed to infiltration grinding and boiling of starchy plants (e. Babot et al. Checa et al. the breaking techniques: modes of transformation implemented down of tissues by trampling and friction. all generate physico-chemical included in a. and the coherence between the types of damage and the developed experiments to aid identification of culinary archaeological context from which the starch was preparations. Gong et al..Special Issue 1 (2014) 35-53 with caustic chemicals. processes. drying. Drying. application to archaeological cases (Babot 2009. finally. This category and one archaeological artifacts. and due to the baking. chemical and biological factors involved processes (Babot 2003). physico-chemical processes constitute taphonomic Henry et al. of moisture on starch during cooking. Samuel (2006). and found information regarding cultural practices and post- boiling to be the most harmful cooking technique for depositional processes. referring to the so-called modified starch (sensu the role of experiments in the functional assessment of Samuel 2006. aeration.

collapsed (Williams and Bowler 1982) or Some washing of the ash emptied grains (ghosts) (Radley 1943) material was incorporated Rest of the boiled mass Chemical Retrogradation Formation of pastes (Biliaderis 2009).g. Taphonomy in the kitchen: culinary practices and processing residues of native tuberous plants of the south-central Andes 39 described in morphological and optical terms (Table PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS 1). are described different ethno-varieties was to assess whether there were in previous works.. loss of birefringence (Babot 2003) appearance and various roasting moisture) Hydration. disarrangement. of exudates (Messner and Schindler 2010). decreased relief (e. Techniques. Irreversible – formation of pastes (Biliaderis 2009). with heat contact and histological cuts done freehand with a scalpel to being indirect in the latter. 4 of oca (Oxalis tuberosa when boiled dough is left to rest. Johnson et al.: making chuño. truncation. Amylolytic Amylolysis.g. a + mechanical grains such as breakage and cracking.g. Enzymatic attack (bio. Reversible – increase or decrease of the relief (e. 1990). flat temperature Hydrated or relief) and of the birefringence and the (starch. for example. and Pizarro 2008) freezing) flat relief) and brightness (Babot 2003) intracellular elements. We obtained 19 ethno- a modification due to the retrogradation that occurs varieties of potato (Solanum L. 2003). The effects of heating in a wet variations if different kinds of potatoes were subjected to medium have been studied extensively.g. Loss of structure manifested in the presence of Controlled diaphanization chemical) enzymes Irreversible pitting (French 1984. charring and cooking al rescoldo from tubers to obtain reference material: 1) soft scrapings toasting and cooking on embers. the thermal alteration of the granules. obtain thin sections (Babot 2007). physico-chemical processes and results. and 3) e. cortex and periderm were For dry heating or for heating with low moisture sampled separately from the vascular parenchyma and content. e. potato obtained by (cold to the Irreversible – (Williams and Bowler 1982). 2) diaphanization (a technique in which the Techniques Physico-chemical tissue is treated with an Morphological and optical modifications (Modes of Agents Processes and transformation) Results Taphonomic effects oxidizing agent to make Heating in humid Liquid water Gelatinization Loss of defined shape and structure it transparent whilst medium (chemical) + (Radley 1943). These and pounding Irreversible – or dents (Babot 2003) and collapse (Williams Disaggregated and Bowler 1982) procedures allowed us material to observe intact tissue Freezing (mechanical) Solid water Dehydration. process called gelatinization (Radley 1943). which were sampled and The two main physico-chemical processes we address processed for culinary purposes. in as well to assess tissue after cooking forces (Jacobson et al.g. because they survive e.: boiling (heat) Gelatinized material birefringence (Babot 2003). Direct contact with the heat source differentiates Three types of samplings were used for the fresh roasting. Here we selected 10 varieties of potato.g. emptying as well as free cells and freeze-drying (Pardo point of Dehydrated material (ghosts) (Radley 1943).g. hilum temperature Irreversible – opening and projection of grains. Juan-Tresserras 1992). especially for the different processing techniques. The purpose of using in this paper. content (Radley 1943. therefore.  In all ethno-varieties. with presence of physical forces mechanical discontinuities such as fracture. as ergastic substances humidity) + 1943). Thus. Abrasion.g. 2 of oca and 1 of ulluco. we consider the “dry-cooking series”. toasting/ medullary tissue. manifested in the swelling. gelatinization and melting. or a modification due Mol. particularly since they generation of baseline information on the properties of could have been used in different traditional culinary starch for industrial purposes. dehydrated form of temperature breakage. Swelling (Williams and Bowler 1982) or elements of tissues. all from to the melting by heating in a medium with low water rural areas.: milling.: airing or standing material or paste The first two sampling Heating in medium Temperature Melting (Biliaderis Loss of the structure manifested in the techniques provided with low moisture (heat) + 2009). Babot tissue constitute the soft part intended for consumption.). what we observe as a paste Tuber samples were obtained from traditional vending or a mixture of cooked food that includes resistant stalls in Jujuy Province (Argentina) in 2010 and 2012 and modified starch “damaged in various ways” is and Villazón (Bolivia) ​​in 2012.) and 3 of ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas). consumption. and optical modifications relevant to the study of human manipulation of starchy substances. deep grooves and corrosion (Reichert 1913) at temperatures below e.: toasting or (residual grains. cellulose and e. while the parenchyma and the medullary increase from toasting to charring (Radley 1943. sun drying. dehydration Liquid water Hydration. cracking. mashing breakage.. fragmentation (Babot 2003). It leads to a non-reversible practices (Castro 2008). percussion Breakage Disaggregation Grains in different states of disaggregation or of interest to archeology (mechanical) mechanical (Babot 2003). Cortex and periderm were separated cooking al rescoldo/cooking on embers/roasting/ under the assumption that they were part of the charring2. collapse stages of disintegration.: soaking. loss of retaining fabric). which damage and modifications related to (chemical) 1997) – Retrograded gelatinization can be observed loss by this procedure. content (chemical) liquid water Melt or paste projection and/or opening of the hilum in references regarding tissue e. surface damage such as depressions as microfossils. . Presence of physical discontinuities of the and fragments in different e. such in cold (chemical) (or relative dehydration (Radley shrinkage (Radley 1943) of the grains. agents. bursting. and morphological for better observation.g. airing (cold) dehydrated material visibility of lamellae (Babot 2003) crystalline calcium salts). and the presence dry ashing (Piperno 1988).: malting 10°C thinned the material Table 1. wherein the relative intensity of the heat “shell” that was eventually removed or peeled prior to and.

2009). Pink oca stained the water and started to loss their peel Characteristics recorded for fresh samples include: after 15 minutes in the boiling water. transforming tissues by heating constant and non-sparking charcoal combustion. The same fire. a stone or vessel) textures of tissues. tissues. Cooking enables consumption. etc. with (Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltr. This is a dry-cooking technique different from such as: What is the general state of preservation of others such as toasting. Babot et al. after the first trials. Assemblage analysis time needed to soften the parenchyma and medullary focused on the various histological elements and tissue (between 15-20 minutes). Argentina. occurrence of starch in the reserve parenchyma and the medullary tissue. Quebracho blanco provided a strong. Cooking al rescoldo was done in a backyard in clusters. reaching an average of 99ºC during the microscope (200X to 630X). increases energetic value of tubers and Boiled tubers and those cooked al rescoldo were eliminates the causes of indigestion (Wandsnider 1997). b) cooking al of the ember and ash layer within the range of 100- rescoldo (in direct contact with embers and ashes) until 200ºC. the periderm was carbonized where directly in contact with embers. presentation and location of calcium salt later was completely cooked. cooking al rescoldo took between 10. Due to the low proportion of silica produced Ocas cooked most quickly. we compared the two sets of observations. and the to cook completely. and its disposition (isolated. cooking on the flame or on the intracellular particles and tissues in our samples? embers with a grate.g.Special Issue 1 (2014) 35-53 Dry ashing allowed for recovery of the silicified tuber the tuber and degree of exposure to the heat source. their peel and stain water before completely cooked. the presence of various attributes was confirmed effect of placing tubers on the periphery of an active (Table 1). cells and ergastic substances been to avoid direct contact with fire and buffer heat altered? If so. grouped). simulating the grains. . transforming the starch-rich carbonized periderm. Whole. The fire was started with quebracho blanco characteristics were observed in food samples. where food is put into embers and ashes.and three-dimensions. thicker potatoes. Ulluco took 19 minutes to begin staining the presence of cellulose in the cell walls. In allowed us to generate expectations for documenting our experiment. presence. we avoided to wash longer/thinner potatoes and. embers separates food from the heat source. cooking was complete. so loss of material. linear. Potatoes took 24 minutes bodies within the tissues (isolated.). modified. Observations proceeded from questions fire. birefringence. shape. massively filling the tissue). . which coming into direct contact with the heat source. kind. color. losing a minimal amount of peel. Oxygen and temperature might parenchyma and medullary tissue by heating it to boiling have fluctuated between the periphery and the center in a humid medium with sufficient water. optical properties or requires an intermediate object (e. foods made ​​from potatoes. arrangement later it was completely cooked. Nine minutes cell shape in two. Toasting size. were recorded (Korstanje and Babot 2007 and unpeeled tubers were set over the embers and ashes references therein. features of fresh tissues disappeared? Have any new temperature procedure traditional in northwestern elements arisen as a result of processing? Finally. and exposed to the heat source until the parenchyma rather than a detailed description of individual starch and medullary tissue were softened. visibility. Eight minutes later it was completely of conduction elements and their characteristics. Red special attention to the features preserved. Sampling followed the same Boiling was performed using a stove. vary with cooking techniques and their relative placing a grate between the food and flame or red-hot “aggressiveness”? Have the integrity. Fresh. how? Have any elements or distinctive (Pazzarelli 2012). As mentioned. finally. 40 M. followed by ullucos and by these plants. with them at moderate temperature in a dry medium or in the low ash production. or in ovens. presence of tuber residual moisture. cooked. Unpeeled tubers were boiled slides for viewing and photographing using a polarizing separately. color with peel at 17 minutes and started to smell like boiled and without polarizer. water. concentric. ash samples because doing so results in a significant During this process the tubers were not covered. White oca lost their of tissue cells (tiled. cell size. placed in a metal container filled with potable water dry-ashed and cooked specimens were mounted on to avoid contamination. slow. In the case of with ash. Two minutes shape. the specific variables hot as in its red-hot state.Intersecciones en Antropología . Cooking al rescoldo is a moderate. presence sweet potato. Cooking on the flame What is the degree of alteration? How does alteration involves direct contact of food with the heat source. spatial arrangement. tubers were procedures used for fresh specimens (see above). Henry et al. wrapped in aluminum foil and refrigerated until sampling was complete. Tubers started to loss intracellular particles present. A layer of embers and summarized in the ICSN (2011) and previous studies ashes was dispersed on the firebrick floor. at which point the charcoal was not as native and modified starches.) wood. color. hot embers were produced and gradually covered and originated from culinary practices.. P. Differences in the humidity of the cooked Cooking experiments included: a) boiling until mass were observed in areas near carbonized and non- cooking was complete. oca and ulluco based on 15 minutes depending on the type and size/form of archaeological residues (Tables 2 and 3).

Note: CE = Cellulose. all the tissues appear birefringent Thickened cell walls with thick The birefringence of cellulose is preserved or The birefringence of cellulose is preserved or CE birefringent cellulose enrichments emphasized emphasized Sections of the tissue with Colorless silicified tissues (silica phytoliths) with Colorless silicified tissues (silica phytoliths) with gray Silica deposits intracellular deposits of amorphous gray-black hues detached as a result of the thermal hues detached as a result of the thermal alteration. Distension. In oca. loss of turgor of the Aspect of tissue and mild impact by heat. giving the tissue with birefringent starch grains the tissue an empty appearance. or the starch an empty appearance. They look unaltered. tabular druses. Crystals preserve their location in the tissue. depending on the preservation of their dehydrated. There are varies depending on the situation. loss of turgor or Aspect of tissue Dented and rough surface of cells. Note: CE= Cellulose. with a globular appearance. Deformation and fragmentation by sections. Tissue fragmentation and intense cracks in the form of with straight-sided polyhedral with presence of net cracks and folds. with lower relief. New clumps of intracellular space melted crystals are formed . stages of the melting-gelatinization process. Massive carbonization by sections (outer areas of the Micro-charcoals or carbonized tissues were not tubers) and presence of micro-charcoal abundantly observed distributed throughout the tissue Table 2. slightly translucent or transparent Transparent and diaphanous tissue according to the effect of heat Non-birefringent and colorless Staining of the tissue in brown-reddish tones until It can vary between color preservation. The birefringence birefringence varies depending on the situation. Characteristic features of the parenchyma and the medullary tissue of fresh and boiled tubers. they stand out from the not detached. occasionally rounded alteration varies between complete carbonization tissue fragments. Dehydration and tissue with increased apparent size. birefringence stands out in some cases. transparent and Tissues remain structured. and tubers cooked al rescoldo. Characteristic microscopic features on parenchyma and medullary tissue from tubers Fresh specimens Specimens cooked al rescoldo Boiled specimens Turgid tissue. Characteristic features of the periderm and cortex of fresh and boiled tubers. all tissues appear birefringent with watery or diluted coloration (brown-reddish under polarized light tones). darkened gelatinization process of (open hilum. the tissue VE silicified or not Table 3. or completely mutually attached. firmness. Cells with cracks and fractures. Tissues became diaphanous. loss of relief and aging. or preservation of parts depending on variety original color. Distension. or the starch content is in different content is in different stages of the melting. grayish tissue maintained. some degree of turgor persist. and grains of modified starch in individual damage due to heating (open hilum. they stand out from the surroundings and vessel elements) stand out due surroundings due to their higher relief due to their higher relief to their higher profile Polyhedral. Colorless to slightly brown-grayish tissue is Colorless to slightly brown-grayish tissue is maintained. If silica (polyhedral or globular cells alteration. Eventual completely expelled from the tissue. longitudinal cracks) extinction cross and the birefringence). There are exudates of amorphous starch within and outside of the exudates of amorphous starch within and tissues outside of the tissues Starch Supernumerary simple starch Amorphous starch masses dominate in the Amorphous starch masses dominate in the interior of the grains interior of the tissue. or in particles) . transparent. filled The starch content is completely absent. In oca. content some cells are partially or fully collapsed Colorless to slightly brown. or heterogeneously colored. in which crystals and occluded micro-charcoal stand out (verified in extensive sections. VR = Vessel elements. They may look tissue or grouped in the partial melting of the crystalline surface unaltered. Greatly affected tissue and loss of relief tissues become brittle and in particles Transparent tissue Opaque tissue. There is unaltered resistant starch as isolated and isolated individuals of modified starch with scarce grains. and The cellulose thickenings are preserved. their from the tissue. Little forming clumps associated with starch exudates to no presence of unaltered resistant starch Calcium crystals dispersed in Crystals preserve their location in the tissue. giving The starch content is completely absent. cells remain close Tissues remain structured. If not detached. This element CE This element highlights the fabric of the tissues highlights the fabric of the tissues Closely packed cells. birefringent. A staining of the tissue may occur in watery or diluted brown-reddish hues Cells with thin cellulose walls The cellulose thickenings are preserved. Loss of the color in parts of the tissue. Although totally collapsed. Clumps of organic matter isolated or attached to the - tissue. Taphonomy in the kitchen: culinary practices and processing residues of native tuberous plants of the south-central Andes 41 Characteristic microscopic features on periderm and cortex from tubers Fresh specimens Specimens cooked al rescoldo Boiled specimens Turgid tissue. contracted. presence of folds in cells. damage to the sections. cells remain close but not dense with polyhedral and but not attached to each other. with General preservation of the original fabric of the Preservation of original tissue structure by sections. Thermal tears and joined cell fragments. CR = Crystals. Occasional clumps or tissue. or are disaggregated and dispersed globular cells with thin walls detached and with a globular appearance. The gelatinization process. with a matrix of unctuous appearance colored New products in brown-reddish tones. Thinning of the shrinkage. . and their their birefringence stands out in some cases. Evidence of partial melting. partial loss of tissue. crystal Crystals very clearly observed in situ or detached Crystals very clearly observed in situ or detached sand and subrounded discoid or from the tissue. Expulsion the tissue Expulsion events of crystal clusters and events of crystal clusters and microcrystals into the CR microcrystals into the intercellular space intercellular space Dense clusters of vessel They are preserved unaltered within or outside They are preserved unaltered within or outside the tissue elements. partially or cracked. reaching black in carbonized sections. peripheral cracks and damage to the extinction cross and birefringence. and tubers cooked al rescoldo. located close to the cell walls or Crystals globular particles. NP = New products. Scattered in the birefringence is retained or accentuated. mosaic-like fabric. tight or dense tissue.

Table 2). e and 5e- f). . P. p-r). ulluco and Solanum (Figure 3o-p). in Solanum. c-d) Abajeña.g. The contiguous twin micrographs correspond to views with parallel (left) and crossed (right) nicols of the same tissue. 42 M. Appearance of the fresh periderm and cortex of: a-h) Solanum. rounded or globular particles in Solanum (Figure 1h). birefringent elements stand out enriched.. e-f) Huanco Suyo. . and o-r) Ullucus tuberosus. Babot et al. The presence of calcium salt crystals (primarily calcium oxalate) is variable (Figure 1). o-r and 3k-m. m-n) White oca. i-n) Oxalis tuberosa (Figures 5a-b and 7f-g). i-l) Pink oca. Parenchymal and fresh medullary tissue cells are polyhedral and globular. and flat. g-h) Solanum 1a. o-r) Ulluco. The tissue is non-birefringent -with and content of some tissues are difficult to observe. Table 2). They are closely packed and contain numerous starch grains of the type described previously (e.and either colorless or colored by sections well (Figures 2d-f.Special Issue 1 (2014) 35-53  RESULTS Description of tuber specimens cooked al rescoldo Description of fresh tuber specimens Carbonized or highly thermally altered sections Periderm and cortex tissues are turgid and present of the periderm and cortex appear opaque to slightly a tight or dense mosaic-like fabric of polyhedral cells translucent under the microscope. tabular druses and crystal sand in oca. the exception of periderm cell walls that are cellulose but in other sections. The internal structures (Figure 1. Parts of the (Figure 1a-b). with thin and less cellulose- enriched membranes than the periderm. Abundant calcium crystals are observed in ulluco and oca parenchyma (Figure 7i-n).Intersecciones en Antropología . especially in the section corresponding to the vascular ring Figure 1. crystal abundance depends on the variety (Figures 4c. They occur as polyhedra in oca and ulluco (Figures1 i-n. Korstanje and Babot 2007 and references therein). completely filling reserve tissue (Figure 5u. Table 3). Dense clusters of birefringent conducting elements are observed. a-b) Pentaoca.

stand out from the tissues around them due to a higher Parenchyma and medullary tissues may retain their relief than the periphery. Appearance of the periderm and cortex cooked al rescoldo of: a-o) Solanum sp. . This pattern occurs in both extensive and restricted sections of tissue (Figures 2g-h. h-i. not restricted to cellulose accumulation (Figure 3n. Their surfaces are dented. Occasionally. q). Calcium crystals also remain largely unaltered. j. it is possible to observe isolated clumps. or clumps attached to the tissue. j-n) Malcacha. a-c) Desireé. cells remain close as isolated polyhedral or globular siliceous particles without completely attaching to each other. g and 3d-f. which accentuates surface irregularities regardless of the original periderm color. Silicified parts crystallites is observed (Figure 3i). rough. h-I). partial melting of the druses’ less thermally altered (Figure 2a-c. r). crack and folds are observed. d-i) Abajeña. although t h e i r Figure 2. The contiguous twin micrographs correspond to views with parallel (left) and crossed (right) nicols out (Figures 2r and of the same sample. In other cases. o) Huaico potato. In the cells of oca. within an unctuous. They are stained reddish-brown to black (in carbonized areas). birefringence is widespread. Table 3). cracked. Taphonomy in the kitchen: culinary practices and processing residues of native tuberous plants of the south-central Andes 43 tissues that were not in direct contact with fire are 3n. Cell wall cellulose birefringence is retained or increased. fragmentation. dehydrated and shrunken. q). or are (Figure 3k. Typically. they appear original structure. k-n. some of them are still recognizable in the inner layers (Figures 2a-c. Tissues significantly affected by heat become brittle. Despite being among those that were boiled (Figures 2c-d. Micro- charcoals are abundant throughout the tissue. g-h). Conducting tissues remain unaltered. and have lower relief than fresh less pronounced among tubers cooked al rescoldo than internal tissues (Figures 4-5. In a few cases. p). and birefringence stands p-r) Ullucus tuberosus. but this kind of damage is contracted. reddish- brown matrix. k-n and 3d-f. g-h. Some deformation. against which crystals and occluded micro- charcoals stand out. entirely detached. p). p-r) Ulluco.

If not Oca. k-l). they stand out from surroundings dehydrated.   Description of boiled tuber specimens Periderm maintains its configuration and original morphology in some portions. with high birefringence. In pink oca. k-s) Pink Oca. Colorless to gray silicified tissue and isolated polyhedral Figure 3. q-r). sections in periderm cells (Figure 6e-f. loss of tissue turgor. e). giving the tissue the to reddish staining can appear by sections (Figure 6p). r). though some tissues due to their higher relief (Figure 6e-f). n. Clumps (Figure 5s-t) and isolated grains of modified (Figure 6j. o-r and 5o-p. m-r). . as with cooking al rescoldo (Figure 6g). P. Starches are or diluted pigmentation remains unaltered or lost by in the process of melting/gelatinization (Figures 4e-g. an increase in size. appearance of being almost totally empty (Figure 4c. q-r) or be released 5c. Birefringence of thickened cell wall cellulose is retained i).or extracellular space (Figure 6k. l. a-j) White cells can be seen. In general. Brown j. m-n). I. torn or folded sections are observed (Figures 6c. detached.Intersecciones en Antropología . observed (Table 3) (Figure 5g-j. 44 M. A watery are partially or fully collapsed (Figure 4a). although there is more fragmentation of the tissue than when cooking al rescoldo (Figure 6. The birefringent cellulose of cell walls is into the inter. Although the crystals can maintain their location within the tissues (Figure 4c. Tissues become transparent and noticeably thinner (Figure 6a-f). appearing isolated or in clusters (Figure 5a-b). m). this phenomenon is starch with damage from dry-cooking are occasionally widespread. . and loss of relief. s-t) or absent. boiling causes distension. Appearance of the periderm and cortex of Oxalis tuberosa cooked al rescoldo. Highly fragmented.Special Issue 1 (2014) 35-53 retained. Vessel elements are preserved unaltered. and unaltered. Table 2). Calcium crystals may be unaltered and retain their resistant starch is scarce or virtually absent (Figure position in the tissue (Figures 6m. clusters of multiple crystallites are often found in the intercellular spaces due to their expulsion from the interior of the cells (Figure 5e-f). Babot et al. The contiguous twin micrographs correspond to views with parallel (left) and crossed (right) nicols of the same sample. they retain a degree of turgor.

h-i) Malcacha. isolated (Figure 8n- o. resembling those of tissues cooked al rescoldo (Figures 7a. amorphous starch are observed in the interior or exterior of the tissues (Figure 8g-h. h and 8g-i. Taphonomy in the kitchen: culinary practices and processing residues of native tuberous plants of the south-central Andes 45 of turgor. d-g) Desireé. forming clumps of individuals that have lost their original shape (Figures 7a-b and 8p- q). The contiguous and of partially gelatinized twin micrographs correspond to views with parallel (left) and crossed (right) nicols of the individuals is greater in the same sample. them (Figures 7-8. e and 8n. Discontinuous masses of gelatinized. c). j-k). Some nodular particles in the same tones are attached to tissue (Figures 7i-j and 8a.or extra- –although not attached to each other-. In some cases the crystals maintain their  Globular or polyhedral parenchymal and medullary original location within the tissues (Figures 7i-j and tissue cells with rounded edges are present in clusters 8f-h) or are expelled from them to the inter. or disaggregated cellular spaces (Figures 7k-n and 8m). c-d. l). formed into parenchymal and medullary tissue. and cells appear more distended than when cooked al rescoldo or fresh. cells appear collapsed due to the partial or total loss of starch (Figure 7a-e and 8j- k). with a persistent linear orientation (Figures 7f-g and 8a. In general. r-s). there is a loss . r). The survival of resistant starch Figure 4. the surfaces are rough or dented. No micro-charcoals or carbonized tissues birefringence and structure forming dense packages are observed in the boiling specimens. Modified starch is in the process of gelatinization (Table 3). l-r) Huaico potato. j-k) Pentaoca. Some are and dispersed. Increased transparency and areas with watery or diluted reddish-brown staining are observed (Figure 7i and 8b-e). Table 3). and there are empty net spaces between partially solubilized (Figure 7n). There are cracks and fractures in the cell walls. isolated individual grains (Figures 7c-e. f). In sections more affected by boiling. Appearance of parenchyma and medullary tissue of Solanum sp. cooked al rescoldo. crystals are found melted. Vessel elements clumps in which the individuals are not discernable within the vascular parenchyma preserve their (Figure 6j-k). Resistant starch occurs as scarce. and associated with starch exudates within the tissues or expelled from them (Figure 8j-k). close proximity of cortex and periderm than in the Occasionally. a-c) Abajeña.

