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Testing

Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is a decision-making

process for evaluating claims about a

population.

procedures used by statisticians to accept

or reject statistical hypotheses.

Hypothesis

about a population parameter. This

conjecture may or may not be true.

Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis, symbolized by

H0, is a statistical hypothesis that

states that there is no difference

between a parameter and a

specific value, or that there is no

difference between two

parameters.

Alternative Hypothesis

The alternative hypothesis,

symbolized by H1, is a statistical

hypothesis that states the

existence of a difference between

a parameter and a specific value, or

states that there is a difference

between two parameters.

How to set the

Hypothesis

on the null hypothesis. =, ,

H0: =

H0: H1: = H0:

H1: < H1: >

No matter what the null hypothesis, is

assumed equal to k.

How to write the Hypothesis

2. contains <, , >

- The alternative hypothesis will determine the

kind of test and the direction of the critical region:

<-one tailed and region is to the left of the curve

-two tailed and region is on both sides of the curve

Level of Significance

The level of significance is denoted

by . It determines the probability of

rejecting the null hypothesis.

Rejection Region:

The critical value separates the critical region from the

noncritical region. The symbol for critical value is C.V.

The critical or rejection region is the range of values of the

test value that indicates that there is a significant

difference and that the null hypothesis should be rejected.

The noncritical or non rejection region is the range of

values of the test value that indicates that the difference

was probably due to chance and that the null hypothesis

should not be rejected.

Rejection Regions

Tests for Population Mean

standard deviation is given

2. t-test-if the population

standard deviation is not given

Problem 1

A researcher wishes to see if the mean

number of days that a basic, low-price,

small automobile sits on a dealers lot is 29.

A sample of 30 automobile dealers has a

mean of 30.1 days for basic, low-price,

small automobiles. At = 0.05, test the

claim that the mean time is greater than 29

days. The standard deviation of the

population is 3.8 days.

1. H0: = 29 (The mean time is 29 days.)

H1: > 29 (CLAIM) (The mean time is greater than 29 days)

2. Level of Significance: = 0.05

3. Test: z test one tailed

Problem

4. Critical Region: 1.59 Text

z0.05 = 1.645

5. Solutions:

= /

30.129

=

3.8/ 30

= 1.59

7. Conclusion: There is enough evidence to support the claim.

Types of Errors:

A type I error occurs if you reject the null

hypothesis when it is true.

the null hypothesis when it is false.

Types of Errors:

Relationship of &

= probability of

committing a Type I error

= probability of

committing a Type II error

Power of a Test

probability of correctly

rejecting a false null

hypothesis.

Question:

Why not choose = 0.000001?

Ans: If we choose a very small , we

will be making it really hard to

reject the null hypothesis thus

increasing the likelihood of a Type II

error

Ten randomly selected people were

asked how long they slept at night.

The mean time was 7.1 hours, and

the standard deviation was 0.78

hour. Find the 95% confidence

interval of the mean time. Assume

the variable is normally distributed.

A survey conducted by Sallie Mae

and Gallup of 1404 respondents

found that 323 students paid for

their education by student loans.

Find the 90% confidence of the true

proportion of students who paid for

their education by student loans.

A physician claims that joggers maximal

volume oxygen uptake is lower than the

average of all adults. A sample of 15

joggers has a mean of 40.6 millilitres

per kilogram (ml/kg) and a standard

deviation of 6 ml/kg. If the average of

all adults is 36.7 ml/kg, is there enough

evidence to support the physicians

claim at =0.05?

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