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Tutorial CHM3010

1. Describe the first, second and third law of thermodynamics.


1st law; The combined amount of energy in the universe is constant
Or Energy is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions and physical changes
2nd law: Predicting spontaneous change In spontaneous changes the universe tends
towards a state of greater disorder
3rd law: The entropy of a pure, perfect, crystalline solid at 0 K is zero

2. A 5.00 g mass of a metal was heated to 100C and then plunged into 100 g of water at
24C. The temperature of the resulting mixture became 28C.
(a) Determine the energy absorbed by the water. ( Ans: 1.67 x 103 J)
(b) Determine the heat capacity of the metal (Ans: 23.2 J C-1)
(c) Determine the specific heat of the metal. (Ans: 4.64 J g-1)

3. Thermochemical equation for the reaction of carbon monoxide with oxygen is

3CO + 3/2 O2 3CO2 H = -849kJ.

a) Write the thermochemical equation for the reaction using 2 mol of CO

( 23 ) 3CO +( 23 ) 32 C O ( 23 )3 C O ;( 23 ) H =( 23 ) (849 ) kJ
2 2
o

2CO +C O2 2 C O2 ; H o=566 kJ

b) What is the H for the formation of 1 mol CO2 by this reaction? (Ans: -283 kJ/mol)

4. Calculate the standard free energy change G, for the formation of methane from carbon
and hydrogen at 298 K, using tabulated values of H and S. Is the reaction spontaneous
under standard conditions?

C (graphite) + 2H2(g) CH4 (g)

H (kJ/mol) 0 0 -74.9
S (J/K . mol) +5.6 +130.7 186.3
H = [(1 x -74.9) kJ/mol] [(1 x 0) + (2 x 0) kJ/mol] = -749 kJ/mol

S = [(1 x 186.3) J/K . mol] [(1 x 5.6) + (2 x 130.7) J/K . mol]


= -80.7 J/K . mol

G = H- TS
= -749 kJ/mol [(298 K)( -80.7 J/K . mol) (1 kJ/1000J)]
= -50.9 kJ/mol

G negative spontaneous

5. (a) Use enthalpies of formation to calculate the value of H for the reaction below.
(Ans: -1250 kJ)
2 X(g) + 2 Y(g) + 3 O2(g) H 2 W(g) + 6 Z(l)

Enthalpies of formation: X(g) = -50 kJ/mol


Y(g) = -75 kJ/mol
W(g) = +150 kJ/mol
Z(l) = -300 kJ/mol

(b) Calculate E298 for the above reaction. (Ans: -1237.5 kJ)

6. When 100 mL of 0.1250 M HCl at 24.00C was mixed with 250 mL of 0.1000 M
Ba(OH)2 at 24.00C (assume the calorimeter constant = 0 J/C), the temperature rose to
24.50C. Calculate H for the reaction below. Assume the specific heat for the solution is
4.184 J/g-C. In calculating heat flow, assume no heat is lost to the surroundings and
ignore the small amount of water formed in the reaction. (Ans: -117 kJ)

2HCl(aq) + Ba(OH)2(aq) BaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)

7. Determine the H for the reaction

2 MnO2(s) + CO(g) Mn2O3(s) + CO2(g)

From the following given data:

MnO2(s) + CO(g) MnO(s) + CO2(g) H = -150 kJ


Mn3O4(s) + CO(g) 3MnO(s) + CO2(g) H = -55 kJ
2Mn3O4(s) + CO2(g) 3Mn2O3(s) + CO(g) H = +140 kJ
(about -217 kJ)

8. Given H and S for phase changes below, estimate the melting point or boiling point.
a) Hofusion = 13.1 kJmol-1 Sofusion = 7.03 Jmol-1K-1 (Fe) (ans: 1860 K)
b) Hovap = 31.0 kJmol-1 Sovap = 94.6 Jmol-1K-1 (acetone) (ans: 328 K)