. the case of boiling. the latter being a more aggressive transformation technique that compromises the integrity of plant tissues and particles to a corresponding degree. In brown staining of tissues.Special Issue 1 (2014) 35-53 Generally speaking. color. o-t) White oca. contraction and tissue aging) versus absent in the “dry-cooking series” techniques. unctuous clumps -isolated. Such damage includes denaturation and a very low specimen count. indicate that certain characteristics can be used to differentiate them and also. humid and dry (or low moisture) environments. we need to evaluate the differentiating two cooking techniques: heating in survival over time of the characteristics reported here. presence of micro-charcoals distributed throughout the tissue occurs only with cooking al rescoldo. By contrast. water is scarce but not totally micro-charcoals. our results d) Huaico potato.with crystals and occluded environment. Babot et al. and damage. For them to be applicable   Experimental results indicate the potential for in archaeological contexts. to distinguish DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS cooked from fresh samples. Based The periderm and cortex generally survive and on previous studies. a-c) Abajeña. calcium crystals and conduction elements in parenchyma and medullary a n a l y z e d h e r e c a u s e tissue cooked al rescoldo of: a-n) Solanum sp. to melting due to loss of starch humidity. certain reactions are common among tubers cooked al rescoldo and those heated in a moisture- rich medium. P. we expected these techniques to retain their original fabric. Starch grains. They react differently be similar in their effects on tubers since both involve to cooking al rescoldo (characterized by reddish- the same agents of modification: heat and moisture. water is abundant in the cooking or attached to tissue. (Huaico potato) is in (u). Although both groups of cooking techniques Figure 5. However. and o-t) Oxalis tuberosa. partial preservation of the original watery gradient and exposure of the matter to temperature. . the abundance of water clearly effects of cooking on color and mistakenly attributed leads to gelatinization. in to anthropogenic modification. In the case of cooking al rescoldo. tissue distension).Intersecciones en Antropología . g-n) Pentaoca. e-f) Desireé. while its absence leads. In the external tissues. as reported elsewhere (Babot 2003). 46 M. and the although some degree of gelatinization is also possible. Appearance of the s i m i l a r m o d i f i c a t i o n s fresh parenchyma and medullary tissue of Solanum sp. this is influenced by the fact that plant matter is in direct contact with the heat source and subjected to higher temperatures than in toasting. massive carbonization occurs by sections. damage to the morphology and optical properties of starch caused by cooking al rescoldo is greater than that caused by toasting. The contiguous twin micrographs correspond to views with parallel (left) and crossed (right) nicols of the same sample. Among boiling (characterized by diaphanous and thin the latter. However. theory. the natural color While there are similarities in the effects of the cooking of tuberous plants’ shell could be confused with the techniques reviewed. there is an increase in both the temperature material.

on the contrary. making information about the periderm and studied. both inside cooking containers where whole tubers were cooked and as discarded peelings (particularly those of bitter tuber varieties). the periderm the rest of the tissue. Melted or diluted crystals and Figure 6. with respect to what was previously documented for toasting (Babot 2003). g-l) Oxalis tuberosa. e-f) Pentaoka. Despite the poor survival of starch as isolated. Contraction occurs in cooking al rescoldo. located in conduction and important role in identifying anthropogenic processes. Taphonomy in the kitchen: culinary practices and processing residues of native tuberous plants of the south-central Andes 47 contexts. Additionally. Wet cooking is also more aggressive to cellulose parenchyma and medullary tissue. a diluted reddish-brown staining of the interior tissues may appear. m-r) tissues generally indicate Ulluco. Appearance of the boiled periderm and cortex of: a-d. either in situ or detached from it. they tend to stand out from cortex particularly relevant. as well as the occurrence of some nodular particles in the same tones. manipulation in a medium with heat. After cooking. cellulose are primarily located. Nonetheless Results obtained for the most external tissues are these changes are more intense in the presence of important for supplementing the data regarding the water. a-d) White oca. The contiguous twin micrographs correspond to views with parallel (left) and crossed (right) nicols of the same tissue. resistant starch specimens are more common in boiled tubers than in those cooked al rescoldo. g-l) Pink oca. but a higher intensity of the modifications was verified when cooking al rescoldo. both ins ide or outs ide t he cooked mass. identifiable grains. e-f) crystals expelled from the Solanum sp. are not affected by the processes absent. play an fabric. peridermal tissues and usually of little diagnostic value under certain circumstances they can be denatured or when taken alone. conducting tissues and cellulose survive both techniques. Silica deposits. where the starches than cooking al rescoldo. therefore. The parenchyma and medullary tissue suffer greater damage than the periderm and cortex. In the latter case. whereas distension is observed with boiling. Calcium crystals. While the latter are distinctively allows excellent visualization of the original tissue altered by particular processes and. and m-r) Ullucus tuberosus. Observed starch alterations are consistent with those reported elsewhere. and cortex tissue can be preserved in archaeological . Both techniques result in modified starch grains.

Appearance of boiled parenchyma and medullary tissue of: a-h) Solanum sp. .Intersecciones en Antropología . P. 48 M. Babot et al. Thus.Special Issue 1 (2014) 35-53 Figure 7. (Pentaoca) and i-n) Ullucus tuberosus. No significant differences in changes produced varieties. the expectations generated should apply by the processing techniques considered here were to a large number of tuberous plants and potentially observed between the three types of tubers and their other resources as well. . The contiguous twin micrographs correspond to views with parallel (left) and crossed (right) nicols of the same tissue.

a-q) White Oca. . r-s) Pink Oca. Taphonomy in the kitchen: culinary practices and processing residues of native tuberous plants of the south-central Andes 49 Figure 8. The contiguous twin micrographs correspond to views with parallel (left) and crossed (right) nicols of the same tissue. Appearance of boiled parenchyma and medullary tissue of Oxalis tuberosa.

44-45. In Ancient starch research. A. Left Coast Canberra. J. 13: 267-274. Intersecciones en alimentación en la América precolombina y colonial: Antropología 7: 247-261. is neither Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. In La el análisis de los artefactos líticos. and E. experimental work continues Casos de la Puna argentina. To editors. R. en el siglo XXI: restos animales y más allá. pp. Despite these caveats. additional water. Piccón Figueroa and M. edited by M. In Las manos en la to contribute positively to our understanding of past masa. Barton. boiling nor toasting. Osterrieth. ocas and ullucos analyzed 2001 On starch taphonomy: some issues on physical. items might be cooked in their own liquid. CONICET. without M. P. tubers and other Meeting on Phytolith Research. R. Australian C. Babot and N. K. Matthews was supported by projects CIUNT 26/G404 and PIP. Centre for Archaeological Research. L. Borrazzo and pp.. Walnut Creek. Fullagar REFERENCES 1998 Clues to stone tool function re-examined: Babot. In Phytolith and starch research in the 1231-1238. Bajales and J. edited by J. M. 2007 Granos de almidón en contextos arqueológicos: posibilidades y perspectivas a partir de casos del Biliaderis. pp. M. Haros the inferences that can made using experimental data. Australian-Pacific-Asian regions: the state of the art. comparing starch grain frequencies on used and unused 2003 Starch grain damage as an indicator of food obsidian artifacts. P.. pp. edited by CONICET 464 directed by C. Barton. 2006 Starch Pathways. M. strictly speaking. H. Whistler. which. A. Córdoba. Antípoda Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC). Hocsman. determine the “grain” of C. M. Mar del Plata. M. Chevalier and R. and P. Instituto Milà y Fontanals. 50 M. Wallis. 95-125. edited Terra Australis 19. language of this paper.Intersecciones en Antropología . agropastoriles del Noroeste argentino prehispánico: 2006 Tafonomía lítica en dunas: una propuesta para análisis de indicadores en residuos de molienda. Bru de Labanda 2005 Analysis of three factors that have an influence 2008. Torrence and H. and for their help with translation issues. 2006 Taphonomy. To S. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. 293-373. Haros character of kitchens and food preparation methods 2008 Interpreting content. In Paleoetnobotánica del Cono 2009 Structural transitions and related physical properties Sur: estudios de casos y propuestas metodológicas. 6: 33-43. Madrid. M. Amsterdam.): contexo social e ideológico on the preservation of microfossils in archaeological en sus zonas de desarrollo originarias. 235-269. P. L. and R. Korstanje providing the potatoes. pp. of the archaeological remains. pp. Babot. edited by M. 2012 Recetarios prehispánicos y tradiciones culinarias. P. alimentación en Suramérica. Revista Chagual artifacts. M.   Walnut Creek. Piqué. Torrence and H. Vildoza. Córdoba. P. pp. and M.. Capparelli. Fernández Honaine y N. 67-81. S. Babot. Codemo and A. C. W. Hart and L. The Phytolitharien 17 (2): 4-5. 2009 Procesamiento de tubérculos y raíces por grupos Borrazzo. R. Marschoff and F. Oliszewski. In Starch: Chemistry and Technology. Aschero. In Abstracts of the 7th international which cannot be ignored. A. R. pp. by R. we must acknowledge that the daily Babot. Noroeste argentino. compiled by A. Barton. Borrero. Such exceptions and the integrity Babot. 3rd compiled by M.Special Issue 1 (2014) 35-53 Finally. M. in this study. P. BeMiller and R. Calisaya for Babot. This research Barton. pp. To V. Beck. context and manufacture suggests intermediate instances that turn black and from use-residues in ceramic vessels from Southern white results from controlled experiments into grays Argentinean Puna. who chemical and possible laboratory damage. Pazzarelli. Instituto de Arqueología de Córdoba and Instituto Superior de Acknowledgments Estudios Sociales. In Program participated in sampling of the tubers. P. Journal of Archaeological Science 25: processing. Borrelli. . To anonymous of the Conference: The state of the art in phytolith and reviewers for their useful comments on the content and starch research in the Australian-Pacific-Asian regions. C. In Ancient starch research. A. 75-94. Weitzel for inviting us to publish in this volume National University. Museo de Antropología. La papa (Solanum sp. V. Arqueologías. Marconetto. P. Castro. E. Babot et al. Torrence edited by D. una aproximación interdisciplinaria. H. G. antropologías e historias de la practices. K. Torrence and R.   M. 69-81. Canberra. C. Left Coast Press. Hocsman. The Australian National University. 2011 La función transdisciplinaria de la arqueozoología Treballs d’Etnoarqueologia 7. and M. Press. 53-74. 7-9. . Academic Press. of starch. For instance. ed. B.

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G. N. Dissertation.. pp. Wallis. M. Benvenuto quinoa grains (Chenopodium quinoa var. masa. A. Parina. Madella. Zurro and M. pp. Arqueologías. Berón 2012 Recreando recetas: primeros resultados de 2012 Cocinando en ollas en la Pampa Occidental. F. and M. Fernández Honaine. Lovis. Routledge. ambientes en Argentina. Hardwood ash nixtamalization may lead to false 2008 Alimentos: conservación y almacenamiento en el negatives for the presence of maize by depleting bulk Chile Precolombino. Babot Radley. G. H. L. D. Rca. 2014 Uso de las plantas entre los cazadores-recolectores 1943 Starch and its derivatives. O´Brien Osterrieth. J. cazadores-recolectores del Cono Sur Americano.. 2011 Traditional post-harvest processing to make Borrelli and L. Quaternary Method and Theory 4: 297-342. Ratto Musaubach. PhD edited by D. Hart and L. sitio Chenque 1. J. D. Babot. Un cementerio prehispánico en la Pampa 2011 Experimental assessment of maize phytolith and Occidental. New York. NSW Australia: implications for the interpretation of 1994 Methods in the analysis of starch residues on microfossil assemblages and fire histories. and M. Rio de Janeiro. and J. P. Berón. Scattolin Messner. Álvarez 1981 The Expanding Role of Surface Assemblages in 2009 Taphonomical aspects of silica phytoliths in the Archaeological Research. A. Córdoba. by M. San Diego. edited by M. el registro arqueológico maíz del Noroeste argentino. Cultura material Australian-Pacific-Asian regions: the state of the art. P.) Kunth. Pazzarelli. F. Resúmenes del 5º Encontro 3 (1): 49-70. 86-114. edition. Álvarez. The Australian National University. Serie Livros 49: 218. edited by J. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. y prácticas de alimentación en Ambato. pp.Special Issue 1 (2014) 35-53 Lantos. Musaubach. microfósiles. In Las manos en la masa. Pizarro 2011. in press. . G. Prov. pp. Journal of Archaeological Argentina. Pazzarelli.. Sociedad Argentina de Antropología. Arthur and K. Buenos Aires. C. Marschoff and F. edited by M. International 193 (1-2): 70-79. L. and B. Bolivia): pedoestratigráficas y pedoarqueológicas de distintos Ethnoarchaeological and archaeobotanical analyses. (L.. Capparelli and A. Cambridge Manuals in perspective. A. M. BAR International Series 1870. T. E. pp. In Las manos en la y la arqueobotánica. I. In El sitio Raviele. Latinoamericano de Fitólitos. M. F. T. M. O. G. Piperno. edited Journal of Archaeological Science 38 (10): 2708-2713. Cambridge University Press. R. Taffs Science 38: 2726-2730. L. antropologías e historias de la Arqueologías. 119-126. and M. M. environment. Instituto M. M. L. Korstanje and M. In Phytolith and starch research in the 2012 Arqueología de la comida. F. In Tropical archaeobotany: interdisciplinarios en estudios fitolíticos y de otros Applications and new developments. Instituto de Arqueología de Córdoba and Instituto Superior de de Arqueología de Córdoba and Instituto Superior de Estudios Sociales. Raviele and P. Urquhart. Pochettino. Advances in Archaeological loess sediments of the Argentinean Pampas. 1988 Phytolith analysis: an archaeological and geological 1994 Vertebrate taphonomy. Chenque. Revista del Museo de La Plata (nueva serie) Science 37: 328-336. A. Oxford. R. de Catamarca. δ13C in carbonized residues.. M. 52 M. 47-53. 527-552. London. A. In Matices prehistoric stone tools. Hart Pardo. Hedges. Hather. Lewarch. CONICET. Kerr. 2nd. Nielsen Osterrieth. 2003 The survival of starch residue in a subtropical Pazzarelli. antropologías e historias de la alimentación en Suramérica. A. Chapman pampeanos: estudio de microfósiles recuperados de and Hall. M. 2008 Impact of fire on peatlands in northeastern Loy. P. Babot et al. Estilo de vida e interacciones culturales de starch taphonomy in carbonized cooking residues. Journal of Archaeological Parr. . una experimentación con variedades nativas de Datos desde la etnohistoria. Babot. Babot. edited by M. CONICET. quinoa) apt 2013 Procesos tafonómicos y silicofitolitos en secuencias for consumption in Northern Lipez (Potosí. Arica. Canberra. Archaeology. In Anais do Museu Nacional- Journal of Anthropological and Archaeological Science UFRJ. P. Terra Australis 19. Córdoba.Intersecciones en Antropología . Marschoff and F. M. 599-620. M. tártaro dental humano. and M. P. Maier and N. Lyman.. Estudios Sociales. Academic Press. Antropología 9 (71): 169-181. Cambridge. J. Córdoba. M. Araceae edible. D. M. M. Schindler 1991 Identificación y significado de frutos y semillas 2010 Plant processing strategies and their affect upon carbonizados de sitios arqueológicos de la ladera starch grain survival when rendering Peltandra virginica occidental del Aconquija. alimentación en Suramérica. López. M. T. W. Lu.

Press. P. R.g. Left Coast Press. M. Washington Williams. and M. in feeding Pachamama) (Pazzarelli 2012). 1982 Starch gelatinization: A morphological study of Samuel. edited by M. P. Bowler D.Resistant starch is defined as “[. 39-45.We consider charring as a special cooking technique 2007 Ancient starch research. edited Zucol. Babot. 205-216. through the extraction and and others do not” (INSC 2011). BA (Honours) term generically to refer to any starch grain preserved virtually Thesis. R. BAR International Series 1870.] starch that is not digested subsistence changes on Garua Island. A. Starch/Stärke 34: 221-223. Wandsnider. Sidney. C.C. and H. and P. pp.. Osterrieth de sitios arqueológicos de la Pcia.. Florida. In this paper. Academic in relation to genera. In Matices interdisciplinarios en estudios fitolíticos arqueológicos del Área Interserrana. R. Barton (editors) 2.. Paschall (editors) 1913 The differentiation and specificity of starches 1984 Starch: Chemistry and Technology. Oxford. Oxford. Biliaderis 2009). we used the identification of starch from sediments. Loponte by R.C. Papua New Guinea. Un y de otros microfósiles.. Torrence. de Buenos Aires.. A. BAR International Series 1870. Therin. 163-171. and D. M. West New in the small intestine of humans (Champ 2004. Triticeae and other starches. NOTES 1994 Subsistence through starch: the examination of 1. Barton. etc. la abundancia fitolítica en tártaro de dientes humanos Tassara. Hedges. J. Buenos Aires. Publication 173. In Matices interdisciplinarios en M. BeMiller and E. Korstanje and M. F. M. L. Torrence and H. M. Whistler. unchanged. . A. T. Babot. G. species. Walnut used in ritual performances (e. Walnut Creek. pp. D. Sydney University. A. Creek.. L. pp. In Ancient starch research. Carnegie Institution of Washington D. 2006 Modified starch.. Korstanje and estudio preliminar. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 16: 1-48. estudios fitolíticos y de otros microfósiles. edited by Hedges. 2008 Silicofitolitos en artefactos de molienda de sitios Arg. Taphonomy in the kitchen: culinary practices and processing residues of native tuberous plants of the south-central Andes 53 Reichert. Left Coast 2008 Análisis comparativo metodológico y estudio de Press. Useful term for explaining why some starches survive Britain. 1997 The roasted and the boiled: food composition and heat treatment with special emphasis on pit-hearth cooking.

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The high frequency of wooden artifacts at the site permitted the development of specific research designed to identify the primary natural and cultural post-depositional processes related to the preservation and spatial distribution of those artifacts.ar Intersecciones en Antropología . Patagonia. bajo ciertas condiciones. Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Argentina) Mónica Grosso Received 21 August 2013. is a well-preserved underwater archaeological site. 3 de Febrero 1378 (1426). Palabras clave: Artefactos de madera. En los ambientes subacuáticos marinos. Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano (INAPL). Procesos posdepositacionales. el cual incluyó la realización de observaciones y estudios experimentales que permitieron caracterizar las comunidades de organismos asociados al sitio y su interacción con los materiales arqueológicos.Argentina . Results confirm that sedimentary conditions have played a central role in the preservation of wooden materials and their spatial distributions. En este trabajo se presenta el enfoque metodológico aplicado. | 55 Post-depositional processes studies of wooden artifacts from the 18th century Swift shipwreck site (Patagonia. embarcación de la Armada Británica que en 1770 naufragó en la costa norte de la actual provincia de Santa Cruz. which included both direct observations and experimental studies that led to the characterization of the organisms related to the shipwreck site and their interaction with archaeological materials.UNCPBA . This paper presents the methodological framework for this research. Accepted 20 February 2014 ABSTRACT The HMS Swift was a British Navy sloop-of-war that sank off the Patagonia coast in 1770. E-mail: monica. Sitios arqueológicos subacuáticos. Mónica Grosso.Special Issue 1: 55-69. Patagonia. puede preservarse una diversidad de materiales arqueológicos de origen orgánico e inorgánico. ISSN 1850-373X Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record. Keywords: Wooden artifacts. entre los que se destacan los moluscos marinos perforantes de madera. La existencia de una gran cantidad de artefactos de madera brindó una interesante oportunidad para realizar investigaciones dirigidas a identificar los principales procesos posdepositacionales de índole natural y cultural involucrados en la preservación y en la distribución de estos materiales. Copyright © Facultad de Ciencias Sociales . on the northern coast of Santa Cruz Province (Argentina). Furthermore. the archaeological consequences of organisms’ damaging activities (mainly those of marine wood-borer mollusks) are assessed. Underwater archaeological sites. ARGENTINA). Shipwrecks. Post-depositional processes. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que las condiciones sedimentarias han desempeñado un rol fundamental para la preservación de los materiales y sus relaciones contextuales. Asimismo.gob. 2014. Uno de estos casos es el sitio Swift. Argentina. Naufragios. SIGLO XVIII (PATAGONIA. The Swift shipwreck site. se analizan las consecuencias arqueológicas de la actividad de organismos que ejercen una acción destructiva.grosso@inapl. RESUMEN ESTUDIOS DE PROCESOS POSDEPOSITACIONALES EN ARTEFACTOS DE MADERA DEL SITIO DE NAUFRAGIO SWIFT.

the Swift was stranded on a sites. and factors that contribute to in situ preservation of In March of 1770. I hope it will contribute to provide information relevant to the interpretation of other shipwreck sites located in the region’s underwater or intertidal marine environments. it has been argued that research 1/5304 Court Martial: Loss of HMS Swift. 2011). Greenwich. 56 M. Grosso . are still scarce (Grosso 2008. NMM Gibbs (2006).8 m and a breadth of 7. Archaeological research at the site was begun in 1997 by the Programa de Arqueología Subacuática South America has also produced few studies on (Underwater Archaeology Program. This situation the ship slipped away from the rock and sank. interest has increased at Port Egmont. Gower 1803). Therefore. 2004. To date. 2007. their temporal depth (Adams 2001). Like all sailing ships shipwreck sites. most such studies have aimed to Draughts Box 52 N° 3603A ‘sheer and profile’. Moreover. Dolores Elkin. Elkin et al. the 18th century British naval base in in the factors that regulate differential preservation of the Malvinas / Falkland Islands. biography of ships as well as their contents. which two decks. Kew. under the and Uruguay− is a field of study only now getting direction of Dr. the coherence and integrity of the Province. Additionally. ADM perception. researches designed to improve our rock off the coast of Puerto Deseado estuary. archaeological research goals. the Swift was a wooden vessel. (1999) and m (National Maritime Museum. 2011). . Location of the Swift wreck site in the harbor area of Puerto Deseado (Map: C. or PROAS) of wrecksites formation processes. context should not be assumed but archaeologically demonstrated (Adams 2001). Several interpretations of the submerged archaeological record measures were taken to avoid sinking1 but. 2011). To achieve the project’s underway (Elkin 2011).9 was later expanded upon by Ward et al. Here. In 1978 Keith Muckelroy proposed a at the time. I summarize the methodological approach and main results of that study. shipwreck archaeology the Argentinean Instituto Nacional de Antropología in the region −with the exception of Argentina. formation processes from the beginning (Bastida et al.Intersecciones en Antropología . Swift understand general processes involved in site formation and Vulture). 29 September must take into account the social and technological 1770. Figure 1. Argentina (Figure 1). in northeast Santa Cruz between objects. Very can likely be explained by the common perception few items could be saved before the ship disappeared of shipwrecks as “time capsules”. As part of my doctoral research –which focused on wooden material culture onboard the Swift– I analyzed the primary natural and cultural post-depositional processes that affected the preservation and distribution of wooden artifacts (Grosso 2011). though. it should be noted that the loss of a ship is a process that can last many hours or even days. In Argentina.Special Issue 1 (2014) 55-69 INTRODUCTION LOSS OF THE HMS SWIFT Since the development of underwater archaeology as The Swift was a Royal Navy sloop-of-war stationed a scientific discipline in the 1960’s. Murray). eventually. a length of 27. Nevertheless. Contrary to this below the water (The National Archives. She had pioneering model based on systematic research. that is to say. THE SWIFT ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT even at shipwreck sites that appear to contain well- The wreck site is located in the harbor of present preserved materials and to display original relationships day Puerto Deseado city. survey of visible structural remains and research at the wreck site of the HMS Swift has excavation of representative sectors of the ship were included a multidisciplinary study of natural site planned (Elkin et al. Chile y Pensamiento Latinoamericano (INAPL).

