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Level of Carbon Emission in the Philippines

and Its Effects to Children

A Research Paper Presented to
Ms. Marites Tamayo-Fagaragan
Mapúa Institute of Technology

in partial fulfillment
of the requirements in
English for Academic Purposes 2
(ENG11)

by
Christine Julia B. Castro
Cester Gale A. Ducusin
Mary Florence P. Florendo
Sarah Katrina V. Salvacion

June 28, 2013

Abstract

The increasing rate of carbon fumes emitted has been studied and investigated with

wide research by the use of different materials from online sources and answers from

interviewees. The main point of the study was to inform the readers of the effects of these fumes

to the health of the children as well to their surroundings. Many of the results have found out that

the diseases like cancers, autism, and respiratory illness a child might get could affect his brain

and lungs. Also, there has been 2 ppm annual increased of amount of carbon as decades pass by

that causes more risks to the health of the people. The major learning points are that Philippines’

atmosphere has devastated by air pollutions like dust, fumes, carbon monoxide and citizens

should be aware of the current issue. The research has uncovered information regarding what

consequences a children might get from the increased amount of carbon here in the Philippines.

This study implies that the affected persons especially the children are in danger as country’s

level of pollution elevates.

Table of Contents

Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2

Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………... 4

Areas of Study ……………………………………………….…………………………….. 4

Table for Questions and Answers of the Interviewees ……………………………………. 15

Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………………. 21

Appendices ……………………………………………………………………………….... 23

Appendix A (Interview Questions) ………………………………………………….. 24

Appendix B (Transcribed Answers) …………………………………………………. 25

Appendix C (Photos of Emitted Fumes) ……………………………………………... 33

Appendix D (Curriculum Vitae) ……………………………………………………… 34

03% of the earth’s atmosphere by volume. On the other hand.. Carbon dioxide is a stable gas. the researchers of this research gathered their thoughts to collect data and information that would help the readers to be aware of the destruction and loss of preservation of the environment due of excessive carbon emissions. carbon dioxide comprises only about 0. Cars have a process of exothermic and exothermic includes combustion. It neither burns nor supports combustion. The research comprises of a study involving the comparison of the amount of fumes as year passes by and also informs its readers for the possible effects to the health of the most affected—the children. increased use of electric energy based on nuclear power is one way of decreasing CO₂ emissions. environmentalists and other concerned citizens became active to sharpen their minds in scrutinizing more this issue be resolved. the wide research of the possible effects of the issue was also conducted. The rate of carbon emitted in the atmosphere is gradually increasing. a descriptive written analysis will introduce its readers to understand the current issue so that they will pave a way to form their own way that will help to decrease the increasing rate of carbon fumes and avoid getting various diseases. exothermic means absorbing of heat. The research entails the written information of some scientific and usual diseases or sickness that an innocent child might get. In this research. Despite the technical and political problems of waste disposal. In Chemistry. (Whitten. Waste disposal is also one of the causes. 2010). As we see car engines sometimes overheat because of the heat it takes and also the heat it come out. Davis and Peck. People should be aware of the issue especially for the young or the children. Exothermic is defined as the releasing of heat. In line with that. Understanding About CO And CO2 Based on a Chemistry 9th Edition book written by Whitten et al. . Because of this current issue.

Methane is emitted from cattle. 2009) it stated that aside from CO2. At present. “The reason the earth’s surface is this warm is the presence of greenhouse gases. decomposing life. in first IPCC first report. written by Plimer I. The IPCC again makes an incorrect explanation of the greenhouse effect. it stated that.Other Elements Composing Fumes From another article of the book. it stated. China emits more sulphur dioxide than any other countries in the world and this chokes people. including clouds. there are other fumes that are harmful when emitted. rocks. This is called the greenhouse effect. (Plimer. chlorine. In addition.” The open combustion of poor quality carbon fuels produces soot. in confined unventilated places. unburnt fuel and chemicals containing sulphur. damages life and destroys building. For more understanding.R. This blanketing is known as the natural greenhouse effect. In addition to that. The Missing Science”. “Much of the thermal radiation emitted by the land and the ocean is absorbed by the atmosphere. petroleum leaks. One can only speculate as to why political activists concentrate their attention on CO2 rather than methane. It may be because CO2 is linked to industrial growth whereas methane is considered more “natural” and emitted by less developed nation. which act as a partial blanket for the long-wave radiation coming from the earth’s surface. open fires produce poisonous carbon monoxide. greenhouse gases do not act like an insulator or a blanket. smoke. mid ocean ridges and sedimentation. ash. hydrates. termites. . causes acid rain. one of these is Methane. It implies that the atmosphere comprises layers that do not mix. “Heaven and Earth: Global Warming. nitrogen. rice paddies. and re- radiated back to earth.” But the explanation is wrong. fluorine and metals.

