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# TOPIC :INCLINED BEDDING(FOLD) (LAB 2a

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1.0 OBJECTIVE
To plot ground profile and rock formations from geological map – inclined beddings

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES
a) Students should able to plot subsurface profile.
b) Students should able to understand the geological structure in subsurface profile.
c) Students should able to understand a history of the geological area.

3.0 THEORY
A geological map is one, which shows in the first place, the occurrence and distribution of the rocks at the surface of the ground. Conventional
sign may show certain facts of observation about them. The geological map allows the geological structure of the country to be inferred. Beds of
rocks are bounded by bedding surfaces, which may be horizontal, tilted or bent in any form or direction. A series of beds which have been laid
down regularly one on the other, and which may be treated as a whole, form a conformable series. It follows that the lower beds are the older. In
such a series of bedding surfaces are parallel. Each bedding surface is usually common to two beds of rock, being the top of one and the bottom
of the one next above. In the simplest case, these surfaces are planes: bedding planes.

4.0 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS
1. Geological Map ( Map 7 – Appendix B )
2. Graph paper/drawing paper - A4 size
3. Ruler

says A . 3. 2. d1) cut at right angles to the parallel lines. 6. 4.5. Draw a line that touches the parallel the select point to the first strike line.1.B. .Draw a line to join the line of cross-section on the map. 4. 5. mark the points of intersection accordingly between the lines with the contours respective to its heights. The vertical scale is normally exaggerated to improve visibility of the profile. 6 Measure the distance (say. Refer Figure 1. 3. Select two pints within the marked boundary of similar heights.Transfer the points to the cross-section profile respective to the heights of the contours. 7.Determine the angle of dip of the fold.Plot the cross-section with the horizontal and vertical scales accordingly to the scale of the geological map on a piece of graph paper or blank sheet. Select another point (of ascending @ descending contour value).Draw the line between the two points to indicate the first strike line.Join the points to form the profile of the ground elevation. Highlights the rock boundary to focus for determination of strike line.Using a blank piece of paper. 5. Its value corresponding to two value of contour. 1. 2.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS By referring to Map 7.0 PROCEDURE 1.

BOUNDARY DIRECTION DIP ANGLE CB 90° 32° BA 90° 29° AB 270° 29° BC 270° 32° CB 90° 32° .

but may also be formed as a result of displacement on a non-planar fault (fault bend fold).0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION Question and answers 1. A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces.Folds form under varied conditions of stress. on a variety of scales.g. as evidenced by their presence in soft sediments.7. hydrostatic pressure. and even as primary flow structures in some igneous rocks. Folds in rocks vary in size from microscopic crinkles to mountain-sized folds. a common feature of orogenic zones. . pore pressure. at the tip of a propagating fault (fault propagation fold). are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation. Folds are commonly formed by shortening of existing layers. such as sedimentary strata. the full spectrum of metamorphic rocks. They occur singly as isolated folds and in extensive fold trains of different sizes. and temperature gradient. by differential compaction or due to the effects of a high-level igneous intrusion e. above a laccolith. A set of folds distributed on a regional scale constitutes a fold belt. Synsedimentary folds are those due to slumping of sedimentary material before it is lithified. Explain types of fold (with the aid of diagram) and discuss how this structure occurred.

an outcrop appears. obscuring the rocks. contain some of the best outcrops because a greater percentage of the rock formation lies exposed. 11000 BC). Outcrops are also very important for understanding fossil assemblages. . and on land scraped free of soil by bulldozer-like glaciers. paleo- current directions. followed by isostatic uplift has produced a large number of smooth coastal and littoral outcrops.Mountainous regions. grading. depositional features orientations (e." Outcrops provide opportunities for field geologists to sample the local geology—photograph it. Outcrops allow direct observation and sampling of the bedrock in situ for geologic analysis and creating geologic maps. hold. and tectonically active areas. the opposite is often the case. You often can see geologists or students identifying rocks in roadcuts. Classes often visit outcrops to see illustrations of the principles of geology that were introduced in lecture. so named because the exposed rock "crops out. Sediment collects and plants grow in flatter areas. . In Finland. and evolution as they provide a record of relative changes within geologic strata. are structural geology features orientations (e. bedding planes. facies changes). The greater expense of geologic mapping in an outcrop-free area results from high-priced drilling to sample the rocks hidden below the surface. In some areas soil and sediment may completely cover all the underlying rock. in the desert southwest. paleo-environment. Outcrops cut the cost of mapping for geologists. or crop out. paleomagnetic orientations. glacial erosion during the last glacial maximum (ca. where any loosened Earth material swiftly washes away. map. hammer. Rocks crop out especially well across steep slopes. outcrops along the road where highway construction exposed the rocks. such as in the southeastern United States. However. lick. chew.g.8. climb. foliation). river banks. Outcrops do not cover the majority of the Earth's land surface because in most places the bedrock or superficial deposits are covered by a mantle of soil and vegetation and cannot be seen or examined closely. sniff. Such exposure will happen most frequently in areas where erosion is rapid and exceeds the weathering rate such as on steep hillsides.g. the rock may be exposed. fold axes. above the tree line (elevation above which trees cannot grow). followed by scouring by sea waves. mountain ridges and tops. in places where the overlying cover is removed through erosion or tectonic uplift. In situ measurements are critical for proper analysis of geological history and outcrops are therefore extremely important for understanding the geologic time scale of earth history. However. and carry it home. touch.0 CONCLUSION When weathering and erosion expose part of a rock layer or formation. An outcrop is the exposed rock. Some of the types of information that cannot be obtained except from bedrock outcrops or by precise drilling and coring operations.

