You are on page 1of 201

AEROTRANSPORTES TORNADO, S.A. DE C.V.

PERMISO SCT-DGAC-L-79
ESCUELA DE AVIACION Y CENTRO DE CAPACITACION
ING. MIGUEL ALEJANDRO ROCHA ESPINOSA / PSIC. Z. DEL ROCIO DE DIEGO ACUA

Learjet 30's

aerottornado@outlook.com Tel: (01.55)57.84.26.33/34 Cel. (044/45)55.54.66.38.10


Arranque de Motor

Garrett TFE731

Lear jet 31, 36, 35 C650


3 PUNTOS IMPORTANTES

Combustible Elctrico Neumtico


-Bomba - Marcha -Aceite
-Palanca de Potencia -Ignicion
-Flujo motivado
Combustible
Marcha e Ignicin
Neumatica
AERO TRANSPORTES TORNADO PERMISO DGAC L-79
CENTRO DE CAPACITACION
ING. MIGUEL ALEJANDRO ROCHA ESPINOSA
LIC. Z. ROCIO DE DIEGO ACUA

Power Distribution System

Saul 7 Col. GUADALUPE TEPEYAC, C.P. 07840 MEXICO D.F.


57842633/34 5554663810 5542038927 airspacetc@gmail.com
Electrical Indication

The electrical system indicators provide the crew with the status of the aircraft
power distribution system.

The electrical indication system consists of:

Electrical Power Indicator


Two current sensors
Two NICAD Annunciators (nikel - cadmio)
NICAD Battery temperature indicator
Emergency Battery Annunciators
Two Generator Annunciators
Current limiter and electrical power annunciators
Power & Amperage Indications
Aammeters are installed in the instrument cluster located on the center instrument
panel.
The ammeters indicate the amperage output of their respective generator using a
current sensor. The range of the ammeters is 0 to 400 amperes.
On Aircraft 31-002 thru 31-034, a DC voltmeter is installed in the instrument cluster
on the center instrument panel. The voltmeter indicates output voltage present at
the battery charging bus. The range of the voltmeter is 0 to 30 volts.
The voltmeter and ammeters are installed in the same instrument cluster on the
instrument panel. Removal and installation procedures are identical.
Power Indicator.
The power indicator is the primary input to the crew of the status of the aircraft power system.
- Left and right Alternating Current voltages are displayed on the top row showing the output from the
respective inverter. Should the inverters be out of phase, the right inverter provides an electrical ground
signal through the energized warning inhibit relay to the EPM. When the EPM is signaled an out-of-phase
condition, the last digit of both AC displays will change to a flashing letter C. The remaining digits will
operate normally.
- The battery charging bus voltage is displayed on the second row, along with a caution and warning
annunciator.
- Left and right generator amperage is displayed on the bottom row showing the current draw from the
respective generator.
Current Sensor
The current sensors are installed in the tailcone. A current sensor is installed on the power
leads of each starter/generator.
The sensor detects and measures current flow and applies this output to its applicable
ammeter.
400 amp indication is equal to 1.5 VDC output to the indicator.
To prevent nuisance indications during engine start, power to the sensors are routed
through relays K13 left side, K14 right side (both located in the GCP). Power is supplied in
the relaxed position, during engine start, the relay is engaged removing power from the
current sensors, as a result 0 volts to the indicator will show as 0 amps.
Alternating Current Generation System

An AC generation system provides 26 vac, 115 vac, and 163 vac at 400 Hz and 1500 VA to
various using systems.
- On Aircraft 31-010 thru 31-029 with electrically heated windshield installed, an additional 230
vac is generated for the windshield heat system. On Aircraft 31-030 and Subsequent, an
additional 163 vac is generated for the windshield heat system.
- Two autoformers output 26 vac for various using systems. The AC Generation System
consists of:
1.- Two Inverters
2.- One paralleling control box or phase lock adapter box
3.- Two overload sensors
4.- Two control switches
5.- Two power relays
6.- One emergency bus relay
7.- Two caution annunciators in the glareshield
8.- One AC indicator
Additional provisions consisting of:
1.- One auxiliary inverter
2.- Overload sensor
3.- Power relay or auxiliary inverter interlock box
4.- One amber annunciator and control switch.
Inverters
The left and right inverters are installed on the LH and RH sides of the tailcone between
frames 29 and 30.
The inverters convert direct current (DC) electrical power to alternating current (AC).
The inverters (PS1 and PS2) are each supplied 28 vdc from the aircraft. Each inverter is
capable of supplying full output power with input voltage varying between 24 and 32 vdc.
Each inverter provides 115 vac at 400 Hz (1%), zero to full load, to be compatible with
sensitive aircraft instruments. The inverters also provide 26 vac and 163 vac single phase
electrical power to the aircraft.
The primary and secondary inverters are powered directly from their respective generator
bus through an overload sensor and a power relay. The auxiliary inverter is powered by the
battery charge bus through an overload sensor and a power relay.
Each inverter incorporates a load equalizer and frequency synchronizer sensing circuit which
connect to the paralleling control box for inverter paralleling purposes.
On Aircraft 31-030 thru 31-034 the secondary and auxiliary inverters provide an additional
163 vac directly to the windshield heat fuse box. Each inverter 115 vac output logic circuit,
and frequency synchronizer sensing circuit connect to the paralleling control box for inverter
paralleling purposes.
Inverter Interlock Box
The interlock box (E635) receives all outputs from the inverters and distributes them to the various aircraft AC busses.
During single inverter operation, a relay circuit (K2 and K6) in the interlock box ensures 163 vac is supplied to both the left
and right windshield heaters.
When the aircraft is under emergency power, the interlock box provides power from the emergency bus through a relay
(K3), to the left inverter.

Auxiliary Inverter Interlock


On Aircraft 31-035 thru 31-065, except 31-061, the auxiliary inverter interlock box is located in the tailcone (right side),
between frames 28 and 29.
The auxiliary inverter interlock box controls the 163 vac outputs of all inverters to the windshield heat relay box, and
controls 115 vac applied to the L and R AUX AC busses .
Overload Sensors
The overload sensors (CBR4 and CBR5) are located on a panel on the LH side of the tailcone
aft of frame 26.
- The sensor consists basically of an 80-ampere thermal circuit breaker mechanically connected
to a set of switch contacts.
- On overload, normally closed auxiliary contacts open and 2-amp CB labled L or R AC Bus and
pops the breaker on L and R CB panels.
- The overload sensor circuit breaker will not reset until the sensor cools down.
Power Relays
The power relays (K29 and K30) are located on a panel in the LH side of the tailcone aft of
frame 26 and are standard AN relays used to switch 28 vdc to the inverters.
Paralleling Control Box
On Aircraft 31-002 thru 31-034, the paralleling control box is installed on the RH side of the
tailcone between frames 28 and 29 and serves as the central control unit for the AC generation
system.
The inverter 115 vac outputs are connected to the paralleling control box. The control box
senses the inputs and, through its load equalizer and frequency synchronizer circuits, maintains
the load and frequency balance between primary, secondary and auxiliary inverters.
Phase Lock Adapter Box
On Aircraft 31-035 thru 31-065, except 31-061, the phase lock adapter box is located in the
tailcone (right side), between frames 28 and 29.
The inverter 115 vac outputs are connected to the phase lock adapter through the auxiliary
interlock box. The phase lock adapter box frequency synchronizer circuits monitors the master
inverter and slave inverter outputs and sends a signal (FREQ SYNC) to the slave inverter to
control its output so it will match the master inverter.
Autoformers
The autoformers reduce 115 vac to 26 vac to power various electrical and electronic
equipment such as oil pressure transducers and avionics equipment.
The autoformers are installed on the RH and LH sides of the cockpit, aft of frame 8.
Primary DC Power, Aircraft Generator System

Direct Current Generation System


The DC Generation System is used to generate and regulate the DC electrical power provided
to the left and right generator buses in the Generator Control Panel.
-The DC generator system consists of a 30-volt 400-ampere, air-cooled, starter/generator
-DC electrical power is provided by two independent DC starter/generators. During normal
operation, both starter/generators operate in parallel.
-Although two starter/generators are used, a single starter/generator is capable of sustaining
the full load.

1.-The DC Generation System consists of:


2.-Two Starter/Generators
3.-Two Generator Control Units
4.-Four Current Transformers
5.-Two Starter/Generator Switches
6.-Two GEN RESET Switches
7.-Two GEN Annunciators
8.-One Generator Control Panel
9.-Two Current Sensors
Starter/Generator
The Starter/Generators are brush-type DC units installed on each engine with a quick-
attach/detach (QAD) assembly.
The starter/generators turn the engines for starting and then supply electrical power
to the aircraft when the engines are at operating speed.
Each starter/generator is rated at 30 VDC and 400 amps in a speed range of 6,900
through 12,400 rpm.
The starter/generators are cooled by ram air in flight and integral fans are used
during ground operation.
Each starter/ generator incorporates a magnetic pickup to provide generator rpm
information to the applicable generator control unit.
Generator Control Units
The generator control units are installed in the tailcone. The LH generator control unit is located
on the LH electrical equipment tray. The RH generator control unit is located on the RH side
just aft of frame 25.
The generator control units incorporate all the normal and protective functions required for
the dual 28 vdc electrical power system.
All active sensing circuits are solid state and mount on four (4) separate printed circuit
boards.
The function of the generator control units are as follows:

1.-Voltage Setting
2.-Voltage Regulation
3.-Reverse Current Protection
4.-Over voltage Protection
5.-Feeder (Ground) Fault Protection
6.-Current Limiting During Start (325
Amps)
7.-Line Relay Control
8.-Equalization Control
9.-Excitation Field Generation
10.-Numerous Starting Functions
Starter/Generator Switches
The L GEN and R GEN Switches, located on the electrical switch panel, are three position switches that are
used to control the starter/generators for (START), utilizing the generators for power output to the generator bus
(L or R GEN BUS), or OFF if generator output is not desired, or start is not being initiated.

