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Punjab College
Khanewal Exercise 2.8 (Solutions)
Taylor Series Expansion of Function
h2 h3
f ( x + h) = f ( x) + hf ( x ) + f ( x) + f ( x ) + ....
2! 3!
Maclaurin Series
x2 x3
f ( x ) = f (0) + xf (0) +
f (0) + f (0) + ....
2! 3!
Question # 1(i)
Let f ( x ) = ln(1 + x) f (0) = ln(1 + 0) = 0
d 1 1
f ( x ) = ln(1 + x) = f (0) = = 1
dx 1+ x 1+ 0
d
(1 + x ) =  (1 + x ) f (0) =  (1 + 0 ) =  1
1 2 2
f ( x ) =
dx
d
f ( x) = (1 + x) 2 = + 2(1 + x) 3 f (0) = 2(1 + 0) 3 = 2
dx
d
2 (1 + x ) =  6 (1 + x ) f (iv ) (0) =  6 (1 + 0 ) =  6
3 4 4
f ( iv ) ( x) =
dx
By Maclaurin series
x2 x3
f ( x ) = f (0) + xf (0) + f (0) + f (0) + ......
2! 3!
x2 x3 x4
ln(1 + x ) = 0 + x(1) + (1) + (2) + (6) + ......
2! 3! 4!
2 3 4
x x x
= x + (2)  (6) + ......
2 1 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
x 2 x3 x4
= x  +  + ......
2 3 4
Question # 1(ii)
Let f ( x ) = cos x f (0) = cos(0) = 1
d
f ( x ) = cos x =  sin x f (0) =  sin(0) = 0
dx
d
f ( x) = (  sin x ) =  cos x f (0) =  cos(0) =  1
dx
d
f ( x) = (  cos x ) = + sin x f (0) = sin(0) = 0
dx
d
f ( iv ) ( x) = sin x = cos x f (iv ) ( x ) = cos(0) = 1
dx
d
f ( v ) ( x) = cos x =  sin x f (v ) ( x) =  sin(0) = 0
dx
d
f ( vi ) (0) = (  sin x ) =  cos x f ( vi ) ( 0 ) =  cos(0) =  1
dx
Now by Maclaurin series
x2 x3
f ( x ) = f (0) + xf (0) + f (0) + f (0) + ......
2! 3!
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x2 x3 x4 x5 x6
cos x = 1 + x(0) + (1) + (0) + (1) + (0) + (1) + ......
2! 3! 4! 5! 6!
2 4 6
x x x
= 1+ 0  + 0 + + 0  + ......
2! 4! 6!
2 4 6
x x x
= 1  +  + ......
2! 4! 6!
Question # 1(iii)
Let f ( x ) = 1 + x
1
= (1 + x ) 2
1
f (0) = (1 + 0) 2 = 1
d 1 1 1 1 1
f ( x) = (1 + x ) 2 = (1 + x ) 2 (1) = (1 + x ) 2
dx 2 2
1 1 1
f ( 0 ) = (1 + 0 ) 2 =

2 2
d 1  1
f ( x ) = ( )
3
2 =  (1 + x ) 2
1
1 + x
dx 2 4
1 3 1
f (0) =  (1 + 0 ) 2 = 
4 4
1 d 1 3 5
1 + x ) 2 =   (1 + x ) 2 = (1 + x ) 2
3 3 5
(

f ( x) = 
4 dx 4 2 8
3 5 3
f ( 0 ) = (1 + 0 ) 2 =
8 8
Now by Maclaurin series
x2 x3
f ( x ) = f (0) + xf (0) + f (0) + f (0) + ......
2! 3!
1 x 2 1 x3 3
1 + x = 1 + x +  + + .....
2 2! 4 3! 8
1 x 2 1 x3 3
= 1 + x +  + + .....
2 2 4 6 8
x x 2 x3
= 1 +  + + .....
2 8 16
Question # 1(iv)
Let f ( x ) = e x f (0) = e 0 = 1
f ( x ) = ( )
d x
dx
e = e x f ( 0 ) = e0 = 1
f ( x ) = ( )
d x
dx
e = e x f ( 0 ) = e0 = 1
f ( x ) = ( )
d x
dx
e = e x f ( 0 ) = e0 = 1
By Maclaurin series
x2 x3
f ( x ) = f (0) + xf (0) + f (0) + f (0) + ......
2! 3!
x2 x3
e = 1 + x (1) + (1) + (1) + .....
x
2! 3!
2 3
x x
= 1 + x + + + .....
2! 3!
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Questoion # 1(v)
Let f ( x ) = e 2 x f (0) = e2(0) = e0 = 1
f ( x ) =
d 2x
dx
e( ) = 2e 2 x f ( 0 ) = 2e 2(0) = 2(1) = 2
f ( x ) = 2
d 2x
dx
e( ) ( )
= 2 2e2 x = 4e 2 x f ( 0 ) = 4e 2(0) = 4(1) = 4
f ( x ) = 4
d 2x
dx
e( ) ( )
= 4 2e 2 x = 8e2 x f ( 0 ) = 8 e2(0) = 8
By Maclaurin series
x2 x3
f ( x ) = f (0) + xf (0) + f (0) + f (0) + ......
2! 3!
x2 x3
e 2 x = 1 + x (2) + (4) + (8) + .....
2! 3!
2 3
4x 8x
= 1 + 2x + + + .....
2! 3!
Question # 2
Let f ( x ) = cos x
d
f ( x ) = cos x =  sin x
dx
d
f ( x ) =  sin x =  cos x
dx
d
f ( x ) =  cos x =  (  sin x ) = sin x
dx
By Taylor series
h2 h3
f ( x + h) = f ( x) + hf ( x ) +
f ( x) + f ( x ) + ....
2! 3!
h2 h3
cos ( x + h ) = cos x + h (  sin x ) + (  cos x ) + ( sin x ) + ......
2! 3!
2 3
h h
cos ( x + h ) = cos x  h sin x  cos x + sin x + ......
2 3
p
Put x = 60o and h = 1o = = 0.01745 rad
180
( 0.01745 ) ( 0.01745 )
2 3
Question # 3
Let f ( x) = 2 x
d x d x
f ( x ) = 2 Q a = a x ln a
dx dx
= 2 ln 2
x
d
( )
f ( x ) = ln 2 2 x = ln 2 2 x ln 2 = ( ln 2 ) 2 x
dx
2
2 d
f ( x ) = ( ln 2 ) 2 x = ( ln 2 ) 2 x ln 2 = ( ln 2 ) 2 x
2 3
dx
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2! 3!
2 h
2
3 h
3
= 2 x 1 + ( ln 2 ) h + ( ln 2 ) + ( ln 2 ) + ......
2! 3!
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