You are on page 1of 38

VAR

Processes
Electroslag Remelting Processes
Electron
Beam
ESR
Remelting

Plasma
Torch
Melting

ESR
Processes

Metallurgy

Technology

Remelting
of Heavy
forging
Ingots

Variants of
ESR
Technology
Docsity.com

VAR
Processes
Electroslag Remelting Processes
Electron
Beam
ESR
Remelting
Previous remelting methods:
Plasma  Under vacuum or low pressure
Torch  Pressure dependent refining reactions
Melting
ESR:
ESR  Refining  Slag/metal reactions
Processes  Protective environment  Slag
Process:
Metallurgy
 Passage of current through slag produces heat
Technology  Submerged electrode melts in slag (molten film as in
VAR)
Remelting  Melt drip through slag
of Heavy  Lot of heat go with
 Oxides being separated
forging
 Metal slag reactions (desulphurization)
Ingots
 So directional solidification from bottom to top (as in VAR)
Variants of
ESR  ESR  good for alloys susceptible to segregation
Technology
Docsity.com

VAR
Processes
Electroslag Remelting Processes
Electron
Beam
Metallurgy
Remelting
Properties of product depends:
Plasma  Directional crystallization
Torch  Super heating
Melting
 Reactive slag
ESR Direction of metallurgical reactions:
Processes  Composition of steel
Metallurgy  Composition of slag
 Operational method
Technology Slag:
Remelting  CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 based
of Heavy  CaF2-based slag offer outstanding properties
forging  Low melting point
Ingots  High desulfurizing capacity
 Good refining properties
Variants of  Desired electrical properties
ESR
Technology
Docsity.com

Ingots desulphurization capacity throughout the Variants of process ESR Technology Docsity.VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Metallurgy (CaF2-Slag) Remelting Disadvantage: Plasma  Release harmful toxic Torch Melting fluorine compounds CaF2-free slag : ESR Processes  Successfully practiced  Large scale acceptance Metallurgy needed Technology Desulphurization: CaO+S=CaS+O Remelting CaS+3/2O2=CaO+SO2 of Heavy forging  Slag has const.com .

com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Metallurgy (Slag) Remelting  ESR takes place Plasma  under the Torch atmosphere of air Melting ESR  Oxidation of melt Processes Metallurgy  Slag is continuously Technology deoxidized Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.

At the surface of metal-droplets Metallurgy passing through slag Technology Remelting of Heavy 3.VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Removal of non-metallic inclusions Remelting Plasma 1.com . At the slag/metal pool interface forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity. Liquid metal film on electrode Torch Melting surface  submerged in slag ESR Processes 2.

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Technology Remelting Plasma Basic Philosophy of Process Control: Torch Melting  Stabilization of input energy as ESR remelting process progresses Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Technology Remelting Plasma Furnace Design: Torch Melting  Coaxial furnace configuration ESR Processes for current  Stray filed Metallurgy  slag & bath Technology movement Remelting  segregation of Heavy (freckles) forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Technology (Furnace Design) Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Technology (Furnace Design) Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Technology (Furnace Design) Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Technology (Furnace Design) Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Technology (Furnace Design) Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma  Forging ingots  up to 350 t Torch  Final forging 100 t or more Melting  Shafts of turbines & generators ESR Processes Metallurgy  High yield without internal defects  Porosity Technology  Macro-segregation Remelting  Concentration of non-metallic inclusions of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR  Size of ESR ingot required is smaller than that of a Technology conventionally cast ingot for a given final forging Docsity.

5” ~ 7.com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma  1971  World‟s largest ESR plant Torch  Forging ingots Melting  Diameter 90.5” Technology dia Remelting  Melting of 1 electrode  51” diameter of Heavy  Several electrode changes required during forging process Ingots  Power supply provided by 4 independent units Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.5‟ ESR  Length 197” ~ 16‟ Processes  Plant design Metallurgy  Melting of 4 electrodes simultaneously  90.

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma  Technical & Metallurgical Problems Torch  Reliable remelting over several days Melting without interruption ESR Processes  Steel & slag breakouts must be avoided  With an ingot withdrawal system Metallurgy  Achievements off good ingot surface Technology  Directional solidification (avoid Remelting segregation) of Heavy forging  Ensuring the composition of slag & melt Ingots throughout the length of the ingot Variants of  Low „H‟ & „Al‟ contents ESR Technology Docsity.

com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.

030% Remelting of Heavy  0.010% Al affect the stress rupture properties forging adversely Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .015 to 0.VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma  Controlling the O & Al Torch Melting  Production of large scale forging ingots ESR Processes  constant composition throughout the length  Slag must be deoxidized continuously Metallurgy  By adding „Al‟ to avoid the formation of „FeO‟ Technology  Al in remelted ingot  b/w 0.

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting  Low „Al‟ but same level of desulphurization Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma  Controlling the Torch Melting „H‟ contents ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.