GEN RESET Switches


The L and R GEN RESET Switches are used to reset the generators circuit should a fault occur and the
generator output be disconnected from the generator bus through protective circuits.
Should an over voltage occur, the GCU will de-energize the applicable line relay and isolate that generator from
its generator bus.
After the over voltage condition is cleared, the generator may be reset on-line by momentarily depressing the
RESET switch.
GEN Annunciators
The L GEN and R GEN amber glareshield Annunciators illuminate in the event of a
generator fault or failure, or any time the START/GEN switches are not in the GEN
position with corresponding engine running.
Secondary DC Power, Lead Acid Aircraft Battery System

The Battery System is used for engine starting and as a secondary electrical power source when
external electrical power and generator power is not available.
-Battery power is supplied by two lead-acid or nickel-cadmium batteries located in the tailcone
equipment section.
-The batteries are of sufficient capacity to accommodate the normal electrical requirements of the
aircraft including starting.
-The bottom or LH battery is identified as the No. 1 battery, and the top or RH battery as the No. 2
battery.
-Each battery, when connected, supplies power to its respective battery bus, and is available to the
aircraft electrical system.
The Battery System consists of either, depending upon customer installation:
Lead Acid Battery Installation
Two Batteries
One Battery Sump Jar
Concord Batteries
Two Batteries
Nickel-Cadmium (NICAD) Batteries
Two Batteries
One Battery Overheat Warning System
One Temperature Indicating System
Lead-Acid Batteries
Aircraft battery power is supplied by two lead-acid batteries (BT1 and BT2), rated at 43 amp-hours and
24 VDC, consist of a plastic case that contains 12 interconnected cells and two vents connected to
overboard plumbing which is used to vent hydrogen gas from the battery.
The batteries are installed in the tailcone equipment section of the aircraft.
Sealed lead-acid batteries will have the electrolyte already added. Sealed lead-acid batteries are
maintenance free batteries which are not openly vented to the atmosphere. The batteries incorporate
pressure relief valves which vent the cell when necessary and promotes adequate retention of the
electrolyte throughout the life of the battery.
The overboard vents are directional to produce a positive airflow; one drain is cut at a forward angle to
accept ram air while the other drain is cut at an aft angle to expel the ram air.
Vented lead-acid batteries (batteries openly vented to the atmosphere) will require the addition of an
electrolyte throughout the life of the battery. The electrolyte (diluted sulphuric acid) provides a path for
electron flow during charging and discharging of the battery. Each cell is filled with an electrolyte, diluted
in sulfuric acid, to provide a path for the electron flow during charging and discharging of the battery.
Specific gravity of the electrolyte should read between 1.280 and 1.290 on a hydrometer when the
battery is fully charged. To obtain maximum efficiency and extend service life of the lead-acid battery, the
battery must be kept clean and at or near full charge, and the electrolyte must be kept at the proper
level. As battery charges or discharges, the electrolyte will tend to heat and cause water within the
electrolyte to evaporate. It is very important to keep the electrolyte at the proper level. The batteries
should not be allowed to stand in a discharged condition or without proper amount of electrolyte in them.
The plates will become sulfated, degrading the service life of the battery.
WARNING
THE HYDROGEN GAS GIVEN OFF DURING CYCLING
OF THE BATTERY IS HIGHLY EXPLOSIVE AND OPEN
FLAMES AND SPARKS MUST BE AVOIDED IN THE
BATTERY AREA.
Both sealed and vented lead-acid batteries are
protected against the discharge of hydrogen gas and
oxygen gas through an overboard battery vent system.
The lead-acid battery tray is also vented overboard. The
tray vent is scarfed aft. The vents also provide a drain
for electrolyte spillage or overflow.
Battery Sump Jar
Lead-acid batteries which are openly vented to the atmosphere incorporate a battery sump
jar assembly in the battery vent system.
The battery sump jar assembly is located on the aft side of the battery installation at
approximately WL 38 and RBL 5, the battery sump jar assembly contains bicarbonate of
soda, and is utilized in the neutralization of any electrolyte spillage, overflow or hydrogen
gas, expelled from the batteries through the vent system.
Nickel-Cadmium Batteries
Aircraft battery power is supplied by two nickel-cadmium batteries (BT1 and BT2). The
batteries are installed in the tailcone equipment section of the aircraft.
Each battery contains 19 cells which are interconnected to produce the required voltage
output.
Batteries are shipped in a discharged state, complete with proper electrolyte level. It is
necessary to charge a battery to prepare it for service. No adjustment of liquid level will be
necessary even though occasionally no liquid level is visible. The initial charge will cause
the liquid to rise to the proper level.
Batteries can be stored indefinitely in the discharged state. Storage in any state of
charge does not damage the cells, but the battery will slowly become discharged. The
higher the existing temperature, the faster the self-discharge. At normal temperature, the
battery will deliver at least 85% of its rated capacity after two weeks of storage. It is
recommended that a charged battery stored in excess of 2 months be charged prior to
use.
Nickel-cadmium batteries require periodic addition of an electrolyte throughout the life of
the battery. The electrolyte provides a path for electron flow during charging and
discharging.
Each battery consists of a stainless steel case containing 19 cells and a removable
cover. Batteries are vented overboard through hoses connected to the battery case vent
ports and overboard vents. Overboard vents are scarfed to produce a positive airflow
through the batteries to aid battery venting. The right drain is scarfed aft while the left drain
is scarfed forward.
Nicad Battery Annunciators
The battery system also incorporates a battery overheat warning system.
--The system consists of two thermoswitches (Lo-Limit and Hi-Limit) installed in each battery and two warning
lights. The warning lights are installed in the pilot's sub panel or in the glareshield.
The battery overheat warning system alerts maintenance crews or the pilot of an impending battery overheat,
allowing corrective action to be taken. If battery temperature reaches 140, the Lo-Limit temperature switch
energizes the BAT 140 (red) warning light. If battery temperature reaches 160, the Hi-Limit temperature switch
energizes the BAT 160 (red) warning light.
If at any time during flight or ground operation, including engine start, either overheat warning light comes on,
the batteries must be removed from the aircraft and the discharge-recharge reconditioning cycle must be
performed. The overheating battery may be isolated from the system by setting its respective Battery Switch to
OFF.

Nicad Battery Temperature Indication


The temperature indicating system consists of a dual indicator mounted on the copilot's instrument panel, a
circuit breaker located on the copilot's circuit breaker panel, and a temperature sensor located in each
battery.
The battery temperature indicator face is divided into thirds by two white lines. The lower third indicates a
battery temperature of 100F to 140F, the center third indicates 140F, and the upper third indicates 160F
to 200F.
If the temperature of either battery goes above 140F (into center third on the indicator face), the BAT 140
light on the glareshield will illuminate, If battery temperature continues to rise and goes above 160 (into
upper third on indicator face), the BAT 160 light will also illuminate.
By reading the indicator to determine which battery has malfunctioned, that battery may be isolate by setting
its applicable Battery Switch to OFF.
Emergency DC Power, Aircraft Emergency
Battery System

The Emergency Power Supply System supplies emergency DC electrical power (28 VDC and 5 VDC) to selected
emergency equipment in the event of loss of normal aircraft power.
--- Electrical power is provided from a single emergency battery (Aircraft 31-002 thru 31-034) or dual emergency
batteries (Aircraft 31-035 and Subsequent).
--- The single emergency battery system (Aircraft 31-002 thru 31-034) consists of a system switch, labeled
EMER BAT, located on the pilot's switch panel, a EMR PWR annunciator located on the pilots instrument panel,
and a battery located in the nose compartment of the aircraft .
The dual emergency battery system (Aircraft 31-035 and Subsequent) consists of two system switches, labeled
EMER BAT 1 and EMER BAT 2, located on the pilot's switch panel, two annunciators, labeled EMR BAT1 &
EMR BAT2, located on the center instrument panel, and two emergency batteries located side-by-side in the
nose compartment of the aircraft.
Emergency Power Supplies
The Emergency Power Supplies are installed in the nose avionics compartment, they contain a 12-cell lead-acid
battery to provide 5.0 ampere-hours of emergency electrical power.
There are two different styles of BF Goodrich (Now L3 Communications) emergency batteries available, the PS-
835D, and PS-855B. Both function the same way with display and test functions different on the forward
faceplate.
The emergency power supplies, primary and secondary, are each capable of providing 28 VDC for a limited
amount of time. Depending on system configuration, the power supply may include an attached converter (on
the back of the emergency battery) for supplying 5 VDC for instrument lighting.
Circuit Components
To allow battery charging and system proper operation, additional circuitry like diodes and relays are required
to direct power.
Diodes CR5165, CR5166, CR796, CR798, CR799 and CR800 are located on stringer 13L behind the pilot's
circuit breaker panel. Diodes CR797, CR801, CR802, CR105 and CR106 are located on stringer 13R behind
the copilot's circuit breaker panel.
K921 relay is used to direct the 5 VDc lighting circuit between the emergency system or right hand instrument
lights breaker.
Emergency Battery Charging
The emergency power supply batteries are trickle-charged from the aircraft normal electrical system through the
15 amp EMER BAT (1 and 2) circuit breakers on the pilot's and copilot's circuit breaker panels.
Blocking diodes and a bleed resistor are used to illuminate the EMER BATT cubes when they are discharging,
in the charging mode with the aircraft battery bus supplying power, the current draw through the cubes is
stopped.
External DC Electrical Power Receptacle

External Power System


The External Power System is used to provide electrical power to the aircraft systems when the engines are
not operating, to aid in engine starts, and to charge aircraft batteries.
Either BATTERY 1 or BATTERY 2 switch must be ON for the external ground power relay to close, thus
allowing the GPU to provide power to the aircraft.
It is recommended that a Ground Power Unit (GPU) be used for engine starts when the ambient temperature
is 32F (0C) or below.