Some of these toxins. global warming is a catchall phrase that encompasses a great number of problems both to the earth on which we live and to the creatures that dwell on it. There is also evidence to suggest that pollutants in exhaust fumes also cause irreparable damage to the central nervous system. 1997). asthma. Carbon monoxide isn't the only carbon byproduct given off in exhaust fumes. Without going into a treatise on global warming it should be sufficient to say that the surface of the earth is heating gradually so that the polar ice caps are melting and growing seasons are being disrupted.Dangers of Exhaust Fumes On the article. However. Cold Weather Increases Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Cars by Ames. 2010). Some of the other dangers of exhaust fumes include an exacerbation of heart disease due to hypertension and a degeneration of the cells which line blood vessels. Dangers of Exhaust Fumes by Mark Perry (Perry. To help the people we should give information to people based on what level the carbon dioxide here in the Philippines. An article entitled. Taking into consideration that carbon monoxide literally suffocates us it is no wonder that it deprives our bloodstream of oxygen necessary for so many vital functions within the body. We should also try some process so that we can decrease the increasing rate of . stated that because of bad effects. there are many people died. Iowa (Iowa. but not limited to. Many of these pollutants found in exhaust fumes of course cause respiratory problems as well including. especially carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide is also a problem and we know that it is the number one cause of the breakdown in the ozone layer which is leading to global warming. literally produce damage on a cellular level which can lead to a number of cancers. he stated that combustion from fossil fuel engines such as those which burn gasoline and diesel fuel is causing irreparable damage to the environment.

2001). By this research there can be many people will be out of danger especially children and they will be also informed day by day about the level of carbon fumes. Transport Cars and The Carbon It Created Herbert Fabian. Deadly fumes from vehicles exhaust include carbon monoxide (CO₂). Composition of Dry Air From the book entitled. Start it by using your cars properly. For additional information. This data came from a book entitled Environmental Science: Physical Principles and Applications written by Boeker and Gondelle.carbon dioxide. There are many causes why the carbon dioxide is increasing. Argon (0. For example. from another article. it stated that air consists of Nitrogen (78%). according to his article. Reink Van. causing carbon monoxide intoxication. 1996) informed that . and non-irritating by products of incomplete combustion. cold weather increases carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide hazards from cars. Egbert and Gondelle. car engines contain carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. According to the article entitled Cold Weather Increases Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Cars written by Iowa Ames. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Motor Vehicles” (Unknown. 2009). Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Motor Vehicles. Oxygen (21%). tasteless. Carbon dioxide is now increasing in rate especially in the most polluted area in the world. Carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen supply to the brain. Dry Environmental Science: Physical Principles and Applications by Egbert Boeker and Reink Van Gondelle (Boeker.0358 percent is the most abundant.9%) and the rest is made up of small concentrations of many other gases of which CO₂ with 0. stated that there are only few studies that estimated the air pollution and CO2 emissions and assed the impacts of policies from the transport sector and most have focused on Metro Manila. “CO2 Emissions from the land Transport Sector in the Philippines Estimates and Policy Implications” (Fabian. a colorless.

or hydrogen. we can contribute by using vehicles which are alternatively-fueled. people suffered from different illnesses such as lung cancer. to humans and other mammals. which could be the most challenging technological problem that the industrialized world can ever face. In order to reduce the risks. for an entire lifetime nor has any human ever bred offspring under this condition. This includes workers in breweries and the . environmentally friendly vehicles. that could be a dangerous threat which come from vehicle fumes. he described the toxic effects. of concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which are below the safe working level but above the present level.worldwide motor vehicles currently emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide each year. Most likely. 365 days a year. gradual numbers of death due to carbon dioxide and fumes are increasing. Increased Amount of Carbon Released Local and Worldwide According to DS Robertson’s article. no human ever endures such a level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for 24 h a day. The latter are variously powered by fossil fuels. Because of these. People with asthma’s are the ones attacked by these carbon fumes. developed countries tried to design a new generation of resource-efficient. It stated that there are other gases. Although the safe working level of carbon dioxide is presently set at 5000ppm for an 8h day 40 h working week. That’s why. aside from carbon dioxide. Innocent children who are not yet aware of their environment accidentally inhaled those fumes which lead them to serious and complicated health problems. “Health effects of increase in concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere” (Robertson. electric batteries. 1984). Health risks are increasing so as the continuously adding of heat that can worsen the global warming. Most of the major automakers around the world are responding to this challenge and are actively developing more efficient conventionally fueled vehicles as well as so-called alternatively fueled vehicles.