= 2[OH]- [OH].= Fe + O [OH].+ Constant  Higher the H contents in slag higher the H in metal Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting  Controlling the „H‟ contents Plasma  As process progresses the „H‟ contents decreases Torch  High lime contents in slag  High „H‟ contents Melting  Lime absorbs water  Only a portion of water evaporates  rest is absorbed by ESR liquid slag and formed. Processes [H2O] + [O]2.com .ion depletion in slag Remelting  Now partial pressure of water vapors dominates the conditions of Heavy [H2O]gas + [O]2-=2[OH]- forging  From this equation Ingots [OH]-=KTx√(Pwater) with [O]2.+ H + [Fe]2+ Metallurgy [Fe]2+ + [O]2.= O + H Technology  H contents in metal falls in line with [OH].+ Fe = [O]2.

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting  Controlling the „H‟ contents Plasma  Thermodynamics dictates: Torch  The slag components must be free of water Melting  The water vapor pressure in the furnace atmosphere must ESR be kept as low as possible Processes  Remedy:  Pre-Heat treat the slag components Metallurgy  Shielding the furnace atmosphere (provide dried air) Technology Remelting of Heavy Constant & low forging H contents Ingots throughout length Variants of ESR No embrittlement Technology Docsity.com .

Torch  Control on melt rate Melting  Control on slag temperature ESR  Feed-back control system Processes  Microsegregation Metallurgy  Shrinkage Technology  Uneven distribution of non-metallic inclusions Remelting of Heavy forging  Possible  ingot of 7.5‟ diameter Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma  Directional Solidification needs.

com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.

com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Segregation Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Oxides & Oxygen Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Oxides Technology & Oxygen Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Superiority of Metallurgy ESR Products over Technology Conventional Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Remelting of Heavy Forging Ingots Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Superiority of ESR Products over Conventional Docsity.com .

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam to be continued (Fig 87) Remelting Plasma Torch Melting ESR Processes Metallurgy Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .

com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Variants of ESR Technology Remelting Plasma  Pressurized Electroslag Remelting Torch Melting (PESR) ESR Processes  Vacuum Electroslag Remelting Metallurgy (VAC-ESR) Technology Remelting of Heavy forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.

S.S.S.VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Pressurized Electroslag Remelting Remelting Plasma  Nitrogen as alloying element Torch increases Physical & Mechanical Melting Properties of steel ESR  Dissolved “N” in Austenitic SS  ↑ Yield Processes Strength  by forming S. (Solid Solution Metallurgy Strengthening)  In Ferritic Steels  fine Dispersion of nitrides Technology  Quenching and Tempering is used to achieve this Remelting of Heavy Reason: forging  Nitrides are more stable then carbides at high temp Ingots  As a result high creep and rupture strengths of alloy at Variants of working temp (600 °C) ESR Technology Docsity.com .

Compatible with alloy forging 2. Via Gas Phase  High Pressure of Nitrogen (more than solubility limit of Nitrogen) Torch is maintained during: Melting  Melting  Refining  Alloying addition ESR  Nitrogen loss is prevented during casting and solidification Processes Solubility α√(PN) Metallurgy  Solidification is made in pressurized (42 bar ~ 42 atm) chamber 2. High N concentration Ingots 3.VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Pressurized Electroslag Remelting Remelting  How to add Nitrogen Plasma 1.com . Good thermodynamic stability 4. Specific gravity suitable for theprocess Examples with N % provided in braces: Variants of CrN (4-10) FeCrN (8-10) MnN (6-10) SiN(20-30) ESR Ingots of 20 tons with 39” dia has been produced using PESR Technology Docsity. Via Solids  Liquid drops has very short time to absorb Nitrogen from Technology nitrogen rich furnace environment (while traveling from electrode tip to liquid pool) Remelting  Nitrogen-bearing Solids added through slag in addition to the N pressure of Heavy Required properties for these solids: 1.

com .VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Pressurized Electroslag Remelting Remelting  PESR used  Nitrogen Alloyed Austenitic steel  Plasma Generator retaining rings (Bush type rings) Torch Melting  Germany  0.6 % N in alloy ESR Processes  Cr & Interstitially dissolved Nitrogen Metallurgy Superior Properties of Nitrogen steels: Technology  Nitrogen act as austenite stabilizer Remelting  ↑ strength without ↓ toughness of Heavy  Promotes work hardening forging Ingots  Nitrogen with Cr resist stress corrosion cracking Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.

VAR Processes Electroslag Remelting Processes Electron Beam Vacuum Electroslag Remelting Remelting Plasma  Superalloys  Limited use due to High Cost Torch Melting  Both Slag and Vacuum practiced ESR Processes  CaF2 free slag is employed Metallurgy Technology  Problems of VAR (poor surface & White spots) Remelting avoided of Heavy  Advantages of both processes VAR & ESR forging Ingots Variants of ESR Technology Docsity.com .