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Tutorial 1

Powerworld Simulator based Optimal Power Flow (OPF)
A two bus two generator two load one transmission line system is modeled using
Powerworld simulator to understand the concept of optimal power flow.

As shown in Fig. 1 Bus A and Bus B have generation as 203 MW and 397 MW. The
incremental cost for generator on Bus A and Bus B is 13.02 $/MWh. The transmission cost
is taken as average of cost on connecting (line ends) buses; Bus A and Bus B. So the cost
is $13.02/MWh. The local load on Bus A and Bus B is 300 MW each respectively.

Total Hourly Cost : 8459 $/h

13.02 $/MWh


Bus A 13.02 $/MWh Bus B 13.02 $/MWh


300.0 MW 300.0 MW
203.0 MW 397.0 MW

Fig.1 Generation and Demand on Bus A and Bus B with incremental cost.

16.0 16.0

12.0 12.0

8.0 8.0

4.0 4.0

0.0 0.0
0 150 300 450 600 0 175 350 525 700
Generator Power (MW) Generator Power (MW)

Fig. 2 Incremental cost curve for Gen.1 Fig. 3 generators Incremental cost
in $/MWh

will supply additional 10 MW demand on Bus A.36 $/MWh Bus B 14. 1 and Gen.36 $/MWh slack 400. Output violation . Slight increase from base case.0 MW AGC ON AGC ON Fig. 4 All generators Incremental cost in $/MWh (203 MW and 397 MW Generation) Now with Gen.0 MW 300. 2 5000 $/MWh.0 MW 300. The incremental cost is 14. 2 maximum power limit is set for 400 MW and 300 MW respectively with same demand on their respective buses.00 $/MWh slack 410.0 MW 400.00 $/MWh A MVA Bus A 5000. Total Hourly Cost : 9910 $/h 14.36 $/MWh.0 MW 310.0 MW AGC ON AGC ON Fig. As shown in Fig. 5 the cost involved in meeting with additional demand of 10 MW at Bus 1 to be met by Gen.0 MW 400. Now with every 1 MW demand either at Bus A or Bus B will violate the generator output constraint and will lead to very large cost involved on both buses and equally on transmission line. 5 Generator constraint for Max. Total Hourly Cost : 10038 $/h 5000.0 MW 300. Gen 2 as it is in swing mode.36 $/MWh A MVA Bus A 14.00 $/MWh Bus B 5000.

on Bus A. The cost to transmit power through line is 5534.17 $/MWh Bus B 5000.08 $/MWh.0 MW 650.17 $/MWh.0 MW AGC ON AGC ON Fig. Output along with Line flow constraint violation . and if demand is 600 MW and 450 MW on the Bus A and Bus B respectively with 400 MW generation by Gen.Further to this suppose a line is set for a maximum limit of 200 MW flow capability. then Gen 2 on Bus B will supply 200 MW. The limit of transmission line is hit and the outcome is still increased cost on Bus A i.0 MW 450. At Bus B it is 5000 $/MWh. 5 Generator constraint for Max.08 $/MWh A 102% MVA Bus A 6068.00 $/MWh slack 600. This is average of the cost at two buses. 6068.e. Total Hourly Cost : 14547 $/h 5534.0 MW 400.

Fig. 6 OPF summary .