Before the Industrial Revolution of the 1880s. For the last decade. The lethal effects of high CO2 concentrations are well known. but the literature also reveals cause for concern for both the survivors of high-level CO2 exposure and individuals who experience prolonged low-level exposure. 2003). when David Keeling of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography made the first accurate measurements of CO2 in the atmosphere. In additional information by D. where the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere either commonly reaches or is set at a maximum of 900 ppm. From the written report. it has been rising at about 2 ppm per year. that the estimated toxic levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere under lifetime exposure is 426 ppm. Katy (Human. According to his article “Health effects of increase in concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere”. In the early 1960s. particularly the burning of fossil fuels. and will likely reach 400 ppm about 2016.greenhouse industry.4 ppm in 2011. global average CO2 was about 280 ppm. it rose about 0. the concentration of the greenhouse gas has increased. the health of individuals near carbon transport and sequestration sites must be considered in site risk characterization. At the present rate the increase of . 2012). according toNOAA measurements. independent of the seasonal ups and downs described above.7 ppm per year. he stated that every year since 1959. According to Susan’s Rice article.S Robertson. Average global levels of CO2 were 390. That observed increase. “HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF CO2: SURVIVORS OF ACUTE HIGH-LEVEL EXPOSURE AND POPULATIONS SENSITIVE TO PROLONGED LOW-LEVEL EXPOSURE’’ (Rice. is due to the accelerating pace of emissions from human activities. NOAA: Carbon dioxide levels reach milestone at Arctic sites by Human.

The carbon dioxide emissions of a car are directly proportional to the quantity of fuel consumed by the engine. This is partly because cars have tended to become heavier in recent years as manufacturers have made improvements to vehicle safety or included additional features such as power assisted steering and air conditioning. 1978). that there are two types of Climate models: the first type is horizontally averaged which determines the various radiative fluxes as a function of the vertical coordinate and considers other processes. While there has been progress to reduce the emissions of toxic airborne pollutants from vehicles there has been less progress to reduce the carbon dioxide from cars despite improvements to engine efficiency. Carbon Dioxide Emissions. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions” (Unknown. “Modern Chemistry” written by Clark Metcalfe (Metcalfe. The article entitled. “Carbon Dioxide. Climate and Society” by Jill Williams (Williams. 1987). the toxic limits will be attained in AD 2050 based on extrapolations of the measured results from Mauna Loa. The use of this three-dimensional model is to study the effects of doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration indicated at an average surface.carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The substance in definition is maybe in the form of . On the other hand. Types of Climates and Cause of Greenhouse Gases According to the book. Understanding and Categories of Pollutants According to the book. we define pollution as the addition by man of any substance or energy to parts of the ecosystem that ultimately harm or damage man. the second type is the increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration which is the three-dimensional circulation model of the atmosphere. 2010) mentioned that the accumulation of key greenhouse gases in the atmospheric due to human activities is contributing to climate change.

Barbara. A. According to them. Cunningham (Cunningham. which can be found in “Environmental Science” written by Mary Ann Cunningham. There is also . hydrocarbons. “Environmental Science: A Global Concern” written by William P. he describes the quality of air around us and also mentions the natural sources of air pollution. photo chemical oxidants.. as stated in the book. From the same book with another author. P. 2001). Primary pollutants. there are several pollutants that can are classified to be dangerous. By contrast. “Environmental Science: A Global Concern” written by Willian P. and lead. They categorize the pollutants according to their source. Secondary pollutants are modified to a hazardous form after they enter the air or those that are formed by chemical reactions as components of the air mixed. carbon monoxide. They also categorized pollutants according to their content.particles or chemicals or in any form of physical phase. there are seven major pollutants which consists of the following: sulfur dioxide. 1999).. These are considered the most serious threat of all air pollutants to human health and welfare. These sources are the primary and secondary pollutants. these seven conventional or criteria pollutants contribute the largest volume of air-quality degradation. One of the types of pollution is air pollution. 2010). Based from the book. he mentioned that there are human-caused air pollution other than chemical elements. are those released directly from the source into the air in a harmful form. Aside from the human-air caused pollutions. there are many factors that can harm and affect our environment. “Environmental Science” written by Mary Ann Cunningham (Cunningham M. From the US Clean Air Act of 1970. particulates. Cunningham (Cunningham W. William & Mary Ann and Saigo. From the book named. nitrogen oxides.

10. Effects of Fumes To The Children . Natural sources include dust blown by wind. “Environmental Science” of Miller G. it helps to be aware of the many dangers of exhaust fumes so that we can take steps to do something about this very real problem. they say that air pollutant comes from Natural and Human Sources. Greenberg. pollutants from wildfires and volcanic eruption and volatile organic chemicals released by some plants. confounding factors like smoking habits should be known. Study after study has proven that exhaust fumes are responsible for a number of physical maladies as well as being a danger to the environment. Lung Cancer and Diesel Auto Emissions (Greenberg). Tyler and George Tyler (Miller. from his article. From the book. The researcher should know the duration and magnitude of the exposure of the study population to diesel fumes.human caused air pollution the primary and secondary pollutants. G. Tyler and George Tyler. he expressed that light-duty diesel automobiles and trucks are expected to comprise between 10 and 50 percent of the motor vehicles in the United States. And lastly he also mentioned the different effects of air pollution in human health and plant pathology. “Environmental Risks and Hazards” of chapter 24 written by Michael R. As a concerned citizen on this planet we call home. A human exposure study of the effect of diesel fumes should have a population of exposed and unexposed people. 2010). Both gasoline engines and diesel engines emit exhaust fumes so the problem is more widespread. In addition. Negative Effects and Measures of Diesel Emissions From the book entitled. Most human inputs of outdoor air pollutant occur in industrialized and urban area where people. In fact. some of the dangers of exhaust fumes hide silently in the background so that many people are not even aware of them. cars and factories are concentrated.

