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MAHATMA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,


Hyderabad, A.P.)

Chaitanya Bharathi P.O., Gandipet, Hyderabad-


500 075

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

CERTIFICATE

Date: 23rd July 2016

This is to certify that the Mini project work entitled INPUT


FOLLOWER BOT is a bonafied work carried out by
K.PAVAN SAI (13261A0421)

K.ANUDEEP (13261A0426)

V.KRISHNA (14265A0403)

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF


TECHNOLOGY in ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING by
the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad during the
academic year 2012-13.

The results embodied in this report have not been submitted to any
other University or Institution for the award of any degree or diploma.

(Signature) (Signature)
Mr. D.V.S.Nagendra Kumar, Sr.Asst. Professor Dr. S P Singh
Advisor/Liaison Professor &Head
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our deep sense of gratitude to our Guide Mr. Ramakrishna,


Cranes Varsity, Hyderabad, for his invaluable guidance and encouragement
in carrying out our Project.

We are highly indebted to our Faculty Liaison Mr. D.V.S.Nagendra


Kumar, Sr. Assistant Professor, Electronics and Communication Engineering
Department, who has given us all the necessary technical guidance in
carrying out this Project.

We wish to express our sincere thanks to Dr. S.P.Singh, Head of the


Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, M.G.I.T., for
permitting us to pursue our Project in Cranes Varsity and encouraging us
throughout the Project.

Finally, we thank all the people who have directly or indirectly help us through
the course of our Project.

K.Pavan Sai
K.Anudeep
V.Krishna
Table of contents

CERTIFICATE FROM ECE DEPARTMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

1.1Introduction
1.2Aim of the project
1.3Significance and applications

1.4Organization of work
CHAPTER 2. FUNDAMENTALS OF ARDUINO UNO

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Pin description

2.3 Functionality of each pin

2.4 Advantages and Applications

CHAPTER 3. ABOUT THE BOT

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Basic idea and Connections of the BOT

3.3 program Code Using Arduino Software


CHAPTER 4. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

4.1 Use of Serial Monitor

4.2 Result

REFERENCES

CHAPTER-1 OVERVIEW

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Robotics can be described as the current pinnacle of technical development.


Robotics is a confluence science using the continuing advancements of
mechanical engineering, material science, sensor fabrication, manufacturing
techniques, and advanced algorithms. The study and practice of robotics will
expose a dabbler or professional to hundreds of different avenues of study. For
some, the romanticism of robotics brings forth an almost magical curiosity of the
world leading to creation of amazing machines. A journey of a lifetime awaits in
robotics.

Robotics can be defined as the science or study of the technology


primarily associated with the design, fabrication, theory, and application of robots.
While other fields contribute the mathematics, the techniques, and the
components, robotics creates the magical end product. The practical applications
of robots drive development of robotics and drive advancements in other
sciences in turn. Crafters and researchers in robotics study more than just
robotics.

The promise of robotics is easy to describe but hard for the mind to grasp.
Robots hold the promise of moving and transforming materials with the same
elan and ease as a computer program transforms data. Today, robots mine
minerals, assemble semi-processed materials into automobile components, and
assemble those components into automobiles. On the immediate horizon are
self-driving cars, robotics to handle household chores, and assemble specialized
machines on demand. It is not unreasonable to imagine robots that are given
some task, such as reclaim desert into photovoltaic cells and arable land, and left
to make their own way. Then the promise of robotics exceeds the minds grasp.
In summary, robotics is the field related to science and technology primarily
related to robotics. It stands tall by standing the accomplishments of many other
fields of study.

1.2 AIM OF THE PROJECT


To built ardunio based bot and use it for several applications

CHAPTER -2 FUNDAMENTALS OF ARDUINO UNO

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Arduino is a hardware and software company, project, and user


community that designs and manufactures computer open-source
hardware, open-source software, and microcontroller-based kits for building
digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control physical
devices. The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328
(datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs),
6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP
header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller;
simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or
battery to get started. The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the
FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega8U2 programmed as a
USB-to-serial converter. "Uno" means one in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming
release of Arduino 1.0. The Uno and version 1.0 will be the reference versions of Arduno,
moving forward. The Uno is the latest in a series of USB Arduino boards, and the
reference model for the Arduino platform; for a comparison with previous versions, see
the index of Arduino boards.
The project is based on microcontroller board designs, produced by
several vendors, using various microcontrollers. These systems provide sets of
digital and analog Input/output (I/O) pins that can interface to various expansion
boards (termed shields) and other circuits. The boards feature serial
communication interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus (USB) on some
models, for loading programs from personal computers. For programming the
microcontrollers, the Arduino project provides an integrated development
environment (IDE) based on a programming language named Processing, which
also supports the languages C and C++.

