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Universitas Halu Oleo

Fakultas Ilmu & Teknologi Kebumian


Jurusan Teknik Geofisika

PETROLOGY
MUSYAFAR KUDRI ZAIN, S.Si., M.Si.
Igneous Rock
CLASSIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

Magma can either rise all the way through the crust to erupt onto the Earths
surface, or it can solidify within the crust

An extrusive igneous rock forms Because extrusive rocks are so commonly


when magma erupts and solidifies associated with volcanoes, they are also called
on the Earths surface volcanic rocks after Vulcan, the Greek god of fire

An intrusive igneous rock forms


Intrusive rocks are sometimes called plutonic rocks
when magma solidifies within the
after Pluto, the Greek god of the underworld
crust.
Igneous Rock
TEXTURES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

The main factor that determines the texture of an igneous rock is the
cooling rate

Other factors involved are:


The diffusion rate - the rate at which atoms or molecules can move
(diffuse) through the liquid.
The rate of nucleation of new crystals - the rate at which enough of
the chemical constituents of a crystal can come together in one place
without dissolving.
The rate of growth of crystals - the rate at which new constituents can
arrive at the surface of the growing crystal. This depends largely on
the diffusion rate of the molecules of concern
Igneous Rock
TEXTURES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

Textures & Structures of Igneous Rocks, Prof. Nelson


Igneous Rock
TEXTURES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

Volcanic rocks are usually fine grained, whereas


plutonic rocks are medium or coarse grained

Introduction to Physical Geology, Thompson & Turk


Igneous Rock
TEXTURES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

Basalt

Obsidian

Rhyolite porphyry

feldspar phenocrysts

Introduction to Physical Geology, Thompson & Turk


Igneous Rock
TEXTURES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

Granite Rhyolite

Introduction to Physical Geology, Thompson & Turk


Igneous Rock
NAMING IGNEOUS ROCKS Introduction to Physical Geology, Thompson & Turk
Igneous Rock
NAMING IGNEOUS ROCKS Introduction to Physical Geology, Thompson & Turk
Structure Igneous Rock
PLUTONIC IGNEOUS ROCKS
Textures & Structures of Igneous Rocks, Prof. Nelson

Intrusions that intrude rocks at shallow levels


of the crust are termed Hypabyssal intrusions.
Shallow generally refers to depths less than
about 1 km. Hypabyssal intrusions always
show sharp contact relations with the rocks
that they intrude
Structure Igneous Rock
PLUTONIC IGNEOUS ROCKS

A large dike in central


Colorado has been left
standing after softer
sandstone country rock
eroded away.

Introduction to Physical Geology, Thompson & Turk


Structure Igneous Rock
PLUTONIC IGNEOUS ROCKS
A basaltic sill has intruded between
sedimentary rock layers on Mt.
Gould in Glacier National Park,
Montana. The white rock above and
below the sill was metamorphosed
by heat from the magma

A basalt dike cross cutting


sedimentary rock in Grand Canyon

Introduction to Physical Geology, Thompson & Turk


Structure Igneous Rock
PLUTONIC IGNEOUS ROCKS

Plutons are generally much larger intrusive bodies that have intruded much
deeper in the crust. Although they may show sharp contacts with the
surrounding rocks into which they intruded, at deeper levels in the crust the
contacts are often gradational

Textures & Structures of Igneous Rocks, Prof. Nelson


Structure Igneous Rock
PLUTONIC IGNEOUS ROCKS

Introduction to Physical Geology, Thompson & Turk