The External Power System consists of the following components:


1.- One External Power Receptacle
2.- One Ground Power Monitor Box
External Power Receptacle
The External Power Receptacle is located on the right side of the tailcone immediately forward of frame 37,
between stringers 11 and 12.
The external power receptacle is the connection point for the 28 VDC external ground power unit (GPU).
The GPU should be regulated to 28.5 VDC and to a maximum output of 1,500 amps, and have a minimum
capacity of 400 amps.
The low or ground side is connected to the ground plane, this is the grounding point for the batteries and
generators also.

Ground Power Monitor Box


The Ground Power Monitor Box is mounted on the aft side of the generator control panel above the tailcone
baggage compartment at frame 37.
If the external input power exceeds 32.5 + 0.5 VDC, a ground circuit is completed to the over voltage relay,
energizing the relay and de-energizing the external ground power relay. External power is then disconnected
from the aircraft.
When the GPU is connected to the aircraft, the GPU/GEN Lockout relay, in the power distribution control panel,
will prevent the generators from coming on-line.
With external power connected to the aircraft, 28 VDC is supplied to the de-energized contacts of the external
ground power relay in the generator control panel.
DC Bus 1 & Emergency
Bus

System Operation
L and R DC 1 busses powered from respective generator busses through 70-amp overload sensor and relays,
the control relays are powered through 10-amp CBs fed from respective busses.
Busses can be connected using DC BUS 1 TIE switch (copilot CB panel). The switch is a 50-amp CB and trips
when excess current flows between busses, separating them .
Left & Right DC Bus 2 & 3
System Operation
The L and R DC 2 and DC 3 busses are powered from respective generator busses through 50-amp current
limiters and 40-amp CBs.
They can be connected using bus-tie switches, DC BUS 2 TIE and DC BUS 3 TIE on copilot circuit breaker
panel. The switches are rated at 20-amps and will trip when excess current flows between busses, separating
them.
Left & Right Circuit Breaker Panels
Pilot's and Copilot's Circuit Breaker Panels
The Pilot's (LH) and Copilot's (RH) Circuit Breaker Panels are located along the sides of the cockpit.
Each circuit breaker panel is divided into four major buses; DC BUS 1, DC BUS 2, DC BUS 3, and AC BUS. AC
breakers are circled in white, and emergency DC breakers are circled in red.
Push-pull type circuit breakers are installed to protect all electrical systems in the aircraft and distribute power.
All primary circuit breakers are located on the left panel and all secondary breakers on the right panel.
The DC circuit breakers are thermal type and the AC are magnetic type.
Amperage ratings are shown on top of each circuit breaker.
All odd-numbered circuit breakers are on the pilot's side and even numbers on the copilot's side.
The panels distribute electrical power to systems requiring low-load current and electrical power to control circuits
for systems that require high-load current.
Pilots Circuit Breaker Panel Copilot Circuit Breaker Panel
AERO TRANSPORTES TORNADO PERMISO DGAC L-79
CENTRO DE CAPACITACION
ING. MIGUEL ALEJANDRO ROCHA ESPINOSA
LIC. Z. ROCIO DE DIEGO ACUA

Hydraulic System

Saul 7 Col. GUADALUPE TEPEYAC, C.P. 07840 MEXICO D.F.


57842633/34 5554663810 5542038927 airspacetc@gmail.com
Hydraulic power is provided by one of two systems:
The main hydraulic system or the auxiliary hydraulic system.
Both systems operate at 1,500 psi and use the aircraft reservoir for hydraulic fluid storage
and supply.

The hydraulic system is divided into the following ATA subsystems:


1.- Hydraulic System Annunciator Messages
2.- Main Hydraulic System
3.- Auxiliary Hydraulic System
4.- Hydraulic Indication System
Main Hydraulic System
The Main Hydraulic System supplies hydraulic fluid to the landing gear, brake, flap, spoiler
systems and to the thrust reverser system, if the aircraft is so equipped.
Pressure for the systems is provided by two engine-driven pumps and dampened by
accumulators.
Hydraulic fluid is stored in the reservoir, which is pneumatically pressurized to
approximately 17 psi by engine bleed air.

The Main Hydraulic System consists of:


1.-One Reservoir
2.-Two Shutoff Valves
3.-Two Hydraulic Pumps
4.-Two Filters
5.-Two Accumulators
6.-Two Check Valves
7.-Three Relief Valves
8.-One Pressure Regulator & Filter
Hydraulic Reservoir
The Hydraulic Reservoir supplies fluid to the aircraft hydraulic system. The unit is a pressurized vessel
consisting of a sight glass for servicing purposes, and a filler cap located in the filler neck on the aft side of
the reservoir.
The reservoir holds approximately 1.9 gallons of 5606 hydraulic fluid.
On Aircraft 31-081 and Subsequent and prior Aircraft modified by SB 31-29-2, "Replacement of Hydraulic
Reservoir Sight Glass Assembly", the sight glass contains a float ball trapped between the glass and a
reflection plate that allows hydraulic fluid level in sight glass to be more readily determined.
The filler neck contains an aluminum mesh screen to prevent fluid contamination. The screen may be
removed for cleaning by removing the filler plug and screen-retaining nut.
Shutoff Valve
A hydraulic supply Shutoff Valve is installed in the supply line to each hydraulic pump.
The hydraulic supply shutoff valves stop the flow of hydraulic fluid to each engine-driven variable-volume
hydraulic pump in case of an emergency.
The ball-type motor-driven valves are controlled by the left and right ENG FIRE PULL tee handle switches.
When either ENG FIRE PULL tee handle switch is pulled, the related fire extinguisher ENG EXT ARMED
annunciator will illuminate and the hydraulic supply shutoff valve will close.
Hydraulic Pump
An engine-driven, self-priming hydraulic pump mounted on the accessory gearbox of each engine supplies fluid,
under pressure, to the hydraulic system.
Each pump is capable of delivering 4.0 gallons per minute at 1450 psi at approximately 6000 rpm.
The hydraulic pump is basically a conventional, axial piston-type pump containing seven pistons installed in a
rotating barrel assembly. The pistons ride on a face cam which causes the pistons to reciprocate in the barrel
cylinders as the barrel rotates.
When the hydraulic system is not being used, the hydraulic pump output pressure will build to 1550 (25) psi, at
which time the pump output will drop to zero. As pump output pressure increases from 1450 to 1550 psi, a
compensator valve gradually opens which causes an actuator to decrease the face cam angle. The decreased
face cam angle decreases piston stroke which decreases pump output. When hydraulic system pressure drops
as a result of system demand, the pump output will increase.
Filters
Hydraulic filters are installed in the pressure and return lines and mounted on the hydraulic panel between
frames 26A and 27 on RH side.
The pressure filter prevents foreign particles from entering the hydraulic system with the pump output fluid.
The return filter removes foreign particles from the hydraulic fluid before it enters the reservoir.
Incorporated within the filters is a replaceable micronic element and a relief valve in the filter head. The relief
valve opens at 50 (5) psi differential pressure to bypass fluid if the filter element becomes clogged.
Accumulators
The hydraulic accumulator is a cylindrical unit supported by two clamps, aft of frame 26A, on the hydraulic
panel on the RH side.
The hydraulic accumulator is used to absorb and dampen sudden hydraulic surges.
The accumulator is charged to 850 psi with dry air or nitrogen. An air charging valve and direct-reading
pressure gage are attached to the air side of the accumulator.
A cross fitting at the fluid side of the accumulator has tubes connected to the filter, system relief valve, and
system pressure.
Check Valves
Two types of check valves are used in the hydraulic system: cone check valves and a swing-gate check valve.
Cone check valves are installed in the hydraulic lines to prevent reverse flow of fluid and to isolate hydraulically
operated systems. Cone check valves consists of a body, spring, and cone. The tee check valve incorporates a
double check valve arrangement which prevents motoring of a deactivated pump. A check valve is also installed
downstream of the auxiliary hydraulic pump to prevent auxiliary hydraulic pump damage due to back pressure.
A swing-gate check valve is installed in the return line. A swing-gate check valve consists of a gate, body, cap,
and spring. The gate opens against spring pressure when the flow direction coincides with the direction of gate
opening. Spring pressure immediately closes the gate when flow stops, preventing reverse flow.
NOTE: Cone check valves and swing-gate check valves are marked with directional arrows. It is suggested that
maintenance personnel note the direction of the valve arrow and identify the flow direction on tubing or adjacent
structure before removing component. (Reference MIL-STD-1247B for directional flow tape.)
Relief Valve
The hydraulic system contains three relief valves. One relief valve is installed in the system pressure line, one in
the reservoir vent line, and one in the reservoir vacuum line.
The pressure relief valve is installed to prevent damage to the system due to excessive pressure from an
improperly adjusted external hydraulic power source or a hydraulic pump malfunction. It is a spring-loaded
poppet valve that bypasses fluid from the pressure line into the return line when system pressure exceeds 1700
psi. Free flow in the opposite direction can occur any time the return line pressure exceeds that of the pressure
line.
The reservoir overboard relief valve, set to open at pressures of 20 psi and above, prevents over-pressurization
of the reservoir. Reservoir pressure in excess of 20 psi is vented overboard through the valve.
The vacuum line relief valve prevents a vacuum lock in the hydraulic reservoir on initial system pressurization.
NOTE: Relief valves are marked with directional flow arrows. It is suggested that maintenance personnel note
the direction of the valve arrow and identify the flow direction on tubing or adjacent structure before removing
component. (Reference MIL-STD-1247 for directional flow tape.)
Reservoir Pressure Regulator
The reservoir pressure regulator is located in the pressure line between the bleed air duct (Not high pressure
servo air) and the hydraulic reservoir.
The reservoir pressure regulator regulates the bleed air pressure for reservoir pressurization as bleed air
passes through a filter, the pressure regulator, and a check valve.
Reservoir pressure is maintained at approximately 20 psi through a bleed air pressure line and a reservoir
pressure regulator. Reservoir pressure in excess of 20 psi is vented overboard through a relief valve. The
reservoir pressure maintains a positive fluid flow to the engine-driven pumps at high flight altitudes.
A servo air filter prevents contamination of the pressure regulator and hydraulic fluid by filtering the engine
supplied air.
Auxiliary Hydraulic System

The auxiliary hydraulic pump is installed on the hydraulic panel located in the tailcone section of the
aircraft.
The pump is plumbed to provide hydraulic pressure for the landing gear, wheel brakes, flap systems,
and spoilers.
The auxiliary hydraulic pump is controlled by the Hydraulic Pump Switch and is cycled automatically by
a pressure switch located in the system pressure line.

The Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump System consists of:


1.-One Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump
2.-One Pressure Switch
3.-One LO HYD Annunciator
4.-One Hydraulic Pump System Switch
5.-Power relay and wire protection circuit (PCB 1)
6.-One 50-ampere current limiter
Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump
The Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump is located adjacent to the hydraulic reservoir.
The pump provides approximately 0.5 gpm (1.9 liters per minute) output at a maximum of 1,125 40 psi
(7,755 276 kPa) for in-flight standby hydraulic power.
Operate auxiliary pump a maximum of 3 minutes ON and 20 minutes OFF to prevent overheating and
burnout of pump motor.
Hydraulic Pump System Switch
The Hydraulic Pump Switch is located on the center switch panel and is labeled HYD PUMP and OFF.

Pressure Switch
The auxiliary hydraulic pump Pressure Switch is installed in the main hydraulic system pressure line.
With the Hydraulic Pump Switch set to HYD PUMP, a drop in hydraulic system pressure (1000 [25] psi) will
actuate the pressure switch and energize the auxiliary pump. The pressure switch will open and de-energize the
pump when the pressure increases to 1125 (40) psi.
The LO HYD annunciator will illuminate when the pressure switch is closed and extinguish when the switch is
open.
During normal operation, 28 vdc is provided by the battery charging bus. During emergency operation, 28 vdc is
provided by the RH battery.
Hydraulic Indication System

The hydraulic Indicating System provides pressure indication in psi, and warns the crew of a low-
pressure situation, and provide maintenance with servicing information.
The hydraulic system is equipped with two types of pressure gages installed in the cockpit. One
is a direct presure capillary line fed type, and the other uses a pressure transducer and
electronically operated indicator.

The Indicating System consists of:


1.Two Hydraulic Pressure Indicators
2.One Hydraulic Pressure Transducer (31-035 & Subsequent)
3.Low Hydraulic Pressuer Annunciator
4.One Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump Pressure switch
Direct Pressure Indicator

The direct indicating hydraulic pressure gage located in the tailcone section is for use by
service personnel when servicing the hydraulic system. The gage is plumbed to the gas
side of the hydraulic accumulator and indicates the gas charge of the hydraulic
accumulator when the hydraulic system is depressurized and the hydraulic system
pressure when the system is pressurized.
Direct Pressure Indicator, Crew

On Aircraft 31-002 thru 31-034, the hydraulic pressure gage on the instrument
panel is direct indicating and is plumbed to the hydraulic pressure line in the
tailcone by a capillary line.
The hydraulic pressure gage on the instrument panel gives a constant hydraulic
pressure indication to the pilot and copilot.
Electrical Pressure Indicator, Crew

On Aircraft 31-035 and Subsequent, a pressure transducer transmits pressure


information to the instrument panel hydraulic pressure gage on the instrument
panel.
The hydraulic pressure gage on the instrument panel gives a constant hydraulic
pressure indication to the pilot and copilot.
Pressure Transducer

On Aircraft 31-035 and Subsequent, the hydraulic Pressure Transducer is located


aft of wing spar 8 on Wing Rib 0.0.
The hydraulic pressure transducer senses hydraulic pressure and transmits an
electrical signal to the hydraulic pressure indicator.
Pressure Switch

The auxiliary hydraulic pump Pressure Switch is installed in the main hydraulic
system pressure line.
With the Hydraulic Pump Switch set to HYD PUMP, a drop in hydraulic system
pressure (1000 [25] psi) will actuate the pressure switch and energize the
auxiliary pump. The pressure switch will open and de-energize the pump when
the pressure increases to 1125 (40) psi.
The LO HYD annunciator will illuminate when the pressure switch is closed and
extinguish when the switch is open.
During normal operation, 28 vdc is provided by the battery charging bus. During
emergency operation, 28 vdc is provided by the RH battery.
AERO TRANSPORTES TORNADO PERMISO DGAC L-79
CENTRO DE CAPACITACION
ING. MIGUEL ALEJANDRO ROCHA ESPINOSA
LIC. Z. ROCIO DE DIEGO ACUA

Air Conditioning System

Saul 7 Col. GUADALUPE TEPEYAC, C.P. 07840 MEXICO D.F.


57842633/34 5554663810 5542038927 airspacetc@gmail.com
Air Distribution System

The Distribution System ensures adequate airflow distribution, and exhaust, to all the
pressurized areas above the floor including cockpit, cabin, galley, lavatory, cargo
compartment, gaspers and oxygen compartment.
Air is distributed through ducting comprised of composite material, and skeet hoses.
Air is pushed through the ducting with fans and pressure from the pneumatic system. The
pneumatic system is covered in section (36-00-00).

Components

The Air Distribution System consists of the following components:


1.-One Cockpit Blower
2.-One Cockpit Blower Transistor
3.-One Cabin Blower
4.-One Cabin Blower Control Box
5.-Diffuser Assemblies
6.-Check Valves
7.-Optional Forward Evaporator and Blower
8.-Diverter Door and Control Circuit
Cockpit Blower System

Air circulation throughout the cockpit/cabin area is provided by a cockpit/cabin


blower (air circulation) system. Precooled engine bleed air is vented into the
cockpit area by four variable opening outlets and across the internal surface of the
two center post diffusers.

The cockpit/cabin blower system consists of a cockpit/cabin blower, a switch, a


cockpit/cabin blower transistor, and associated ducting and gasper assemblies.
Air is ducted to the cabin and cockpit headliner gaspers where ventilator portion of
the gaspers allows the crew and passengers to adjust airflow.

The cockpit/cabin blower system utilizes a cockpit/cabin blower (B68) installed


between the outlet ducts of the evaporator and blower assembly. The air is ducted
down both sides of the upper center panel to individual light and gasper
assemblies in the cabin area. Additional ducts are routed to the cockpit headliner
gasper assemblies.

In the cabin are, the ventilator portion of the gasper assembly allows the
passengers to adjust the airflow. The light and gasper assemblies are a
combination lighting and ventilation (gasper) outlet. The ventilation portion of the
assembly consists of an adjustable lever which controls the volume and the
direction of the airflow.
Cabin Blower

On Aircraft 31-002 thru 31-034, the cabin (air circulating) blower (B67) is controlled by the
Cooling System Switch located on the copilot's switch panel and the rheostat-type Cabin
Blower Switch located on the copilot's dimming control panel. On Aircraft 31-035 and
Subsequent, the cabin (air circulating) blower (B67) is controlled by the rheostat-type Cabin
Fan Switch located on the copilot's switch panel. The rheostat-type switch is used to control
the speed of the cabin blower.

The cabin (air circulation) blower system consists of a switch, a cabin blower control
assembly with blower transistor installation, and utilizes the cabin (air circulation) blower
located in the air conditioning system blower and evaporator assembly.

When the auxiliary heat or the refrigeration system is utilized, the blower speed is constant
and cannot be varied. On Aircraft 31-002 thru 31-034, the Cooling System Switch must be
set to FAN for the cabin blower to be operational.
Check Valve

There are two cabin air Check Valves located in the cockpit and cabin air ducts immediately
forward of the aft pressure bulkhead, between frames 26 AFT and 26A.
The check valves prevent air flow from the cabin to the tailcone compartment should there be
an interruption of conditioned bleed air flow.
Diffusers

Precooled engine bleed air is routed into the cabin by two air distribution ducts. One is
located on the LH side and one is located on the RH side.
Precooled engine bleed air is vented into the cabin through two diffuser assemblies. One
diffuser is located on the RH side of the cabin and one is located on the LH side. Each
diffuser assembly incorporates multiple openings along its entire length.
A diffuser located beneath the divan seat also vent precooled bleed air into the cabin. This
diffuser is connected to the RH air distribution duct just aft of the RH diffuser assembly.
Seat rail diffusers (one on each side of the aircraft) vent precooled air into the cabin. These
diffusers are connected to the air distribution ducts forward and aft of the cabin upper diffuser
assembly.
Forward Evaporator (Keith 134)

An optional system on S/N 190 and prior is a forward equipped evaporator and blower
system supplying air to the cockpit and forward cabinet gaspers.
The blower is similar to cockpit/cabin blower system, a Vane-Axial-type driven by a 1/2
horsepower DC motor up to 14,200 RPM
Pressurization Control System

The cabin pressurization provides a comfortable environment for the passengers and crew
throughout the aircraft altitude performance range.

Cabin pressurization is provided by conditioned air entering the cabin through the air
distribution ducts, and controlled by modulating the amount of air exhausted from the
cabin through the cabin air exhaust and cabin safety valve.

The pressurization control system provides cabin pressurization at a constant (isobaric)


altitude which is selectable from sea level to 10,000 feet.

The cabin pressure rate-of-change is selectable from a minimum of 175 ft/min. to a


maximum of 2500 ft/min.

The pressurization control system is designed to provide a primary positive pressure relief
to limit the cabin-to-atmosphere differential pressure to 9.4 (0.15) psi [64.8 (1.03) kPa],
and a secondary positive pressure relief to 9.7 (0.1) psi [66.8 (0.698) kPa].

