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and Nutrition
By KSC Dietetic Interns Zach N. & Aubrey S.
February 2, 2017

Aubrey introduce then Zach, then Aubrey Topic.

2 Making Connections (MC1)
Pass the ball around to the next person and
answer this question.
Answer this question: Name one system or body
part and how it keeps you healthy as a whole.
What functions does it perform to keep you alive?

Aubrey takes activity

Relate the web of yarn to the functions of your body, all are interconnected and all of
them feed back into each other. If one of your systems is compromised it can quickly
spread and affect other systems. Relate this to homeostasis as a quality, the whole
body needs to be in homeostasis.
3 Today you will...
1. ...describe the process of homeostatic
2. ...relate to why homeostasis is important in
the body.
3. ...demonstrate healthy nutrition choices by
evaluating nutrition choices in your everyday

4 Word Bank
1. Homeostasis 10. Glycogen
2. Equilibrium 11. Pathogen
3. Stimuli 12. Platelets
4. Receptor 13. Clotting factors
5. Positive feedback loop 14. Hypothalamus
6. Negative feedback loop 15. Pituitary gland
7. Insulin 16. Pancreas
8. Glucagon
9. Blood Glucose

NOTE: Go over words on glossary throughout the presentations. (auditory learners)

Glossary of terms defined will be offered on handout.

We will address any additional terms that students dont understand.
What is
And how does it keep our body in balance?

Ask the students what they think homeostasis is and what they know about it.
6 What is homeostasis?
Definition: The tendency of an organism or cell
to regulate its internal environment by
reaching a state of equilibrium.

Explanation: Your body has receptors that

react to stimuli, these reactions cause your
body to respond, typically by a feedback loop,
to restore your system to a state of equilibrium.

Aubrey then maybe Zach

NOTE: provide a non-biology definition and example.

Ask the students about what parts of their body need to reach some sort of
Equilibrium: A state in which opposite or opposing forces are in balance.
Stimulus: A change to an internal or external variable. E.g high blood sugar, damage
to a blood vessel, low stomach pH
Receptor: Detects the variable change and produces a response.
Response: Either chemical, mechanical or hormonal messengers that produce other
changes in your body. Typically a cascade that causes a feedback loop.
7 What is a feedback loop?
Feedback Loop: When your body
reacts to a stimulus by producing
hormonal or chemical messengers
which in turn react with and change
the stimulus.

Two kinds: Negative feedback loops

and Positive feedback loops.

Ask the students what are some positive feedback loops or negative feedback loops
they can possibly think of (Not necessarily related to biology). What are the steps?

Negative feedback loops are more common in the body and they are the ones that
maintain homeostasis. In a negative feedback loop the reaction to the stimulus
negatively impacts the stimulus causing the loop to turn off when the system is back
to a balanced level.
Receptor, control center, effector are the three steps in negative feedback loop.

Positive feedback loops are less common but used when a system needs to grow in a
certain direction. When a positive feedback loop is engaged the reactions to the
stimulus positively affects the state of the stimulus causing a greater reaction, this
cycle is shut off when the end goal is achieved. E.g a blood clot forms or a baby is

8 Endocrine System
What does it do?
Glands secrete hormones that How does it reach equilibrium?
regulate body processes and send Maintaining hormonal balance in
messages, such as metabolism & the body by regulating type and
reproduction. frequency of hormones being
Parts of the Endocrine System:
Pituitary Gland, hypothalamus,
adrenal glands, pancreas, Noteable feedback loops: Blood
reproductive glands, thyroid, glucose control (Insulin secretion,
parathyroid glucagon secretion), Childbirth,

Note: Ask recall questions before moving to the next system.
Add uterine oxytocin/ferguson to glossary if we are going to say it.

Ask what type of feedbacks loops are each feedback loop for review.
Ferguson Reflex: Uterine oxytocin controls rate and frequency of reactions.
Contractions cause hypothalamus to produce more oxytocin which increases rate and
frequency of contractions.
Lactation: A nerve response on the nipple causes the hypothalamus to activate the
pituitary gland to produce prolactin.
9 Immune System
What does it do? How does it reach equilibrium?
Protects the body from illness Pathogens are recognized in the
and injury. body and the immune system
works to eliminate them from the
body and repair damaged areas.
Parts of the Immune System:
Spleen, thymus, lymph system,
Noteable feedback loops: Blood
bone marrow.
clotting, inflammation.