HISTORY OF ARDUINO
The first Arduino was introduced in 2005, aiming to provide a low cost, easy way
for novices and professionals to create devices that interact with their
environment using sensors and actuators. Common examples of such devices
intended for beginner hobbyists include simple robots, thermostats, and motion
detectors.

Arduino boards are available commercially in preassembled form, or as do-it-


yourself kits. The hardware design specifications are openly available, allowing
the Arduino boards to be produced by anyone. Adafruit Industries estimated in
mid-2011 that over 300,000 official Arduinos had been commercially
produced, and in 2013 that 700,000 official boards were in users' hands.

An Arduino board historically consists of an Atmel 8-, 16- or 32-bit


AVR microcontroller (although since 2015 other makers' microcontrollers have
been used) with complementary components that facilitate programming and
incorporation into other circuits. An important aspect of the Arduino is its standard
connectors, which let users connect the CPU board to a variety of
interchangeable add-on modules termed shields. Some shields communicate
with the Arduino board directly over various pins, but many shields are
individually addressable via an IC serial busso many shields can be stacked
and used in parallel. Before 2015, Official Arduinos had used the
Atmel megaAVR series of chips, specifically
the ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, and ATmega2560. In
2015, units by other producers were added. A handful of other processors have
also been used by Arduino compatible devices. Most boards include a 5 V linear
regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator (or ceramic resonator in some variants),
although some designs such as the LilyPad run at 8 MHz and dispense with the
onboard voltage regulator due to specific form-factor restrictions. An Arduino's
microcontroller is also pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies
uploading of programs to the on-chip flash memory, compared with other devices
that typically need an external programmer. This makes using an Arduino more
straightforward by allowing the use of an ordinary computer as the programmer.
Currently, optiboot bootloader is the default bootloader installed on Arduino UNO.
At a conceptual level, when using the Arduino integrated
development environment, all boards are programmed over a serial connection.
Its implementation varies with the hardware version. Some serial Arduino boards
contain a level shifter circuit to convert between RS-232logic levels
and transistortransistor logic (TTL) level signals. Current Arduino boards are
programmed via Universal Serial Bus (USB), implemented using USB-to-serial
adapter chips such as the FTDI FT232. Some boards, such as later-model Uno
boards, substitute the FTDI chip with a separate AVR chip containing USB-to-
serial firmware, which is reprogrammable via its own ICSP header. Other
variants, such as the Arduino Mini and the unofficial Boarduino, use a detachable
USB-to-serial adapter board or cable,Bluetooth or other methods, when used
with traditional microcontroller tools instead of the Arduino IDE, standard AVR in-
system programming (ISP) programming is used.

The Arduino board exposes most of the microcontroller's I/O pins for use
by other circuits. The Diecimila, Duemilanove, and currentUno]provide 14 digital
I/O pins, six of which can produce pulse-width modulated signals, and six analog
inputs, which can also be used as six digital I/O pins. These pins are on the top
of the board, via female 0.1-inch (2.54 mm) headers. Several plug-in application
shields are also commercially available. The Arduino Nano, and Arduino-
compatible Bare Bones Board and Boarduino boards may provide male header
pins on the underside of the board that can plug into solderless breadboards.
Many Arduino-compatible and Arduino-derived boards exist. Some are
functionally equivalent to an Arduino and can be used interchangeably. Many
enhance the basic Arduino by adding output drivers, often for use in school-level
education, to simplify making buggies and small robots. Others are electrically
equivalent but change the form factor, sometimes retaining compatibility with
shields, sometimes not. Some variants use different processors, of varying
compatibility.
The Arduino project provides the Arduino integrated development
environment (IDE), which is a cross-platform application written in the
programming language Java.It originated from the IDE for the
languages Processing and Wiring. It is designed to introduce programming to
artists and other newcomers unfamiliar with software development. It includes a
code editor with features such assyntax highlighting, brace matching, and
automatic indentation, and provides simple one-click mechanism to compile and
load programs to an Arduino board. A program written with the IDE for Arduino is
called a "sketch".