The pressurization control system is completely pneumatic in automatic operation.


Electrically actuated solenoid valves and mode switches are incorporated for ground,
manual, and primary altitude limit control operations.
The pressurization control system consists of the following components:

1.-Pressurization control module


2.-Cabin air exhaust control (outflow) valve
3.-Cabin safety valve
4.-Cabin differential pressure relief valve
5.-Cabin altitude limiter
6.-Air filters
7.-Vacuum shutoff solenoid valve
8.-Vacuum regulator
9.-Pressure regulator
10.-Associated plumbing and electrical wiring

A cabin pressure warning system is installed to provide the crew with a visual and audible
indication in the event that the cabin pressure exceeds the normal operating limits. For
additional information pertaining to the cabin pressure warning system.

An emergency pressurization system is installed to provide cabin pressure in the event of a


normal pressurization system malfunction, or when the needs of the normal pressurization
system are exceeded. For additional information pertaining to the emergency pressurization
system
Cabin Pressure Control Module

The pressurization control module is installed in the lower portion of the copilot's instrument
panel.

The module is fastened to the copilot's instrument panel structure with four 12 point bolts, and
the back of the module is hinged so the module can be lowered from the instrument panel.
The module consists of the following components:

1.- Cabin pressure (mini) controller which incorporates a rate controller and rate selector.
The rate controller is basically a housing assembly with cover at each end and two
diaphragms that form three chambers. The rate selector is basically a needle valve employed
as a variable orifice.
2.-Volume control chamber The volume control chamber acts as a damper for changes in
rate selection.

3.-Manual cabin altitude control valve The manual control valve with UP-DN control knob
allows the crew to change cabin altitude if normal pressurization system controls fail.
4.-Differential pressure relief valve is plumbed to ambient and to the rate controller "up
rate chamber" and orificed filter. The "up rate chamber" and orificed filter form the control
pressure for the cabin air exhaust control valve. When cabin pressure reaches the
differential pressure setting of the relief valve 9.4 (0.15) psi [64. 8 (1.03) kPa], the
diaphragm moves off the metering valve and meters excess pressure to ambient.

5.-Primary Altitude limiter The cabin altitude pressure limiter consists of an evacuated
capsule, poppet, and valve spring enclosed in a housing and housing cover. A cabin air
pressure inlet with a filter screen is located in the housing. The limiter, set at 11,500 (1,500)
feet, closes the cabin air exhaust control should the differential pressure relief valve fail. On
increasing cabin altitude, the capsule expands, causing the poppet to open and allowing
cabin airflow into the cabin air exhaust control valve control chamber at a greater rate than
what will escape through the differential pressure relief valve. This closes the exhaust valve
and prevents cabin airflow to ambient.

6.-Three solenoid valves The solenoid valves control passage of air to components in the
pressurization control system.
7.-Two aneroid switches For cabin altitude warning and control in the event the cabin
increases above 8750 feet.

8.-Cabin Air Switch Turns on the cabin air system.

9.-Pressurization AUTO-MAN Switch

10.-Cabin altimeter and differential pressure indicator The cabin altitude and differential
pressure gage is vented to ambient pressure and to cabin pressure. The gage has two
pointers, each traveling over a separate arc of calibrations. The large (outside) pointer
shows flight altitude; the smaller pointer indicates differential pressure (between cabin and
outside air) in pounds per square inch.

11.-Cabin rate-of-climb indicator shows the cabin altitude rate changes in feet per minute.

12.-Air filter prevents particle ingestion into the pressurization system control circuit.
Cabin Air Exhaust Control Valve

The cabin air exhaust control valve is installed on the aft side of the forward pressure
bulkhead (frame 5).

One of the ports in the cabin air exhaust control valve cover is plumbed to a control
pressure line from the pressurization module, and the other port is plugged. A service
port is located in the inlet line to facilitate trouble shooting.

The cabin air exhaust control valve base contains a spring-balanced poppet valve.
During normal operation with the Pressurization AUTO-MAN Switch set to AUTO, the
control pressure applied to the cabin air exhaust control valve by the rate controller is in
excess to the cabin pressure admitted through the orificed filter. This creates a pressure
unbalance between the control chamber and the balance chamber and positions the
cabin air exhaust control valve poppet to maintain the desired rate of modulation.

During operation with the pressurization AUTO-MAN switch set to MAN, either cabin
pressure or ambient pressure can be applied to the control valve by manipulation of the
manual control valve UP-DN control knob.
Cabin Safety Valve

The cabin safety valve is assembled to a manifold assembly installed on the forward side of
the aft pressure bulkhead (frame 20). One of the ports in the cabin safety valve cover
contains a 0.025 inch [0.635 mm] orifice and a throw-away type filter. The other port is
plumbed to the cabin altitude limiter located on the aft pressure bulkhead.

The cabin pressure admitted through the cabin safety valve filter and 0. 025 inch [0.635
mm] orifice balances the pressure in the balance chamber and is held closed by the
spring-balanced poppet. The safety valve is entirely separate from the cabin altitude
controller system and provides the following safety functions:

1.-It acts as a relief valve for differential pressure should the cabin differential pressure be
exceeded. The differential pressure relief valve will open and vent the cabin safety valve
control chamber pressure to ambient this causes a pressure unbalance between the control
chamber and the balance chamber, causing the cabin safety valve to open and vent cabin
pressure to ambient; and

2.-Should the cabin pressure ever decrease below the outside pressure (as in the case of a
dive with the cabin air exhaust control valve too far closed), a positive ambient pressure will
override the negative pressure in the control chamber and move the safety valve open,
allowing ambient pressure to flow into the cabin. A vacuum line is connected to the cabin
safety valve that incorporates a N.C. (normally closed) vacuum shutoff solenoid valve
(B332). The solenoid valve is electrically opened when the Cabin Air Switch is set of OFF
and remains open for approximately 10 seconds after the Cabin Air Switch is set to ON.
When the solenoid is open, pressure in the cabin safety valve control chamber is reduced
below the pressure of the cabin. When this occurs, the cabin safety valve is opened and
allows the cabin pressure to be vented to ambient.
Differential Pressure Relief Valve

The cabin differential pressure relief valve is plumbed to ambient and to the control chamber
of the cabin safety valve orificed filter.

When cabin pressure reaches the differential pressure setting of the relief valve 9.7 (0.15)
psi [66.8 (1. 034) kPa], the diaphragm moves off the metering valve and vents excess
pressure to ambient.
Vacuum Shutoff Solenoid Valve

The vacuum shutoff solenoid valve is installed at the aft pressure bulkhead between the main
vacuum supply line and the cabin altitude limiter and cabin differential pressure controller.
Turning on the cabin air will remove power and close the vacuum shutoff solenoid valve.
System operation is in section
Vacuum Regulator

The vacuum regulator assembly is installed in the tailcone equipment section on the LH
side of frame 26.

Two types of vacuum regulator assemblies may be installed: a Sterer or an Airborne.


These units are basically the same, except the Airborne vacuum regulator assembly
incorporates a 40 micron filter in the regulated vacuum port.

The vacuum regulator uses the venturi principle to create a vacuum for the pressurization
control system. The regulator is shown in the static position (no bleed air passing through
the venturi nozzle). When engine bleed air passes through the venturi, a vacuum is
created in the regulated vacuum chamber. The vacuum (negative pressure) flow is from
the pressurization module, through the regulated vacuum chamber and then overboard
through the bleed air discharge port.

As the existing cabin pressure, the pressure in the cabin reference chamber, combined
with the negative pressure in the regulated vacuum chamber, overrides the regulator
diaphragm spring and moves the diaphragm and ball/seat to close the opening. This
restricts the flow of air at negative pressure and provides a constantly regulated vacuum
for the pressurization control system.
Pressure Regulator

The pressurization system pressure regulator is installed in the tailcone equipment section
on a bracket attached to the engine aft beam, at approximately LBL 9.

The pressure regulator provides a regulated pressure (servo pressure) at 15 +2 psi to the
flow control valve, the emergency pressurization valve, and the vacuum regulator.

Unregulated bleed air pressure is ported through the bleed-on metering valve into the
system. The increase in air pressure sensed in the diaphragm control chamber moves the
diaphragm off the spring-loaded metering valve and allows the metering valve to modulate
the air pressure. If the regulated pressure should exceed the preset pressure, the bleed-
on regulator will close and the bleed-off regulator will move to bleed off the excess
pressure to ambient. The pressure regulator incorporates a secondary backup diaphragm.

The servo air distribution system is covered in section


Pressurization Warning System

The cabin pressure warning system consists of two aneroid switches and a CAB ALT
annunciator, and utilizes the System Test Switch and aural warning unit.

The two aneroid switches are located in the pressurization module. The switches utilized
"nut-type" filters that may be cleaned or replaced, as required. The aneroid switches
themselves are considered an integral part of the pressurization module and therefore
not field-replaceable items.

For aneroid switch replacement, the pressurization module must be removed from the
aircraft and sent to an authorized repair facility. One aneroid switch (PSW100/S3) is
utilized in illuminating the CAB ALT annunciator, located on the glareshield annunciator
panel, and in energizing a solenoid valve, also located in the pressurization module, that
traps the control chamber pressure in the cabin air exhaust control valve to aid in
preventing a further decrease in cabin pressure.

The other aneroid switch (PSW101/S4) is utilized in activating an aural warning horn to
alert the crew of increasing cabin pressure.
Emergency Pressurization System

The emergency pressurization system is installed to provide cabin pressure in the event of a
normal pressurization system malfunction, or when the needs of the normal pressurization
system are exceeded.

The emergency pressurization system utilizes two emergency pressurization valves that
are actuated by emergency pressurization aneroid switches, or by positioning the LH
and/or RH Bleed Air Switches to EMER.