After Ward et al. Post-depositional processes studies of wooden artifacts from the 18th century Swift shipwreck site (Patagonia. SHIPWRECK SITES FORMATION PROCESSES Muckelroy’s model of shipwreck site formation processes take into account the different components that contribute to the evolution of a shipwreck. the most exposed structural portion. and (Murray et al. Argentina) 57 The ship remains cover an area of approximately scrambling devices. and of about 60 degrees. anchors and a great diversity of organic and accumulative or erosive− is considered the main inorganic artifacts lie partially or totally covered by the factor in the shipwreck preservation. Nearly all exposed elements are colonized turn. . from the time the ship was sailing to the presently-observed seabed distribution (Muckelroy 1978). The 2). wave action. These materials are currently housed at the Museo Municipal Mario Brozoski. movement of the seabed (which may or stern-port. as well as nature of the sedimentation process −whether it is cannons. The site is between 10 and 18 disintegration of perishables. Site plan with the excavated areas highlighted (Drawing: C. with the exception of those characteristics. though sediments cover nearly 60% away during the sinking. He Figure 3. depends on sedimentary and hydrodynamic by a variety of organisms. The shallowest depth corresponds in the loss of contextual information: the wreckage to the bow-starboard area. Twenty six percent of the more than 500 artifacts retrieved from the site since its discovery were made of wood. a) The wreck. Murray). Extracting filters are processes 180 m2. in sediments. Puerto Deseado2. (1999) produced an expanded model side of the upper deck is well preserved. 2003). which. Based on Muckelroy’s proposal. most that result in the loss of materials: elements floating still assembled. level. the opposite that distinguishes the primary processes affecting side has collapsed or disappeared. the sedimentary environment. resulting level of the tide. during that timeframe: extracting filters and (1999: 564). and the deepest to the process. materials that may be toxic for them (like copper and copper alloys). About 70% of the hull has survived. depending on the bottom slope and are processes that move artifacts around. and c) the hydrodynamic environment. The hull lies on its port side with a list may not bury elements). with some frames disintegration of a shipwreck on the basis of the ship’s and beams protruding up to 3 m above the sediment own characteristic. Scrambling devices m below surface. While the port Ward et al. Figure 2. b) the sedimentary identified two main processes that operate environment. Muckelroy’s expanded model. such that the starboard side is biological activity. Many detached structural components. currents. Neither masts nor yards were preserved (Figure and the hydrodynamic environment (Figure 3). salvage operations.

Not all members hard bottoms by organisms that need hard substrata of the Pholadidae family are exclusively wood-borers. In general. and hard or rocky bottoms. when anthropic material is Generally. so they are capable of moving over field of research. they can be distinguished easily from the submerged in seawater it is immediately colonized teredinids because they lack the characteristic worm- by organisms. each with species living Pholadidae is a smaller group of mollusks than in close association with them (Bastida et al. A couple of calcareous pallets allow organisms to seal the hole when necessary. As soon as Teredinidae larvae find In this model. macro-organisms are capable of physico-chemical Marine wood-borer crustaceans are represented by modification of materials as a result of their attachment the orders Isopoda and Amphipoda. Argentina has been the wood surface. eventually. as the only genus). wood-borers. Consequently. Tunnels develop in them. The first includes to them (mechanical effects) and their metabolic the most important groups: Limnoriidae (“gribble”) processes. They produce superficial or sub- a Latin American leader in this discipline. Larvae gradually develop a soft. in body with two valves at the front extremity that enable relation to the depositional history (that is. Teredinidae mollusks have been recorded off the Grosso 2008). These organisms settling and harmful effects of biofouling has led to the have small. variation in them to bore wood. they deposit sedimentary processes through time). The search for methods to prevent the and Sphareomatidae (“pill bug”). so it is important to identify and understand the dynamics There are two groups of wood-borers in marine of their interaction.Intersecciones en Antropología . A pair of siphons is the only part preservation (Ward et al. Therefore. more limited. ENVIRONMENTS a piece of wood can be completely bored inside while Marine environments have great biodiversity and externally only the small initial holes of 1 to 2 mm in a remarkable variety of colonization modes may diameter are visible (Eaton and Hale 1993). Studies on superficial galleries of 1 to 3 mm in diameter. Teredinidae processes dominate in the early stages. These micro. providing that it is not toxic for them. Prosser Goodall 1978). The combination a calcareous lining in the tunnel where they remain of these factors defines different possible levels of throughout their lives. 2004. of the body that maintains contact with the seawater through the initial hole.and (Eaton and Hale 1993). Grosso . Sedimentary bottoms prevail in nature and. Solid marine substrates can be only become exposed when a piece of wood is broken divided into two groups: soft or sedimentary bottoms or its surface heavily deteriorated. two main do not create a calcareous lining in the tunnels walls. 1999). 1972b. mollusks are represented by two families: Teredinidae and the wreck. Limnoriidae are reported only in the sites. 2004. The the experimental ecology of benthic communities have extensive network of galleries can lead to collapse of played a substantial role in biodeterioration research the superficial levels of the wood and. biological and note that Teredo is often −and erroneously− referred to chemical processes become relatively more important. groups have been considered responsible for the They have oval valves similar to those of the common most serious damage to man-made substrata: marine clam but with a denticulate area for boring wood. Chubut (Puerto Madryn) and information on the biological and ecological processes Tierra del Fuego (Ushuaia) Provinces. As a consequence of the teredinids’ activity. the sediment. like body (with the exception of Xylophaginae) and Among organisms that live in the sea. and the Malvinas involved in the formation of underwater archaeological / Falkland Islands. chemical and biological processes. they begin to bore tunnels into equal to the sum of the rates of disintegration caused the wood. They also have a less significant role as therefore. studies of the biological communities associated with diverse materials (see references in Bastida et al. Bivalve operate continually between the water. is the larger group and is composed of a number of as the shipwreck disintegrates and materials interact genera and species distributed around the world (but with the sedimentary environment.Special Issue 1 (2014) 55-69 Physical. chemical and biological processes are Marine wood-borers involved in the disintegration of a shipwreck. segmented bodies −generally 2 to 4 mm development of biodeterioration studies as a specific long− and legs. 58 M. As Teredinidae grow. to live. these studies provide basic coasts of Buenos Aires. the Teredinidae and their geographical distribution is 2008). Positive and negative feedback environments: mollusks and crustaceans. the rate of shipwreck disintegration is a suitable substratum. These elements enable taxonomic identification of BIODETERIORATION STUDIES IN MARINE species. Afterwards. Since the 1960s. . total developing experimental systems to achieve controlled destruction of the substratum. and biofouling (benthic communities Their tunnels can be 3 to 8 times the size of the valves associated to artificial substrata). physical deterioration (“shipworms”) and Pholadidae (“piddocks”). a great demand exists for colonization of destructive agents (Pournou 1999). worm-like by physical. first three localities (Bastida and Torti 1972a.

among others. side) and the Captain’s quarters (stern-port side). This study was adapted from others previously carried out in biodeterioration POST-DEPOSITIONAL PROCESSES AT THE research in Argentina (Bastida et al. 2008). and to local environmental conditions. . concentration of calcium When an artificial substratum is submerged in carbonate. forward of the main mast. communities and wood-boring organisms. rigging. see SWIFT SITE: GOALS AND METHODOLOGY references therein). from superficial sediment levels and excavation panels of 12 x 12 cm composed of thin wooden layers areas. The diversity and variety of organisms differs internal planking was reached while the others were according to the community stage of development just partially excavated. carried out by the Laboratorio of Ecología Bentónica furniture. bryozoans. This is remarkable data were collected: qualitative and quantitative in light of the fact that marine wreck sites develop into fractions. and relative amounts of bioclasts and seawater a biotic colonization process begins. The analysis included complexity and ecological characteristics. 2004). equilibrium context and general state of preservation were also stage known as the “climax stage”. Post-depositional processes studies of wooden artifacts from the 18th century Swift shipwreck site (Patagonia. Biofouling in different parts of the world involves As shown in Figure 2. and development of biofouling communities in wreck each with five sampling stations. Argentina) 59 Biofouling communities considered with a focus on hydrological and sedimentological parameters. 20 m2 were excavated. 2011). other materials). Ricardo Bastida. 12 and 24 months to modified the artifacts’ original depositional context. 2008.and macro-organisms (Florian as follows: on the main deck near the galley (bow-port 1987) and comprises aerobic bacteria. as well as unidentified elements. This “benthic succession process” begins with the Afterward. growth and The wooden artifacts database contains 197 objects successional strategies of the community. In the two first areas listed. which faunistic groups represented (Bastida et al. cooperage. to assess cultural formation processes. of organic matter. after which the considered. monitor seasonal cycles of colonization. would have affected the site over the course of more prevailing environmental conditions at the site were than two hundred years. the lower deck. granulometric classification. leads to the development of a biofouling community. The experimental design used The goal of this research was to identify the acrylic and pine wood panels of 10 x 5 cm fitted to primary processes responsible for the differential acrylic frames of 30 x 40 cm. followed by sample of artifacts was conducted for the purpose of the formation of an initial biofilm constituted mainly identifying the primary associations between different by bacteria and micro algae. The process both in situ and recovered artifacts. tools. were used to obtain complete wood-borer specimens. objects related to military or navigation y Biodeterioro (Benthic Ecology and Biodeterioration activities. few was performed to record sediment characteristics studies have been designed to understand the formation by means of three transects along the ship’s length. Systematic sampling Contrary to what happens with wood-borers. fungi. Biological and sedimentary analyses were tableware. concentration reefs of artificial origin. mollusks and tunicates. Samples were taken preservation of wooden artifacts. on protozoa. Additionally. and polychaetes. a macroscopic examination of a adsorption of organic macromolecules. an experimental study was performed throughout its life by means of different mechanisms− to obtain controlled information about biofouling or non-sessile. the purpose of understanding the human activities that To understand natural formation processes. storage. general characterization. and continues with the organisms and specific archaeological substrata. case the following data were recorded: provenience. coelenterates. In each Laboratory) of the Mar del Plata National University. distributed nearly 2000 micro. Biofouling species can be sessile −attached to the substratum Additionally. algae. 2004. in a possible block storeroom. Randell 1998). components (including Finally. detachment and partial restart of a new cycle takes place (Bastida et al. along settling and growth of different species of invertebrates with the consequences of these associations on the and macro algae that form communities of variable archaeological materials. Excavated areas allowed the examination of wooden elements that had been covered by sediments. as well as those that at 6 (cold and warm seasons). The frames were located at the bow and stern areas of The following functional categories were identified: the vessel. both complete and fragmented. The following sites (Thomson 1997. diatoms. the depositional tends to conduct the community to a final. and includes multi-component and single. and taxonomic identification when diverse sources of information were analyzed with possible (Grosso 2011)3. component artifacts. including their basic ecological and biological characteristics (Bastida et al. under the direction of Dr.

Concentrations of organic material reach high values of up to 9. Its maximum depth is 32 m. at the end of the estuary. Type of material.1 to 2 m. Granulometric composition of the Swift site. as are larger fractions. Sizes communities. structural weakness. with a significant presence of clay. 2011). depending on the marine influence. 2007). This causes displacement case. 2004. Tunicates are low. with monthly values ranging from 5 to 45 mm.8 and 8. Underwater visibility is typically whole site on various types of substrata. is caused by suspended flow.7 m. In each a macro-tidal environment. it was also relevant to compare what happens to wooden ships’ Estuary tides are semi-diurnal.56 mg/l and recorded in each case. and superficial texture. The sediment composition has contributed to the formation of low oxygen level deposits. The Deseado estuary is 40 km long.5 m.2. Dissolved (e. slightly lower in areas with anthropic impact. and consequent from very small areas. The considerable quantity of organic material that cannot be mineralized due to of the lack of oxygen generates hydrogen sulphide. near the entrance. due to their size and distribution over the (Kühnemann 1971). marine erosion) were oxygen values vary between 7. their Among the fouling organisms colonizing the maximum amplitude is 0. characteristics. with the exception of some areas where a relevant abundance of granules and pebbles was observed (Bastida et al. Grosso . as in the case of frames and beams that are sediment. while its SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS AND minimum is 0. Marine permitted an assessment of the more conspicuous water in this area is renewed in a high frequency due to association of biofouling and wood-borer communities the influence of the tides (Kühnemann 1971). of huge masses of water. as well as the significant contributions classification follows Udden-Wentworth scale (Bastida et al. This is due to the high productivity of the water and benthonic Figure 4. they are swept by the rain towards the estuary.Special Issue 1 (2014) 55-69 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS of the local harbor and its industrial fishery (Bastida et al. Grosso 2008). though their speed which are considered the maximum level of biomass decreases in some places according to topographic and biodiversity possible. chiefly in zones of good water limited light penetration. They reach amplitudes of other materials. 2011). shape annual salinity is 33‰ (typical ocean waters are 35‰). The Swift EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES site is situated off the north coast of the estuary and near its mouth. and and Ph values are slightly alkaline −characteristic of primary features regarding their state of preservation seawater− ranging between 7. context of provenience. 60 M.85 and 9. seasonal variance. The low water transparency. Sediment sampling at the site revealed a dominance of fine fraction sediments. that is. tunicates (“sea squirts”) are the most from the west and southwest and are generally strong notorious. The water temperature ranges between 13º C (summer) To gain a better understanding of biological and 4º C (winter) (Elkin et al. and fine sand (Figure 4). characteristic smell and the black coloration of the sediment. up to 6 knots in narrow zones. as well as to artifacts made on and two low tides each day. . and up to 400 m wide. 2011). Primary associations are summarized 4. These small particles have a continental origin.Intersecciones en Antropología . communities associated with wood artifacts. Precipitation is scarce and without strong nearly vertical due to the ship list (Figure 5). with an average of able to develop communities of considerable size even 1 m. two high tides structural elements. easily detected by a pervasive. 2007.2 m (average spring tides) so the estuary is considered in Table 1 (Elkin et al. Maximum currents at the site are about 2 knots. which generates currents of Both refer to the natural communities of the area. mud. Average with archaeological substrata. such that the hydrological parameters Systematic macroscopic observations have are similar to those of the adjacent open sea. Coarse sands are very little represented. Negative Redox potential values (ranging from -140 to -314) confirm the anoxic nature of the burial environment.02%. Prevailing winds are shipwreck. Waves have limited impact on the site.g.. ranging from 0. levels of biodiversity and biomass are identified.

Deck beams colonized by tunicates of solitary and at the bow and port side-stern areas.g. of the tunnels was consistent with those of teredinid More conspicuous tunicates are from solitary mollusks species. middle lower deck.) and brown of these artifacts (including chests. as is probably the case with Crepidula dilatata. Pournou 1999). Didemnum sp.. Cnemidocarpa verrucosa. Hippotoa bouganvillei) predominate.) were not in contact with seawater before Swift amounts due to light limitations. Post-depositional processes studies of wooden artifacts from the 18th century Swift shipwreck site (Patagonia. present Associations represented by algae B1: High comparatively minor species Iron METAL and invertebrates B2: Medium diversity relative to structural Represented by only one invertebrate B1: Low components and other Lead group B2: Low substrata.g. Borer tunnel morphology was also indentified as . it was observed that with the detachment of tunicates from wooden substrates. Species of red with the naked eye (Grosso 2008). furniture. small coelenterates (anemones Corynactis carnea) and arborescent briozoans (e.. Ship structural B1: Medium Associations represented by algae. Their activity was also identified in wood remains on the sediment surface Figure 5. algae (Dyctiota sp. part of the woody tissue was also removed. On the other hand. Specimens of giant sank. Polyzoa opuntia). Paramolgula gregaria. a survey of more than one eumyota) and colonial species (e.. boxes. a positive outcome of biofouling organism growth might be that they provide a physical barrier against the abrasion produced by sediment transport (Thomson 1997. The morphology colonial species (Photo: S.g. surface contexts indicate that at least 15% had been In the structural timbers mentioned above. General characterization of the biofouling associated to diverse substrata. since the assessment was performed species of anemone (“sea anemones”). Biofouling might also play an important role in preventing the settlement of wood-borers’ larvae (Nair and Saraswathy 1971. hundred artifacts (n = 140) from excavated and seafloor Amaroucium sp. Argentina) 61 Biodiversity (B1) and kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) MATERIALS Substrate surface Fouling association (assemblages) Biomass (B2) levels detached from nearby Smooth surfaces Associations represented by several B1: Medium seabottoms are transported (bottles) invertebrates groups B2: Low GLASS to the site by currents. Massaro).) are present. components (beams and frames) invertebrates and chordates B2: High Small size wooden WOOD B1: Low artifacts.. although in small etc. Likewise. Low visibility and biofouling organism coverage complicated the examination of wood-borer activity on archaeological materials in situ. Colonization was easily identified in ship structure timbers with minor biofouling coverage and with tunnels exposed on the bow’s main deck in the galley area. Regarding biofouling effects on archaeological elements. rough surfaces and iron.. More than 50% algae (Rhodymenia sp. Molgula sp. the activity of small organisms may have deleterious consequences. such as blocks Small artifacts over Associations represented by several the sediment (pulley) invertebrates groups B2: Low and pulleys. Ciona sp. there are colonized by wood-borers. which necessitated removal of organisms at specific points.. however. and Corella On the other hand. species (e. such as glass of Table 1. and stern’s main deck forward of the mizzen mast. and bulkheads. Sycozoa gaimardi. They Rough surfaces B1: High Associations represented by several can reach 30 m of length and (windows emery B2: Medium glass panels) invertebrates groups and chordates frecuently become tangled in structural timbers. and Ceramium sp. This may be a conservative also abundant small (Corynactis carnea) and large estimate. Jones 2003). such as the impressions left by soft tubeworms (polichaetes) such as Platynereis australis (Figure 6a) or gastropod mollusks.

(elm). a) Impressions left by soft tube polichaetes in chest components. The climax stage -when communities reach a diameters are due to erosion processes. 12. Quercus more than 10 cm of thickness on 10 x 5 cm panels sp. 2011 for study. Diameters of Teredinidae tunnels and higher biomass (triple as a minimum) than cold at the Swift site are between 4 mm and 15 mm. 62 M. Grosso . growth and development of biofouling organisms. Different wood species communities can evolve considerably. Nearly a hundred wooden elements were observed. 2004). wooden boats.is burrows were observed in high densities. this study reveals permitted identification of Bankia martensi. 2004). The Finally. This is by increased colonization activities and growth rates. Given that other environmental parameters were found. On wood panels. probably because organic material offers a more suitable surface for colonization.Special Issue 1 (2014) 55-69 teredinids. a systematic survey of non-archaeological results indicate that biofouling communities have wooden substrata along more than 5 km of the a similar composition to those observed in other Deseado estuary’s north coast was designed to Patagonian localities (Bastida et al.and 24-month panels included a description of the substrata at a superficial level or settle in its natural biofouling organisms examined under a stereoscopic irregularities. Despite evaluate historical and present day wood-borer activity low water temperatures. which was assigned the year. Wood-borers balance and achieve their maximum development. biodeterioration was information regarding identification and characterization mainly produced by bacteria. detailed information regarding methods and results). b) Timber (two officers’ chests and some broken as a consequence of teredinids activity. especially in its The experimental study provided valuable early stages. though the warm season is characterized to the Pholadidae family (Bastida et al. This included examination of an early 20 th century pier. fungi and Foliculinidae of the biofouling community structure. Primary species were identified and nor isopods) on wooden panels was observed under quantified. but only about 1% showed clear evidence of teredind activity. While no living wood-borers (Figure 7). they are present throughout in the area. No wood-borer activity (neither mollusk microscope. Analysis of the (ciliated protozoans). with one exception. historical and oral information was used to identify anthropic activities that took place in the Swift site area between its sinking and the present to assess their role in site formation processes. 1972a). One of the tunnels still retains its spars) that floated away from the calcium carbonate lining. and natural and anthropic wooden elements left by tides on the beach. even in dominated by colonial species of tunicates Paramolgula some small artifacts. Documentary sources explain how survivors of the wreck managed to rescue some objects Figure 6. previously that water temperature is the main factor regulating documented in some parts of the Argentinean coast. The latter were able to perforate 6-. These exceeds 20 cm (Figure 6b). . ship in the days after the sinking. developing were colonized including Ulmus sp.Intersecciones en Antropología . (oak) and pinaceae. with a length that in some cases gregaria and Cnedomicarpa verrucosa. warm months show greater taxonomic diversity wood occasionally. CULTURAL FORMATION PROCESSES Documentary. It should be noted that observed tunnels were eroded to a great extent indicating that the colonization was not recent. The activity of wood-borers was also considered. but not in the Puerto Deseado area (Bastida and Torti Wood panels host higher biomass than acrylic ones. consistent with the fact that their members colonize Indeed. Larger months. the presence of calcareous pallets remain the same all year round. and their maximum density and biomass the stereomicroscope during the two-year experimental calculated (see Grosso 2008 and Elkin et al.

by stable layers of sediments. At et al. Finally. interventions on the site must be considered. previously protected indigenous groups. which probably the ship. causing small ships was operating near the wreck site. Enzymes secreted by fungi and when the town of Puerto Deseado was founded. Large physical and chemical damage (Blanchette 2000). artifacts and people inhabiting the adjacent land were nomadic structural components of the ship. like the bow and composition and microscopic structure of wood are starboard side. the chemical the most exposed structural remains. a) Wooden panels after one year of immersion. which usually occurs when the wood is have damaged the Swift. Likewise. hemicellulose and lignin). making it more porous and permeable to In the last decades of the 20 century. the second case is of sediment. no salvage operations contexts. the only superficial layer of sediment. Deseado evolved into one of the most active commercial Even if artifacts maintain their general shape. however. These materials all lack information about their Figure 7. so their which were used to build tents (Gower 1803). This might have been abrasive sediment particles transported by currents can an important factor in the physical deterioration of erode artifacts (Jones 2003). frequently visited by vessels since the 16 th century. four field seasons were carried or “opportunistic” recoveries (sensu Gibbs 2006) are out by the Argentinean Committee of the International documented for the wreck site. became exposed at least that Puerto Deseado is a natural harbor that has been temporarily during archaeological excavation activities. Puerto th the water. In the harbor. and causes decomposition of in this area anchors and fishing tackle often became molecules’ compounds (Pournou 1999). According to biodeterioration models. large changes in their structural tissue and external vessels are frequently towed between the wharf and appearance may occur. Furthermore. It is important to mention. sediment surface or buried up to 50 cm. Afterward. According to the Additionally.affects the superficial levels due to biotic activity. modified. At bacteria break down wooden cell walls (composed the beginning of the 20th century a pier for boats and mainly of cellulose. but the anchors of boats and small ships could hydrolysis. After discovery of the shipwreck in 1982. For example. including draught. crew members dived into the wreck divers’ reports. Dredging is also occasionally performed . the artifacts were distributed on the and managed to recover rigging elements and sails. It from the Swift site have polished edges caused by is likely that the movement of the propellers -some marine abrasion and others have a rough surface of them very powerful. At that time. Post-depositional processes studies of wooden artifacts from the 18th century Swift shipwreck site (Patagonia. no permanent human settlement subsequent archaeological work. until 1884 after a ship sinks. Although salvaging shipwreck remains used to be a common practice. the Swift site is very near the tow path. ports on the Patagonian coast. 2011). and only few artifacts were recovered (Elkin belonged to the Swift (Viedma [1837] 2006: 74-78). and one reference to such activity is the collection of rigging season by Fundación Albenga. vessels could not come close to the shore due to their Non-biotic processes also take place. 2011). colonization In the 18 th and 19 th centuries few settlements by different microorganisms begins almost immediately were established along the estuary coast. After the extraction would have disturbed archaeological survivors left Puerto Deseado. available evidence suggests that it PRESERVATION AND DISTRIBUTION is possible the Swift remained virtually unknown below PROCESSES the water’s surface until recently. A local resident indicated that immersed in water. and also over the course of the time of the wreck. Quite often. entangled (Elkin et al. some artifacts a dry dock. but a recent assessment during one of these operations indicated that it had no noticeable impact on the site (Elkin et al. 2011). Argentina) 63 near the site. b) Significant growth of biofouling precise location (Elkin et form one of the acrylic panels after two years of immersion. divers’ displacement could be found within hundreds of kilometers of the and equipment operation might have disturbed the wreck. The main goal of these elements that were found on the coast by Antonio initiatives was to perform non-intrusive recording of de Viedma´s expedition in 1780. al. The only historical Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). local divers retrieved nearly 180 artifacts. In this way. 2011). Until the end of the 18 th century.

