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Czech Geological Survey - Geological Survey of Austria - UNIMIB

Educational Project Geological Field Trip and Workshop


Koefels Suedtirol - Matrei, 17-20 June 2012

Rock mass behavior, characterization,


and relationships with
rock slope instability

Federico Agliardi

Geological Sciences and Geotechnologies


UNIMIB - University of Milano-Bicocca
Milano, Italy

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012

Rock slopes

Road cut, H: 30 m
wide range of size (scale, relief)
different rock types and structures Chuquicamata (Cile), H:900 m

geometric and geological complexity


long-term evolution
perturbation of in-situ stress state
complex hydraulic conditions

Scale

Different deformation / failure mechanisms

characterization approach
risk potential Tafjord (Norway)
H: 750m
Val Pola (Sondrio)
H: 1500 m 2

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012
Rock masses
Rock mass: physical entity made of intact rock material and discontinuities, which cut
rock into individual rock blocks

Hydro-mechanical behaviour: depends on intact rock properties, geometry and


strength of discontinuities, in-situ stress, and problem scale.

In general: discontinuous, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, scale-dependent

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012

Effect of rock structure


For a given problem size (scale):
intact rock: continuum
individual, discrete discontinuities: continuum + interfaces (structurally-controlled)
few sets of spaced discontinuities: discontinuum (structurally-controlled)
many sets of closely-spaced discontinuities: equivalent continuum

Intact rock +
Fractured rock mass
individual structure

Edelbro, 2003

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012
Effect of scale
For a given rock mass structure:
larger problem size, larger number of included rock defects
rock mass property degradation intact rock discontinuous rock mass
need for specific descriptive and modelling approaches

adit

tunnel

cavern
Hudson e
Harrison, 1997

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012

Continuum vs. discrete


Rock mass overall behaviour depends on:
intact rock strength and deformability
Intact rock
geometry, frequency, strength of discontinuities

Few sets of spaced discontinuities, small size 1 set di


discontinuit
discrete, structurally-controlled
effect of intact rock bridges
2 set di
discontinuit
wide range of behaviour

Several sets of close discontinuities, large size Molti set di Scale effect
discontinuit
equivalent continuum
rock mass strength and deformability Modificato da Hoek (1988)

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012
Discrete: intact rock
Diederichs, 2007
Strength and deformability of intact rock
failure criteria (Mohr-Coulomb, Griffith, Hoek-Brown)
constitutive models (plasticity, time-dependency)

Parameters:
Uniaxial Compressive (c) and tensile strength (t)
cohesion (ci) and friction angle (i)
deformation moduli: Young (E), Poisson () etc.

Methods:
Lab tests
Field tests
In-situ empirical estimates

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012

Discrete: intact rock


Lab tests: strength, deformability, physical properties

Triaxial
1> 2 = 3

Other properties:
Mineralogy, petrography,
solid mass, volume, void
volume, water content,
porosity, void index, ecc.

Uniaxial compression
1> 0 2 = 3 = 0
Direct tension (point load)
1< 0 2 = 3 = 0
(Schmidt Hammer)
(indirect tension Brazilian)
Diederichs, 2007

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012
Discrete: discontinuities
Strength and deformability of discontinuities
failure criteria (e.g. Patton, Barton-Choubey)
deformability models (e.g. Barton-Bandis)

Parameters:
surface roughness (i, JRC)
surface strength (JCS)
cohesion (filling material)
basic (b) and peak (p) friction angles

Methods:
Lab tests on discontinuity samples
Field description and characterisation
Field tests

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012

Characterization of discontinuities

ISRM (1978)

# sets, orientation and spacing


rock mass structure and
behavior (for a given scale)
block shape and size

Persistence, roughness,
weathering
strength and deformability
role of rock bridges
hydraulic connectivity

Hudson &
Harrison, 1997
Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012
Geomechanical domains
Rock mass domains with relatively homogenous properties (rock and structure)

Based on:
rock type
general structural features
occurrence of major boundaries of structural features (e.g. shear zones)
problem-specific issues (e.g. slope orientation)

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012

Classical discontinuity survey


Sampling strategy (ISRM, 1978)

Window sampling: survey discontinuities ricadenti


in a sampling window (rectangular o circular)

Scanline survey: survey discontinuities intersected


by a scanline

Problems / limitations:
accessibility / safety
effective approaches in hard rock masses
different sampling biases: discontinuity spacing
and length; scanline orientation; undersampling
of short discontinuities;