Two Emergency Pressurization (Override) Switches are installed to deactivate the


emergency pressurization aneroid switches in the event the aircraft is to be landed at a
field altitude above the emergency pressurization activation altitude (9,500 ( 250] feet
cabin altitude). The emergency pressurization valves are spring loaded to the emergency
position with no power applied.

The emergency pressurization system has the following components:

1.-Two emergency Pressurization Valves


2.-Two Aneroid Switches
3.-Emergency Pressurization (Override) Switches
Emergency Pressurization Valves

The emergency pressurization valves are located in the tailcone equipment section just
forward of the engine aft beam.

Emergency pressurization is automatically provided by routing engine bleed air directly into
the cabin through the emergency pressurization valves, This is accomplished automatically
by emergency pressurization aneroid switches when cabin altitude increases to 9500 (
250) feet (Emergency Pressurization [override] Switches set to NORMAL), or in the event
an electrical power failure should occur, or when the Bleed Air Switches are set to the
EMER position.

With the emergency pressurization valves in the emergency position, engine bleed air is
routed directly from the engine into the cabin air distribution ducts. This bypasses all bleed
air plumbing in the tailcone area and will stabilize the cabin altitude if a failure has occurred
in this area.
When one engine is started, servo air pressure builds up in the cylinder chamber of the
emergency pressurization valve and works in conjunction with a spring to maintain the valve
in the emergency position. When the Bleed Air Switches are set to ON, a solenoid on the
valve is energized to the open position, redirecting the servo air to the top of the piston and
to the top of the relief valve venting the cylinder chamber pressure to ambient. The air
pressure at the top of the piston overcomes the spring pressure and drives the piston down
until it hits an internal stop. As the piston moves down, a yoke attached to the piston and to
the actuating arm on the ball valve, positions the ball for bleed air to the normal outlet port.
When the Bleed Air Switches are set to EMER or if an electrical failure should occur, the
solenoid closes. This vents the air pressure on top of the piston to ambient. This pressure in
conjunction with the spring pressure will then drive the piston up and position the ball to
direct bleed air through the emergency outlet port.
Aneroid Switches

The emergency pressurization aneroid switches are located in the cabin area on frame 19,
adjacent to stringers 9R and 9L.
The emergency pressurization aneroid switches (S89, LH; S90, RH) are set to actuate at
9,500 ( 250) feet of cabin altitude. The aneroid switches sense cabin de-pressurization and
automatically switch the modulating valves to low-pressure low-temperature bleed air for
cabin pressurization and switch the emergency pressurization valves to the emergency
position.

During normal operation. with the Emergency Pressurization (override) Switches set to
NORMAL, the aneroid switches provide a ground circuit through the override switches, then
through the modulating valve control box to the emergency pressurization valve, and to
Solenoid A on the bleed air shutoff and pressure regulating valve. If the aneroid switches are
actuated, or the Emergency Pressurization (override) Switches are set to OVERRIDE the
ground circuit to the emergency pressurization valves are opened and automatically provide
emergency pressurization to the cabin.
Override Switches

The Emergency Pressurization (Override) Switches are located on the Copilot's Switch
Panel.

Two Emergency Pressurization (Override) Switches are installed to deactivate the


emergency pressurization aneroid switches in the event the aircraft is to be landed or take-
off at a field altitude above the emergency pressurization activation altitude (9,500 ( 250]
feet cabin altitude).

During the emergency mode of operation, temperature control, wing, stabilizer, and
windshield bleed air anti-ice will not be available.

Cabin pressurization can then be maintained automatically. If pressurization cannot be


maintained in the AUTO position, cabin pressurization can be maintained by moving the
Pressurization AUTO-MAN Switch to MAN and controlling the cabin air exhaust control
valve using the manual control valve UP-DN control knob.
Heating System

The precooled engine bleed air that is utilized to provide cabin pressurization is also utilized
as the primary source of cabin heat.

The temperature of the conditioned air is controlled by the temperature control system
components (21-60-00)

The Bleed Air Heating System consists of the following components:

1.-One Flow Control Valve


2.-Hot Air Bypass Valve
3.-Hot Air Bypass Valve Position Indicator
4.-One Heat Exchanger
5.-Cabin Air Switch
Flow Control Valve

The flow control valve is located in the bleed air ducting upstream of the hot air bypass
valve.

The pressure regulator provides a regulated pressure (servo pressure) at 15 +2 psi to the
flow control valve for operation. The servo air distribution system is covered in section
(36-15-00).

The flow control valve in the deenergized position (Cabin air switch set to ON). With the
solenoid valve deenergized, servo air pressure is admitted through the pressure pilot
assembly filter into the pressure pilot assembly. The servo air pressure is sensed in the
actuator chamber and in the differential pressure sensor, where the air pressure is vented
overboard. As bleed air flows through the venturi, the negative pressure buildup is sensed
on one side of the differential pressure sensor and pressure is sensed on the opposite
side. When this happens, the path for the air pressure, picked up through the pressure
pilot, is restricted thus causing a buildup of pressure into the actuator cylinder. The
increasing pressure causes the actuator to move the valve closed. This limits the airflow
going through the venturi.

The flow control valve in the energized position (Cabin air switch set to OFF). When the
Cabin Air Switch is set to OFF, the solenoid valve is energized (closed). This blocks the
bleed path for the air pressure. The air pressure builds up within the cylinder actuator and
drives the valve butterfly closed, stopping the airflow.
Hot Air Bypass Valve

The hot air bypass valve is installed in both the bleed air and precooled air ducts adjacent to
the heat exchanger.
The bypass valve controls the amount of bleed air routed through the heat exchanger and

the amount allowed to bypass.

The hot air bypass valve consists basically of three ducts: one directs engine bleed air to
the heat exchanger, one directs precooled bleed air to the distribution system and
incorporates an actuator with a butterfly-type valve, and the third duct connects the other
two ducts.

When a higher temperature is called for, the butterfly valve opens and higher temperature
bleed air flows directly into the distribution system bypassing the heat exchanger. The
bypass valve is operated by a regulated pressure from the temperature control system.
Normally (no pressure applied) the valve is held closed by spring pressure.

The temperature controls provide a regulated pressure which overrides the valve spring
pressure and positions the valve to bypass the required amount of hot air to maintain the
cabin airflow at the desired level.

A temperature control indicator, on the indicator panel, indicates the position of the hot air
bypass valve.
On Aircraft 31-002 thru 31-034, the temperature control indicator (M509) is installed in the
indicator panel. On Aircraft 31-035 and Subsequent, the cabin temperature indicator is the
right half of the cabin temperature/temperature control indicator (M38) located on the
copilot's instrument panel (E538).
The indicator is a vertical reading dial graduated from HOT to COLD. The indicator is
electrically controlled by an externally mounted potentiometer, mechanically connected to
the hot air bypass valve shaft.
AERO TRANSPORTES TORNADO PERMISO DGAC L-79
CENTRO DE CAPACITACION
ING. MIGUEL ALEJANDRO ROCHA ESPINOSA
LIC. Z. ROCIO DE DIEGO ACUA

Navigation System

Saul 7 Col. GUADALUPE TEPEYAC, C.P. 07840 MEXICO D.F.


57842633/34 5554663810 5542038927 airspacetc@gmail.com
Navigation is divided into five sections:

1.-The Flight Environmental Data System provides air data information and
independent standby instruments backup information in the event of primary
systems failure.

2.-The Attitude and Direction System provides attitude information and heading
reference information to the aircraft.

3.-The Independent Position Determining Systems are utilized in providing


information to the flight crew relative to aircraft position, and are mainly
independent of ground installation.

4.-The Dependent Position Determining Systems are used in providing information


to the flight crew relative to aircraft position and are mainly dependent on ground
installations.

5.-The Flight Management System provides the flight crew with centralized control
of the navigation sensors, and convenient computer-based flight planning using an
extensive navigation database and provide lateral and vertical navigation.
Pitot Static System

On Aircraft 31-035 and Subsequent,the LH pitot port is connected to the pilot's air data
computer (ADC1). The RH pitot port is connected to the standby Mach/airspeed indicator,
standby altimeter and the copilot's air data computer (ADC2) The Pitot-Static System
provides pressure information to the Air Data Computers (34-17-00) to support the flight crew
instruments and directly to the standby instruments.

A separate static port on the right side of the aircraft is the source of static air pressure
utilized by the pressurization system. Refer to Chapter ATA 21 of this training guide for
information on the pressurization system.

The Pitot/Static System consists of the following:

Two Pitot/Static Probes


Four Static Shutoff Valves
One Static Source Switch
Five Drain Valves
Static Air Temperature/True Airspeed System System

The Static Air Temperature/True Air Speed (SAT/TAS) System calculates static air
temperature and true airspeed and provides that data for display on an instrument and/or for
use by other navigational systems.

On Aircraft 31-002 thru 31-034, the static air temperature/true airspeed (SAT/TAS) system
consists of:

One Total Air Temperature Sensor (AE114)


One SAT/TAS Computer (part of the air data unit)
One SAT/TAS Indicator (if installed)
One Temperature Sensor Heater Control Relay (K389)
Total Air Temperature Sensor

The Total Air Temperature (TAT) Sensor is mounted on the aircraft exterior just aft of frame
4 on the right side.

The TAT sensor acts as a variable resistor with resistance varying as a function of
temperature. As the temperature rises, the resistance rises.

The TAT sensor incorporates a heater to prevent ice from accumulating on the sensor. The
TAT sensor senses the ambient air temperature.

This data is sent to the air data computer in the form of electrical resistance. The air data
computer then provides an output to the indicator and to the navigation systems.
SAT/TAS Indicator

The SAT/TAS Indicator is installed on the pilot's instrument panel to provide the crew with a
visual display of static air temperature and true airspeed
.
The data from the SAT/TAS computer may be utilized by a navigation system and no display
provided or may be displayed on a navigation system's control display unit.