2.2 PIN DESCRIPTION OF ARDUINO

Looking at the board from the top down, this is an outline of what you will see
(parts of the board you might interact with in the course of normal use are
highlighted):
Starting clockwise from the top center:

Analog Reference pin (orange)

Digital Ground (light green)

Digital Pins 2-13 (green)

Digital Pins 0-1/Serial In/Out - TX/RX (dark green) - These pins cannot be
used for digital i/o (digitalRead and digitalWrite) if you are also using serial
communication (e.g. Serial.begin).

Reset Button - S1 (dark blue)

In-circuit Serial Programmer (blue-green)

Analog In Pins 0-5 (light blue)

Power and Ground Pins (power: orange, grounds: light orange)

External Power Supply In (9-12VDC) - X1 (pink)

Toggles External Power and USB Power (place jumper on two pins closest
to desired supply) - SV1 (purple)
USB (used for uploading sketches to the board and for serial
communication between the board and the computer; can be used to power the
board) (yellow)

Microcontrollers

ATmega328 (used on ATmega168 (used on ATmega8 (used on


most recent boards) most Arduino Diecimila some older board)
and early 14 (of
14 (of Duemilanove) which
which 6 3
Digital I/O Digital
provide 14 (of provid
Pins I/O Pins
PWM which 6 e
output) Digital I/O
provide PWM
Pins
PWM output)
output) Analog
Analog 6 (DIP) or
Input 6
Input Pins 8 (SMD)
Pins
6 (DIP) DC
Analog
or 8 Current
Input Pins 40 mA
DC Current (SMD) per I/O
40 Ma
per I/O Pin DC Pin
Current Flash
40 mA 8 KB
per I/O Memory
Flash Pin SRAM 1 KB
32 KB
Memory Flash EEPRO 512
16 KB M bytes
SRAM 2 KB Memory
SRAM 1 KB
EEPROM 1KB
512
EEPROM
bytes
2.3 FUNCTIONALITY OF EACH PIN

In addition to the specific functions listed below, the digital pins on an Arduino
board can be used for general purpose input and output via
the pinMode(), digitalRead(), and digitalWrite() commands. Each pin has an
internal pull-up resistor which can be turned on and off using digitalWrite() (w/ a
value of HIGH or LOW, respectively) when the pin is configured as an input. The
maximum current per pin is 40 mA.

Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL
serial data. On the Arduino Diecimila, these pins are connected to the
corresponding pins of the FTDI USB-to-TTL Serial chip. On the Arduino BT, they
are connected to the corresponding pins of the WT11 Bluetooth module. On the
Arduino Mini and LilyPad Arduino, they are intended for use with an external TTL
serial module (e.g. the Mini-USB Adapter).

External Interrupts: 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an


interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. See
the attachInterrupt() function for details.

PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output with


the analogWrite() function. On boards with an ATmega8, PWM output is available
only on pins 9, 10, and 11.

BT Reset: 7. (Arduino BT-only) Connected to the reset line of the


bluetooth module.

SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI


communication, which, although provided by the underlying hardware, is not
currently included in the Arduino language.

LED: 13. On the Diecimila and LilyPad, there is a built-in LED connected
to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is
LOW, it's off.

Analog Pins
In addition to the specific functions listed below, the analog input pins support 10-
bit analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) using the analogRead() function. Most of
the analog inputs can also be used as digital pins: analog input 0 as digital pin 14
through analog input 5 as digital pin 19. Analog inputs 6 and 7 (present on the
Mini and BT) cannot be used as digital pins.

I2C: 4 (SDA) and 5 (SCL). Support I2C (TWI) communication using


the Wire library (documentation on the Wiring website).

Power Pins

Vin (sometimes labelled "9V"): The input voltage to the Arduino board
when it's using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB
connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this
pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin. Note
that different boards accept different input voltages ranges, please see
the documentation for your board. Also note that the LilyPad has no VIN pin and
accepts only a regulated input.

5V:The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and


other components on the board. This can come either from VIN via an on-board
regulator, or be supplied by USB or another regulated 5V supply.

3.3V: (Diecimila-only) A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board FTDI


chip.

GND: Ground pins.

Other Pins

AREF: Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used


with analogReference().

Reset: Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to
add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board.

The Arduino IDE supports the languages C and C++ using special rules to
organize code. The Arduino IDE supplies a software library called Wiring from the
Wiring project, which provides many common input and output procedures. A
typical Arduino C/C++ sketch consist of two functions that are compiled and
linked with a program stub main() into an executable cyclic executive program:
setup(): a function that runs once at the start of a program and that can
initialize settings.

loop(): a function called repeatedly until the board powers off.

setup()
The setup() function is called when a sketch starts. Use it to initialize
variables, pin modes, start using libraries, etc. The setup Example

int buttonPin = 3;

void setup()

Serial.begin(9600);

pinMode(buttonPin, INPUT);

void loop()

// ...