in conjunction with high levels of particulate soot. there was reported that fumes from car sicken 3 children. alterations in the lungs' defenses and aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease. Researchers in Los Angeles looked at 304 children with autism and 259 normally developing children and found that those whose moms were living within 1. If a person is not receiving enough oxygen in the blood from the lungs this means the brain is not receiving enough oxygen to function properly. 2013). From the article. Suspended particles. 2012). These children were sickened by carbon monoxide from a bad exhaust system on a car parked on the city’s . include respiratory illness. Nitrogen dioxide. In Chicago. children in families who live near freeways are twice as likely to have autism as kids who lie off the beaten path. Formaldehyde. This short list car exhaust chemicals could certainly affect growing fetuses and mental function in young children: Carbon Monoxide.000 feet of a freeway when they gave birth had an increased risk for autism. Volk and Debby Bruck (Heather E. “Carbon Monoxide in your Car: Fumes from Car Sicken 3 Children on South Side” written by Deanese Williams-Harris (Williams-Harris. chest tightness and shortness of breath. Sulphur dioxide. Sometimes it can cause death to people. there are many effects of carbon fumes to the people. From the article. Volk and Debby Bruck. Benzene. People can get many diseases because of carbon fumes emitted by public and private vehicles. These are some effects: High concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) can result in breathing problems with asthmatic children and adults who are active outdoors. PM-10 particles less than 10 microns in size. Short-term exposure has been linked to wheezing. Polycyclic hydrocarbons. Other effects associated with longer-term exposure to sulfur dioxide. People also that have asthma are one of the effected people. “Car Exhaust Fumes & Air Pollution Are Contributing Factors To Increase In Autism” by Heather E. Children are one of the most affected people by carbon fumes.

. There is as much as 90% of the people-caused carbon monoxide in the air ay come gasoline engines. This article was written by Deanese William-Harris entitled Carbon Monoxide in your Car: Fumes from Car Sicken 3 Children on South Side. In congested areas. The carbon monoxide in the air comes mainly from poorly burned fuels.04 ppm over the world. the carbon monoxide is found samples of the atmosphere all over the world.south side. The amounts vary from 0. The sources range from the chimney gases of improperly fired coal-burning furnaces to the exhaust gases from automobile engines.

body. air pollution is too high. the traffics and unexpected car road under lastly. As a parent. vendors. smokes. it is the As a commuter. it gives a allergies especially Secondly. wreck different fumes in less drivers. fumes are there are many other public utility already in front of hindrances you can vehicles. especially the jaywalkers. we can inform the emitted in friendly vehicles. protecting my . I’m not a parent As much as We can protect As a parent. we can here in Manila. Vehicles you. Well of course we I inhale too much First of all. in my body. For me. 2. we By just simply We reduce it by We can make we can reduce the can use electric good conditioning cleaning our programs so that level of carbon and environmental the engines of my surroundings first. 4. also protect the ozone layer. As a commuter. are the people. Secondly. trucks and vehicles. I won’t them by proper a responsibility of protect your student. 3. I think it will “The number ones These fumes can fumes affect your Fumes may cause create air who are affected give many diseases surrounding? our body some pollution. car accident and especially the smokes we inhale. Because is hard to commute hindrances you encountered heavy on the road while you are especially encountered on the traffic caused by waiting for the nowadays. the vendors.” fumes. I have how can you yet. So as a possible. When damages like lungs They become ill I smell these diseases and and we feel weak. How are these Well of course. road like the unloading zone. well I expose my guidance. Table for Questions and Answers of the Interviewees Questions Interviewee 1 Interviewee 2 Interviewee 3 Interviewee 4 1. ready to be encounter on the staying in an inhaled. In what ways Well for me. road? buses. side the road. the bad effect in my when the level of plants. damage and maintenance. car. it what are the always unwanted smoke fumes. We clean our people on what atmosphere? We can also surroundings by they need to do to replace old cars putting our trash in less the increasing that we know that a garbage can and level of carbon provides excessive by this.