The boxes and a chest. which supports arguments that It has also been noted that specific substances of different wood species and their hardness are not certain wood species can be toxic for microorganisms. as was observed in some cases. which made possible to identify potential loss of archaeological information caused by completely corroded elements (e.support its shape (Jones 2003). artifacts’ biodeterioration than some “hardwoods” (angiosperms). both made from create empty spaces in the wood.g. 2011). use. calcareous materials. biodeterioration (Jones 2003). Despite the fact Fagus sp exhibit clear differences in their preservation. which. hinges and locks) these factors must be considered. objects made from not a chronic problem in this area. This preservative effect has been fixing. Additionally. and Fraxinus sp. in the lower excavation levels in the stern area that The particular physical and chemical properties of show signs of colonization. In this respect. it takes different wood species are also relevant factors when time for the wood to be eroded enough to expose considering the degradation and water-saturation teredinid tunnels and to lose the internal carbonate. as soon as those compounds leach and the remaining lignin -more resistant to degradation out. Despite being fragile. these species become equally vulnerable to than cellulose.. The However.. (birch). (beech) and Fraxinus sp. even minor organic activity from collapsing (Grattan 1987). C omparing the effects of different biodeterioration agents.) were coastal survey supports the hypothesis that they are found at the Swift site. prevent its micro-structure is significantly decayed. This results in resistance. Bastida and Torti 1972a). where Bankia martensi has been become completely saturated within a few hours of identified. determining factors for wood-borer settlement (e. general shape may remain unchanged because water Nevertheless. typically communities over more than two hundred years. forms and sizes. Grosso . . that there is no clear evidence of teredind activity at likely due to differences in their depositional histories. have occurred in the first years following the wreckage.. Furthermore. Once the ship wrecked. colonization events may be cyclical through For example. exposed than the stern.Special Issue 1 (2014) 55-69 also associated with a significant loss of hardness and thus inhibiting bacterial decay. Fagus sp. Nair and Saraswathy 1971. several artifacts manufactured with some scarcity of wood-borer activity observed during the of these species (i. of several artifacts from the Swift. Based on observation that otherwise would not have been noticed. Grosso There is some evidence to support this such as artifacts 2011).e. development. The degree to which organisms can leave In underwater environments wood permeability impressions on wood surfaces depends on both can be counteracted by the deposition of inorganic the way they associate with the substratum and the salts. a location more be dismissed (Elkin et al. Fagus sp. and detachment of organisms and observed in several artifacts from the Swift. where well preserved objects In situ observations reveal that colonization has (such as a shoe last) were found completely covered spread over structural elements and objects of varied by sediments (Figure 8). we must bear and the amount of time the artifacts have remained in mind the cumulative effects of continuous cycles of in that environment. (ash) Falkland Islands.Intersecciones en Antropología . could have expanded to the entire shipwreck. marine borers have been said to produce the most severe damage in a relatively short amount of time (Gregory 1998). Tunnels Figure 8. processes in the marine environment. exhibit differential preservation as a consequence of their particular which increase its permeability post-depositional history. if the artifact metal corrosion. or ownership (such as inscriptions and stamps. such losses include Colonization by teredinid mollusk larvae may also features associated with the artifacts’ manufacture.. This process depends might leave marks (Figure 6a). 64 M. the most degraded artifacts (tableware time. and their future presence at the site should not pieces) were found in the galley area.g. A shoe last (INA 399) and a plate fragment (INA 471). Furthermore. present. colonization being submerged and scarcely survive in the water. Therefore. regarding on the chemical characteristics of the environment the consequences of tunicate detachment. It is likely that wood- it has been stated that porous woods like Betula borer activity in the Swift began in the Malvinas / sp. It is interesting to note also that artifact size has no apparent relation to the intensity of colonization (Figure 6b). the wood becomes extremely soft (or spongy) some coniferous species being more resistant to at the slightest contact. and the byproducts of condition of the wood tissue. Fagus sp.

In addition. bulkheads have been largely preserved materials. There its density and mechanical resistance (Pournou 1999). decks and bulkheads could have led to the dispersion though they do affect their long-term preservation of artifacts that had originally been retained in (Gregory 1998). After the sinking. This leads to a reduction in already well developed (Bastida et al. so them more vulnerable to being displaced by currents. In combination with this. with the exception of specialized (anaerobic) bacteria. because the lack of oxygen prevents the development of most organisms. Part of this sea chest component was seriously further weakened them. the elements that remained more exposed or closer to the water surface –the rigging. though they did colonize the decks planks. may have played a role in structural collapse. 2004). the superficial stability of sediments can be modified by currents. contextual associations an obstacle that slows down tidal currents. As mentioned previously. is no clear evidence of wood-borers on beams and which reduces the weight of wood objects and makes frames. until The integrity of the objects themselves was poorly a certain stability was reached. the bow and part of the starboard side– would likely have suffered the buffeting of waves and tidal currents. At the stern ceramic fragments. it was observed that artifacts belonging to the missing sectors of the upper deck more severely colonized by wood-borers were more might have slipped towards the portside or collapsed prone to fragmentation. However it is worth noting that even a small portion of a wooden artifact that remains exposed it is enough for wood-borers to colonize the whole piece (Figure 9). Post-depositional processes studies of wooden artifacts from the 18th century Swift shipwreck site (Patagonia. chests and boxes and their possible The formation of an anoxic environment is contents.. For these reasons. The wreck constitutes preserved. This is why. . On the contrary. consequently. 2008) and large colonies of tunicates attached to the structural timbers could have Figure 9. archaeological work. material. All of these factors can result in the exposure of archaeological materials to new oxygenated conditions. materials on the less significant diagnostic potential. the mechanical effects of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Bastida et al. Argentina) 65 and structural fragility. Recording the structural remains provided a more comprehensive view of the possible processes and successive stages of the ship’s deterioration and. In turn. different attributes (e. case of cupboards. of the distribution and preservation of its contents. making them vulnerable to deterioration. within one processes. slow but constant process since the Swift sank. acting as should be interpreted with caution. macrofouling communities were can clearly be observed (Photo: C. according to the results of deteriorated because of wood-borers activity and erosion the experimental studies it is likely that. contrary to what happens with glass or and whether they were fixed or loose). those elements At the Swift site. Small fragments are more together with that part of the ship. particularly organic ones. and bioturbation produced by benthonic invertebrates. wooden fragments tend to have a excavation area (captains’ quarters). sediment coverage also protects materials from the marine erosion produced by the sediment transportation of tidal currents. whose effects. fungi and bacteria play a relatively minor role The deterioration of structural boundaries like in the deterioration of marine archaeological wood. particularly in the a sediment trap. weight. as well as the consequences of anthropic impact.g. can be cumulative and significant (Ferrari and Adams 1990). depending on their susceptible to further biotic and abiotic deterioration. dimensions. Murray). For example. ship compartments. in the lower levels of the beneficial to the preservation of archaeological excavation. sediment surface or near it did not maintain a clear contextual association. Objects that seem to come The deposition of thin particles of sediment was a from the collapsed starboard area were found there. while generally minor. A well preserved area due to sediment coverage year of the wreck.

and personal belongings survival and integrity of the archaeological record. 2013). even in those cases where human activity defined. site where sedimentation was rapid. the interventions at the site are temporarily suspended until further progress with stabilization treatments can be made at the conservation laboratory. the biotic and abiotic microdeterioration processes in wooden artifacts is an issue that still requires investigation at the site. CONCLUSIONS Teredinids have played a fundamental role in the decay of wooden artifacts –resulting in partial or complete Regarding post-depositional processes affecting the destruction– and also in their spatial distribution. The handling of wooden artifacts –underwater and on Figure 10. the bottom slope. the essential factors affecting the survival Fouling organisms can also produce certain deleterious effects. area with a very well preserved content (Photo: C.. Jones 2003. to excavated areas and individual components. preventing the collapse of wood this relationship not simply in terms of the environment components and preserving the original content.. Finally. The results obtained to date allowed us to understand preservational and distributional processes at different scales.g.Intersecciones en Antropología . and a cupboard and its content that on the depositional microenvironment and the have maintained their contextual relations. Palma 2004). the recovered data highlight aspects that must be taken into account when working at the site. particularly the loss of surface evidence in artifacts. In addition. Pournou 1999. The research should continue as the excavation progresses in new areas. This research field has not yet been pursued in Argentine Patagonian waters and in the future could be developed in the region based in the work carried out in the last years by several research projects (e. The integrity of materials folding stools) found in what it seems to be its original is related to complex processes. Sediment physicochemical properties of the wood. The spatial location and the environmental characteristics and their particular integrity of the objects there seemed more clearly dynamics. This includes artifact provenience. Some examples of this are furniture (e. Swift site.Special Issue 1 (2014) 55-69 and permitted the distinction between the Captain’s and distribution of archaeological materials are the cabin and his chamber. This influence on the archaeological materials. both in the aggressiveness of their action but also the rapidity of their colonization. from the site as a whole. but as an pattern has also been observed in other areas of the interaction between them. Murray). both in terms of continued study of formation processes and in situ preservation assessment. the prevailing current direction have been the most The results obtained in these studies have been important factors that determined the distribution essential to discuss research questions related to material of artifacts towards the portside and stern areas. Grosso . it is important to approach ironwork corroded. The accumulation of sediment at the Swift site function. even in levels The shipwreck process. links between has been a major a control agent. had a considerable influence. which in turn depend storage location. versus navy property (see Grosso 2011. even if the artifacts appear to be in a good . At present.g. Teredinid mollusks have been the primary agent of biodeterioration. 66 M. Medicine chest found on the superficial level in the amidhsip land– must be done with extreme care. Manders 2004. and contextual associations. facilitating the objects and crew members. As Ferrari accumulated inside boxes and chests before nails and and Adams (1990) indicate. culture at the Swift site. and close to the surface (Figure 10).

I would also like to thank Women Divers 189-204. D. Hamilton. R. D. World Archaeology 32 (3): 292-310. M. of each fieldwork season. Dr. R. Trassens. Left Coast Press. Hall of Fame for the Cecelia Connelly Memorial Scholarship in Underwater Archaeology. Southern Argentina. archaeological sites. Physis 31 (82): 39-50. excavated areas must be I. site should be carried out. R. R. for the assessment of other sites less well preserved Martin than the Swift. C. II.g. pest and protection. Secretaría de Cultura de la Nación. Chapman & Murray and Alejandra Elías for their comments. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology Adams. Catsambis. Grosso and D. D. Acknowledgements Bastida. Limnoriidae) en el puerto de considerable contribution to understanding formation Mar del Plata. M. Argüeso. Oxford University Press. Murray. R. Dr. Municipalidad de 2000 A review of microbial deterioration found in Puerto Deseado. Physis 31 (82): 143-153. Vainstub. M. Elkin. Specialized Studies section coordinated by years. Bastida and V. Dellino-Musgrave 2007 Archaeological research on HMS Swift: a British Sloop-of-War lost off Patagonia. Corrosion Reviews. Gobierno de Santa Cruz and the British Embassy in International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 46: Argentina. R. Grosso. Walnut bibliography. contributed to the accomplishment of this research edited by M. Museo Municipal Mario Brozoski. I am especially grateful to my PhD environmental agents in the formation of underwater directors.. Bastida. D. case study of the effects of biodeterioration on the underwater cultural heritage of Patagonia. since the structure of the wood could be Bastida. La presencia de Lyrodus pedicelatus (Quatrefages. Arqueología marítima en la who have generously provided their help through these Patagonia. and M. Martin and M. Pelecypoda) en el puerto de Mar del colonization on newly oxygenated wood (see Gregory Plata. Post-depositional processes studies of wooden artifacts from the 18th century Swift shipwreck site (Patagonia. both in underwater and intertidal 2004 The British sloop of war HMS Swift (1770): a environments of the Argentine Patagonian coast. London. . I would also like to thank all the people Creek. particularly the PROAS members Bastida.. processes at the Swift site was achieved. E. Swift Project since it beginning: Fundación Antorchas. Elkin. 1972b. 173-185. Special Issue: Biodeterioration of Cultural Heritage 22 (5-6): 417-440. and M. 1951) (Isopoda. which I had Eaton. In El naufragio de identifications. in REFERENCES 1770. R. L. Clave para el reconocimiento de los Teredinidae 1998. Ford and D. M. Bastida significantly Archaeology in Latin America and the Caribbean. Grosso and the team of the Laboratorio de Ecología Bentónica 2011 El papel de los sedimentos en la formación y y Biodeterioro (Mar del Plata University). J.. archaeological wood from different environments. At the end 1972a. 2001 Ships and boats as archaeological source material. periodic monitoring of the sudamericanos. pp. Dolores Elkin and Dr. La presencia de Limnoria (Limnoria) tripunctata In light of the information obtained to date. A. J. Ricardo Bastida.. C. Oxford. and to the friends from Puerto Deseado la HMS Swift (1770). Organismos perforantes de las costas argentinas. This knowledge may also be relevant for building predictive models Bastida. D. Organismos perforantes de las costas argentinas. 685- Ana Castelli for her assistance with the translation and 707. Thanks also to A.. Oxford Handbook of Maritime Archaeology. In The observations and suggestions to improve this work. pp. A. B. a (Menzies. refilled with sediment) to avoid further 1849) (Mollusca. Hale the honor to receive. to the anonymous reviewers and the editors Karen Elkin. to Marilin conservación de los sitios arqueológicos subacuáticos: Castro and Glenn McConnachie for wood anatomical el caso de la HMS Swift (1770). Decay. P. Several institutions have supported the HMS R. Vázquez Mazzini. Lastly. edited by as well as for translating the abstract. who have worked or assisted in the fieldwork and laboratory analyses. Trassens and J. 36 (1): 32-58. among others). In Underwater and Maritime for their guidance and support. and Hall. Buenos Aires. Borrazzo and Celeste Weitzel for their valuable 2011 Shipwreck Archaeology in South America. pp. 27-57. covered (e. Torti very weak and therefore easily damaged. M. Luna and has generously provided me with specialized Erreguerena. Leshikar-Denton and P. P. Argentina) 67 condition. Grosso. Blanchette. I gratefully acknowledge Cristian 1993 Wood. to Raven Garvey for her helpful review of the English language that have improved the final manuscript. R. Elkin This research was only possible after many years 2008 The role of benthic communities and of joint work.

Maniscalco. London. Department of Cultural Resources. Portsmouth. . Santa Cruz). Universidad de Buenos Aires. Conway Maritime Press. Grosso. Rae Natalie Prosser Goodall.. D. An archaeological 2006 Cultural Site Formation Processes in Maritime approach. R. Yonge. Journal of Nautical Archaeology 27 (4): 343-358. The International Archaeology: Disaster Response. D. siglo XVIII (Puerto Deseado. Pearson. K. National Board of Antiquities. Deseado. Cambridge University Press. edited by F. pp. Winchester and Son. Buenos Contribución Científica N° 30. Portsmouth. O. Prosser Goodall. 335-509. Vázquez Mazzini. 2011 Estudios de cultura material en sitios históricos de 1978 Tierra del Fuego. Intersecciones Thomson. E. 1987 The underwater environment. Saraswathy Gower. 1998 Marine growth on shipwrecks. State of North 1998 Re-burial of timbers in the marine environment Carolina. L. 101-115. R. en Antropología 14: 157-170. The International Palma. 68 M. The International Journal of pp. Underwater Exploration 19 (2): 139-151. Butterworths. D. Marine Archaeological Objects. A. edited by N. Grosso . Bulletin Series QUR-R-09-01. In 1803 An Account of the Loss of His Majesty’s Advances in Marine Biology. in Port Desire. Manders. Kühnemann. El uso de la madera Harberton. In Conservation of Marine Wooden Items Recovered from Shipwreck 31CR314.Special Issue 1 (2014) 55-69 Elkin. Butterworths. 2011 El naufragio de la HMS Swift (1770). The Grosso. pp. Research Report and 67. Nair. Buenos Aires. A. London. Muckelroy 30 Years on. E. en artefactos del barco británico HMS Swift (siglo XVIII). M. 1997 The biodegradation of the wreck Day Dawn. M. The Mary Rose Trust. Cambridge. Gregory. Conservation of a Tudor Archaeology 21 (1&2): 119-124. W. Miller Grattan. Elkin and D. Bastida. B. Academic Press. Argüeso. PhD Thesis. C. and M. Protection and International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Appraisal of Underwater Cultural Heritage. Pearson. 1971 The biology of wood boring teredinid molluscs. naufragio en el litoral patagónico. Underwater Archaeology Branch. Acerca de los the Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology 22: enseres de almacenaje en un barco de guerra inglés del 107-108. pp. Napoli. Buenos Aires (CD ROM). N. 279-292. University of de Filosofía y Letras. 2008 Arqueología de naufragios: estudio de procesos de formación naturales en el sitio HMS Swift (Puerto Pournou. Ciarlo 1971 Vegetación Marina de la Ría de Puerto Deseado. Vainstub Gibbs. 1770. N. M-L. B and J. Salvage and Annual of the Historic Sailing Ship. 2003 The Sloop-of-War HMS Swift. In Conservation of 1978 Maritime Archaeology. In Undergraduate thesis. pp. and R. 55. Santa Cruz). The and BACPOLES. Facultad Zakynthos wreck. M.. 9. and M. Vainstub. marítima en la Patagonia. Vol. P. M. 1999 In situ protection and conservation of the Departamento de Ciencias Antropológicas II. C. C. School of Biological Sciences. Newsom. Florian. Portsmouth. Maritime Collection.Intersecciones en Antropología . London. Aires. A. L. Denmark. 1-20. Massa. Archaeological Objects. Ferrari. B. 2009 Wood Species Analysis of Ship Timbers and 1987 Waterlogged wood. edited by C. 2004 Final Report for the Monitoring theme of the MoSS Project. Russel Sloop’Swift’. Queen Anne´s Revenge Site. edited by C. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Adams 2004 Protecting Common Maritime Heritage. The 1990 Biogenic modifications of marine sediments Netherlands involved in two EU-projects: MoSS and their influence on archaeological material. Underwood and N. S. D. and New York. Murray. Queen Anne´s Revenge Shipwreck Project. edited by F. London on the 13th of March. Tracy. Murray. PhD dissertation. Randell. on the Coast of Patagonia. Buenos Aires. Mediterraneum 4. (editor) The Bulletin of the Australian Institute for Maritime 2003 For future generations. Arqueología Centro de Investigación de Biología Marina. Nautical Archaeology 35 (1): 4-19. Moss Newsletter Final Report: 8-37. Jones. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Muckelroy. The Bulletin of 2013 Qué llevar y cómo transportarlo. as a means of their long term storage: experimental studies in Lynæs Sands. In The Age of Sail 1. Londres. M. D.

dure (see Jones 2003.... Tello. Post-depositional processes studies of wooden artifacts from the 18th century Swift shipwreck site (Patagonia.Some of the Swift´s artifacts are at different stages of the de Navegación. desde el puerto de Santa Elena hasta (sensu Gibbs 2006) is in Elkin et al. Continente.. 45. among others).The identification of wood taxonomy based on its ana- Ward. la boca del Estrecho de Magallanes. Expediciones por las costas y ríos conservation treatment. directed by N. wooden patagónicos (1780-1783). 3.. Veth tomical characteristics has limitations because generally the 1999 A New Process-based Model for Wreck Site possible taxonomic specificity reaches only the level of genus Formation. A. P.A detailed analysis of this “response to shipwreck’s threat” Patagonia. artifacts must be stabilized and dried in a controlled proce- 98. I. Larcombre and P. Once taken out of the water. de NOTES [1837] 2006 Diario de un viaje a la costa de la 1. wood sample may inhibit or make difficult the identification (Newsom and Miller 2009).. . pp. (2011). Journal of Archaeological Science 26: or subgenus. Argentina) 69 Viedma. Also. In Diarios 2. Buenos Aires. the deterioration of the cell structure of the 561-570.