Function will only run once, after each powerup or reset of the Arduino board.

loop()

After creating a setup() function, which initializes and sets the initial values, the
loop() function does precisely what its name suggests, and loops consecutively,
allowing your program to change and respond. Use it to actively control the
Arduino board.

Example

const int buttonPin = 3;

// setup initializes serial and the button pin

void setup()

Serial.begin(9600);

pinMode(buttonPin, INPUT);

// loop checks the button pin each time,

// and will send serial if it is pressed

void loop()

if (digitalRead(buttonPin) == HIGH)

Serial.write('H');

else

Serial.write('L');

delay(1000);

}\
2.4 ADVANTAGES

1- Ready to Use: The biggest advantage of Arduino is its ready to use structure. As
Arduino comes in a complete package form which includes the 5V regulator, a burner, an
oscillator, a micro-controller, serial communication interface, LED and headers for the
connections. You don't have to think about programmer connections for programming or any
other interface. Just plug it into USB port of your computer and that's it. Your revolutionary
idea is going to change the world after just few words of coding.
2- Examples of codes: Another big advantage of Arduino is its library of examples
present inside the software of Arduino. I'll explain this advantage using an example ofvoltage
measurement. For example if you want to measure voltage using ATmega8 micro-controller
and want to display the output on computer screen then you have to go through the whole
process. The process will start from learning the ADC's of micro-controller for measurement,
went through the learning of serial communication for display and will end at USB - Serial
converters. If you want to check this whole process click on the link below.
DC voltage measurement using Atmel AVR micro-controller .

3- Effortless functions: During coding of Arduino, you will notice some functions which
make the life so easy. Another advantage of Arduino is its automatic unit conversion
capability. You can say that during debugging you don't have to worry about the
unitsconversions. Just use your all force on the main parts of your projects. You don't have to
worry about side problems.

4- Large community: There are many forums present on the internet in which people are
talking about the Arduino. Engineers, hobbyists and professionals are making their projects
through Arduino. You can easily find help about everything. Moreover the Arduino website
itself explains each and every functions of Arduino.

So, We should conclude the advantage of Arduino by saying that during


working on different projects you just have to worry about your innovative idea. The
remaining will handle by Arduino itself.
Real-Time Applications of Arduino Uno Board

1.Arduino Based Home Automation System


The project is designed by using Arduino uno board for the development of
home automation system with Bluetooth which is remotely controlled and
operated by an Android OS smart phone. Houses are becoming smarter and well
developed by using such kind of advanced technologies. Modern houses are
gradually increasing the way of design by shifting to centralized control system
with remote controlled switches instead of conventional switches.

2.Arduino based Auto Intensity Control of Street Lights


As the intensity is cannot be controlled by using High Intensity Discharge (HID)
lamps power saving is not possible in street lights with these lamps as the
density on roads is decreasing from peak hours of nights to early morning.

3. Arduino Based Solar Streetlight

This project is designed to control the intensity of a LED based street light
powered by the solar powerfrom a photo voltaic cell using Arduino.

4.The Obstacle Avoidance Robot Operated with Arduino


The main concept of this project is to design a robot using ultrasonic sensors to
avoid the obstacle. A robot is a machine and it is a combination of programs
instructions and motors. It can perform some task with some guidance or
automatically.
CHAPTER-3 ABOUT THE BOT

3.1 INTRODUCTION

A Bot, also known as Robot , is a software application that perform task


that are both simple and structurally repetitive, at a much higher rate than
would be possible for a human alone.

Given the exceptional speed with which bots can perform their relatively
simple routines, bots may also be implemented where a response speed
faster than that of humans is required.

Bots are routinely used on the internet where the emulation of human
activity is required.

Given the exceptional speed with which bots can perform their relatively
simple routines, bots may also be implemented where a response speed
faster than that of humans is required. Common examples including
gaming, whereby a player achieves a significant advantage by
implementing some repetitive routine with the use of a bot rather than
manually, or auction-site robot where last-minute bid-placing speed may
determine who places the winning bid using a bot to place counterbids
affords a significant advantage over bids placed manually.