Note: Ask recall questions before moving to the next system.

Ask what type of feedbacks loops are each feedback loop for review.
Blood clotting: Platelets adhere to site and release clotting factors which attract more
Inflammation: Primary response to pathogenic cells, widespread inflammation.
Dendritic cells activate T-cells which suppress this response so specific immunity can
take over.
74.html (picture)
10 Nervous System
What does it do? How does it reach equilibrium?
Responds to internal and external
Sends chemical signals
changes by activating appropriate
glands and muscles. throughout the body,
Parts of the Nervous System: communicates, and coordinates
Brain, spinal cord, nerves. processes that maintain balance.

Noteable feedback loops:

Generation of nerve signals (sodium
ion channels), most feedback loops!

Note: Ask recall questions before moving to the next system.

Ask what type of feedbacks loops are each feedback loop for review.
The membrane of a nerve fibre causes slight leakage of sodium ions through sodium
channels, resulting in a change in the membrane potential, which in turn causes more
opening of channels, and so on
Negative Positive
Blood Clotting: Positive Feedback Loop

Note: Prepare them for the activity in case they arent paying attention before going
over this slide.

Insulin Negative Feedback Loop: Blood sugar control is one of the most notable
functions of the pancreas especially when discussing nutrition. The pancreas controls
blood sugar through two hormones, insulin and glucagon. Both from negative
feedback loops that maintain homeostasis.

Blood Clotting Positive Feedback Loop: Blood clotting is a very notable feedback loop
that is activated when blood vessels are cut or damaged. Platelets adhere to the site
of the damage and release clotting factors which call more platelets, this results in an
exponential increase in platelets until the vessel is repaired and therefore the stimulus
is gone.
12 Critical Thinking Time
We are going to give you an example of a feedback

In groups, take the steps and put them in the right

order on the paper.

Be prepared to explain why you placed the steps in

that order and how that would maintain

Note: the formatting on the fill in options were off the page just fyi. Whitney thinks its
an appropriate activity and to break groups into 4-5.

We have a handout prepared for this where there is slots and the students will receive
cut outs of steps and be able to match them up with their sheet.

Ask the students to explain what would happen if this feedback loop didnt function
problem. Relate this to diabetes and how the body can be dysfunctional due to lack of
How does This
Affect Me?
How does Homeostasis relate to nutrition and how can we use this to make better choices?


14 Food Choices
How do we choose food?

Think about

How do people choose food/What affects how we eat: Climate controls what food
grows in certain areas, diet restrictions/allergies, culture, lifestyle, finances, time
15 Activity
Personal choices
Choose 2-3 choices in your day or diet
and how you could change them for
the better.
How about physical activity?
Do you not want to make any
changes, why?

As a pre-assessment, then go through content, and then relook at it with SMART goal
activity as post-assessment.
16 Food & Homeostasis
How does food relate to homeostasis?
What nutrients do we need to maintain homeostasis?
What would happen if we dont get these nutrients?

Think about the feedback loops we

Insulin, Glucagon
Blood clotting

Ask the students what nutrients we need to maintain homeostasis. How does food
related to homeostasis. What happens if we dont get the proper nutrients?
17 Food & Homeostasis Cont.
What nutrients are involved in blood glucose control?
Fiber - Buffers sugar absorption in the gastrointestinal
tract and reduces blood sugar spikes.
Protein - Most hormonal messengers in the body are
made of proteins such as insulin or glucagon.
What nutrients are needed for clotting blood?
Vitamin K - helps to create the proteins that are needed
for blood clotting.
Iron - required for the production of red blood cells that
carries oxygen throughout the body.

18 Where can I find these?
Fruits and vegetables
Dark green vegetables: kale, spinach
Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage
Green herbs and spices: sage, cilantro
Blueberries, prunes, kiwi
Fruits and vegetables with skin, avocado, berries
Whole grains
Whole grain rice, corn, breads, rice, pastas, oatmeal.

19 Physical Activity
Do you exercise?
How often
What type
Does exercise affect food choices?

20 Physical Activity & Homeostasis
Homeostatic mechanisms to protect the
body while exercising:
Exercise increases body temperature
Body releases sweat to the skin
Body temperature decreases

Moderate exercise aids in the bodys metabolism and healthy function.
21 S.M.A.R.T

After learning about homeostasis, how can you make

your set personal choices a SMART goal.

Think about putting this SMART goal into



Thank You!

23 Resources