we should should we be ranked it from 1. 6. if not emit fumes? the fumes emitted the owner is because it is for having a regular their own good cleaning. It is all about rate of carbon is when a child crucial and if there started to move. age. They in conditioning fumes. should be alert 10 because we greenhouse that there is no such maybe if the level really need to do affects our thing as level or of the increasing something. it engines of the car engines used in responsible in their persons who excel won’t emit many we are using to public or private vehicles. and for others checking. surroundings. that are getting sick already. and benefit. For me. by showing our proper values to them. bring different allergies. It is also our environment. inhaled the fumes. effects. We I always make sure pollutions and discipline that my children fumes. When we threats of our some people about place where there ourselves is one need to go outside environment? it. 7. should be alert about the age or be alert now. if the Always check the ensure that the one who is check-up from the vehicle is new. fixing of the smoke belcher. my answer is because of the level. are many children walk. How will As I said earlier. We alert? 10. Actually our lungs are the diseases in the we can also get one who’s body of a person. How will you The owner is the By regular vehicle On my own. It can people? diseases and Because of this. They can get many It becomes These pollutions pollutions affect fumes causes our respiratory affected when we can bring many the health of body like lung diseases. We cannot make sure that transportation should do cars say if a vehicle is condition of the vehicle are in good maintenance of old or new because engines are good. it’s not For me. it can as well prevent . At what level Well I think if I I think by now. and talk. diseases. we First of all. other worse suffering. condition and will their cars to reduce even if it is old. ourselves first are all wearing a because we cannot face mask so that protect them if we they will be as well don’t know protected from the how to control our different threats of actions. are too much good example.children from the think I can educate children to the Disciplining children. 5.

provinces. Because if we ourselves are the one who will do something not appropriate. what can transportation is plastics because it asked my husband citizen. or we will just let other people fool us. I As an individual citizen. Yes. Do you think it Well I think it is I think by no. discipline . 8. why? Yes of course. this place is still safe to live in. that’s why other places. But if you will think about it carefully. we cannot say if it is safe or not safe. we will the environment of environment percentage of not be unsafe. for me. me that we must contribute is to fumes? because it is cover our nose and join in the already mouth. other people think it’s countries. or not safe to live. we can already tell that it is unsafe. First Manila then I can because it is carbon emission of all. As an individual Well I think biking Do not burn In this question. too much fumes. Because if we long as we in Manila? Why or should only Manila comprises discipline continue to save why not? protect our a higher ourselves. when we say it is still safe to already damage than in any other live in other place live here. like Manila. programs that implemented like blocking the it Japan and we increasing rate of can see the fumes that gives improvement in bad effect to the environment. 9. the thing you do to avoid better like other destroys the and he answered that I can the emission of countries do environment. health of the people. It is in ourselves if we would be careless. as is still safe to live still safe we because as I see. Because as I said earlier.

technical problems like car damage and heavy traffics are also encountered. ourselves. the other people like the emission here in Earth. they you are like a or surrounding member of our will be prone to winner. suggested that the engines of the car should be in good condition. but if not. For the second question. as a this issue. all the interviewees concluded that fumes created different diseases especially to the lungs. if you to be aware from unaware of carbon they are doing is they don’t mind are aware. Other than that. them is they need people who are them because what alert because if But for me. then the happenings of emission? wrong. What can you Well I think we I think by now that Other people are All I can say to say about the should not idolize they should be not really aware. For the first question. 10. 3 out 4 interviewees said that mostly they encountered fumes on the road. can protect more our environment health. 2 of 4 interviewees. of carbon. because if we will community we the dangers it you’re nothing and be aware then we should be aware in brings to their a loser. while the other two suggested that people should . in the third question.

one said that it is better to use bike. For question number 7. they will be harmed. The research gave its readers the idea that people should see what is currently happening to our world as carbon emitted in our surrounding has increased. while the other one contrast. For the fourth question. 3 out of 4 interviewees still agree that it is still safe to live in Manila. All the interviewees for question number 5 told that by now people should be alert to this issue. The research supported the idea that children will get many diseases especially to lungs and brain if these things will not be avoided. all the interviewees suggested that in order to ensure that the transportation vehicles they use. The people now should be fully aware in the level of carbon emitted by their vehicles. the interviewees have different perspectives. the research turned . The children will also be at risk. and the last interviewee told that he will join a program. The same through with question number 6. all said that pollution affects the health of people and if it gets worse. the other said that do not burn plastics. It can be concluded that the percentage of carbon now is at risk and quite alarming. And based from the gathered information. the owner must be responsible enough to check and clean regularly the engines of their cars. For question number 9. if they don’t mind. they will suffer because of it. all interviewees concluded the same answer that those people who are not aware of this fumes emission should learn to be aware by now. For the last question.clean the surroundings and create an eco-friendly program. For question number 8. three parent interviewees said that guidance for their children especially when they are exposed to the places where there are fumes should be ensured. the other wanted to cover his nose and mouth so that they won’t inhale the fumes.