The success of bots may be largely due to the very real difficulty in
identifying the difference between an online interaction with a bot versus a
live human. Given that bots are relatively simple to create and
implement,] they are a very powerful tool with the potential to influence
every segment of the World Wide Web
3.2 COMPONENTS AND CONNECTIONS

MATERIALS REQUIRED

Arduino Uno and USB cable

Arduino software

Breadboard
100rpm dc motors

Jumper wires

Chassis and wheels

9V battery

Transistors and resistors

Battery clips

1. The Arduino board

The Arduino board will be the brain of the robot, as it will be running the software
that will control all the other parts.

My son had an old Arduino Uno that he ended up not using, so I did not need to
buy one. There are plenty of Arduino models or even Arduino compatible boards
that can be used.
2. The Prototyping Board and Cables

One of the restrictions I decided to impose myself with this project is that I would
not do any soldering, so that I can assemble and disassemble the robot to my
heart's content without ruining any parts.

Then I needed a platform where I can easily connect all the components
together. For this kind of task people typically use a breadboard

3. The USB Cable

The Arduino board is connected to a computer via a USB port. The USB
connection is used to upload software and also can be used as a power source
when testing.

I took a cable from an old printer I have, so I did not need to buy this item. If you
need to buy a cable, make sure you get the right connectors. The computer side
is the standard A-Male, but on the Arduino side you need a B-Male connector.
4. The Vehicle Kit

There are many choices for robot friendly vehicles. My only requirements were
that it had a large platform where all the parts can be mounted and that it came
with the wheels and motors.

In the end I decided to get the Magician Chassis. This is a kit that is extremely
simple to build. It includes two motors and a battery box that plugs directly into
the Arduino board.

5. Transistors and resistors


The transistor and resistor are used with the motor to make it act like a switch.

CONNECTING THE BOT


The connections to the motor are made based on the simple circuit diagram
shown below.

After connecting the BOT it looks like the one above and is ready to receive the
inputs from the receiver.
3.3 PROGRAM CODE

char ByteReceived;

void setup()

pinMode(13,OUTPUT);

pinMode(12,OUTPUT);

Serial.begin(9600);

Serial.println("--- ENTER THE DIRECTION---");

Serial.println(" Type in Box above, . ");

Serial.println("(Decimal)(Hex)(Character)");

Serial.println();

void loop()

if (Serial.available() > 0)

{
ByteReceived = Serial.read();

Serial.print(ByteReceived);

Serial.print(" ");

Serial.print(ByteReceived, HEX);

Serial.print(" ");

Serial.print(char(ByteReceived));

/*FORWARD DIRECTION*/

if(ByteReceived == 'F')

digitalWrite(12, HIGH);

digitalWrite(13, HIGH);

delay(800);

digitalWrite(12, LOW);

digitalWrite(13, LOW);

Serial.print(" FRONT");

/*RIGHT DIRECTION*/

if(ByteReceived == 'R')

digitalWrite(12, HIGH);

digitalWrite(13, LOW);

delay(500);

digitalWrite(12, LOW);

digitalWrite(13, LOW);

Serial.print(" RIGHT");
}

/*LEFT DIRECTION*/

if(ByteReceived == 'L')

digitalWrite(12, LOW);

digitalWrite(13, HIGH);

delay(550);

digitalWrite(12, LOW);

digitalWrite(13, LOW);

Serial.print(" LEFT");

/*BACKWARD DIRECTION*/

if(ByteReceived == 'B')

digitalWrite(12, LOW);

digitalWrite(13, HIGH);

delay(1250);

digitalWrite(12, LOW);

digitalWrite(13, LOW);

digitalWrite(12, HIGH);

digitalWrite(13, HIGH);

delay(800);

digitalWrite(12, LOW);

digitalWrite(13, LOW);

Serial.print("BACK");
}

/*STOP MOTION OF THE BOT*/

if(ByteReceived == 'S')

digitalWrite(12, LOW);

digitalWrite(13, LOW);

Serial.print(" STOP");

Serial.println();

}
CHAPTER -4 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

4.1 SERIAL MONITOR

The Serial Monitor is a separate pop-up window that acts as a separate terminal
that communicates by receiving and sending Serial Data. See the icon on the far
right of the image above.

Serial Data is sent over a single wire (but usually travels over USB in our case) and
consists of a series of 1's and 0's sent over the wire. Data can be sent in both
directions .

The serial monitor is the 'tether' between the computer and your Arduino - it lets
you send and receive text messages, handy for debugging and also controlling the Arduino
from a keyboard! For example, you will be able to send commands from your computer to
turn on LEDs.
4.2 RESULT OF THE PROJECT

THE RESULT ON THE SERIAL MONITOR ARE AS FOLLOWS