(31-035 and subsequent) The slim line two in one KST 488 displays speed and temperature
in the following formats.

Airspeed Display Displays the present true airspeed of the aircraft in knots. The TAS
annunciator is illuminated when the unit is displaying the true airspeed of the aircraft.

TAT/SAT Temperature Display On initial power up the temperature displays either the SAT
or the TAT, depending upon the default select line. When the TAT/SAT button is depressed
the temperature display will display the temperature that was not displayed before the switch
was pressed. Depressing the TAT/SAT (Total Air Temperature/Static Air Temperature) switch
will cause the temperature display to change from showing TAT temperature to showing SAT
temperature or from SAT to TAT. The default is selected by grounding or not grounding the
TAT/SAT default line on the rear connector of the KST 488. This will determine which
temperature is displayed on power up. The SAT annunciator is illuminated when the unit is
displaying SAT (Static Air Temperature) and the TAT annunciator is illuminated when the unit
is displaying Total Air Temperature (TAT).

A photocell Controls the intensity or brightness of the display under varying light conditions.
Radio Altimeter System 31

When the radio altimeter system is installed, but a radio altimeter indicator is not, display of
radio altitude and control of the system is accomplished at the pilot's attitude director
indicator (ADI).

Depending upon the aircraft's optional configuration, decision height (DH) annunciators may
be located in the radio altimeter indicator, barometric altimeters, flight director indicators,
and glareshield annunciator panel.

Radio altitude data is supplied to the autopilot system. (Refer to Chapter 22 for description
of the autopilot system.)
The interface between the radio altimeter system and the decision height (DH) annunciator,
in the glareshield, is accomplished in the switching terminal unit (STU-3) junction box.

The Radio Altimeter System comprises the following:

One Radio Altimeter Transceiver


One Indicator (optional)
Two Radio Altimeter Antennas
Digital display dimming circuit (if a digital radio altitude indicator [DRI-55] is
installed)
Radio Altimeter Transceiver

The transceiver unit is installed in the nose avionics compartment just forward of the nose
wheel well box.
The transceiver transmits, receives, and processes signals to determine the aircraft's
altitude above ground level (AGL).
The range of the transceiver is from -20 to 2500 feet.
Power for the radar altimeter is 28 vdc supplied through the 2-amp RADIO ALT circuit
breaker located on the pilot's circuit breaker panel.

NOTE: On Aircraft equipped with 5-Tube EFIS-85A, the radio altimeter transceiver is
located in the aft baggage compartment piggy back mounted on top of the ADF receiver.
Radar Altimeter Indicator

On Aircraft equipped with a radio altimeter indicator,the indicator is installed in the instrument
panel.

The indicator display may be either an analog or digital type.

The indicator includes provisions for reading the aircraft's radio altitude, testing the system,
setting the desired decision height, and a decision height (DH) annunciator.
Altimeter System

The barometric altimeters are connected to their respective static system.

The barometric altimeters are located on the pilot's and copilot's instrument panel. The
altimeter is a self-contained unit which converts static pressure input into displayed data
of the aircraft's altitude.

A knob on the altimeter is used to adjust the altimeter to the current altimeter setting
(barometric pressure). When set to the current altimeter setting, the altimeter will indicate
the aircraft's altitude above sea level (MSL).

Depending upon the optional configuration of the aircraft, one or both altimeters are
encoding (automatic altitude reporting through the transponder).
If a long range navigation system (LRN) is installed, the pilot's altimeter gives a barometric
pressure correction signal to the air data unit.
Altitude Alerter

The pilot's altimeter gives altitude and rate-of-change data to the altitude alerter
system.
Both pilot's and copilot's altimeters contain an altitude alerter light which illuminates
when the aircraft deviates from its preselected altitude
Air Data Computer System

The Air Data System (ADS) processes inputs from the Pitot-Static Pressure Systems, the
Altitude / Vertical Speed Indicators, the Airspeed/Mach Indicators, the AHRS, the TCAS, and
the on-side Autopilot, and generates output signals to the associated cockpit displays.

The Air Data System also receives temperature information from the Total Air Temperature
(TAT) probe located on the lower right side of the nose compartment.

The Air Data System is comprised of following components:

Two Air Data Computers


Two Air Data Transfer Relays

The primary display for the ADC system is comprised of the following components:
Two Altimeter Vertical Speed Indicators

Two Mach/Airspeed indicators

The SAT/TAS indicator

Data is provided for the following systems:

VMO-MMO l/VMO-MM0 2 for the Mach Trim System


Speed and altitude for the EFIS
Overspeed warning for the Aural Warning System
Stall bias for the Stall Warning System
Data for the autopilot and AHRS operation
Gear Warning System
Signals for the altitude alert (aural and visual warning) on the pilot's side and visual warning only on
the copilot's side
Altitude & Vertical Velocity Indicator
KAV 485/485T
Airspeed/Mach Indicator KAI-487
KST 488 Speed/Temperature
Indicator
Altitude Alerter
The altitude alerter is an integral function of the altimeter/vertical speed indicator.
The altitude alert illuminates when the aircraft's current altitude is within 300-1,000 feet of the
value specified in the altitude pre-select display.
Press to Test
Pressing the Push-To-Test button, when the airspeed is above 50 kts starts the internal test
sequence. The test consists of lighting all the segments in the gas discharge displays and
dropping the flags into view. When the airspeed is below 50 kts and the Push-To-Test button
is depressed, a series of events take place that test most of the operation of the Air Data
Computer System. The test can be terminated at any time by pushing the Push-To-Test
button a second time.
Standby Compass System
The magnetic compass is installed on the windshield center post.
The compass displays heading information vertically with the aero lubber line on
the lens and complete 360 degree (5 degree increments) dial in proper relation to
aircraft heading.
Numerical markings appear in 30 degree intervals.
N/S and E/W compensator screws are located under the cover plate.
A compass steering correction card is located near the compass.
The compass uses eddy current dampening with no fluid to minimize over swing .
Standby Attitude System
Standard Installation
The standby attitude indicator provides a visual indication of the aircraft flight attitude. In the
event of a total generated aircraft power failure, the aircraft's emergency power supply will
provide power to drive the attitude indicator for at least one hour after the loss of electrical
power.
The two-colored pitch drum provides direct reading of aircraft attitude in both pitch (92
degrees of climb and 78 degrees of dive) and roll (360 degrees). The light-colored area
marked CLIMB represents the sky and the dark-colored area marked DIVE represents the
earth.
Pitch index marks are incorporated on the drum to indicate every 5 degrees in both
directions.
Roll index marks at 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 degrees provide angular displacement.

Pulling the Cage knob and turning in either direction will cage (erect) the gyro.
A red flag will appear on the standby gyro when:
Gyro is caged
Power is not applied or lost
Gyro is inoperative
The attitude indicator is a dc powered electro mechanical unit.
It also contains an inverter circuit board for converting the 28 vdc input to 22 vac
400 Hz 3-phase for indicator operation.

The attitude indicator is an electrically driven gyro whose vertical attitude is


maintained by a mechanical erection system.
The power warning flag is rotated out of sight by a flag motor which allows the flag
to appear if one or more phases of power are interrupted.
The standby gyro operates only if the EMER BAT1 switch on the pilot's instrument
panel is set to ON.

Attitude & Direction System

The attitude and direction system consists of equipment which senses the aircraft's attitude
(pitch, roll, and yaw) and direction (compass heading) and converts that data into an
indication for pilot use or a signal for use by systems to influence navigation of the aircraft.

The attitude and direction system includes the following:

Magnetic compass
Flight director system
Emergency attitude gyro
Display System not covered in this section:

Aircraft equipped with Electronic HSI


5-tube EFIS-85A system

Covered in this section:

Vertical gyro system


Directional gyro system

The vertical gyro system consists of two vertical gyros, an attitude indicator, two VG ERECT
switches, and two VG MON annunciators. The vertical gyro system provides the crew with an
indication of the aircraft's pitch and roll attitude. The primary vertical gyro also provides data
to the autopilot/ flight director system and the weather radar system.
HSI 84
The mechanical HSI 84 is the standard display for the Learjet 31.

Compass card position from the directional gyros is sent through a synchro system.
Course arrow, glideslope pointer, and ADF information is provided by the respective
navigation receivers.
Speed or Time To Target information is provided by the DME Transceiver.
Traffic Collision Avoidance System

The Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) monitors a radius of approximately 40 nautical miles (74.09
km) around the aircraft.
The TCAS listens for other aircraft identification codes (squirter) for part of its duty cycle, then transmits
Mode C and Mode S interrogations to determine the degree of threat from the aircraft in the vicinity.
There are two possible TCAS configurations:

TCAS I utilizes interrogations of, and replies from airborne radar beacon transponders to provide
traffic advisories (TA) to the pilot.
TCAS II utilizes interrogations of, and replies from airborne radar beacon transponders to
provide traffic advisories (TA) and resolution advisories (RA) in the vertical plane to the pilot. The
Resolution Advisory coordination is done through the active Mode S transponder on the aircraft
using the Mode S data link function.

These advisories are displayed on the MFD if selected from the MFD control panel.

The TCAS comprises the following:

One TCAS Computer Unit


(TCAS I) One Directional antenna, one Omnidirectional antenna
(TCAS II) Two TCAS Directional Antennas

Associated component:

Two Mode S Transponders (TCAS II requires dual diversity antennas)


Transponder Control Unit
A Radio Altimeter Input
Two ADC's
One MFD and MFD Control Panel
TCAS Processor (Transceiver TPU-66A/TCAS I, TPU-67A/TCAS II)

The TCAS TPU-66A Transceiver is installed in the right nose avionics compartment and
contains the RF transmitter and receiver used to interrogate and receive replies from
transponder equipped aircraft.
The TCAS transceiver transmits interrogations and receives replies from other aircraft's
transponders through both antennas. It processes the signals from the replies and produces
information of range, azimuth and the altitude of the aircraft in the vicinity. With this
information, the TCAS computes and determines the trajectory of all the aircraft in the
vicinity. Then, it compares to its own trajectory to determine if any conflict exists.
The processor routinely reads and stores the following aircraft information:

Own aircraft heading, pitch, roll, and radio altimeter inputs.


