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TOEFL test directions and test format are reprinted by permission of Educational
Testing Service, the copyright owner. However, the test questions and any other
testing information are provided in their entirety by Cambridge University Press.
No endorsement of this publication by Educational Testing Service should be inferred.


To the user xv
To the teacher xvii

Introduction to the TOEFL Test 1

Reasons for taking the TOEFL test 1
Information about the TOEFL test 1
TOEFL format 2
Information about the answer sheet 3
Scoring information 3
How to take the TOEFL test successfully 5

Diagnostic Test 8
Section 1 Listening Comprehension 29
Strategies to use for Listening Comprehension, Part A 29

Practice with sounds 31

Exercise LI Identifying the correct sound 31
Exercise L2 Recognizing questions and statements 32
Exercise L3 Identifying words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings 32
Exercise LA Identifying the meaning of the word in the conversation 33
Exercise L5 Identifying which meaning is correct 34
Exercise L6 Identifying multiple meanings 35
Exercise L7 Matching words 36

Practice with time, quantity, and comparisons 37

Exercise L8 Listening for time 38
Exercise L9 Listening for quantity 40
Exercise LIO Listening for comparisons 42
Exercise Lll More practice with time, quantity, and comparisons 44

Practice with idioms and phrasal verbs 46

Exercise L12 Understanding idiomatic expressions 46
Exercise L13 Identifying the correct idiom or phrasal verb 48
Exercise L14 Identifying the correct meaning of expressions 50

Check your progress 53

Exercise LI5 Mini-test 53

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Practice with various structures 56

Exercise L16 Understanding causatives 58
Exercise LI 7 Understanding negative meaning 60
Exercise LI8 Understanding modals 61
Exercise L19 Identifying conditions 63
Exercise L20 Identifying causes and results 65
Exercise L21 Understanding other structures 67

Check your progress 68

Exercise L22 Mini-test 68

Practice with remembering details 71

Exercise L23 Getting all the facts 72
Exercise L24 Understanding the facts 73

Practice with understanding meaning from context 74

Exercise L25 Identifying the purpose 74
Exercise L26 Understanding responses 75
Exercise L27 Identifying what people are doing 76
Exercise L28 Drawing conclusions 76
Exercise L29 Making inferences based on context 77

Check your progress 78

Exercise L30 Mini-test 78


Strategies to use for Listening Comprehension, Part B 82

Practice with topics 83

Exercise L31 Predicting the topic from the first statement 84
Exercise L32 Identifying the topic from the first statement 84
Exercise L33 Determining if the topic is stated in the first sentence of the conversation 85
Exercise L34 Identifying a change in topic 85
Exercise L35 Inferring the topic of the conversation 86

Check your progress 86

Exercise L36 Mini-test 87

Practice with details 87

Exercise L37 Understanding referents in a statement 88
Exercise L38 Understanding referents in a conversation 89
Exercise L39 Understanding restatements 90
Exercise L40 Getting all the facts 90
Exercise L41 Focusing on details 91

Check your progress 93

Exercise L42 Mini-test 93
Contents vii

Practice with inferences 93

Exercise L43 Understanding inferences 94
Exercise L44 Drawing conclusions 95
Exercise L45 Inferring reasons 95

Check your progress 96

Exercise L46 Mini-test 96


Strategies to use for Listening Comprehension, Part C 98

Practice with topics 99

Exercise L47 Predicting the topic from the first statement 99
Exercise L48 Identifying the topic from the first statement 99
Exercise L49 Determining if the topic is stated in the first sentence of the passage 100
Exercise L50 Identifying a change in topic 101

Check your progress 101

Exercise L51 Mini-test 101

Practice with details 102

Exercise L52 Understanding referents in a statement 102
Exercise L53 Understanding referents in a talk 103
Exercise L54 Understanding restatements . 103
Exercise L55 Getting all the facts 104
Exercise L56 Focusing on details 105

Check your progress 106

Exercise L57 Mini-test 107

Practice with inferences 108

Exercise L58 Understanding inferences 108
Exercise L59 Drawing conclusions 109
Exercise L60 Inferring reasons 110

Check your progress 110

Exercise L61 Mini-test 110
Exercise L62 Listening Comprehension Practice Test 112

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression 120

Strategies to use for Structure and Written Expression 120
Strategies to use for questions 1-15 (Structure) 121
Strategies to use for questions 16-40 (Written Expression) 121

Practice with nouns 122

Exercise SI Identifying count and noncount nouns 124
Exercise S2 Reviewing plural and singular forms 125
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Exercise S3 Locating and checking plurals and singulars 125

Exercise S4 Checking noun form 126
Exercise S5 Checking nouns 127

Practice with articles and demonstratives 127

Exercise S6 Identifying the need for articles 130
Exercise S7 Checking articles 130
Exercise S8 Checking demonstratives 131
Exercise S9 Correcting articles and demonstratives 132
Exercise S10 Locating and checking articles and demonstratives 132