Cunningham. (2010). Brooks/Cole: Cencage Learning. Environmental Science: A Global Concern. Barbara. Cunningham. It helps people to be alert of how dangerous it is to inhale those carbon emitted fumes coming from different vehicles. It can be concluded that gradual death due to carbon emitted fumes as well as health risks can be reduced because people have already carried the knowledge on how to prevent and avoid the fumes that could affect their lives. Cunningham. Bibliography Boeker. W. M. . William & Mary Ann and Saigo. (2001).: John Wiley.out to be a very useful tool to educate and inform the people to be aware of our environment. Reink Van. sons Ltd. Bonston: WCB/McGraw- Hill. (1999). A. P. sons Ltd. (2001). both private and public. Egbert and Gondelle. Environmental Science. Environmental Science: A global concern.: John Wiley. Environmental Science: Physical Principles and Applications.

Williams. Fabian. Primate Evolution. The National Academic Press. C. Miller. G. (1996). The Missing Science. K. California. (2013. California. (2009). Metcalfe. H. I.) Population Division . (2009). Carbon Dioxide emissions from the Land Transport Sector in the Philippines Estimates and Policy Implications. 01 10). (2012). M. Chicago Tribune News . (2003). Perry. (1984). J.Cutter. D. (2010). Heaven & Earth: Global Warming. (2010). S. (2010). Rinehart and Winston. Human Health Rick Asessment of Carbon Dioxide: Survivors of Acute High Level Exposure and Population Sensitive to Pro-longed Low-Level Exposure. Washington. . Heather E. A. 04 01). Tyler and George Tyler. D. North Publishers. Options Analysis. Carbon Monoxide in your Car: fumes from car sicken 3 children on South Side. Chemistry 9th Edition. Car Exhaust Fumes & Air Pollution are Contributing Factors to Increase in Autism. (1997. (2010). Williams-Harris. Modern Chemistry. Carbon Dioxide. Whitten. Cencage Learning. S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Motor Vehicles. Unknown. Environmental Risks and Hazards. Lanham. Englewood Cliiffs. (1978).W. CA: Brooks/Cole. Austria: National Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. MD: Taylor Trade: Distributed by National Book Network. USA: National Research Council. Brooks/Cole: Cencage Learning. H. Rice. ADB Transportation and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Folding them into a United View for Forcasts. W. Laxenberg. Health effects of increase in concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere . (1994). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. L. Iowa. Climate and Society. and Evaluation. New York City: Conroy. USA. Robertson. Plimer. Iowa State University Extension . Unknown. DC. G. Carbon Dioxide Emissions. (2012). Environmental Science. New York: Holt. Belmont City. A. (1987). Volk and Debby Bruck. Cold weather increases Carbon Monoxide from Cars. USA: Archives of General Psychiatry Publication of NIEHS and University of California.C. NOAA: Carbon Dioxide Levels Reach Milestone at Artic sites. United Nations (U. Dangers of Exhaust Fumes. Human.N. Davis and Peck.

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In what ways we can reduce the level of carbon emitted in atmosphere? 4. how can you protect your children from the threats of our environment? 5. How are these fumes affect your surrounding? 3. As a commuter. As a parent. what are the hindrances you encountered on the road? 2. At what level should we be alert? . Appendices Appendix A Interview Questions 1.

As an individual citizen. What can you say about the people who are unaware of carbon emission? Appendix B Transcribed Answers from the Interviewees Interviewee 1 . what can you do to avoid the emission of fumes? 9. How will pollutions affect the health of people? 7. How will you ensure that the engines used in public or private transportation vehicle are in good condition and will not emit fumes? 8.6. Do you think it is still safe to live in Manila? Why or why not? 10.

trucks and other public utility vehicles. well I think I can educate some people about it. 4. how can you protect your children from the threats of our environment? I’m not a parent yet. . In what ways we can reduce the level of carbon emitted in the atmosphere? Well for me. road under maintenance. How will pollutions affect the health of people? As I said earlier. 2. Actually we can also get other worse diseases. Fumes may cause our body some damages like lungs diseases and allergies especially when the level of air pollution is too high. jaywalkers. fumes causes our body like lung diseases and allergies. Clarisse Balboa Student 1. We can also replace old cars that we know that provides excessive smokes. As a parent. wreck less drivers. side vendors. my answer is 10 because we really need to do something. As a commuter. How are these fumes affect you? Well of course. what are the hindrances you encountered on the road? Well of course we always encountered heavy traffic caused by buses. Vehicles staying in an unloading zone. 6. At what level should we be alert? Well I think if I ranked it from 1-10. So as a student. 5. we can use electric and environmental friendly vehicles. 3. car accident and especially the smokes we inhale.

as a member of our community we should be aware in our environment like the emission of carbon.7. Do you think it is still safe to live in Manila? Why or Why not? Well I think it is still safe we should only protect our environment because it is already damage that’s why other people think it’s not safe to live. How will you ensure that the engines used in public or private transportation vehicle are in good condition and will not emit fumes? The owner is the one who is responsible in their vehicles. 9. 10. Interviewee 2 . what can you do to avoid the emission of fumes? Well I think biking transportation is better like other countries do because it is already implemented like it Japan and we can see the improvement in environment. 8. What can you say about the people who are unaware of carbon emission? Well I think we should not idolize them because what they are doing is wrong. They should do maintenance of their cars to reduce the fumes emitted because it is for their own good and for others benefit. As an individual citizen.