Intersecciones en Antropología .Special Issue 1 (2014) 55-69 .70 M. Grosso .

| 71 Taphonomy of a village: the early 20th century site of Mariano Miró (Chapaleufú department. Historic Archaeology. UBA. RESUMEN TAFONOMÍA DE UN PUEBLO: EL SITIO MARIANO MIRÓ DE PRINCIPIOS DEL SIGLO XX (DEPARTAMENTO DE CHAPALEUFÚ. We analyze taphonomic processes at both the artifact and the assemblage level. Desde la perspectiva de la arqueología histórica. Los procesos tafonómicos son analizados desde la escala del artefacto y su distribución espacial considerando múltiples variables (tamaño. Instituto de Arqueología. 8 (1002). 25 de Mayo 217 3° of. Argentina) was a town of nearly 500 inhabitants.com Virginia Pineau. Esperamos poder comprender la dinámica de formación que afectó al sitio y generar expectativas para contextos tafonómicos similares de la región. CONICET. UBA. Argentina) Carlos Landa. El sitio Mariano Miró (departamento Chapaleufú. 8 (1002). Keywords: Mariano Miró. UBA). Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. trampling. “Ghost town”.Special Issue 1: 71-84. 3° piso. 8 (1002). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). FFyL. of. thermal alteration. Ghost Town. UBA. of. GIS. Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Arqueología. meteorización. ARGENTINA). Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Arqueología. GIS. weathering.UNCPBA . actividades antrópicas y animales cavadores). pisoteo. 25 de Mayo 217 3° of. 25 de Mayo 217. ISSN 1850-373X Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record.com Emanuel Montanari. Landa. 2014. considering multiple variables including size.Argentina . E-mail: virpineau@gmail. La Pampa Province. We use GIS to interrelate the selected variables and assess the roles of various taphonomic agents in shaping the characteristics and distributions of materials at Mariano Miró. The information pertaining to formation processes obtained from Mariano Miró is potentially useful for generating expectations for and understanding other sites in the region that exhibit similar taphonomic conditions. 25 de Mayo 217 3° piso. se propone reconstruir las historias tafonómicas del conjunto artefactual de superficie de este “Ghost town”. Accepted 28 April 2014 ABSTRACT The Mariano Miró archaeological site (Chapaleufú Department. Instituto de Arqueología. E-mail: emanuelmontanari@gmail. Palabras clave: Mariano Miró. FFyL. Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Carlos G.com Jimena Doval. Tafonomía.com Intersecciones en Antropología . La Pampa. this paper aims to reconstruct the taphonomic histories of surface artifact assemblages from the Mariano Miró ghost town. E-mail: carlosglanda@gmail. Provincia de La Pampa. Arqueología histórica. Copyright © Facultad de Ciencias Sociales . Taphonomy. Universidad de Buenos Aires (FFyL. From the Historical Archaeology perspective. E-mail: jdoval84@hotmail. Argentina) fue un pueblo de casi 500 habitantes fundado en 1901 y abandonado en 1911. Emanuel Montanari and Jimena Doval Received 29 August 2013. founded in 1901 and abandoned in 1911. 8 (1002). alteración térmica. Se utiliza sistema de información geográfica (SIG) para interrelacionar las diferentes variables de análisis y evaluar la incidencia de los distintos agentes tafonómicos en las características y distribución de los materiales. anthropic activities and burrowing animal activities. site topography. Virginia Pineau. topografía del terreno. Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. FFyL. LA PAMPA.

which is why we at that time. As a first approach to the site. Processual archaeology Vilches et al. Lastly. Taphonomy was originally defined by Efremov 32. and in order to which was exponential growth beginning in the late assess the integrity and resolution of the surface 1960s–early 1970s (Mengoni Goñalons 1988. tenants. contributing end of the 19th century. we 1984. it emphazise its inclusion within investigation protocols was established by a train station of the same name as a significant step towards the interpretation of in 1901 and abandoned in 1911. Weissel 2010. Mariano Miró began as a rural village in what. potential and limitations in the comparison of different farmers.Special Issue 1 (2014) 71-84 INTRODUCTION sites with similar characteristics. Lawrence and and actualistic studies had a strong influence on the Davies 2010. merchants. 2010. like Mariano Miró. have focused on evaluating the resolution of samples bone. were paleontological and archaeological studies by the abandoned have been studied worldwide. Borrazzo 2004. regional identity.900 m2). In this Taphonomic analyses are not usually applied in context. we hope to understand the “traditional taphonomy”. among others). of anthropic and natural agents on the formation of thermal alteration. Landa et al. agricultural activities. Fantuzzi 2010. it may provide State. it was not until the second to an “Archaeology of abandonment” or “Archaeology half of the 20th century that they reached their present of ghost towns” (Neville and Hooker 1997. Thus. weathering. sharecroppers. photos and 1985. Fuentes 2010. accompanied by railway expansion that connected distant areas. Lyman (2010). social practices at the site such as those related to thousands of hectares of productive lands in discard and cleaning during its occupation. agricultural censuses. It into lots and awarded to a small number of individuals. denies the inclusion of such formation dynamics that affected the site and to approaches within the scope of taphonomic studies. us to interrelate different variables and evaluate the extending its theoretical-methodological precepts to effects of taphonomic agents on the condition and the study of inorganic materials such as ceramics (Reid distribution of surface materials. 2008. migrant workers.began to occupy these spaces. derive expectations for understandin other regional believing them to be within the field of formation . Borrero record. 2007) and phytoliths (Piperno oral story-telling to provide data for the investigation. and the action of burrowing animals. lithics (Hiscock population censuses. Bell 1998.for each record under study. Pérez Winter et al. ideas and merchandise. development of taphonomic research in archaeology. and assess a Lyman 1994. A TAPHONOMIC ITINERARY Currently. Landon 2009. the current Pampean territory in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. we aim to reconstruct the taphonomic 2011). which in turn led to Argentina’s penetration of a “diagnosis” -in terms of preservation conditions. focusing on settlements constitute a significant part of the present their transition from the biosphere to the litosphere. used a host of documentary sources such as maps. peoples. the archaeological record. international markets (Oszlak 1997). was the national territory of La Pampa. and material distributions through space. . trampling.Intersecciones en Antropología . we hope the results of our taphonomic analysis will allow us probe After the so-called “Conquest of the Desert” 1. a staunch defender of By these methods. samples at regional and supra-regional level (Borrazzo the first rural villages developed. 2011). This process was 2007: 147). However. Many villages associated with Although taphonomic studies were developed in capitalist production that. This led to economic expansion and the consolidation of the Nation in every routine of archaeological work. As different “social actors” of current material patterns as well as recognizing the -settlers. 1985). Taphonomic studies in archaeological research histories of surface remains (glass. clear evidence that settlement attempts (1940) as the study of the changes that animal remains were not always successful. among others) (Binford 1981). it considers the incidence number of variables including topography. 2010). In addition. the field of historical archaeology. The present study historical archaeological sites and social practices of contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of the past (Brittez 2009. Argentina were Borrazzo. pottery. will help us understand and explain the complex genesis creating large latifundia. Peyton 2012. metal. expression (Lyman 1994). Bernabeu Aubán et al. Following southwestern Buenos Aires Province. earthenware. The remains of failed undergo from their death to their burial. object size. Our In the last few years some researchers have gone use of geographic information systems (GIS) allowd beyond the original purview of taphonomic research. Land was divided resolution and integrity. spatial occupation by the first tenants of villages in among others). 72 C. Ozán 2009. the only traces of Mariano Miró are abundant artifacts on the surface of a vast area (ca. We and understanding the dynamics generated by diverse analyze taphonomic processes at both the artifact level agents on organic remains (Gifford González 1981. we take a taphonomic perspective: incorporated to the national territory.

why we prefer the following definition: Lewarch and O´Brien 1981a. Odell and Cowan 2011: 5). O’Brien 1981a. The processes and effects on the archaeological The effect of plowing on vertical movement has r e c or d g e n e ra te d b y a g ric u ltu ra l t as ks has been studied thoroughly by Dunnel and Simek (1995). Furthermore. That is. González de on vertical displacement of the archaeological record. it is necessary to take Odell and Cowan 1987. dumps and/or subsurface dwellings should still be possible in the plowzone. Ammerman 1985. Niknami 2003. Odell and Cowan 1987). it does not completely of the taphonomic history of surface assemblages can destroy spatial associations. 1990. and fragmentation of smaller objects located 1999. The second proposes that even if the plow is a significant agent in the fragmentation and shifting In this sense. González de Bonaveri and Taphonomy today is much more than the study of Senatore 1991. among others). Ots 2008. original location (Roper 1976. archaeological original spatial association of surface artifacts and or forensic assemblage. Odell and Cowan 1987. Dunnell and Simek 1995. Argentina) 73 processes (Lyman 2010). These on which researchers generally agree derives from studies are considered essential contributions to frames experiments that helped determine that the effect of of reference that improve our taphonomic understanding plowing on fragmentation of archaeological remains of sites and archaeological assemblages at different is averaged through time—initially causing a rapid scales. literature describing taphonomic research related to some show increased shifting among larger objects organic remains is vast and will not be considered in whereas in others indicate a random correlation detail here (Binford 1981. 1981b. and he reports that shifting is Plowzone archaeology greater on steep slopes. The first states that the plow destroys the components […] of any paleontological. Dunnell and Simek have been common. similar environmental conditions. La Pampa. Lewarch surface. What follows is a brief introduction to research reduction in material size that is later stabilized— of significance to the present study. agents and effects in different contexts so to understand relationships between artifact size that they contribute to our particular case study. them into account to assess the relevance of diverse Boismier 1997). Another issue inorganic materials such as pottery and glass. Bonaveri and Senatore 1991. Results of numerous studies designed processes. The and displacement have been inconsistent. have been developed to analyze taphonomic evidence single-direction plowing causes a bigger shift than bi- in the archaeological record. 1981b. among on the upper portion of the plowzone. between size/distance (Trubowitz 1978. 1981b. Dunnell and Simek 1995. This conservative standpoint others). Yorston et al. Harvey 2012. comprising its constituent moves materials laterally up to 15 meters from their materials and its context (Dominguez-Rodrigo et al. There are two main views lithosphere. especially in very large contexts O´Brien 1981a. Clark and Schofield 1991. 1987). interpretations of concentrations as the results of activity areas. simulation and interpretation of plowing ranges between 20 and 40 cm below ground surface and subsurface records (Roper 1976. Lewarch and Lyman 1994. Nicholson and Malainey 1995. Plowzone research has of inquiry that require expansion of analytical horizons focused on horizontal shifting and fragmentation of the to an “irrestrictive taphonomy” (Borrero 2011). Here we mention a few interesting results is untenable in the face of the new and numerous lines to contextualize our study. numerous lines of research materials are moved in the direction of the plow. among others). 1981b. Taphonomy of a village: the early 20th century site of Mariano Miró (Chapaleufú department. Ammerman 1985. Ammerman (1985) has indicated a need to consider the slope of the terrain. Gómez Romero mixture. The equipment used and geomorphological and O´Brien 1981a. whereas below . we believe that the reconstruction of archaeological remains. Ots 2008. 1995. 1981b. including the impact of directional plowing. Dunnell 1990). Although the cited and that it generates a distribution tending towards works do not refer specifically to the same region or to unimodal (Lewarch and O’Brien 1981a. been addressed in numerous studies based on who suggest that the area most substantially affected by experimentation. Therefore. and/or those where agricultural-livestock activities 1990. it is the study of the dynamic processes of the impact of agricultural work on archaeological of modification of the original properties of all the sites. Mengoni Goñalons 1988. archaeologists should expect removal. Dunnell and Simek In affected areas. ARCHAEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND Supporters of both views agree that because Over the last 30 years. the transition of organisms from the biosphere to the Harvey 2012. Yorston et al. Odell features are significant factors conditioning the effect and Cowan 1987. Riordan 1988. moving materials less provide information pertaining to aspects of sites that than 6 meters from their initial position (Lewarch and are often overlooked. 1995). which tends to average the effect plowing and trampling. and studies of alterations to (Roper 1976. That is archaeological record caused by plowing (Roper 1976.

Results should be found (Yorston et al 1990. 2010). Eren et al. and agricultural equipment has fragility (Fantuzzi 2010).Iridescence: presence of gleaming caused by sandy se- (Gifford González et al. Ozán 2009. and in the damage they resistant to chemical alterations. Although the contexts of the studies 1991). unaffected by this agent. more damage results reviewing the taphonomic literature contextualizes our (Nielsen 1991. Trampling by humans. 35° 01´ 31.Intersecciones en Antropología .  González et al. materials that match the particilar characteristics of the type of crops. 1985). . all such studies confirm that when artifacts presented above differ from that of the present study. The characterized by an absence of small objects. and porcelain. Landa et al. the of equifinality between the effects of plowing and effect would be averaged through time (Lewarch and trampling. 1985.Special Issue 1 (2014) 71-84 this area. Research on the effects of human alteration of glass edges. but more susceptible produce on artifacts. bigger objects. which must be considered when interpreting O´Brien 1981a. pottery. hardness and composition (Skibo 1992. which expansion agricultural has significantly modified the are incorporated into the sediment. 63° such as those associated with activity areas or dumps 48´71. Flegenheimer and Weitzel 2007). which may resemble a discrete concentration (Chapaleufú Department. destroying the dunes and caldén (Prosopis and large artifacts move the most and are likely to caldenia) forests that once predominated in this region. We 19th – early 20th century industrial production and may see an immediate need for experiments that take into not be directly comparable those used in actualistic account the particular characteristics of the study studies. Eren et al.. We will not devote attention to vertical artifact movement since this work focuses on surface assemblages. Boismier 1997). cannot penetrate the substrate. The pottery recovered at Mariano Miró was mass-produced and Trampling Studies characterized by low porosity. As with horizontal shifting. among others). which is more archaeological remains. Surface alterations to glass artifacts trampling on different artifact types in terms of both have been characterized according to categories damage and horizontal and vertical displacement suggested by Pineau (2010): . 1985. water and/or sand.g. obtained from experimentation indicate a problem Diez Martin 2009). Nielsen 1991). 74 C. 1988. and grinding of borders and walls caused by abrasive ceramic. trampling on a diversity of materials including some . brick and handicraft pottery). Its agents in the vertical and horizontal movement of properties are similar to those of glass. 1998. studies should be replicated using region (geomorphological features. MARIANO MIRÓ SITE: HISTORICAL CONTEXT AND EARLY RESEARCH Horizontal shifting due to trampling creates a clustered pattern towards the margins of the affected Mariano Miró is located in La Pampa Province area. Olsen and Shipman diments and heat.1´´ S. 1981b. Experiments chemical characteristics. ideally. etc. study of the surface record at Mariano Miró and helps whereas a soft substrate mitigates the effect and permits us avoid issues of equifinality. Alteration to ceramics are in the agricultural cycle. Concentrations have size patterns deposition of sand during the Pleistocene (Figure 1). rainfall patterns. are relevant to action including rolling down slopes or contact with our study of the Mariano Miró assemblage (Gifford. a lack of inclusions and Trampling is another area of research useful in high hardness due to high firing temperatures (e. gleam caused by environmental conditions with no 2010. Boismier 1997. glass is significantly affected designed to assess the effects of different types of by several agents.Physical weathering (erosionado): opacity of fragments historic and industrially manufactured ones (e. archaeological records. The type and Alteration of metal artifacts cannot be assessed compaction of sediments on which trampling took using the same analytical criteria since processes such place are important variables given that penetrability as corrosion often preclude macroscopic observation of diminish with increased substrate hardness (Nielsen specimen surfaces. among others). migration within the substrate (Gifford González et al.1´´ W).Chemical weathering (intemperizado): loss of original Weitzel 2007.. This brief review summarizes some of the primary archaeological research on cultivated lands. on dune-like plains formed by aeolian (Nielsen 1991). Mc Brearty et al. Flegenheimer and . Even Studies of non-organic materials when our results are not consistent with these findings. we will be able to establish a minimum/maximum Materials found at Mariano Miró are typical of late effect of the impact of agricultural tasks in a site. conditioned by its porosity. while medium landscape.) and their effects at particular stages Mariano Miró collections. assessing the effects of anthropic and non-anthropic earthenware. Lopinot and Ray 2007. animals to mechanical damage because of their extreme (large and small).g. Due to their physical and been evaluated by numerous researchers. be kicked (Nielsen 1991. . Fantuzzi 2010).

g. livestock. 65 collected surface materials The land where the town grew up was leased to the from the old settlement as an initiative to rediscover Santa Marina family. although the archaeological record and its context. In 2011. Studies of soil pH Pampean territory. the village was abandoned and its inhabitants founded new villages in the region including Alta Italia and Aguas Buenas (presently Hilario Lagos). Nonetheless. a some occupation to the north is mentioned as well local school teacher. Location of the site Mariano Miró in the north of the province of La Pampa. According different crops (e. considered humid. 2). wood and every usable material Figure 1. Sainz Rosas et al. Argentina) 75 of success. It is believed that the main part of the village which has significant implications for modificaiton of was extended 3 ha south of railway station. visibility conditions in the field after the harvest. which indicates 254 inhabitants and continued use of the railway station (National Institute of Statistics and Census. Giorgio 2008). 2008).2 to 6.. fieldwork is performed after the harvest. Taphonomy of a village: the early 20th century site of Mariano Miró (Chapaleufú department. the place where the settlement was located 800 mm. as well as the fact that lands were indicate slight acidity (pH 5. Around 1911. The region is Colombato 1995. Village abandonment was become fixed by vegetation. making the region suitable for landowners on which the lease system was based in agriculture and animal husbandry. Argentina. This lack of documentation makes studies of oral history all the more important. Accounts from settlers of Hilario Lagos indicate that those who left Mariano Miró brought along tin plates. It is the village consisted of almost 500 inhabitants and likely that these fields have been used for agriculture a typical variety of stores related to agriculture and and pasturage since the village was abandoned. Archive of the Railway Friends Association).2) (Romano and often sublet by colonizing companies (Cazenave 1971. soybean) leave diverse to data in the 1905 national Census of Territories. Alicia Macagno. falling predominantly between October and is plowzone largely under soybean cultivation (Figure March (Servicio Meteorológico Nacional). Zinda 2007. with an annual average rainfall of Presently. as shown by the census of 1912. so the story of the average camp has not won much space in old men’s memoirs”. Documentation of Mariano Miró’s decade of occupation is scarce. as Jackson notes (1963 in Peyton 2012: 307) “Men have a tendency to forget rather than record disappointment and failure. adjacent to an eponymous railway station. perhaps due to its very lack Figure 2. after the lease contract was cancelled. Moroni 2007). 1985). and her students (Apuntes para una nostalgia. to assemble their new dwellings (Apuntes The few remaining dune formations in the area have para una nostalgia. corn. The Mariano Miró site covered by soybean cultivation in January of 2012 . from Rural School No. La Pampa. The abandonment of Mariano Miró was gradual. whereas disturbed fields forced by the abusive and speculative policies of big have formed mollisols. For operative and visibility reasons archaeological The village of Mariano Miró was founded in 1901. 1985.

A 39. Pedestrian survey was materials (Wood and Johnson 1978. after which the Cultural Research Department METHODOLOGY (Subsecretaría de Cultura de la Provincia de La Pampa) contacted our research team –directed by Alicia H. to create a topographic a systematic survey of the site was completed. based on the distribution of surface materials. oriented west to because their creation can cause movement. M a r ia n o M ir ó ’ s t a p h o n o m i c h is t o r y wa s Tapia– to evaluate the archaeological site and recover reconstructed through multi-scale (e. trampling. to reinforce Weathering recording for ceramics followed criteria Figure 3. and subsequently mapped in two dimensions. At the the area’s history. Landa et al. Politis and Madrid made with included use of a metal detector (Garret 1988. the results of archaeological research. . Mello Araujo and Marcelino 2003. 76 C. Surface Archaeological materials were sorted into three size collection was performed by four surveyors walking in classes: small (0. Metal concentrations (N = 402) were found 2012. Weathering on vitreous fragments Complementary to the fieldwork. metals. Macagno’s class the local archaeological heritage (Pineau et al. size distributions in surface collections. marks was recorded. analysis of multiple variables (Behrensmeyer 1991) including: (artifact) weathering. trampling and plow were excavated. and the effects of plowing fieldwork began to determine the site’s boundaries burrowing animals.g.5 -meter interval between and large (4. Ms. artifact. among others). Map of the systematic survey of the site across 14 transects of 280 metres each. east and each divided into seven 40-meter segments accumulation and/or dispersal of archaeological labled A through G (Figure 3). parallel lines with a 2. Frontini 1500 model) to identify concentrations of subsurface 2011. thermal In April of 2011 the first contact was made with alteration.200 m 2 area south of the railway station was Topography was studied during the 2012 field thus deemed the most likely area of occupation and season and augmented with NASA’s high-resolution targeted for the first topographic survey. Frontini and Ecosteguy 2011. Pineau 2010). In 2012. . site) the village heritage.Special Issue 1 (2014) 71-84 their past. the research team included both physical and chemical weathering actively engaged with the community to communicate (Sanford 1975. The presence/absence them.1 to 4 cm) straight. a 5 m2 grid and a 4 m2 trench of weathering.1 to 2 cm). The model. images (30 meters per pixel). and to increase local knowledge of and recorded on planimetries as Mmirop1 2. geomorphology. medium (2. thermal alteration. Additionally. presented their archaeological findings in the context of historical information pertaining to the abandoned village.. They also excavated and removed a lot of the importance of historic preservation and value of material from a sector that we have geo-referenced cultural heritage. Purdy and Clark 1987. Caves of burrowing animals were mapped crew surveyed fourteen transects. (site) the school community of Mariano Miró and in August topography.Intersecciones en Antropología . allowing them to the conservation of 2011 Provincial Science Fair. Salemme et al. 2013).1 cm and over).

General Archive of the Nation (AGN). leather. most of the artifacts could be assigned to understand the effects of trampling.324) and includes plow marks on archaeological materials.900m2 of Mariano Miró’s surface. wood. Materials such as scratches or fresh cracks.transects Institute of Statistics and Census (INDEC). section E. sulphur. and though some large-size objects were found distributions. brick (section C. Argentina) 77 similar to those for glass. two smaller concentrations were software calculates the nearest points to each raster observed. we considered the late 19th or early 20th century. Effects of thermal alteration We recovered 11. . the Provincial Historical Archives (Santa Material-specific concentrations were also observed Rosa. transects 3. On glass. 8 and 9. 2 and 3). porcelain. On bone. 2 and 3). 7. tile. several featuers were considered grouped uncommon materials (those with 30 or fewer indications of thermal alteration. we 2003).125) predominate (Figure 4). Carbonelli 2010. we 32. La Pampa. pottery (N = 1. Pineau 2011). transects 1. For bones. Nielsen frequencies in the southeast (Figure 5). earthenware (section E . masonry.” the National transects 8 and 9). tile. taphonomic agents cause similar correlations between these would not make up a significant proportion of the two variables. whereas large fragments are photographs of Mariano Miró available in the Land notebly concentrated in sections B and C of transects Registry of Municipalidad (City Hall) de Santa Rosa. One of these multiple variables. Glass predominates in all concentrations. animal or equipment the assemblage. Direct impact variety of materials. Ozán 2009). There is no clear relationship between artifacts’ and sizes can be overlain with satellite images that size and their topographic location. we draw on both sources in the following analyses. as the material products of multiple social actors. The sample contains a wide effects on the archaeological record. or crackled surfaces. Also. 4 and 5. lithic. close to the point Mmirop1. Materials were used the color scales suggested by Shipman and co. although 1991. Based on their show plow turning marks to help determine whether morphology. the Railway Friends Association. or deformation (Pineau 2010). While some of the material size and displacement.407 objects scattered across are not uniform across material types. In all cases. and the 5. since ceramics often have RESULTS glazed surfaces. (section A. To techniques. 1985. Figure 4. Eren et al. Maps of objects’ spatial distributions (9%). for graphic display. These four higher-density patches are composed of small. 3. trampling may generate patterns that are easily There are concentrations of artifacts in the confused with the shifting and fragmentation caused northwestern portion of the survey area. Thermal alterations to pottery were the case of ceramics (pottery. and lower by plowing (Gifford-González et al. cement. Taphonomy of a village: the early 20th century site of Mariano Miró (Chapaleufú department. human. That is. kaolin and mortar). Indirect impact are predominantly medium-sized (55%) or small can be inferred from objects’ sizes and spatial (46%).and We consulted documents. the Railway Museum “Scalabrini Ortiz. identified by black surfaces and/or nuclei (Buenger kaolin and earthenware). including iridescent specimens) into a “miscellaneous” category (plaster. La Pampa. brick. We believe that documentary sources and archaeological objects. On elevated portions ARCGIS10 software and ArcMap complement). Agricultural activities can have direct and indirect slate. However. La Pampa). 6 and 7). blueprints and medium-sized materials. Thus. A fourth concentration exhibiting low cell using the kernel density method and Gauss Kruger material density was detected at section E in transects cartographic projection band 4. This of sections B and C. marks/backstamps and manufacturing plowing accumulated or shifted the materials. transects 1. Amount of materials per category according to raw material. however glass (N = 8. multiple materials may be younger materials may be present. grouped by both raw material and functionality in authors (1984). 4 and 5. 2010). For this reason. we used bidimensional modeling concentrations is located in the northwest corner aided by geographic information systems (GIS. are means to approach past representations and meanings in a comparative way (Gómez Romero and Pedrotta 1998. weathering was identified Characteristics of the surface sample and its following Behrensmeyer (1978). they Given the complexity of the relationships between cluster in several high-density patches. for metal (section B. all distribution modifications on all sides of each artifact were recorded (Lyman 1994. materials are distributed across the site’s surface.