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012
Advanced survey techniques
Terrestrial Digital Photogrammetry (TDP), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS)
high-resolution 3D geometric reconstruction (DTM) by remote data collection
3D georeferencing by external orientation (total station, GPS, ..)
identification, mapping and characterization of structural features

DTM from TLS: 3D point cloud


Data collection

DTM from TDP: 3D image

External orientation

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012

Laser Scanning (LiDAR / TLS)


LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging):
emission-detection of laser pulses (104 105 measurements/sec)
max measurement range: up to 2-3 km
point clouds in xyz + optical RGB digital imaging

Accuracy: mm to cm, depending on range, laser features, reflectivity

Lato et al., 2009


Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012
Virtual discontinuity survey

Discontinuity modelling:
traces (lines) o faces (planes)
disks: persistence
orientation, length, roughness
high-resolution data required
Sturzenegger e Stead, 2009

3D image (TDP)

Interpretazionepiano
Point cloud (TLS)

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012

Structural analysis of LiDAR / TLS data


COLTOP3D (Jaboyedoff et al., 2005): point cloud RGB coding
aspect: dip direction slope: dip

Venzone

Aspect Slope Color scheme dip direction / dip


Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012
Structural analysis of LiDAR / TLS data
mapping populations of structural slope facets
stereographic analysis (mean orientation, variability)

discontinuity sets of different persistence

field survey data comparison / validation

Carnia

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012

Weak and complex rock masses

Weak rocks Deformed rocks Weathered rocks Flysch type rocks

Geological Stregth Index (Hoek et al., 1995; Marinos e Hoek, 2000)

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012
(Equivalent) continuum
Rock mass strength and deformability:
empirical failure criteria (es. Hoek-Brown)

Parameters:
intact rock strength and deformation moduli
rock mass compressive (cm) and tensile strength (t)
Diederichs, 2007
rock mass cohesion (cm) and friction angle (m)
rock mass deformation moduli

Methods:
correlations to rock mass classifications (e.g. RMR, Q)
empirical description of rock mass structure (GSI)

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012

Hoek-Brown empirical approach


Hoek e Brown (1980)
empirical failure criterion form rock masses, based on:
strength of intact rock
rock mass structure (interlocking among blocks)
surface conditions of discontinuities

Basic idea: intact rock strength decrease with increasing volume and fracturing

a, mb and s: empirical parameters depending on rock


type, degree of fracturing and discontinuity surface
conditions

Stima dei parametri: intact rock characterization


GSI (Geological Strength Index; Hoek et al., 1995)

Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi


Hoek-Brown empirical approach
Applicability of the Hoek-Brown approach

Limited to rock masses meeting


the following requirements:

isotropic: at least 3 joint sets


(no structural control)
block size << problem size
(continuum approximation)

Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi

Geological Strength Index (Hoek et al., 1995)

Marinos e Hoek
(2000):

Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi


Sandstones

Marinos e Hoek (2000)

Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi

Marl, argillite

Marinos e Hoek (2000)

Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi


Limestone

Marinos e Hoek (2000)

Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi

Granite

Marinos e Hoek (2000)

Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi


Ultrabasite

Marinos e Hoek (2000)

Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi

Sound gneiss

Marinos e Hoek (2000)

Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi


Schist

Marinos e Hoek (2000)

Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi

Heterogeneous - weak complex rock masses

Very blocky

Marinos e Hoek (2000)


Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi
Generalized Hoek-Brown criterion
1, 3: principal stresses at yield
s, a: empirical constants (depend on GSI)
ci: UCS of intact rock

mi = intact rock constant D = disturbance factor (0-1)

Principal Stresses Normal Stress vs. Shear Stress


90 30
Major principal stress (MPa)

80
25
70

Shear stress (MPa)


60 20
50
15
40
30 10
20
5
10
0 0
-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 -10 0 10 20 30 40
Minor principal stress (MPa) Normal stress (MPa)

Metodi di Indagine geologico-tecnica A.A. 2011-2012 Dott. Federico Agliardi

Rock mass structure vs. rock slope instability


Large-scale rock slope failure:
small scale, wide joint spacing: structurally-controlled (local) failure
increasing scale, closely-spaced joints: step-path to circular failure
persistent structures on slope scale: complex mechanisms

Flexural slumping Block flexure slumping

Kink band slumping Large-scale


flexural
toppling

Complex geology: interplay between local and large-scale mechanims

Alpine rock slope failures: mechanisms, controls, characterization F. Agliardi Matrei, 19 June 2012