How will pollutions affect the health of people? They can get many respiratory diseases. how can you protect your children from the threats of our environment? As much as possible. 4. As a parent. what are the hindrances you encountered on the road? I inhale too much unwanted smoke on the road. How are these fumes affect you? I think it will create air pollution. 2. As a commuter. As an individual citizen.At what level should we be alert? I think by now. 3. 7. 5. In what ways we can reduce the level of carbon emitted in the atmosphere? By just simply good conditioning the engines of my car. Maryann Avila Teacher 1. 6. How will you ensure that the engines used in public or private transportation vehicle are in good condition and will not emit fumes? By regular vehicle check-up from the persons who excel in conditioning cars 8. what can you do to avoid the emission of fumes? . I won’t expose my children to the place where there are too much pollutions and fumes. we should be alert because of the greenhouse that affects our surroundings.

10. because as I see. Manila comprises a higher percentage of carbon emission than in any other places. they will be prone to the dangers it brings to their health. Do you think it is still safe to live in Manila? Why or Why not? I think by no. 9. What can you say about the people who are unaware of carbon emission? I think by now that they should be alert because if they don’t mind this issue. Interviewee 3 .Do not burn plastics because it destroys the environment.

Ramirez Housekeeper 1. there is no such thing as level or age. the traffics and lastly. what are the hindrances you encountered on the road? First of all. 4. and talk. Disciplining ourselves is one good example. Secondly. the vendors. We discipline ourselves first because we cannot protect them if we as well don’t know how to control our actions. ready to be inhaled. our lungs are the one who’s suffering. it is the fumes. As a commuter. As a parent. How will pollutions affect the health of people? It becomes affected when we inhaled the fumes. fumes are already in front of you. . It is all about when a child started to move. Because of this. it’s not about the age or level. Secondly. How are these fumes affect your surrounding? The number ones who are affected are the people. They become ill and we feel weak. how can you protect your children from the threats of our environment? We can protect them by proper guidance. At what level should we be alert? First of all. 3. we can also protect the ozone layer. walk. the plants. 6. We clean our surroundings by putting our trash in a garbage can and by this. It is also by showing our proper values to them. 2. Maria Jesusa C. For me. Because while you are waiting for the vehicles. 5. In what ways we can reduce the level of carbon emitted in atmosphere? We reduce it by cleaning our surroundings first.

10. when we live in other place like Manila. But for me. It is in ourselves if we would be careless. Because as I said earlier. it won’t emit many fumes. this place is still safe to live in. Because if we ourselves are the one who will do something not appropriate. checking. we can already tell that it is unsafe. discipline ourselves. 8. for me. or we will just let other people fool us. What can you say about the people who are unaware of carbon emission? Other people are not really aware. it can as well prevent too much fumes. First of all. why? Because if we discipline ourselves. Do you think it is still safe to live in Manila? Why or why not? Yes. But if you will think about it carefully. you’re nothing and a loser. 9. I asked my husband and he answered me that we must cover our nose and mouth. and fixing of the smoke belcher. but if not. we cannot say if it is safe or not safe. what can you do to avoid the emission of fumes? In this question. we will not be unsafe. Interviewee 4 . if the owner is having a regular cleaning. How will you ensure that the engines used in public or private transportation vehicle are in good condition and will not emit fumes? On my own. As an individual citizen. if the vehicle is new. other countries. or provinces. We cannot say if a vehicle is old or new because even if it is old.7. if you are aware. then you are like a winner.

As a parent. As a commuter. For me. what are the hindrances you encountered on the road? As a commuter. When we need to go outside I always make sure that my children are all wearing a face mask so that they will be protected from the different threats of our environment. 5. In what ways we can reduce the level of carbon emitted in atmosphere? We can make programs so that we can inform the people on what they need to do to less the increasing level of carbon here in Manila. Salvacion Businessman/ Family Driver 1. We should be alert maybe if the level of the increasing rate of carbon is crucial and if there are many children that are getting sick already. 4. How will pollutions affect the health of people? . it is hard to commute especially nowadays. it gives a bad effect in my body. 2. there are many hindrances you can encounter on the road like the unexpected car damage and especially the different fumes in the road. I have a responsibility of protecting my children. how can you protect your children from the threats of our environment? As a parent. we should be alert now. 6. Franklin S. How are these fumes affect your surrounding? These fumes can give many diseases in my body. 3. When I smell these fumes. At what level should we be alert? For me.