7%NR3) exhibit evidence of weathering. 4 and 9.Intersecciones en Antropología . opacity. perhaps due to the relative acidity of the soil. transects 1 and 2). subsurface metal they may have rolled down slopes in those sections. The 79% of the thermally-altered sample. transects 3. 33. The analysis of surface materials shows that 1. . . transects 1. Furthermore. 2 and 3). C and E. 92% is glass and the remaining on 164 artifacts (1. with the exception of two concentrations in sections B and E. Most of these were located metal concentrations is consistent with surface artifact in transect 2. The map of subsurface weathering on both sides. respectively. pottery 9% and distribution of weathered artifacts is homogeneous bone 8% (Figure 7). Landa et al.6% of concentrations in transects 3.4% showed signs of chemical (section A. which Figure 6. concentrations coincide with metal concentrations on Weathering on glass and pottery was present as surface the surface. across the first seven transects. Signs of mechanical Alterations on materials weathering (erosion or corrasion) were not observed. Of the (sections A and E. which suggests distributions (Figure 6). mineral coal coincide with a slope and plateau. 78 C.397 (12. Of the Evidence of thermal alteration was observed weathered materials. bone (section C. 4 and 5). despite the sandy substrate. which tends to promote chemical weathering these materials (Sandford 1975). Glass represents weathered artifacts are affected on a single side. Distribution of surface materials with georeferenced tracing of the village’s outline as indicated by documentary sources.5% NR) recovered from artifact 8% is composed of bone and pottery. and pottery weathered artifacts. 66. sections A. Density distribution of subsurface metal concentrations.Special Issue 1 (2014) 71-84 Figure 5.

trampling on a sandy substrate is expected to bury smaller objects within the uppermost centimeters of the deposit while larger objects would remain on the DISCUSSION surface (Baker 1978. On the other hand. such as brick. lateral displacement. particularly small. of material fragments representative of daily life Although trampling may have had an influence on in Mariano Miró. such as glass containers (bottles. in this case dominated by medium/small Direct plow marks were recorded on very few artifacts and a low percentage of large objects (9%). 1990). though there is from village abandonment based on surface artifacts no evidence that this affected different sized materials or their distributions. Boismier 1997). we found remains related addition to slope. Thus. comm. coulters and discs through the 1990s (INDEC). Héctor Morales pers. this is not the pattern observed at our site. Abandonment of the village—a differentially.and medium. Artifact size at Mariano Miró is unimodal. Argentina) 79 use of different plowing equipment including chisels. trampling. Considering the heavy fragments. Taphonomy of a village: the early 20th century site of Mariano Miró (Chapaleufú department. At the artifact level. 1985. Also. fragmentation. 1985). surface water may virtually impossible to distinguish daily life in the village re-expose archaeological materials. The material . the village’s 500 inhabitants surely generated agent responsible for material fragmentation since the a differential discard pattern. Nielsen 1991). Agricultural censuses in the caves (N = 80) on that of the spatial distribution of study region from 1937 to 2008 reveal simultaneous artifacts does not reveal a correlation. Gifford González et al. we were able to determine that involved in the formation of the site over the course the distribution of remains are consistent with the of a century offer a means of understanding the locations of buildings indicated on village maps from natural processes and—in a future research—the 1902. Mariano Miró site has been impacted by agricultural Conversely. The correlation between topography. Miró circa 1911 was a gradual process. daily refuse type of sediment diminishes the possibility of artifact being augmented by discard associated with moving. Thermal alteration percentage of those materials comparisons facilitated assessment of artifact size found on the surface. with normal. 0. we think plowing was not the primary process. possibly as a sized glass pieces. and horizontal dispersion. 2012). among other things. Therefore. Analysis and evaluation of taphonomic processes At the site level. tile. landowners have practiced no-till farming. distributions. and rainfall. and the size of artifacts and led to the demolition of structures after all reusable their dispersal is not significant. from those that followed it. that. However. such Figure 7. we suggest materials had been taken away (Figure 5). product of landowners’ zeal for increased production— rainfall and trampling. general patterns observed in the assemblage are likely making it difficult to differentiate based on surface the result of successive plowing that fragmented and remains events that occurred prior to abandonment dispersed artifacts over a wide surface (Yorston et al. Odell and Cowan 1987. 1985). earthenware bottles. Dunell and Simek 1995. which causes little alteration relative to plowing. bone remains and parts of metal the expected size pattern at the site. objects (N = 51. we found a diversity soil (Gifford González et al. once artifacts are buried they do not which would show a high fragmentation rate (Peyton encounter resistance as they would in a compact 2012). La Pampa. particularly among larger artifacts perfume and pharmacy jars).5%). overlaying a map of burrowing animals and livestock activities. To understand the specific effects of each agent on the archaeological record and to interpret our assemblage. that are prone to being kicked or dragged (Gifford several types of pottery and porcelain. Surface material distributions are affected by a variety of agents such as plowing. while they may have had some influence. As mentioned. nails and wooden both downslope and laterally. fragments of González et al. In this sense. Furthermore. slope and gravity. we must consider the results of other studies. rainfall in utensils. the abandonment of the Mariano However. The of the Railway Museum “Scalabrini Ortiz”) (Figure 5). it is rainfalls at certain times of year. it was not sufficient to create a porcelain doll. the this resulted in a low-resolution archaeological record. may have moved some materials to the buildings. thorough evaluation of the result of fragmentation generated by plowing (Lewarch effects of plowing requires consideration fragmentation and O’Brien 1981a. Since 2000. During this Nonetheless. on the one hand. although heavy equipment can still affect the archaeological record (INDEC. Ultimately. produced by Ferrocarril Central Oeste (Archives social practices that influenced site formation. 1981b.

g. Butzer 1989. fragmenting and moving artifacts. though we are well aware that surface and stratified deposits under consideration we do not yet have enough information to confirm (Lewarch and O’Brien 1981a. of some agents. Nevertheless. Bell 1998. Coirini and Karlin 2011). We acknowledge that there are issues of proportion of thermally-altered materials among those equifinality when attempting to distinguish the effects collected by the school group in section Mmirop1. . these sites share narratives in that sector could exacerbate artifact movement and about unsuccessful experiences that left traces on the accumulation initiated by plowing. agriculture. Dunnell and this hypothesis. Subsurface testing should be done in sized materials. Frisco limitations. sections B and C of random. categories and thermally altered material at Mariano Miró are remarkable. Dunnell 1992). such as Newhouse. 1981b.. and section E of transects 7. and aid preservation of though in low frequencies.Intersecciones en Antropología . In light of materials and bones. None of all that is left of a community of 500 inhabitant are these cases have been considered from taphonomic numerous fragments found on the surface. Vilches et al. 80 C. However. It remains occupation and abandonment of the village. excavations are recommended 9 correspond to structures or loci. Lawrence and Davies 2010). a question that requires stratigraphic data to transects 3. Historic Previous studies indicate that plowhing should have archaeology will help us understand the histories of high impact on altering archaeological context. Fuentes 2010. Toward this end. 8 and fully resolve. such as dumps used more generally since all of the strategraphic agents during the town’s occupation or abandonment. we intend to conduct of ghost towns or the archaeology of abandonment geophysical survey as well. perspective. the three largest artifact concentrations in correspond to structures or trash pits or are simply section A of transects 1. Stratigraphic information will improve our knowledge of the effects of taphonomic agents on CONCLUSIONS artifacts’ vertical displacement. it is vital that we design experiments to helps us to understand Mariano Miró is an exceptional archaeological the effects of agents involved in the formation and case: a village established by the railway that then alteration of the material record in the study region.” leaving aside descriptions primarily be the result of plows turning around in that of particular alterations (e. the slope approaches to their study. however. landscape. taphonomic perspective allows us to pose new questions 2008. additional systematic surveys in the light of the data collected here. pottery and wood. Moreover. according to our interpretations of agricultural Hargrave 2010).Special Issue 1 (2014) 71-84 concentration in the northwest sector of the site could were described as “intact. we propose that plowing particularly the glass. USA) or sites associated with used to understand both formation processes and social mining activities in Australia. whether these concentrations example. we reiterate the benefits of studying taphonomic plowing disturbance was not sufficient to completely processes at every archaeological site and taking both alter artifact clustering. Moreover. material cultures. This also supports the idea that this. however. degree of preservation and by Google Earth and ESRI’s server. succumbed to the advance of the agricultural frontier Finally. These considered here also influence vertical distributions high-density patches consist of small. despite its some structures still stand. where there are also numerous thermally-altered influenced our study area in particular. The frequency was the most significant taphonomic agent at Mariano and pattern of artifacts with this alteration lead us to Miró. For unclear. Even those settlers in the region. having been abandoned gradually circa a taphonomic perspective for interpreting a site where 1869 and later razed to permit agriculture. Studies that some structures remain. New Zealand or Chile practices at a site (Butzer 1989. the New Philadelphia site (Illinois. 4 and 5. not completely obliterate patterns generated during Bennett 1999. Only and generate new expectations for interpreting the site. clusters of certain artifact their material and immaterial heritage. A (Neville and Hooker 1997. typically deal with abandoned villages where at least We believe that the surface record. given the site’s size and the possibility and landowners’ speculative tendencies. Dunnell 1992). 4 and designed to identify the taphonomic processes that 5. There is a high last century. section. USA) is similar to The study presented here highlights the importance of our case study. whereas large fragments are primarily conjunction with the development of experiments concentrated in sections B and C of transects 3. we will complete Dancey 1983. believe it was not caused by a natural fire or deliberate some of our observations suggest that plowing did burning of the field to eliminate weeds (Whyte 1984. 2 and 3.and medium- of artifacts. The presence of thermally-altered Consideration of diverse variables and scales of materials in sectors with high artifact densities and analysis allowed us to describe a complex process in concentrations of bones may support the hypothesis which multiple agents acted over the course of the that these areas were trash dumps. memories and identities of the descendants of those upon whom an exodus was forced. Moreover. and their archaeological records . provides valuable information and can be and Silver Reef (Utah. roads. Landa et al. Despite differences in abandonment equipment tracks observed in satellite images provided processes.

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una St. 253. edited by W. T. Schoeninger Pampean and Patagonian regions. L. actions carried out by the Argentinean Army against diverse indigenous people between the years 1878 and 1885 in the Shipman. Gaffney and P. Angelini and Theory 1. P.. Journal of Anthropological Science 11: 307-325. and R. Silva preservation of Late Archaic fiber-tempered pottery in 2008 Archaeology of nitrate settlements in the the middle-latitude lowlands. Argentina. Revista de Arqueología 2-16.It would be difficult to identify the specific agent that caused trampling due to equifinality problems. pp. M. the so-called “Conquest of 1975 Conservation of artifacts: a question of survival. 211.. Agente disturbador vs. Romano. Riordan. Rees and C. Archaeofauna 21: 163-185. reduction and genocide of color. 41-66.In Argentinian historiography. In Advances in Archaeological cultivated field. Reynolds 1990 Simulation of artifact movement due to cultivation. Thesis. . 4. Skibo. 2008 Niveles de materia orgánica y pH en suelos Academic Press.. N. ph y materia 1984 Lithic artifact burning and archaeological orgánica en los suelos del este de la provincia de La deposit formation on three early archaic sites in east Pampa. L. crystal structure an shrinkage. M. Grayson. NOTES Sanford. Clark Trubowitz.. 1988 The Interpretation of Seventeenth Century Sites Weissel. recurso económico.621 artifacts. A. Chungara. and D. J. J. Roper. Through Plowzone Surface Collections: Examples from 2010 Los suelos de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Academic Press. Historical Archaeology 22: perspectiva arqueológica. 2012 La fauna de porte menor en sitios arqueológicos de la región pampeana. White. C. A use-alteration perspective.. .The acronym NR is used to refer to the total Number of 1992 Pottery Function. 1976 Lateral displacement of artifacts due to plowing. P. 3. Wood. H. New York. G. K. D. edited by M. Tennessee. N. Its outcome was the con- 1984 Burnt bones and teeth.An inventory of this collection registered 4. Landa et al. M. B. 2007 Contenido de fósforo extractable. In Advances in Archaeological Method Sainz Rosas. in memory of Marian E. In Essays in northeastern archaeology Method and Theory 11. perspectives. T. Schiffer. V. W. 1987 Weathering of inorganic materials: Dating and 1978 The persistence of settlement patterns in a other applications. H.. 2. Remains. University of Tennessee.. morphology. Reid. pp. American Antiquity 49 Antofagasta region (1880-1930): Summary and (1): 55-76. Zinda Whyte. and D. agrícolas de la región pampeana y extra pampeana argentina. Echeverría and H. New York. Ringe. E. Informaciones Agronómicas 1: 1-6. Yorston. C. Ecosteguy and R. An experimental Study quest of the territory and the control. R. 1978 A survey of disturbance processes in archaeological site formation. Occasional Publications in Northeastern Archaeology. M.Special Issue 1 (2014) 71-84 Purdy.. Histórica Argentina y Latinoamericana 4: 41-66. Foster and M. K. F. 84 C. Johnson American Antiquity 41: 372-374. Frontini Journal of Archaeological Science 17: 67-83. of the native inhabitants. Tennessee. 315–381.Intersecciones en Antropología . Mary’s City. Informes Agronómicos 2: 6-12. 1984 Fire and ice: New evidence for the production and Vilches. 1. edited by M. Englebrecht and D. New York. Schiffer. Plenum Press. Revista de Antropología chilena 40 (1): 19-30. Salemme. Maryland. M. the Desert” was set up as a series of military campaigns and Historical Archeology 9: 55-64. pp.

cataclorofila@gmail. La información actualística obtenida se utiliza como marco de referencia para el análisis tafonómico del conjunto artefactual de superficie recuperado en una transecta (T9). Universidad de Buenos Aires. Patagonia. Results of these actualistic tests are used as a frame of reference for the taphonomic analysis of the surface artifact assemblage recovered along an archaeological survey transect (T9). Patagonia. Se concluye que la hipótesis que explica el fenómeno observado en el registro lítico como producto de procesos tafonómicos no puede ser descartada. Para ello se sembraron dos pistas experimentales en la localidad. which may be the result of a reclamation process of the archaeological record or of animal trampling. Toward this end. taphonomy. TAFONOMÍA Y EXPERIMENTOS CON ARTEFACTOS LÍTICOS EN EL SUDESTE DE LA SIERRA BAGUALES (SANTA CRUZ. Arqueología. Lutita.Special Issue 1: 85-95. Argentina. | 85 Trampling. Argentina) Catalina Balirán Received 18 September 2013. Este trabajo busca evaluar los efectos potenciales del pisoteo sobre los artefactos líticos de superficie. RESUMEN PISOTEO. and experiments with lithic artifacts in the southeastern Baguales Range (Santa Cruz. The hypothesis explaining the edge modifications observed in the local lithic record as a result of taphonomic processes cannot be discarded. two experimental plots were established in La Verdadera Argentina. Lutite. Puán 480 (C1406CQJ). ARGENTINA). 2014. Meteorización. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo general discutir la incidencia de los procesos tafonómicos que actúan sobre el registro lítico de superficie en la localidad arqueológica La Verdadera Argentina (Santa Cruz. siendo siempre los filos los que exhiben menor intensidad de alteración. the edges consistently exhibiting less intense alteration. Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. En la superficie de dichos artefactos se observan diferentes grados de me- teorización. Keywords: Lithic taphonomy. this project was designed to understand the potential effect of animal trampling on surface lithic artifacts. Argentina). Preliminary results indicate that the effects of taphonomic processes are registered very quickly.UNCPBA . Accepted 20 April 2014 ABSTRACT This work assessess the impact of taphonomic processes on the surface lithic record of La Verdadera Argentina archaeological locality (Santa Cruz. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Palabras clave: Tafonomía lítica. Archaeology.com Intersecciones en Antropología . Copyright © Facultad de Ciencias Sociales . Different stages of weathering were observed on lithic artifacts´ surfaces. At such. Se ha planteado que esta diferencia puede ser resultado tanto de prácticas de reclamación del registro arqueológico como producto del pisoteo de animales. Argentina).Argentina . Catalina Balirán. ISSN 1850-373X Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record. Weathering. Los primeros resultados indican que los efectos derivados de los procesos tafonómicos son registrables en el corto plazo.

to taphonomic studies.Intersecciones en Antropología . Flegenheimer and Weitzel 2007. and puma (Puma concolor puma). Borrazzo 2011a. 2012. personal communication. actualistic program temperature of 8° C. et al. between 8. Humans (Peacock 1991). 2010. Gifford-Gonzalez et al. 2000. 2002. Different lines locality. 2008. Borrero and Borrazzo 2011). mean annual rainfall of 300 mm. including (native) effects of trampling on the lithic record at La Verdadera guanaco (Lama guanicoe). Schoville and Brown 2010. Understanding the role of taphonomic processes Pargeter 2011. Peacock 1991. 2008.g. edges exhibit lower intensities of weathering. occupied throughout the Holocene. Riquez. Open-air surface sites are the most Borrazzo 2008. Balirán 2012.856 ± 84 and 907 ± 45 14C surface characteristics (Peacock 1991. Borrazzo 2011a). Nonetheless. Nielsen La Verdadera Argentina archaeological locality is 1991. La Verdadera Argentina ranch was established in 1923 (J. Argentina. by taphonomic processes is a topic that has been studied extensively (Hiscock 1985. material in all LVA lithic assemblages (Borrazzo attributes associated with weathering should indicate 2006. Pryor 1988. Balirán . Balirán (2012) suggested that this . indicating low sedimentation rates (Borrazzo 2011b). Borrero et al. previous publication. 2006). Borrero et al. It is a steppic environment. comparison between a lithic assemblage and the The southeastern extent of Baguales Range has region’s prehistoric technological baseline is key to been characterized as marginal to the home ranges detecting patterns. LVA cave. Balirán 2012. Pargeter and these are primarily lithic scatters. Lopinot and Ray 2007. 2011. Schiffer 1987. 2006). artifacts that mimic those of anthropic origin. located in the southeast of the Baguales Range. Burroni et al. probably 2011. 2011. 2010. Borrero et al. Eren et al. Such studies aim to understand how of populations settled to the east (Franco and Borrero taphonomic processes alter artifacts and create pseudo. griseus). and in lithic artifacts in particular to specific causes Although the LVA archaeological locality has been (Gifford-Gonzalez et al. in the transformation of lithic archaeological records is key to their interpretation (Hiscock 1985. LVA locality contain high frequencies of lutite tools among many others). occurring mainly as secondary deposits of investigation regarding features observed on these composed of several lithologies (chert. Borrazzo 2011b. 2012. Several lithic sources have been recorded in the Thiébaut et al. and mean annual This work is part of a long-term. the archaeological Weitzel and Colombo 2006. Nielsen 1991. Weitzel 2010. Weitzel et al. Among them. Lopinot and Ray 2007. 86 C. 2006. 2010. Santa among many others). 2002. characterized by a and its effect on surface lithic archaeological records. Eren et al. grey fox (Pseudalopex Argentia (LVA) locality (Argentine Patagonia). dacite. lutite is the most frequently occurring artifacts are affected by geomorphological processes. record is produced and how it should be studied..Volumen especial 1 (2014) 85-95 INTRODUCTION Lopinot and Ray 2007. 1985. artifacts or pseudo-artifacts suggest how this kind of and lutite) available as boulders and/or large blocks. Borrazzo 2008) is characteristics of the archaeological record in general consistent with this interpretation. The effects Study region of trampling have been studied extensively (Wilk and Schiffer 1979. Borrazzo 2011a). Eren et al. 2011). years BP1 (Borrazzo 2006. 2014). focusing on animal trampling between 300 to 600 m asl. from BACKGROUND which date forward the introduction of large numbers Trampling taphonomy of European cattle significantly amplified the trampling effects of the local fauna that has been present The occurrence of artifacts produced or transformed throughout the Holocene. Weitzel et al. 2008. and factors that alter artifacts or weathered to differing degrees. Both native and exotic fauna are of investigation geared towards understanding the present today (Borrazzo 2011b). Osborn and Surface lithic assemblages collected from the Hartley 1991. among others). This paper aims to contribute Cruz Province. In a Burroni et al. Eren et al. choique (Rhea pennata). For some of these authors. common evidence of a human presence in the locality Weitzel 2010. trampling experiments provide a frame of reference for This paper addresses the formation of surface lithic understanding artifact distributions (Gifford-Gonzalez assemblages in the LVA archaeological locality. P. Retouched and flaked produce pseudo-artifacts (Gifford-Gonzalez et al. 1985. 2010b. several authors advise appear to have been present in the area throughout the use of multiple attributes to assess the origin of the Holocene. Schoville and Brown 2010. Eren et al. The absence of archaeological materials in viable Much experimental work has been done to link local rock shelters (e. The chronology the gradual action of geomorphological processes for local human occupation was obtained from the in the form of differing degrees of surface alteration stratified Cerro León 1 and 3 rock shelter sites. 2014). 2011a y b. Borrazzo 2006. 2002. record is sparse. diabase. Pintar 1987. 1985. and (exotic) cattle and horses. 2010. 1985. When However. Burroni et al.

Trampling, taphonomy,
and experiments with lithic artifacts in the southeastern Baguales Range (Santa Cruz, Argentina) 87

phenomenon could be explained by either reclamation visited by hunter-gatherers during the Holocene and,
-reintroduction of artifacts from the archaeological although this pattern is interpreted from stratified sites,
contexts to systemic contexts (Schiffer 1987)- or it is assumed that surface assemblages reflect a similar
taphonomic processes, particularly animal trampling level of human use.
in the current context. This led to a pilot project aimed
One hypothesis to explain the observed patterns
at evaluating the impact of trampling on surface lithic
of weathering on lutite artifact surfaces is artifact
artifacts.
reclamation (sensu Schiffer 1987). That is, if different
The focus of this work is to quantify the occurrence degrees of weathering can be interpreted as different
of fractures and/or macroscopic edge damage in exposure times of rock surfaces, we can assume that
experimental samples and to compare these patterns a considerable amount of time passed between the
to those observed during the taphonomic analysis of a production of an artifact and any other scar exhibiting
local archaeological surface assemblage (T9) in order a lesser amount of weathering. Therefore, lower
to evaluate the relevance of experimental data for weathering stages on edges would be the result of a
interpreting the archaeological record. provisioning strategy that seeks to save time and energy
by resharpening abandoned tools or by selecting
preexisting flakes as blanks for tool manufacture. An
Behavioral vs. taphonomic processes: working alternative hypothesis explains the occurrence of less-
hypotheses weathered fractures and/or flake scars as the effects
of taphonomic processes. An assessment of local
As mentioned, LVA´s surface lithic assemblages
taphonomic agents and processes suggests that animal
are dominated by lutite artifacts. Weathering is readily
trampling is the most likely source of the pattern.
identifiable on this raw material since the color of the
rock surface becomes lighter as weathering increases. A
recurring pattern of varying degrees of weathering (sensu
Borrazzo 2006) among lithic artifacts was recorded; MATERIALS AND METHODS
artifact edges—both isolated and continuous flake
Several features of the LVA locality make this
scars—are less weathered than other surfaces (Figure 1).
latter hypothesis plausible: a low sedimentation
These observations raise the question: Are the rate, which reduces the likelihood of artifact burial;
observed intra-artifact differences in weathering a a generally hard substrate with ample gravels and
result of human behavior or of taphonomic processes? sparse vegetation cover; and an abundance of native
To answer this question it is necessary to examine wildlife and European livestock. In this context, it is
both possibilities and determine how each of these reasonable to propose that the surface lithic record
factors might have contributed to the formation of is subject to animal trampling and that this has been
the archaeological record throughout the Holocene. the case for a long time. To test this hypothesis, a
Thus, the aim of this paper is to compare experimental long-term experimental study was specifically designed
trampling data and archaeological collections. to assess how taphonomic processes act on the LVA
Currently we know that while archaeological evidence surface lithic record. In this first stage of our research,
at LVA is sparse, the locality was available to and we focus on the effects of the animal trampling.

Figure 1. Artifacts from archaeological sample T9 that exhibit different weathering stages on their surfaces. Lower stages
can be observed on the edges.