Discrete input from weight on wheels (Air-ground) strut switch.
Discrete input from the landing gear.
Advisory inhibit discrete inputs from ground proximity and wind shear system (if
installed).
Continuity/resistance checks on top and bottom antenna.
System validity inputs.
Own aircraft pressure altitude data received from Mode S transponder (TCAS II).
Mode control requests and traffic display control inputs from Mode S
transponder (TCAS II).
Own aircraft identification (Xpdr ID) from Mode S transponder (TCAS II).
Own aircraft maximum airspeed data received from Mode S transponder (TCAS
II).
TCAS Control Unit

The Control Unit, located on the center instrument panel, allows the pilot to do the
following:

Select TCAS operating modes: control range, above/below altitude limits,


and flight level versus relative altitude displays on TCAS traffic display unit
Activate or deactivate the Mode S transponder
Select the ATC transponder identification code
Insert a special pattern identifier code (IDENT) into transponder replies to
ground station interrogations
Initiate TCAS functional test
Select which transponder is active in a dual transponder system select
altitude source
Traffic Advisory (TA)
TCAS monitors a time-based caution area that extends 20 - 48 seconds from the time the
intruder is predicted to enter the TCAS aircraft's collision area.

When an intruder enters this caution area, traffic information in the form of a TA is
issued by TCAS. The flight crew use this information as an aid to visually locate the
intruder to avoid a conflict. The traffic advisory aural alert is the message TRAFFIC -
TRAFFIC spoken once.
The intruder is represented as an amber circle TA symbol on the MFD. The traffic
displayed includes the range, bearing and altitude (if available) of the intruder relative to
the TCAS aircraft.

Proximate Traffic (PT)

Aircraft within display range and within the selected vertical window are represented as a
solid cyan diamond.

Proximate traffic is shown to improve situational awareness in the event of a potential


conflict with higher priority RA or TA aircraft.

Other Traffic (OT)

Any transponder-replying traffic that is not classified as an intruder or proximate traffic, is


within the display range, and is within the selected vertical window, is represented as
hollow cyan diamond (only in view when no RA or TA is in progress).

The predicted flight paths of proximate traffic (PT) and other traffic (OT) do not penetrate
the collision area of the aircraft.
PFD Display Options
The following modes are selected depending on the vertical path of the aircraft. NORMAL
would be selected during level flight. ABOVE or BELOW would be selected during high-rate
climbs or descents.
TA only will not display resolution advisory on the PFD and is controlled by the
squatt switch input.
TA/RA full operation of TCAS is selected, weight off wheels for Resolution
Advisories.
NORMAL displays traffic 1200 feet when the system is in AUTO, and 2700 feet
when system is in MANUAL.
ABOVE indicates that the system displays traffic +7000 feet above to -2700 feet
below the aircraft.
BELOW indicates that the system displays traffic +2700 feet above to -7000 feet
below the aircraft.
The range of the TCAS zoom window can be set to 6, 12, 20, 40 nm (80 and 120 nm
optional) by toggling the line select key adjacent to the range annunciation, or by rotating
either of the Tune Knob when the cursor is around the range selection.
Sperry/Collins Weather Radar
System

The Sperry Weather Radar consists of the following components:

One Sperry Antenna/Receiver/Transmitter


One Controller
Indicator

The radar indicator contains the screen, which displays the radar echo, and the controls
used to control the radar system.
The radar indicator is installed in the center instrument panel.
Indicator Pushbutton Control Functions
RANGE - Instant pushbutton selection of six ranges 10/25/50/100/200/300.
TILT - 12, for the full weather picture.
AZ MK - Activates display of azimuth strobe lines at 30 intervals.
STAB - On/off function control for stabilization.
TGT ALRT - Activates circuitry to automatically alert the pilot when any level three (red)
target appears in a 7% sector either side of the nose, at ranges between 60 to 150
nautical miles, regardless of selected range.
IT - Intensity control, controls the display brightness.
WX/C - Weather/cyclic control. This alternate action control selects the weather or cyclic
modes. In weather, the storm activity is shown in the familiar green/yellow/red color
scheme. In cyclic, preset gain is automatically selected and the red "cells" flash on and off
twice per second.
FRZ - Stops display update while memory continues to update with current information.
STBY - Places the radar in standby mode.
TEST - Initiates the test mode todisplayy the test band.
GAIN - Radar receiver gain is continuously variable with de-tentedd preset position.
Sperry Antenna/Receiver Transmitter

The ART 2000 Antenna/Receiver/Transmitter, located on the forward side of frame 1,


consists of a radar receiver and a radar transmitter (with applicable antenna) constructed
as a single unit with a single mounting facility.

The Sperry system provides for radar stabilization input for combined pitch, roll, and tilt
angles of up to + 30. In the Vertical Profile mode, the antenna stabilization only
responds to pitch inputs. The aircraft primary vertical gyro provides pitch and roll signals
to the antenna drive unit for antenna stabilization.

The antenna array is attached to the microwave assembly on the transceiver portion and
the two move together as the radar scans. The base of the unit contains the receiver and
all processing and control circuits. The antenna scan angle can be configured for a 90
or a 100 scan.
Distance Measuring Equipment
The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) System is a double system installation that is
designated as DME No. 1 and DME No. 2.

Aircraft equipped with Collins DME System The Pro Line II DME-42/442 Distance Measuring
Equipment brings unprecedented DME capability to business and regional air carrier aircraft.

Microprocessor technology provides complete information from up to three DME stations


from a single receiver/transmitter and indicator.

This multichannel operation offers the pilot more information from a single unit. It meets
today's requirements for advanced navigation systems.

The Collins DME system is comprised of the following components:

One or optional two DME transceivers (DME-42)


Indicator
L-band Antenna
Volume potentiometer (s),
Distance data adapter (as required by optional equipment selection).
Collins DME Indicator
With the DME tuned to the desired VHF navigation VOR/ground station using the VHF
navigation control head, The DME transceiver transmits an interrogation signal to the
ground station which receives the interrogation and returns a reply signal to the DME
transceiver. The time between transmission of the interrogation signal and reception of the
reply signal is used to compute the distance from the ground station to the aircraft.
This information can be displayed as either distance or speed on the DME indicator.
Universal Avionics Flight Management System

The Universal Flight Management System (FMS) is a fully integrated navigation management
system designed to provide the pilot with centralized control for the aircraft's navigation
sensors, computer-based flight planning, and fuel management.

The system processes multiple range information from the DME, True Airspeed data from the
Air Data Computer (ADC), velocity and/or position information from the long-range navigation
sensors, and aircraft heading, in order to derive the aircraft's position.

This position is used by the system for navigating the aircraft along the programmed flight
plan. Flight plans are created using the self-contained Jeppesen database stored in
nonvolatile flash memory. It provides the FMS with information on Navaids, airports,
Nondirectional Beacons (NDB), en route waypoints, intersections, airways, Standard
Instrument Departures (SIDs), Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs), approaches, and
runways.

The Flight Management System consists of the following components:

Navigation Computer Units (UNS-1C), or Navigation Computer Units & Control


Display Untis (UNS-1B)
Data Transfer Unit
Configuration Modules
GPS Antennas (UNS-1C), or GPS Antenna & GPS Receivers (UNS-1B)
Annunciators
FNS Annunciators

Each instrument panel has a set of FMS annunciators installed on it. The annunciatos
indicate the status of the UNS navigation system and modes of operation.
Steering information and the coupling of the FMS to the autopilot is displayed on the EADI,
not throug the status cubes.
the FMS annunciators provide the following information:

FMS HDG (Heading) - will illuminate (white) whenever the UNS heading mode has
been selected throught the CDU. When on the FMS steering outputs are referenced to a
CDU selected heading rather than the active TO-FROM Nav leg.
APRCH (Approach) will illuminate (blue) whenever the approach mode has been
selected on the UNS.
GPS INTEG (GPS Integrity) will illuminate (white) whenever the integrity of the
GPS position cannot be assured to meet minimum requirements for the particular phase
of flight (oceanic, en route, terminal, or approach)
MSG (Message) - these annunciators are repeaters of MSG annunciators on the
CDU and will illuminate (amber) simultaneously with the CDU MSG annunciator. The
CDU MSG key is depressed to read the message(s) on the CDU.
WPT (Waypoints Alert) will illuminate (amber) steady approximately 15 seconds
prior to navigation leg change when in en route or terminal mode navigation and
approximately 5 seconds prior to leg change in approach mode navigation.
SXTK (Selected Crosstrack) will illuminate (amber) to remind the crew that a
parallel course has been selected for the current navigation leg.
FMS Navigation

The Flight Management Computer (FMC) has multiple ports through which data from
external sensors can be received.
The long-range navigation sensors that may be accommodated include Inertial, GPS, and

Loran C.

When a DME interface is included, the DME input is considered a short range sensor and
is from a multichannel scanning DME. All DME stations within approximately 250 nm (<
300 nm max.) of the aircraft position are scanned, and up to 15 are continuously tracked.

If VOR input is provided, it will be used for VOR/VOR-DME/RNAV approaches when GPS
integrity does not meet integrity requirements. VOR will be used en route as a last-resort
sensor and any VOR used must be less than 180 nm away.

Each individual navigational sensor is specifically designed for primary navigation. The
FMS takes advantage of a particular sensor's good properties while minimizing its
liabilities. The system processes multiple range information from the DME, True Airspeed
from the ADC, velocity and/or position information from the long-range navigation sensors,
and aircraft heading, in order to derive one Best Computed Position (BCP).