# Assignment 7

P6.4 (a) The closed loop characteristic equation is
1 + GH ( s ) = 1 + or s 3 + 30 s 2 + 200 s + Ks + 40 K = 0 The Routh array is K ( s + 40) =0 s ( s + 10)( s + 20)

s3 s2 s
0

1 30 K 3

200 + K 40 K 0

s1 200 − 40 K

Therefore, for stability we require 200 - K/3 > 0 and 40K >0. So, the range of K for stability is 0<K<600 (b) At K=600, the auxiliary equation is 30s2+40(600) = 0 or s2+800=0 The roots of the auxiliary equation are s = ±j28.3 (c) Let K=600/2=300. Then, to shift the axis, first define s0=s+1. Substituting s = s0-1 into the characteristic equation yields
( s0 − 1)3 + 30( s0 − 1) 2 + 500( s0 − 1) + 12000 = s03 + 27 s0 2 + 443s0 + 11529 The Routh array is 443 s3 1 2 11529 s 27 0 s1 16 0 s 11529 All the elements of the first column are positive, therefore all the roots lie to left of s = -1. We repeat the procedure for s=s0-2 and obtain

s03 + 24 s0 2 + 392 s0 + 10992 = 0

The Routh array is 392 s3 1 2 10992 s 24 1 0 s −66 0 s 10992 There are two sign changes in the first column indicating two roots to right of s = -2. Combining the results, we determine that there are two roots located between s = -1 and s = -2. The roots of the characteristic equation are s1 = -27.6250 and s2,3 = -1.1875±20.8082j We see that indeed the two roots s2,3 = -1.1875 ± 20.8082j lie between -1 and -2

P6.7 (a) The closed –loop characteristic equation is s 3 + 101s 2 + (100 + 10 KK a ) s + 100 KK a = 0
The Routh array is

1 100 + 10 KK a s3 100 KK a s 2 101 1 b s s 0 100 KK a
Where

910 KK a > 0. 101 Thus examining the first column, we determine that KKa >0 stabilizes the system b = 100 + (b) The tracking error is e( s ) = lim s (1 − T ( s ))
s →0

100 100 = s2 KK a

We require E(s)<1° = 0.01745. So, KKa >100/0.01745 = 5729 When KKa = 5729, the roots of the characteristic polynomial are s1= -10.15 and s2,3 = - 45.43 ± j233.25

P6.9) (a) The closed –loop characteristic equation is
1 + GH ( s ) = 1 + or s 3 + 140 s 2 + 4400 s + 40000 + 10 K = 0 The Routh array is s3 s2 s Where 140(4400) − (40000 + 10 K ) . 140 Examining the first column and requiring all the terms to be positive, we determine that the system is stable if - 4000 < K < 57600 (b) The desired characteristic polynomial is b=
1

10 K ( s + 100)( s + 20) 2

1 140 b

4400 40000 + 10 K

s 0 40000 + 10 K

( s + b)( s 2 + 1.38ωn s + ωn 2 ) = s 3 + (1.38ωn + b) s 2 + (ωn 2 + 1.38ωnb) s + bωn 2
where we have used the fact that ζ=0.69 to achieve a 5% overshoot, and ωn and b are to be determined. The actual characteristic polynomial is
s 3 + 140 s 2 + 4400 s + 40000 + 10 K = 0 Equating the coefficients of the actual and desired characteristic polynomials, and solving for K, b and ωn yields b=104.2, ωn=25.9 and K=3003 So a suitable gain is K=3003

P6.10) (a) The closed –loop characteristic equation is
s 4 + 7 s 3 + 20 s 2 + (24 + K ) s + 10 K = 0

The Routh array is

s4 s3

1

20 24 + K 10 K

10 K 0

7 116 − K s2 7 s1 b s0 10 K Where

116 − K ( )(24 + K ) − 70 K 7 b= . 116 − K ( ) 7 Setting b>0 yields 2784 - 398K - K2>0 which holds when - 404.88 < K < 6.876 Examining the first column, we also find that K<116 and K>0 for stability. Combining all the stability regions, we determine that for stability 0<K<6.876 (b) When K=6.876, the roots are s1,2 = - 3.5 ± 1.63j and s3,4 = ± 2.1j

P6.11) Given
s 3 + (1 + K ) s 2 + 10s + (5 + 15 K ) = 0 The Routh array is s3 s s
2 1 0

1 1+ K b

10 5 + 15 K

s 5 + 15 K

Where (1 + K )10 − (5 + 15 K ) 5 − 5 K = 1+ K 1+ K Given that K>0, we determine that the system is stable when 5-5K > 0 or 0 < K<1 b=

When K=1, the s2 row yields the auxiliary equation 2s2+20=0 The roots are s = ±j√10 So the system frequency of oscillation is √10 rad/sec

P6.15) The closed-loop transfer function is K +1 T (s) = 3 2 s + 3s + 3s + K + 1 The Routh array is
3 8− K s1 3 s0 K +1 s2 s3 1 3 K +1

So for stability we require -1< K<8.

P6.17) (a) The closed –loop characteristic equation is
s 3 + 9s 2 + ( K − 10) s + 2 K = 0 The Routh array is 1 K − 10 2K

9 7 K − 90 s1 9 s0 2K s2 For stability K>90/7

s3

(b) When K=90/7, the system is marginally stable. The roots are s1,2 = ± j√(20/7), at the jω-axis crossing.

P6.18) The closed-loop characteristic equation is
q ( s ) = s 5 + s 4 + 4s 3 + 4 Ks 2 + 2 Ks + K The range of stability for the vertical-liftoff vehicle is 0.5361 < K < 0.9326. therefore, for K=1, the system is unstable.

AP6.3) (a) The steady-state tracking error to a step input is
ess = lim s (1 − T ( s )) R ( s ) = 1 − T (0) = 1 − α
s →0

We want

1 − α < 0.05
This yields the bounds for α 0.95 < α < 1.05. the Routh array is s3
2

1

α
1 0

s 1+ α s1 b s where
0

1

α 2 + α −1 b= 1+α
Therefore, using the condition that b>0, we obtain the stability range for α: α >0.618 (c) Choosing α = 1 satisfies both the steady-state tracking requirement and stability requirement.