88 C. Balirán - Intersecciones en Antropología - Volumen especial 1 (2014) 85-95

Transect 9 (T9) Techno-morphological analysis of both experimental
and archaeological samples was conducted following
The archaeological material discussed in this paper Aschero’s (1975, 1983) protocols.
comes from a surface collection identified as Transect
9 (T9). This transect runs NW-SE and the surface slopes We recorded the occurrence of less-weathered
gently to the east. Visibility ranges from 50% to 100% fractures and micro-flaking on the edges of artifacts
and two surveyors collected all surface materials within recovered from surface contexts. To build a framework
an area 250 m long by 10 m wide. for systematic analysis of the origin of these features,
we designed a trampling experiment. The author
The sample is composed of 305 artifacts, 87.87% established two experimental plots (see below) based
(N = 268) of which are made from lutite. The remaining on previous experimental work in the area (Borrazzo
12.13% (N = 37) were manufactured from other local 2011b) as well as more general experimental research
and non-local raw materials (e.g., chert, basalt, dacite). on formation processes (Schiffer 1987; Borrero 1991;
This study considers only the lutite artifacts, since 1) Kligmann 2009) and trampling in particular (see Pryor
this material exhibits higher degrees of macroscopic 1988; McBrearty et al. 1998; Eren et al. 2010; Weitzel
weathering as surface exposition time increases and 2) 2010; Thiébaut et al. 2010b).
it is the most common raw material in T9 and other
archaeological samples collected in the area. Trampling experiments aim to link particular effects
with their potential causes; this information is then used
Previous work in the study area called attention to interpret the archaeological record (e.g., Nielsen
to taphonomic processes affecting surface lithic 1991; Flegenheimer and Weitzel 2007; Eren et al. 2010;
assemblages and suggested the need to account for Weitzel 2010). In this particular case, special attention
such processes during techno-morphologic analyses was paid to average thickness of fracture sections since
(Borrazzo 2006, 2008). Here, we follow Hiscock it has been demonstrated that this attribute is a good
(1985), who posits that lithic artifacts change between indicator of flake breakage by trampling (Merenzon
their deposition and later retrieval and that, therefore, 1988; Borrazzo 2010; Weitzel 2010; Jennings 2011;
the study of formation processes is not only useful, Weitzel et al. 2014): the thinner the flake, the more
but necessary for proper interpretation of the lithic likely it is to be broken during trampling (Borrazzo
record. We also follow Borrazzo’s (2004, 2006, 2010) 2010). The proposed maximum thickness for trampling
approach to taphonomic analysis of archaeological fractures is 7 mm (Flegenheimer and Weitzel 2007;
lithic assemblages, defining the taphonomy of lithic Weitzel 2010, 2012; Weitzel et al. 2014).
artifacts as “an archaeological and actualistic study
which describes, defines and systematizes the effects
produced by natural and cultural processes and agents Experimental plots
that acted on lithic artifact sets since their deposition
and until their retrieval from the archaeological In 2011, two plots were established in LVA. This
context” (Borrazzo 2004: 9). longitudinal study includes annual survey for each of
10 years (the time it took another local experimental
Chemical weathering intensity is the focus of this plot to stabilize; Borrazzo 2011b), or until no changes
taphonomic analysis. Borrazzo (2004, 2006) defines to the experimental assemblage are recorded during
four stages (0, 1, 2 and 3) of abrasion (physical three consecutive surveys (i.e., the plot stabilizes),
weathering) on different parent materials, while Hiscock whichever occurs soonest. The experiment consisted
(1985) describes four continuous but different stages of three stages:
for chemical weathering in chert, ranging from “fresh” - sample preparation
to “heavily weathered.” Following these two authors, a - plot set up
qualitative scale of lutite weathering is developed here; - survey
higher degrees of weathering result in a more porous
The first stage included manufacture of a sample of
rock texture and a lighter or whiter color:
lutite artifact replicas (N = 100) using a hard hammer
Stage 0: no weathering, or “fresh” in Hiscock’s and free hand percussion, the most frequent technique
(1985) terminology recorded in LVA lithic assemblages. Each piece was
Stage 1: the rock surface exhibits a thin, light grey labeled, measured, and photographed, and a drawing
coating. The texture of the rock remains similar to of its outline was produced. This information was
that in stage 0. recorded to aid detection of any changes in the sample
through time. Subsequently, each piece was painted
Stage 2: the surface turns lighter grey and becomes with white diluted acrylic to increase the visibility of
porous. changes (fractures, flaking, micro-flaking) to dark gray
Stage 3: the rock texture is rough and very porous lutite surfaces. Subsequently, the sample was divided
and the surface has an almost white coloration. randomly into two subsamples: A (n = 54) and B (n = 46).

Trampling, taphonomy,
and experiments with lithic artifacts in the southeastern Baguales Range (Santa Cruz, Argentina) 89

The second stage involved placement of the agents such as water, wind, gravity or snow, and the
experimental assemblage on two active livestock tracks accumulated effects of these agents over long periods
and recording of each artifact’s exposed surface. The of time.
experimental plots were measured, georeferenced
and photographed (Figure 2). Survey began one
year following plot establishment. Each survey, the RESULTS
following observations are recorded:
- fractures and/or alterations to each pieces Experimental observations
- placement of the exposed face, changes in which provi-
de evidence of trampling even when no other changes The first survey was conducted one year after the
are detected plots were established, at which time it was clear that
- frequency of burial (recorded as 0%; 25%; 50%; 75% the animal tracks were still active. All observations
of artifact surface) were made in the field and the experimental sample
- length of experimental artifact distribution left in place for future surveys. The information
This experiment was designed to control for several collected during this first survey shows that:
- 32% of the specimens had a new surface exposed (Plot
variables in order to improve its comparability with the
A = 13; Plot B = 19). This is a minimum value since
archaeological record. However, we must acknowledge
exposed faces may have changed multiple times but only
that there are factors related to both the timescale
those with the opposite face showing at the time of survey
of the processes involved and the scope and goals can be recorded as having changed;
of our research that are beyond the control of this - 11% of the sample exhibited fractures involving the entire
experiment. It is important to bear these limitations artifact and/or its edge (Plot A = 112);
in mind throughout the experiment, as the results - 9% became partially buried (between 25 and 75% of
are directly dependent on both controlled and un- their surface; Plot A = 4; Plot B = 5);
controlled variables. Here, the controlled variables - 9% of the sample could not be relocated (Plot A = 7;
are raw material, substrate and local fauna; the Plot B = 2);
archaeological and the experimental samples are both - the plot’s length increased (horizontal distribution of the
sample, parallel to track margins; additional length: Plot
made on lutite, the substrate is the same due to the
A = 12 cm, Plot B = 15 cm);
fact that both tracks were plotted near T9 and, for
- one piece was found 276 cm away from its original
this reason, the available fauna is expected to be the
location in Plot A;
same. Uncontrolled variables include the animal that
generated each fracture, the action of other taphonomic

Figure 2. Experimental plots on animal tracks. Plot A (Left) and Plot B (Right).

The following attributes are of less.could be expected to increase that all the fractures present in the archaeological over the long run.E: edge flaking. Weitzel changes. Edges with continuous micro-flaking did after the plots were established. fragmented pieces (N = 59) are up to 6 mm thick These preliminary results indicate that a single (Figure 5). 2014). A . and sheep wool were observed of lutite artifacts were broken.74% of the fractures could be explained by taphonomic processes (specifically trampling) because those pieces exhibit fractures Figure 3. Fracture frequency increases as specimen thickness decreases. the occurrence of fractures and thicknesses of fractured sections in the T9 archaeological sample does not appear to be random. Excluding split fractures (N = 10). 33. including longitudinal split fractures3. near T9 area during fieldwork. that vegetation was absent the thickness distributions of split and non-split from the tracks. techno-morphological (Aschero 1975. Artifacts with split fractures were excluded for were collected. increasing the chances of lithic artifact further analysis since their anthropic origin is clear trampling. Continuous collection. 6% of the sample not exceed 12 mm in length. thickness recorded was 6 mm. All of these characteristics are proxies fractured artifacts. 172) of the pieces are complete and 35. Conservatively. excrement. While the distribution of maximum for recent animal circulation on these tracks. This suggests that fauna which are considered of technological origin (Hiscock walked over places where archaeological materials 2002). in turns increases the chances that the experimental the non-split sample is quite different: 68. In order to assess the potential of breakage year was enough time for the sample to register by trampling (Borrazzo 2010. on the tracks where the experimental material was Average thickness of broken artifacts: we compared placed -very near T9. These observations highlight the presence et al. . although a few pieces exhibited edge damage or fracture. It is also important to note that fresh animal (Figure 4). Modifications on experimental artifacts recorded in the first-year survey.74% of the s a m p l e c o n ta i n s f r a c t u r e s with thicknesses up to 6 mm (excluding split fractures). 76.33% footprints.18% (n = on both sides of specimens. 90 C. One year flaking. C . we proposed flake scar continuity. Micro-flaking is usually longer along the edges of pieces (1 to 3 Using the experimental data as a reference mm) than on their surfaces (1 to 2 mm). micro-flaking occurs along edges in lengths between 1983) and taphonomic aspects of the T9 archaeological 6 and 12 mm and intrudes artifacts’ surfaces 2 mm or sample were analyzed. The calibrated result is that 76.60% of the sample was trampled. Considering the experimental results. record equal to or less than 6 mm thick could be the result of either taphonomic or anthropic processes. Maximum fracture presented more than one fracture and/or micro-flaking. We used this measure This suggests that such edge damage can be generated as a minimum reference value when analyzing T9 in the short term and that its presence –and therefore archaeological sample. Balirán . archaeological record is currently exposed.and. Features on the edges of specimens in the experimental collection appear in some cases as isolated micro-flaking and in others as continuous Archaeological sample flaking with up to six scars (Figure 3).Volumen especial 1 (2014) 85-95 Seven percent of the sample exhibited micro. Weitzel 2010. we measured the thickness of the fracture of high-energy conditions to which LVA’s surface section in pieces with maximum thicknesses greater than 6 mm.82% (n = 96) The presence of cattle and horses was recorded are fractured.Intersecciones en Antropología .B: thickness equal to or below fracture. which thicknesses in the former is relatively homogeneous. Considering the experimental data presented above. It is worth mentioning that they always occur as particular importance to this study: a series of individual flake scars and appear randomly Fractures (excluding edge damage): 64.

and length from 2 to 12 mm. All of the tools have marginal unifacially flaked 6 mm.04% are minimally weathered (stage 1. The archaeological lithic collection can be divided into two groups: tools and artifacts with flaked edges. the weathering stage observed on micro-flaking scars was lower than those on the rest of the artifact surface (Figure 1). Flaked edges appear as both isolated and continuous micro-flaking and flaking. that is. In some completely exclude the possibility that reclamation cases. Although we cannot mm. Lutite archaeological artifact condition in the T9 sample. Argentina) 91 non-anthropic processes on artifact fragmentation -in this case the animal trampling. Weathering stages on the surface of the artifacts with different (lower) weathering on their edges. of the pieces have no weathering on their edges (stage 0) and the remaining 6.cannot be rejected either. the as well as evidence of edge resharpening. Trampling. In all cases. Figure 5. and weathering stages exhibited by T9 artifact edges. tools exhibit two. Figure 6). fractured (N = 86) and split fracture (known origin) (N = 10). but 93. the taphonomic hypothesis cannot edges. Scar width varies from 3 to 10 mm. the artifacts with flaked edges could be the product of taphonomic processes (Figure 1). Complete weathering stages ranged between 1. recorded Figure 4.96% calibrating the sample. 55. Among these. . While the tools are clearly of anthropic origin.and three-flake-scar series also affected the surface archaeological record. taphonomy. However. experiment provides evidence that the effects of Figure 6.60% (N = 149) had flaking and/or micro-flaking on their edges. and flake scars are up to 10 mm long. width seems to be random. These features always appear as a series of individual flaking scars. Of the lutite artifacts (N = 268). The length of these edges ranges from 8 to 82 be rejected for these artifacts. The longest flaked edge in the sample is 64 mm. before or 3 on artifacts surfaces. 2 (N = 172). and experiments with lithic artifacts in the southeastern Baguales Range (Santa Cruz. Micro-flaking (edge damage) and intensity of weathering: the presence of micro-flaking and differences in weathering intensity were analyzed. Maximum thickness of fractured lutite artifacts (split and non-split and the relation between length and fractures).

reclamation) stage as the rest of artifact surface (Figure 7). they the experimental sample were also recorded in the do strengthen arguments in favor of trampling -the archaeological sample from T9.96% of the pieces have weathering stage 0 on their CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES edges while the remaining 6. of the edges. and returning to the concept of This work began with an archaeological question weathering as an indicator of length of exposure. Below. In this instance. Balirán . primary process responsible for the observed pattern substrate. as their weathering stages suggest. observed patterns differ when we Furthermore. 92 C. Based on the experimental and archaeological While the results obtained to date do not data presented here.Intersecciones en Antropología . our findings have already proven relevant for determining parameters for analysis and stimulating new lines of inquiry.04% presents weathering stage 1. 2: a side-scraper). we would expect different (lower) have been produced by animal trampling. Two tools from T9 archaeological assemblage. experimentation has proven requires further study since it may help us better fruitful in terms of generating frames of reference for understand the processes involved in the formation interpreting the LVA surface lithic record. However. it is important to scraper and a detail of its retouched edge. This is not the case for the T9 archaeological sample. the experimental research led to a hypothesis regarding the origin of patterns observed in the LVA surface lithic assemblages. and comparison of intensity of which surely increased during the 100 years the two samples is appropriate given that we were since the introduction of European livestock. If reclamation for economic suggests that a large proportion of those fractures could purposes did occur. although presented here are preliminary. the taphonomic hypothesis definitively exclude the possibility of intentional cannot be rejected.e. as a contributor to the weathering patterns described here. Weitzel et al. . we consider that the thickness of fractures is a sensitive Figure 7. That is. In accord with other authors (Flegenheimer and Weitzel 2007. The phenomena observed in human modification of the archaeological record. Although the results reported here were obtained from only the first survey. Although the results among surface lithic assemblages. the prompted by a case of equifinality in the LVA traces on artifact edges show a relative synchronicity. weathering stages (0 to 2) on artifact edges. the changes recorded on the experimental collection in a single year suggest that future surveys will yield still more information that will improve our understanding of the potential effects of local taphonomic processes. It was also anthropic or taphonomic agents? This question guided observed that among archaeological artifacts with the development of a research protocol designed to retouched edges. some instruments show a different achieve a better understanding of the surface lithic pattern (more-than-one-scar series). animals presence). the average thickness observed among consider only the weathering stages on artifacts’ edges fractured sections in the experimental sample also relative to artifact bodies. Specifically. Above. 2014). and clarify whether damage to experimental collections eventually stabilizes (Borrero 1991). a side- trampling. Borrazzo 2010.Volumen especial 1 (2014) 85-95 resharpened tool edges present the same weathering we cannot exclude human agency (i. This difference record. In this regard. archaeological record: Are the patterns we observe in Furthermore. the introduction of large herds of cattle during the last hundred years and the relative synchronicity DISCUSSION recorded by low weathering stages on flaked edges of T9 stone tools support the taphonomic hypothesis. since 93. Weitzel 2010. As mentioned. they the surface lithic archaeological record the product of would have been produced recently.. a tool with variable in the identification of animal two retouched edges (1: an end-scraper.as the able to control for several key variables (raw material.

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NOTES 2010 El estudio de los artefactos formatizados 1.In this volume. Ceraso and C. Préhistoire et de la recherche archéologique. 1979 The Archaeology of Vacant Lots in Tucson. Universidad survey. Coumont and A. Contribución a la comprensión del registro arqueológico y las actividades humanas. K. 109-129. Trampling. Clasificación y causas 3. fracturados.. C. P. Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil. corded in that plot (Fractured N = 2. B. conducted in January 2014. and A. Each fragment Intersecciones en Antropología 13: 43-55. C. pp. dC13 -20. Colombo 2010b Approche expérimentale des conséquences 2006 ¿Qué hacemos con los fragmentos? Un du piétinement des grands herbivores sur les experimento en fractura de artefactos líticos tallados.Date on bone.7). C. PhD 2. Argentina) 95 Thiébaut.Longitudinal split fractures are those that “split the flake de fractura de artefactos formatizados por talla. and experiments with lithic artifacts in the southeastern Baguales Range (Santa Cruz.. in a subsequent dissertation. Weitzel. (AA98670. taphonomy. La vestiges lithiques et osseux. retains a portion of the platform (often with a portion of the ringcrack in hertzian initiations). and M. edge damage N = 6).. Société des Amis du Musée National de Arizona.. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. 2012 Cuentan los fragmentos.Although artifacts from plot A showed no fractures or damage on their edges in this first survey. M. pp. Schiffer C. A. Buenos Aires. and usually a portion of the Weitzel. Averbouh. Borrazzo. C. into left and right along the percussion axis.. M.  2014 Trampling fragmentation potential of lithic artifacts: an experimental approach. Averbouh Weitzel. In Mise en commun des Zaranda de Ideas. 16-XVe Congress International de I’UISPP. P. Actes du workshop nº Arqueología 2: 19-33.  . edited by Wilk R. Coumont. American Antiquity 44 (3): 530-536. broken pieces were re- de Buenos Aires. Revista de Jóvenes Investigadores en approaches en taphonomie. Balirán termination and one lateral margin” (Hiscock 2002: 252). 97-110. Thiébaut. and M.

96 C.Volumen especial 1 (2014) 85-95 . Balirán .Intersecciones en Antropología .

com. 2006a. Buenos Aires. Weitzel 2010. La Plata. Deller and Ellis 2001. Universidad de Buenos Aires.UNCPBA . 2002. Se aplica la técnica de data mining denominada árbol de decisión. Árbol de decisión. Goldberg et al. Odell and the formation of archaeological records (Hiscock Cowan 1986. Hiscock 1985.com Catalina Balirán. Lítico. 10 entre 63 y 67 sin No. Buenos Aires. Argentina. CONICET. Bergman and Newcomer 1983. (7630). Este trabajo presenta una propuesta para estimar el Potencial para la Fragmentación por Pisoteo (PFP) en artefactos líticos a partir de los atributos métricos de las piezas. Buenos Aires. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Fragmentation potential. Puán 480 (C1406CQJ). ISSN 1850-373X Taphonomic Approaches to the Archaeological Record. Saavedra 15 piso 5° (1083ACA). Shott 1985. a maximum thickness value for lithic artifacts prone to be broken by trampling is estimated. Lithic artifacts.. Results show that the ratio of area to thickness is the main element affecting the probability of breakage on lithic artifacts by trampling. Celeste Weitzel. Lithics. 2010. Argentina. Potencial de fragmentación. Johnson 1979. 1999. to bear and preserve valuable information related to Fischer et al. We apply a data mining technique known as decision tree to experimental datasets obtained in several trampling experiments. Experimentación. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo. para el análisis de datos experimentales obtenidos en diversas experiencias de pisoteo. Av. 2011. De modo complementario. Miller 2006. Argentina. Weitzel and Colombo 2006. Jennings 2011. Necochea.Argentina . Flegenheimer and Fragmentation is common among lithic assemblage Weitzel 2007. Instituto Multidisciplinario de Historia y Ciencias Humanas (IMHICIHU). Odell the most durable cultural materials. INTRODUCTION 2000. Borrazzo 2004. Buenos Aires. Decision tree. Also. Universidad Nacional de La Plata.Special Issue 1: 97-110. Tallavaara and its causes and implications have been the focus et al. 1993.e. Crabtree 1972.com Karen Borrazzo. Palabras clave: Pisoteo. Petraglia 2002. se estima un valor máximo para el espesor de los artefactos líticos que pueden fracturarse por este proceso. Root et al. E-mail: antonioceraso@gmail. Keywords: Trampling. RESUMEN POTENCIAL DE FRAGMENTACIÓN POR PISOTEO EN ARTEFACTOS LÍTICOS: UNA APROXIMACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL. 2014. el establecimiento de valores límite para la fragmentación por pisoteo permitiría diferenciar fracturas accidentales causadas por otros procesos. 2012. among many others). Antonio Ceraso and Catalina Balirán Received 20 August 2013. 1984. Karen Borrazzo. Universidad de Buenos Aires. of much archaeological research (i. E-mail: celweitzel@gmail. Experiments. Accepted 11 November 2013 ABSTRACT A proposal to estimate the Trampling Fragmentation Potential (TFP) on lithic artifacts from their metric attributes is presented. we argue establishing threshold values for trampling potential allows distinguishing incidental fractures with similar traits and different origins. considered one of Cotterell and Kamminga 1979. have the potential 1981. Área Arqueología y Antropología. Copyright © Facultad de Ciencias Sociales . Rondeau 1981. E-mail: kborrazzo@yahoo. E-mail: cataclorofila@gmail.ar Antonio Ceraso. Los resultados indican que la razón superficie/espesor es el elemento más influyente sobre la probabilidad de fractura de los artefactos sometidos a pisoteo. Municipalidad de Necochea. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). Finalmente. Calles 122 y 60 (1900). Lombard and Pargeter 2008. | 97 Trampling Fragmentation Potential of lithic artifacts: an experimental approach Celeste Weitzel.com Intersecciones en Antropología . Whittaker 1995. Finally. Argentina.

Johnson 1979. Weitzel 2010). With this aim. scars on a single surface of the flake. Crabtree 1972. (1985) describe an experiment designed to evaluate vertical Trampling is likely an important cause of lithic artifact movements due to human foot traffic. Hiscock 1985. 2010. This paper was discussed later by several bending fractures. Cotterell and Kamminga 1987. and the primary goal of this paper. Fischer et Fischer et al. Weitzel and Colombo 2006. BACKGROUND Nielsen 1991. in turn. Thus. Whittaker scars without patterned orientation or size but always 1995. 1984. Moreover. Ramos and Merenzon 2004.were the least frequent between experimentally produced lithic artifacts’ type of damage recorded. Osborn and Hartley 1991. Borrazzo 2004. 1984. this paper explores Pintar’s (1987) experiment was designed to track methodological tools to gauge the extent of human and horizontal and vertical displacements due to heavy faunal trampling in lithic assemblage fragmentation. technique called decision-tree (Quinlan 1986. We analyzed relationships as those thicker than 1 mm. this modification. Bradley 1980.Special Issue 1 (2014) 97-110 2010. Mansur-Franchomme lithic fragmentation. She used basalt flakes between 2 and is to identify which artifacts can and which cannot 12 cm. Bergman and Newcomer 1983. trampling. Jennings 2011). 1986. which. 2010a).. Gifford-González et al. Odell processes (Crabtree 1972. Pryor 1988). With fracture surface markings suggests that several patterns the advent of experimental archaeology and studies of of breakage are identifiable as the unequivocal effects site formation processes. Rondeau 1981. Frison and Bradley were designed to test specific hypotheses. from 3 to 13 mm and arranged half of them on a 1984. Fischer et al. Whittaker loam substrate and the other half on a sandy substrate. assemblages. Gifford-Gonzalez et al. Weitzel Their results showed both a higher fracture rate and 2010. among others). the study of the effects of trampling on lithic assemblages. analysis of metric attributes as opposed to edge damage. Flegenheimer and Weitzel 2007. Cotterell and Kamminga 1987. (1974) 2012). fragmentation patterns requires alternative lines of evidence. One of the 1980. we believe that understanding factors spatial position. In this paper we define was subsequently modified.Intersecciones en Antropología . They fragmentation but the process has been shown to used a sample of 2000 obsidian flakes ranging in size result in numerous bending fractures (Fischer et al. 98 C. Williams Nine hundred obsidian flakes of different sizes were . Trampling exposes lithic artifacts to complex high- 2010. al.e. permits artifact breakage or fragmentation as macroscopic the study of taphonomic processes that contributed to damage (macrofractures) involving the whole artifact. Current archaeological knowledge indicates that lithic Several investigations have focused on the processes artifacts might break as a result of manufacture. and Bourgon (1951) were among the first exploring Weitzel 2010. Quinn 2007. Miller Weitzel and Colombo 2006. Pryor (1988) presents an metrics and whether they broke during five independent experiment designed to define material signatures of trampling experiments carried out by the authors. Artifact fragmentation 2011) and a model with material expectations to asses has been used to assess assemblage preservation and Trampling Fragmentation Potential is presented. The author arranged two sets of artifacts Experimental data is explored with a data mining on substrates of different hardness. 2002. use. deliberate breakage. 1984. them among complete artifacts may help us understand the intensity of the post-depositional processes that Several archaeological studies have focused on the acted on an assemblage. therefore. Weitzel 2010. that can lead to artifact fracture (i. Frison and 1981. 1985. Miller 2006. Bordes 2006. Therefore. sandy and loamy. The low diagnostic power of elongated. human occupation intensity. several trampling experiments of specific processes (Johnson 1979. Flakes have morphological attributes that influence lithic artifact breakage is a key issue in that allow us to determine whether their original shape need of further investigation. However. Thiébaut 2010. understanding the breakage of smaller pieces on the harder substrate the contribution of trampling to overall assemblage (loam). Deller and Ellis 2001. has severely limited their researchers who were unable to replicate the results usefulness in studies designed to identify causes of (Flenniken and Haggarty 1980. and taphonomic modifications to lithic artifacts themselves (Bordes 1961. 1995. bending (transverse) fractures −the who proposed a set of criteria for identifying edge most common fracture type in lithic assemblages− may damage caused by trampling: random distribution of result from a variety of taphonomic processes (Fischer flake scars. Borrazzo 2010. Root et al. 1999. Root et al. among others). Weitzel 2010). Rondeau 1981. and postdepositional or taphonomic Cotterell and Kamminga 1979. A human foot traffic on surface and subsurface lithic crucial first step. 1984. Fractures –defined be broken by trampling. 2011. 1999. Johnson 1979. agents and processes involved in artifact fragmentation. width. flake et al. integrity. 2012. Weitzel et al. Eren et al. Within energy processes that can alter both their shape and this framework. placed on a sandy substrate. Nami 1983. Thiébaut et al.. and thickness) and the ratios between present centers on the study of macrofractures. first such studies was that of Tringham et al. and the research we (length.