Practice with pronouns and possessive adjectives 133

Exercise Sll Locating pronouns and possessive adjectives 134
Exercise S12 Checking pronoun and possessive adjective form 134
Exercise SI3 Identifying referents 135
Exercise S14 Checking for agreement 135
Exercise S15 Completing the sentence 136

Check your progress 137

Exercise S16 Mini-test 137

Practice with subjects 139

Exercise SI 7 Focusing on subjects 142
Exercise S18 Locating subjects 143
Exercise S19 Checking subject-verb agreement 143
Exercise S20 Choosing the correct subject 144
Exercise S21 Understanding "it" 145
Exercise S22 Understanding "there" 145
Exercise S23 Checking "there" and "it" 146

Check your progress 147

Exercise S24 Mini-test 147
Exercise S25 Mini-test 149

Practice with verbs 151

Exercise S26 Focusing on verbs 158
Exercise S27 Recognizing the passive and active voices 159
Exercise S28 Checking verb tense 160
Exercise S29 Checking subject-verb agreement 160
Exercise S30 Checking verb form 161
Exercise S31 Checking infinitives and gerunds 161
Exercise S32 Completing the sentence 162

Practice with subject/aux-word inversions 163

Exercise S33 Identifying words and phrases that cause a change in word order 164
Exercise S34 Locating inversions 165
Exercise S35 Correcting word order 165
Exercise S36 Completing the sentence 166
Contents ix

Check your progress 167

Exercise S37 Mini-test 167

Practice with word forms 169

Exercise S38 Identifying suffixes 172
Exercise S39 Identifying functions 172
Exercise S40 Checking noun forms 173
Exercise S41 Checking verb forms 173
Exercise S42 Checking adjective forms 174
Exercise S43 Checking adverb forms 174

Practice with word choices 175

Exercise S44 Checking "and," "or," and "but" 178
Exercise S45 Checking "either ... or," "neither ... nor," and "both ... and" 178
Exercise S46 Checking "so," "as," and "such as" 179
Exercise S47 Checking "too," "enough," and "so" 179
Exercise S48 Checking "many," "much," "few," and "little" 180
Exercise S49 Checking "like," "alike," and "unlike" 180
Exercise S50 Checking "another," "the other," "other," "the others," and "others" 181
Exercise S51 Checking frequently confused words 181

Check your progress 182

Exercise S52 Mini-test 182

Practice with clauses 184

Exercise S53 Recognizing complete simple sentences 185
Exercise S54 Recognizing complete complex sentences 186

Practice with noun clauses 187

Exercise S55 Identifying noun clauses 189
Exercise S56 Identifying noun clause functions 189
Exercise S57 Locating subject and verb in independent clauses 190
Exercise S58 Locating subject and verb in noun clauses 190
Exercise S59 Checking verbs in the noun clause 191
Exercise S60 Choosing the correct clause marker 191

Check your progress 192

Exercise S61 Mini-test 192

Practice with adjective clauses 194

Exercise S62 Locating clause markers 197
Exercise S63 Locating adjective clauses 197
Exercise S64 Checking clause markers 198
Exercise S65 Choosing the correct clause marker 198
Exercise S66 Locating the subject and verb in the adjective clause 199
Exercise S67 Checking verbs in adjective clauses 200
x Contents

Practice with reduced adjective clauses 201

Exercise S68 Locating adjective phrases 203
Exercise S69 Identifying adjective phrases and clauses 203
Exercise S70 Recognizing whether or not clauses can be reduced 204
Exercise S71 Checking verb forms 205

Check your progress 205

Exercise S72 Mini-test 205

Practice with adverb clauses 207

Exercise S73 Locating adverb clauses 211
Exercise S74 Identifying adverb clauses 211
Exercise S75 Locating subjects and verbs of adverb clauses 212
Exercise S76 Checking verb tense and form 212
Exercise S77 Choosing the correct clause marker 213

Practice with reduced adverb clauses 214

Exercise S78 Identifying adverb phrases and clauses 216
Exercise S79 Recognizing clauses that can be reduced 217
Exercise S80 Checking verb form 217
Exercise S81 Choosing the correct clause marker 218

Check your progress 219

Exercise S82 Mini-test 219

Practice with comparing 221

Exercise S83 Locating phrases 222
Exercise S84 Identifying the kind of phrase 223
Exercise S85 Checking comparatives 223
Exercise S86 Checking parallel comparatives 224
Exercise S87 Checking superlatives 224
Exercise S88 Checking expressions of equality and inequality 225

Practice with parallel structures 225

Exercise S89 Locating parallels 226
Exercise S90 Checking for parallels 227
Exercise S91 Checking parallels 227

Practice with prepositional phrases 228

Exercise S92 Identifying prepositional phrases 230
Exercise S93 Locating prepositional phrases 230
Exercise S94 Identifying the correct preposition 231
Exercise S95 Identifying the correct phrase 231