What can you say about the people who are unaware of carbon emission? All I can say to them is they need to be aware from the happenings of or surrounding because if we will be aware then we can protect more the other people here in Earth. 7. what can you do to avoid the emission of fumes? As an individual citizen. Do you think it is still safe to live in Manila? Why or why not? Yes of course. 8. 10.These pollutions can bring many effects. 9. the thing that I can contribute is to join in the programs that blocking the increasing rate of fumes that gives bad effect to the health of the people. as long as we continue to save the environment of Manila then I can say it is still safe to live here. Appendix C . As an individual citizen. It can bring different diseases in the body of a person. How will you ensure that the engines used in public or private transportation vehicle are in good condition and will not emit fumes? Always check the engines of the car we are using to make sure that condition of the engines are good.

1: Car emitting fumes Fig. Pictures of Emitted Fumes Fig. 2: Jeepney in Manila emitting darker fumes Appendix D .

Epifania B. 1995 Birthplace: Tanchuling Hospital Height: 152 cm Mass: 38 kg Father: Ramilo P. . Castro Occupation: Civil Engineer Mother: Ma. Castro Occupation: Housewife EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Tertiary: Mapua Institute of Technology-Intramuros 2012-present Secondary: Aquinas University of Legazpi (SPA) 2008-2012 Elementary: Ibalon Central School 2001-2008 AFFILIATION Sports Club – Member (2011-2012) Mathematics Club – Member (2011-2012) Philippine Institute of Chemical Engineering (Junior Chapter Mapua Institute of Technology-Member (2012-present) SKILLS Computer Literate Can act and dance Can speak Tagalog and English Ducusin. Molino 3. Cester Gale A.com PERSONAL DATA Birthdate: November 05. Christine Julia Blancaflor #78 Camphor Road Wood Estate Village 2. Curriculum Vitae Castro. Bacoor Cavite 09067960695 laiju_castro@ymail.

San Pedro. Ducusin Occupation: Teacher EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Tertiary: Mapua Institute of Technology 2012- present Secondary: Casa del Nino Science High School 2008-2012 Elementary: Our Lady of Miraculous Medal Science High School 2001-2008 AFFILIATIONS Feature Writer (2010-2011) Student Council (2011-2012) English Club President (2011-2012) Writing Editor (2011-2012) Philippine Institute of Chemical Engineering (Junior Chapter Mapua Institute of Technology-Member) (2012-present) SKILLS Can write articles Can computer literate Can dance and sing Florendo. Mary Florence P. 1996 Birthplace: San Juan City Height: 5’9” Mass: 61 kg Father: Alexander P. Laguna (214-01-00)/09269954299 cesterducusin@yahoo.Pacita 2A. Pearl St. Ducusin Occupation: Seafarer Mother: Maryann A. .com PERSONAL DATA Birthdate: March 12.

37-N Luna Street West Rembo Makati City (576-8373)/09176911520 maryflorenceflorendo@yahoo. Florendo Occupation: Mechanical Engineer Mother: Perla P. English. 1995 Birthplace: Naga City Height: 5’4” Mass: 66 kg Father: Pedro Angelo A. and Arabic Salvacion.com .com PERSONAL DATA Birthdate: September 26. Santulan Malabon City (02)-(3557065)/09277209273 sarah_katrina1195@yahoo. Florendo Occupation: Teacher EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Tertiary: Mapua Institute of Technology 2012-present Secondary: The Philippine School-Dubai 2008-2012 Elementary: United International Private School-Dubai 2001-2008 AFFILIATION Glee Club-Member (2009-2011) Instrumental Club-President (2011-2012) Mathematics Club-Member (2010-2011) Mapua Campus Crusaders for Christ-Member (2012-present) Philippine Institute of Chemical Engineering (Junior Chapter Mapua Institute of Technology-Member) (2012-present) SKILLS Can sing well Can draw and paint Can speak Tagalog. Sarah Katrina Veliganilao 80 E Martin St.

Secretary (2011-2012) Member (2009-2010) Friends of Mo. Salvacion Occupation: Family Driver Mother: Jennifer V. Salvacion Occupation: Sari-sari Store EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Tertiary: Mapua Institute of Technology-Intramuros 2012-present Secondary: La Consolacion College-Caloocan 2008-2012 Elementary: Santulan Elementary School-Malabon 2001-2008 AFFILIATION Mathematics Club-Asst. 1995 Birthplace: Malabon City Height: 5’4’’ Mass: 77 kg Father: Franklin L.PERSONAL DATA Birthdate: August 11. Consuelo-Member (2008-2009) Ang Kalatas-Member/Writer (2011-2012) Youth for Christ-Member (2009-present) Philippine Institute of Chemical Engineering (Junior Chapter Mapua Institute of Technology-Member (2012-present) SKILLS Can speak Tagalog and English Can write feature articles Can draw cartoon characters .