1500 crossings). intentional breakage. moist loam and unconsolidated sand. He found coarse chert ranging in size from 3 to 7 cm. he assessed three types of damage: breakage. USA) to monitor the effects of livestock was placed on the silty clay surface. two additional trampling. the flakes. Trampling Fragmentation Potential of lithic artifacts: an experimental approach 99 laid on a sandy beach and on a residential garden with retouch.48 mm in the trampling experiment. In each no vegetation and one on those same muddy gravel plot. hardened silty clay surface with no vegetation displacement or breakage while conditions hold). even though the sample was broken during cattle trampling while the number of crossings performed on another plot was human trampling produced fractures in only 1. Argentina). he concluded that trampling is a damage due to manufacture. The sample pronounced horizontal dispersal. or both.8%). . Bending fractures were the most common Nielsen (1991) carried out six experiments to evaluate (n = 21). Plots included flakes were stepped on a single time. he bison trampling on flint and chert flakes and bone reported that flakes trampled on the complete shell to evaluate disappearance.e.and fragmentation ratio of nearly 50%. Artifacts were placed on were conducted on dry consolidated surfaces with sandy clay soil with rock and sand inclusions. and a fresh. Jennings (2011) microfractures were more frequent in the wet plot conducted three flake fracture experiments testing samples. artifact inclination. fragments added. no further on a dry. spatial displacements. flakes were placed directly on top of it.5%). five quartz. Jorge Merenzon carried out assemblage located on moist loam substrate (39%). bone. and abrasion. Among trampled the experimental plots for 15 minutes twice them. several experiments in 1983. deliberate sediments and often protected from further fracturing. The 19 lithic artifacts exhibited fractures and that 22% of broken flakes exhibited bending. Pargeter proposed that most fracturing takes place within the first few hours of trampling since. wood. thickness. substrate exhibited the highest mass loss (30. The recorded average thickness at break was contradictory results reported by several published 3. included twenty chert flakes. McBrearty et al. He placed lithic artifacts on loamy to evaluate the effects of short-duration animal soils (dry and wet). Nineteen out of lithic artifacts and ceramic vessel fragments. Of his six experiments using assessed human and cattle trampling on dolerite. radial. complete shells substrate They used 120 limestone flakes that were trampled (dry and wet). 1984. The author observed that breakage. Each flake was then stepped on in a single step. Human trampling was conducted microflaking. half of each sample was buried at a depth of sediments after a heavy rain. and all three artifact visibility. and recorded horizontal 1988). (2010) carried out an experiment Fuego. They used 1400 flakes of obsidian and a loosely compacted loam that included rocks. Finally. specifically post-depositional breakage. at which particular phenomena predominate: 1) was to break each flake by walking on it. (1998) designed an experiment to after that time. and fractures. breakage ratio was recorded on high density chert or other fracture traits. fractures. and quartzite flakes. Pargeter (2011) trampling experiments. The experiment focused on edge damage. a day for 27 days. obsidian flakes. In edge modification. Cattle (n = 40) breakage. and patterns of ceramic was affected by depth below surface. to fracture. artifacts are generally covered with evaluate edge damage due to trampling vs. and 1986 aimed The authors concluded that substrate was the most at controlling the trampling effects of intense human important factor influencing damage. to assess whether fracture occurrence general artifact damage. which that flakes between 12 mm and 25 mm are resistant were arranged on two different substrates: compact. for a period of 1 hour to 24. the by a single step (single flake placed on the ground) authors found that only eleven of the 589 original and eleven during flake-on-flake trampling. The highest there are no references to fracture ratios.5% of larger (800 vs. followed by raw foot traffic on lithic assemblages deposited in shell material and artifact density. Breakage occurred on 19 by six individuals in sock feet. After twenty flakes were broken during this experiment: eight approximately six month of livestock grazing. cover. The author reported that 2. and were trampled for 28 days. The latter occurred only on two artifacts. (2010b) carried out an experiment of horizontally. middens located along the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Eren et al. loamy soils (dry and wet) with shell trampling on dry and water-saturated substrates. 90% of the sample was displaced either vertically or Thiébaut et al.8% of the artifacts after trampling and it was per experiment. Merenzon observed that both macro. The goal of the trampling experiment stages. Regarding macrofactures. 2) vertical migration. Osborn and Hartley (1991) created twelve Flakes that could not be broken in a single step were experimental plots in Capitol Reef National Park subjected to flake-on-flake trampling in which one flake (Utah. bricks and sherds.. Three plots included lithic artifacts. the surface. non-linear process and proposed a sequence of three and trampling. and Hertzian the lithic sample recorded horizontal displacement. 511 flakes were deposited in two plots that and vertical displacements. They observed a addition. The experiments focused 10 cm and the other half was deposited just below mainly on vertical and horizontal displacement. which were first placed and 3) edge damage and stability (i.4% of more frequent on harder surfaces (24. and displacement. In one set of experiments (Merenzon by buffalos and goats.

Summary of the experimental data sets. Mansur- Franchomme 1986.90% Necochea. trampling studies focused primarily on: (1) natural/ accidental edge fractures that can simulate intentional retouch or use wear (Tringham et al. Cotterell and Kamminga 1987. Jennings 2011. Weitzel et al. Pargeter 2011). trampling agents. Experiments a hard. Specific traits of trampling fractures have seldom been identified. al. Pintar 1987. Compact silty Fauna 5 years 12 3 2/4/6 mm 20% artifacts were manufactured Fuego silicified clay from Sierras Bayas rocks and lutite orthoquartzites.Special Issue 1 (2014) 97-110 However. 2012. 1996. Pryor 1988. Buenos Aires steppe gravels mm Province (Flegenheimer and LVA Lutite Loam with Fauna 1 year 46 3 1/3. 2006).9% and Nora Flegenheimer in LVA Lutite Loam with Fauna 7 years 22 9 1/1. Locations of authors’ trampling experiments. and Tierra performed in each plot by experimenters weighing 50 del Fuego Provinces. 1974. Fth: fracture thickness. two plots was established on . Thiébaut 2010).67/6 6. Figure 1. One hour of intense human trampling was the authors in Buenos Aires. (2) distinguishing macrofractures originated during production and use from those produced by trampling (McBrearty et al. compact substrate (brick) and the second one Data considered in this study were collected was established on loamy soil in a residential garden during five experiments in nine plots. Eren et al. As this brief review shows. 2010).. 1998. 1985.52% Weitzel 2007) as part of track gravels (livestock) mm CW’s dissertation research on lithic artifact fragmentation Loam with Fauna 1 year 54 3 2/3. McBrearty et al.100 C. Bayón et al. (fl) (F) mean/max) The first experiment Necochea Ortho.56% gravels (livestock) mm (Weitzel 2010). Merenzon 1988. Fischer et. nearly 50% of the cattle-broken assemblage was originally located 10 cm below the surface.55% by hunter-gatherer groups Fuego grained clay silicified in the Pampean Region rocks (Flegenheimer et al. 1998. (3) the extent of horizontal and vertical displacement caused by trampling (Gifford- González et al. Artifact fracture and movement were substrates. 2: La Verdadera Argentina Ranch archaeological locality (Santa Cruz). Argentina (Figure 1). F: fracture. 3: Northern Tierra del Fuego. one wearing soft-soled shoes and the other experiments involved various lithic raw materials. These and 60 kg. and (4) differential rates of fragmentation by raw material type (Nielsen 1991. Osborn and Hartley 1991. Lopinot and Ray 2007.67/5 5. 1984.44/4 40. Table 1. Ref: Exp: Experiment. 1998. Santa Cruz. Loam Human 1 hour 47 5 3/5/7 mm 10. One of fl: flakes. 1: Necochea MATERIALS AND METHODS (Buenos Aires). Pargeter 2013).Intersecciones en Antropología . Exp RM Substrate Agent t N N Fth (min/ F% and durations (Table 1).6% was carried out by CW quartzite Brick Human 1 hour 52 14 3/5/7 mm 26. wearing socks. Compact silty Human 20’ 18 1 3 mm 5. Experimental Tierra del Rhyolite. Pargeter 2011). McBrearty et al. defined or proposed (Hiscock 1985. the main Wet silty clay Fauna 5 years 12 0 0 0% lithic raw material used Tierra del Fine. RM: raw material. Weitzel 2010. Jennings 2011. carried out by (Figure 2).

The primary goal and fractures were recorded in both plots at the end of of this experiment was to assess fracture patterns of each experiment. Plots were far more common among artifacts in the brick plot located on active livestock tracks. Experimental artifacts were manufactured from lutite. 2008. and sheep) that graze in the area. One experiment consisted of regular monitoring of a plot first established by KB at the end of 2004 (Borrazzo 2011a). in the southeastern Baguales Range (Santa Cruz Province. 2008). These long-term experiments focus on the study of taphonomic transformations in surface lithic assemblages located within different steppe environments. As in the previous case. Trampling Fragmentation Potential of lithic artifacts: an experimental approach 101 culpaeus and P. A: general view of the environmental setting. occurred primarily during the first 20 minutes and then all artifacts were manufactured from lutite. puma [Puma concolor]. Borrero et al. Finally. 2001b). The second experiment carried out in LVA consisted of two plots established assessed every 10 minutes. an immediately available raw material that dominates the local archaeological assemblages (Borrazzo 2006b. Two of these experiments were conducted in La Verdadera Argentina Ranch archaeological locality (LVA). 10-15 minutes breakage was highest among already- broken pieces. All of the plots were established on loamy soils containing gravel. . most of them transverse and perpendicular to the northern Tierra del Fuego (Borrazzo 2010. 2014). Rotations. D: detail of loamy soil substrate after trampling. Necochea human trampling experiments. away from roads (Table 1). in the last fractures in 2012. substrate in the study area (aeolian-lacustrine plains. fragmentation and ranch houses (Figure 4). and hare [Lepus europaeus]) as well as livestock (horse. and brick plot increased throughout the hour. Borrazzo 2012. Vilas et al. The plots plateaued. 2006. B: detail of brick substrate after trampling. displacements. 2013a). and fracture occurrence (Figure 3). Arrows indicate fractured artifacts. 2010. foxes [Pseudalopex steppe plot. The location of the plot away from roads and ranch houses suggests that main trampling agents are wild fauna (guanaco [Lama guanicoe]. by CB in 2011 (Balirán 2012. In the loamy soil experiment. The longitudinal axis (Flegenheimer and Weitzel 2007). all of the fractures were bending The final two experiments were developed by KB in type. A: brick substrate plot. Results indicate that fractures were faunal trampling. 1986-1987. 2013b) The other four experiments were developed in Fuego-Patagonia as part of the larger Magallania Archaeological Project directed by Luis Borrero (Borrero 2001a. Figure 2. griseus]. B: LVA [Rhea penatta. specifically large cattle. C: detail of plot substrate. burial frequency. 1999. and subsequently revisited in 2005. 2007). burial frequency. 2011. Breakage ratios among the materials in the were assessed for movement. and 2012 to assess artifact movement. LVA steppe plot. choique Figure 3. cow. C: general view of loamy soil plot.

. Paddayya and Petraglia plots A and C (Borrazzo 2010. 2006a. A: general view of the environmental Analytical Methods setting. 1987). C: detail of track substrate. among others).Intersecciones en Antropología . 2011. guanaco sightings near plots). The experiment included one plot (silty clay substrate) and two agents (55 and 80 kg) wearing rubber-soled shoes. The need for a taphonomic is primarily composed of clay (with a small amount of perspective in lithic artifact analysis was first expressed silt). LVA animal track experiment (plot A). A: general view of the environmental setting. Weitzel et al.Special Issue 1 (2014) 97-110 is the primary trampling agent (presence of dung and footprint on the plots. Table 1 summarizes the results of the five experiments presented above and assessed in the following section. In studies of site formation processes (Schiffer 1983. 2006a). It bears noting that only 38 of 263 artifacts broke during the experiments (Figure 6). and raw material of Tierra del Fuego plot A. To assess which variables might explain the observed condition of artifacts −which might have been broken by trampling and which not− we analyzed the maximum length (L). lutite. Tierra del Fuego plot A. 2011a. (cow and sheep) but evidence suggests that guanaco Borrero 2011. a human trampling experiment was conducted near plot A. Finally. The first experiment in Tierra del Fuego included by Hiscock (1985) and has in recent years been three plots established in 2007 and assessed in 2008 acknowledged and applied by an increasing number and 2013. Potential 1993.0 (R Development Core . 102 C. B: thickness (T). Local lithic raw materials employed for Tierra del Fuego experiments include rhyolite. 2002. maximum Figure 5. 2011. Domínguez-Rodrigo et al. Figure 5). Borrazzo trampling agents in the area are guanaco and livestock 2004. Burroni et al. Here we will consider data collected at of scholars (Nash 1993. which we define as the archaeological and actualistic study of the effects of natural and cultural agents and processes on lithic artifact assemblages that occurred after their deposition in an archaeological context (Borrazzo 2004. 2010a. Bordes 2003. maximum width (W). Thiébaut et al. the study of lithic taphonomy focuses on artifact and assemblage morphological and spatial attributes to understand their post-depositional history and paleobiological and paleoenvironmental contexts. Figure 4.11. C: detail of experimental artifact deposited on silty clay experimental lithic artifacts using substrate. R 2. Our theoretical approach is that of lithic taphonomy. B: plot A in year 2011. Eren et al. b. and fine-grained silicified rocks.

the measures for the three main shape axis (length. a point where a choice among main shape axis− may be significantly Max. Osborn and Hartley 1991. maximum science of intelligent data analysis. Williams 2011). Length Width Thickness Thickness Thickness As evidenced by the studies cited in the N (observations) 263 263 263 263 263 literature review and our own experiments.71 .70 3909. H: Necochea soft surface plot. even Maximum 74 93 49 427. 2010. E-F: Tierra del Fuego plot A. Thus. similar measures for they consist of a root (the most representative attribute its three shape axis. databases (Fayyad et al. Eren Median 35 31 7 145.44 4. G: Necochea hard surface plot. branches (a classification sensitive items to trampling fragmentation (Borrazzo question or probability. we proposed those artifacts These tree-shaped structures represent sets of decisions. The data were analyzed Figure 6. and leaves/ possible syntheses of some of the existing relationships nodes (cases within the dataset. D: LVA steppe plot (drawing below the artifact indicates its original shape known as decision trees.. Experimental data set descriptive statistics. it is the process of finding correlations observed that absolute artifact measures are not always or patterns among dozens of fields in large relational themselves conclusive on its condition (Borrazzo 2004.52 .86 .17 agents (i.38 13. Area/ Length/Width/ related to artifact condition. Minimum 10 9 2 27. 13.50 . Max. although raw Table 2..020 fragmentation ratios are quite variable. similar values for statistical methods that generate predictive models. and the missing fragment). We also included two ratios.18 151.88 among similar substrates and trampling Mean 35. Trampling Fragmentation Potential of lithic artifacts: an experimental approach 103 material. Decision we expected its probability of breakage will also trees (DT) are a classic learning system of data mining diminish as the difference for its length and width or knowledge discovery in databases. all of these morphometric attributes are a significant factor in fracture occurrence since they condition the fragmentation potential of each artifact and.01 2011. DM consists in length/ maximum width/ maximum thickness (L/W/T) the application of specific algorithms and statistical and area to thickness (A/T)1. Furthermore. we considered L/W/T and/or A/T rates −as or courses of action available at that point). width.22 . We believe this is Std. 2010b. one of the possible alternatives 2004).05 180.e.61 21. and thickness) of each artifact subjected to trampling were not systematically informed and considered in further analysis. We previously proposed methods for extracting patterns from large data sets. A-C: LVA livestock using a data mining technique track plots. . thus. length and width). the expected rate of assemblage fragmentation due to trampling. 1996.71 .15 et al. All measures in mm. Finally. As we will show here. and substrate were explicitly detailed in those experiments.66 8. expressed through models (Williams 2011).dev. these rates as potentially significant variables as we Technically.12 due in part to the fact that. a very thin artifact is also described as a process of building models.e. Jennings Variance 179. Max. Pargeter 2011). will not break when subject to trampling if it offers a since the information extracted from data is often small surface of encounter (small size).66 62. Data mining (DM) is defined by Williams (2011) as the Team 2011). The statistical characterizations of metric attributes and indices for the experimental data sets considered in our study are summarized in Table 2. exhibiting “spherical shape” (i. sensu Zingg 1935) are the less that describes the data set). trampling agent.26 33. For example.e. Thiébaut et al. It 2010. Weitzel 2010).. and a class of measures approximates to 0 (i. Examples of broken artifacts from trampling experiments.

guided by frequency information in the values less than or equal to 172. Student`s t-test for artifact condition (significance artifacts subject to trampling. Decision tree for the condition of experimental Table 3. manner: the system is presented with cases relevant The decision tree.054 -1. and substrate were not selected by DT as determining factors for artifact condition after trampling events. t-test for artifact condition against each DT variable. Therefore.72 Length .28 (left branch of frequently used in DT building include ID3 (Iterative the first node) the DT produces a second node where Dicotomiser 3). its “switch-point” values may change as new data or datasets are considered. shows −given the variables to a classification task and it develops a DT from the in our experimental data set− that artifacts with A/T top down. to mm were broken after trampling when their length/ find the optimal DT by minimizing the generalization width/thickness ratio (L/W/T) was greater than or equal error (Rokach and Maimon 2010: 151).6 mm should not 1999). although we do not expect the role of A/T to change. 1999. we perform a Student´s artifacts exposed to trampling is shown in Figure 7.6 Length/Width/Thickness .5 −an extension of ID3− CART length is the decisive variable: artifacts equal to or (Classification and Regression Tree) and CHAID longer than 35. 35. the decision tree arrived at exactly the same structure for trampling expectations.28 perfectly as possible all the available data. that is. In this work we considered artifact condition break when subjected to trampling (left branch of the (complete or broken) as the target. third node). Berson et al.. DT inducers are algorithms that automatically of the experimental dataset (unbroken) is explained by construct a DT from a given data set.59 Area . Still.5) with A/T values below 210. Weitzel et al.85 Area/Thickness . Here. Next we included in the decision tree the contextual variables shown by our trampling experiments to affect damage outcomes. Rokach and the DT. factors other than A/T may change their role in the model as new data is submitted to the decision tree. while algorithms construct a model that explains the given shorter artifacts are evaluated by another condition.28. In order to assess if the relationships between RESULTS artifact condition and the variables selected by the DT The decision tree we obtained for the condition of were statistically significant. C4.55 -. These trampled (left branch of the second node). the ratio of artifact area to maximum thickness Maimon 2010. The diagram reads from the top down. agent. That is. the model. It is worth p T Thickness . raw material.Special Issue 1 (2014) 97-110 must be made) (Berson et al. Berson et al. If L/W/T is smaller than 0.104 C.39 -. Williams 2011). but should break if A/T is greater than or equal to 210. A/T of rules that can be applied to a new (unclassified) becomes important again since short artifacts (L < dataset (Quinlan 1986. Algorithms to 0.5 mm remained unbroken after being (Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detection). particularly trampling agent and substrate. and contextual). Specifically. Palace 1996. data generating a predictive model by providing a set indicated in the third node (right branch). metric. The system (decision (A/T) is the first significant variable (root) to explain tree) learns from examples in a non-incremental artifact condition (complete or broken). The first node (following the right branch) the algorithm seeks to create a tree that explains as indicates that artifacts with an A/T greater than 172.Intersecciones en Antropología . then.28 mm were not broken examples (Quinlan 1986. . level: . 1999. Considering all the variables together (raw material.05). The DT presented here will only be useful for samples holding metric values and raw materials similar to the ones in our experimental data set.96 Width .16 Figure 7. the condition of approximately 91% 2011).24 -1. Williams by trampling.08 1.00007 -3.6 mm. Thus. According to Results show that the relationship between A/T and artifact condition is the only statistically significant (see Table 3).

further actualistic trampling by calculating the frequency of whole flakes research is required in areas that include or included with a high TFP (here. A/T broken flakes to understand an assemblage’s original is the only variable among those considered for this composition (Hiscock 2002). other the Necochea experiment showed that there was a variables (length/width/thickness and artifact length) significant relationship between substrate hardness contribute to artifact condition. fragility. of fractures on pieces exhibiting smaller A/T values the model will predict artifacts’ condition (broken or should be attributable to other processes. broken by trampling and therefore have high TFP. The model presented above is useful that can be effectively broken by trampling given the for assessing lithic assemblages with attributes (metric other morphological characteristics represented in our variables and raw materials) similar to those considered experimental dataset. if high TFP flakes are scarce or absent Based on the results of our analyses using decision from an assemblage. we can suggest in our data set (Table 2). 1998). agents above this weight (i. 600 kg. Furthermore. If we consider 7 mm the maximum thickness of flaked artifacts. So far. so long as 172. If a sample contains intact artifacts with a high TFP. sample remains small. The size of the available previously by other researchers (Gifford-Gonzalez et al. Nielsen 1991. Borrero and Martin 2012) to assess whether a lithic assemblage was subjected to might break artifacts 7 mm thick. for the dataset obtained from our five trampling Student’s t test showed that the relation between these experiments.28 mm and maximum such large-bodied animals. TFP expectations study exhibiting a statistically significant relationship provided by the model permit special consideration of with artifact condition. A further in explaining artifact condition may change as more important observation from our study is that in none data are introduced to the DT. To DT root for predicting artifact condition (threshold address this. Meeting these criteria.e. the results from The DT also shows that. Lastly. DT predictions suggest that the occurrence materials. the 7 mm thickness threshold is based experimental data are needed for the construction of on trampling agents weighting up to approximately a new DT. substrates and agents. The second threshold value we broken artifacts with fracture thicknesses greater than . and we can then compare artifact’s actual on these results. elephants or We recommend a cautious use of threshold values several extinct mammals. are not strictly comparable and therefore specific Of course. that lithic assemblage may not have been intensively affected by trampling processes. but the DT also serves as a predictive variables is the only statically significant. thickness < 7 mm). Our results the fragmentation pattern observed in any given indicate that TFP is primarily conditioned by artifacts’ assemblage. and the role of these variables 1985. That is. DT selected A/T ratio as the key variable These threshold values explain artifact condition affecting artifact condition when subjected to trampling.. Furthermore. Therefore. then tentatively. we propose that the ratio of area condition to the modeled predictions to assess whether to thickness is a key in the assessment of trampling trampling is the most likely mechanism to explain fragmentation potential (TFP) in lithics. Trampling Fragmentation Potential of lithic artifacts: an experimental approach 105 considering that the influence of raw material may propose for artifact TFP assessment derives from our increase with obsidian artifacts because of its high actualistic observations: thickness. McBrearty et al. the model’s predictions become more fragmentation but not whether an artifact can be accurate and applicable to more diverse assemblages. among our sample. model.28 mm). as it incorporates more and trampling agent may influence the frequency of “training” data. selected as the production techniques and parent material size. as demonstrated statistically significant. broken by trampling. we assemblage before making a claim for trample damage propose two threshold values for assessing TFP. but assemblages exhibiting that any artifact with an A/T value above 172. we suggest a thorough examination of value for current sample is 172. we can evaluate new data (experimental DT predicts that artifacts exhibiting A/T values below or archaeological) relative to this model. So far. the analyst will need to determine trees and experimental observations of attributes that whether such artifacts were ever present in the original influence lithic artifact breakage by trampling. A/T >172. Based whole).28 and different values for artifact morphometric attributes 7 mm or more thick cannot be broken by trampling. For example. The since flake morphological attributes depend on tool first is the ratio of area to thickness. and suite of raw Thus. it is within the morphological range. we propose to add variables when the available experimental sample is thickness as a complementary variable to assess artifact diverse enough to represent the morphological universe TFP. On DISCUSSION the other hand. Given our dataset. though they are not and fracture ratio (Weitzel 2010). Further experimentation is needed to assess artifacts whose sections are up to 7 mm thick can be this statement. We will be better able of the experiments fracture section thicknesses of more to judge the relative importance of these and other than 7 mm were recorded.28 mm are unlikely to be broken by trampling. the model can be refined metric attributes and that other factors such as substrate with new experimental data.

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