Practice with redundancies 232

Exercise S96 Checking phrases 233
Exercise S97 Identifying redundancies 233
Contents xi

Check your progress 233

Exercise S98 Mini-test 233
Exercise S99 Structure and Written Expression Practice Test 235

Section 3 Reading Comprehension 242

Strategies to use for building vocabulary and reading fluency 242
Strategies to use for building vocabulary 243
Strategies to use for reading comprehension 245

Practice building vocabulary with synonyms, antonyms, and

multiple meanings 246
Exercise R1 Identifying synonyms 246
Exercise R2 Using words with multiple meanings in sentences 248
Exercise R3 Finding synonyms and antonyms 250
Exercise R4 Finding synonyms for words with multiple meanings 251
Exercise R5 Building word charts 252
Exercise R6 Finding unrelated words 262
Exercise R7 Correcting synonyms 263

Practice building vocabulary with prefixes, roots, and suffixes 264

Exercise R8 Adding vocabulary with prefixes and roots 265
Exercise R9 Adding more prefixes and roots 266
Exercise RIO Adding more prefixes and roots 267
Exercise Rll Adding the suffixes -ion and -don (-sion) 268
Exercise R12 Adding the suffix -ive 269
Exercise R13 Adding more prefixes 269
Exercise R14 Adding prefixes meaning "not" 269
Exercise R15 Adding more roots 270
Exercise R16 Adding number prefixes 270
Exercise R17 Reviewing prefixes 271
Exercise R18 Reviewing roots 272
Exercise R19 Reviewing suffixes 274

Practice with understanding words in context 276

Exercise R20 Understanding words in context 277

Check your progress 286

Exercise R21 Mini-test 286

Practice with main ideas 290

Exercise R22 Locating topics 291
Exercise R23 Selecting a topic sentence 292
Exercise R24 Checking the topic 294

Check your progress 296

Exercise R25 Mini-test 296
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Practice with understanding details 298

Exercise R26 Locating referents 298
Exercise R27 Understanding referents 300
Exercise R28 Understanding transitions and connectors 301
Exercise R29 Understanding exceptions 304
Exercise R30 Understanding complex structures 306

Practice with restatement 307

Exercise R31 Identifying if statements are the same or different 307
Exercise R32 Identifying restatements 308
Exercise R33 Locating restated information 311
Exercise R34 Identifying lines 312
Exercise R35 Finding facts 315

Check your progress 319

Exercise R36 Mini-test 319

Practice with inferences 323

Exercise R37 Identifying inferences in statements 324
Exercise R38 Locating inferred information 326
Exercise R39 Checking if a statement can be inferred 328
Exercise R40 Identifying inferences in paragraphs 329
Exercise R41 Drawing conclusions 332

Check your progress 334

Exercise R42 Mini-test 334
Exercise R43 Reading Comprehension Practice Test 337

The Test of Written English 346

Strategies to use for the essay 346


Practice with topic sentences 34 7

Exercise W1 Looking at topic sentences 347
Exercise W2 Checking topic sentences 348
Exercise W3 Writing topic sentences 349

Practice with supporting ideas 350

Exercise W4 Checking supporting ideas 350
Exercise W5 Checking paragraphs for supporting ideas 351
Exercise W6 Writing supporting ideas 352
Exercise W7 Writing supporting ideas in a paragraph 353

Practice with details 353

Exercise VV8 Adding details 354
Exercise W9 Adding details to paragraphs 355
Exercise W10 Further practice in adding details to paragraphs 356
Practice with organizing and writing paragraphs 357
Exercise Wll Brainstorming 357
Exercise WJ2 Combining related ideas 358
Exercise W13 Writing topic sentences 359
Exercise WI4 Outlining 359
Exercise W15 Adding details to the outline 361
Exercise W16 More brainstorming 361
Exercise W17 Brainstorming for questions 361
Exercise W18 Writing paragraphs 363


Practice with introductions 365

Exercise W19 Rewriting introductions 365

Practice with developmental paragraphs 366

Exercise W20 Writing developmental paragraphs 367
Exercise W21 Comparing and contrasting 367

Practice with conclusions 368

Exercise W22 Rewriting conclusions 368

Practice with analyzing essays 369

Exercise W23 Analyzing essays 369
Exercise W24 Scoring essays 370 s

Practice with answering essay questions 372

Exercise W25 Writing essays 375

Practice Tests 376

Practice Test 1 377
Practice Test 2 401

Answer Keys 424

Diagnostic Test 424
Section 1 Listening Comprehension 429
Section 2 Structure and Written Expression 448
Section 3 Reading Comprehension 470
The Test of Written English 491
Practice Test 1 495
Practice Test 2 500

Scripts 505
Diagnostic Test 505
Section 1 Listening Comprehension 508
Practice Test 1 535
Practice Test 2 538

Answer Sheets 543

Index 551