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b) Students should able to understand the geological structure in subsurface profile. Colour pencils (optional) . 3. c) Students should able to understand a history of the geological area. The geological map allows the geological structure of the country to be inferred. Ruler 4. these surfaces are planes: bedding planes 4. tilted or bent in any form or direction. being the top of one and the bottom of the one next above.A series of beds which have been laid down regularly one on the other.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES a) Students should able to plot subsurface profile. In such a series of bedding surfaces areparallel. Graph paper/drawing paper . and which may be treated as a whole.0 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS 1. which shows in the first place.0 OBJECTIVE To plot ground profile and rock formations from geological map – faulted bedding 2. In the simplest case. the occurrence and distribution of the rocks at the surface of the ground. Conventional sign may show certain facts of observation about them.TOPIC : FAULT BEDDING (LAB 2b) 1. Pencils 5.form a conformable series.Beds of rocks are bounded by bedding surfaces. It follows that the lower beds are the older. Each bedding surface is usually common to two beds of rock. Geological Map ( Map 14 – Appendix C ) 2.0 THEORY A geological map is one. which may be horizontal.A4 size 3.

Determine the dip and strike of the fault.Join the points to form the profile of the ground elevation. 2.B. 4. BOUNDARY DIRECTION DIP ANGLE BDC 190° 22° BDFC 190° 63° BDC 190° 21° BA 190° 22° . Determine the thickness of sandstone outcrop. mark the points of intersection accordingly between the lines with the contours respective to its heights. 3.Draw a line to join the line of cross-section on the map.Transfer the points to the cross-section profile respective to the heights of the contours. says A .0 PROCEDURE 1 Plot the cross-section with the horizontal and vertical scales accordingly to the scale of the geological map on a piece of graph paper or blank sheet. 6.5.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS By referring to Map 14. 1. 4. 3.Using a blank piece of paper.Plot the rock outcrop and fault on the cross-section profile.Determine the dip and strike of the coal seams. 5. 2.

where such faults form a plate boundary.5. .A special class of strike-slip faults is the transform fault. so defining a fault as oblique requires both dip and strike components to be measurable and significant. it is the angle between the fault plane and a vertical plane that strikes parallel to the fault.Each is defined by the direction of movement of the ground on the opposite side of the fault from an observer. These are found related to offsets in spreading centers. others occur where the direction of extension or shortening changes during the deformation but the earlier formed faults remain active.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION Explain types of fault (with the aid of diagram) and discuss how this structure occur? Strike-slip faults The fault surface is usually near vertical and the footwall moves either left or right or laterally with very little vertical motion. New Zealand. such as mid-ocean ridges. Transform faults are also referred to as conservative plate boundaries. Some oblique faults occur within transtensional and transpressional regimes. Nearly all faults will have some component of both dip-slip and strike-slip. Strike-slip faults with left-lateral motion are also known as sinistral faults. Dip-slip faults A fault which has a component of dip-slip and a component of strike-slip is termed an oblique-slip fault. and less commonly within continental lithosphere.The hade angle is defined as the complement of the dip angle. or the Alpine Fault. such as the Dead Sea Transform in the Middle East. as lithosphere is neither created nor destroyed. Those with right-lateral motion are also known as dextral faults.

grading. followed by scouring by sea waves. the rock may be exposed. 11000 BC). the principle of original horizontality. mountain ridges and tops. principle of lateral continuity. In situ measurements are critical for proper analysis of geological history and outcrops are therefore extremely important for understanding the geologic time scale of earth history. Such exposure will happen most frequently in areas where erosion is rapid and exceeds the weathering rate such as on steep hillsides. are structural geology features orientations (e.g. and sampling for laboratory analysis of outcrops made possible all of the geologic sciences and the development of fundamental geologic laws such as the law of superposition. paleo- environment.Accurate description.Bedrock and superficial deposits may also be exposed at the Earth's surface due to human excavations such as quarrying and building of transport routes. In Finland. \ . fold axes.0 CONCLUSION Outcrops do not cover the majority of the Earth's land surface because in most places the bedrock or superficial deposits are covered by a mantle of soil and vegetation and cannot be seen or examined closely. followed by isostatic uplift has produced a large number of smooth coastal and littoral outcrops. paleomagnetic orientations. depositional features orientations (e. paleo-current directions. foliation). and tectonically active areas. mapping. facies changes). Outcrops are also very important for understanding fossil assemblages.g. Some of the types of information that cannot be obtained except from bedrock outcrops or by precise drilling and coring operations. in places where the overlying cover is removed through erosion or tectonic uplift. glacial erosion during the last glacial maximum (ca. and evolution as they provide a record of relative changes within geologic strata. or crop out. However. Outcrops allow direct observation and sampling of the bedrock in situ for geologic analysis and creating geologic maps.6. bedding planes. and the principle of faunal succession. river banks.