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MULTIFUNCTION PROTECTION &

CONTROL RELAY
DRAGON 1 series
DISTRIBUTION GRIDS and
INDUSTRIAL OBJECTS
ROCON plc DRAGON 1
Catalogue

1. General information Main or backup protection and


control for HV and MV network
Applicable for all types of Neutral
Company ROCON provides modern
earthing (isolated, compensated,
solutions for Power Transmission &
resistance or solid earthed);
Distribution networks, comprising wide
Suitable for Distribution Utilities,
range of world-class numerical
Industry, Transport and Distributed
protection relays, bay control units
Generation (Wind farms, Solar parks
(BCU), Substation automation systems
etc.).
(SASs) and Dispatch centers.
The great focus today is high-quality
cost-effective Intelligent Electronic 3. Standard configurations
Devices (IEDs), which assists power
producers and distributors to get the DRAGON 1 offers 6 basic types:
best from their plants and networks. 3.1 Feeder Protection Relay RFI 4xx_D1
A new member of ROCON IEDs family RFI 401_D1 Directional
is series DRAGON 1, which combines a Overcurrent and Earth fault
lot of State of the art decisions in a Protection Relay
single IED. RFI 411_D1 Overcurrent and
Simple, cost-effective design with Directional Earth fault Protection
fully integration of all necessity Relay
protection, control and monitoring RFI 421_D1 Non-directional
functions; Overcurrent and Earth fault
Configuration and settings via Protection Relay
portable PC and MS Windows 3.2 Line Differential Protection Relay
compatible service MMI program RLI 402_D1
(one program for all types); 3.3 Transformer Differential Protection
Local HMI through the front panel Relay RTI 402_D1
keypad, LEDs and LCD display; 3.4 Motor Differential Protection Relay
Communication with the upper RMI 402_ D1
level of SAS through LAN and 3.5 Motor Protection Relay RMI 4xx_D1
electric/fiber optic cables; RMI 401_D1 Directional
ommunication protocols and Overcurrent/Earth fault and Motor
interfaces according to the IEC Protection Relay
standards including IEC 61850 and RMI 421_D1 Non-directional
GOOSE . Overcurrent/Earth fault and Motor
Protection Relay
2. Application 3.6 Voltage protection Relay REA421D1
Dragon 1 series include also possibility
for Remote Terminal Blocks (RTB) with
DRAGON 1 provides a lot of protection
additional BIs and BOs.
functions with a great variety of
applications:

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ROCON plc DRAGON 1
Catalogue

4. Technical data

RMI402 D1

RMI401 D1

RMI421 D1

REA421 D1
RTI402 D1
RFI401 D1

ANSID1
RFI421 D1

RLI402 D1
ANSI

RFI411
Technical data

1 Protection
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1.1 Non-directional Definite time 50



Overcurrent - 3 stages
1.2 Non-directional Definite time 50N

Earth fault protection - 3* stages
1.3 Non-directional Inverse time- 51

Overcurrent 12 curves
1.4 Non-directional Inverse time Earth 51N
fault protection 10 standard
curves
1.5 Directional definite time 67

Overcurrent protection 3 stages
1.6 Directional definite time Earth 67N

fault protection 3 stages
1.7 Directional inverse time 67
Overcurrent protection - 10
standard curves
1.8 Directional Inverse time Earth fault 67N

protection - 12 curves
1.9 Three phase multi-shot 79

Autoreclose
1.10 Wattmetric/Varmetric power earth 67Ns

fault protection
1.11 Conductance/Susceptance earth 21YN

fault protection
1.12 Transient earth fault protection 67

NIEF
1.13 Intermittent earth fault protection 67

NIEF
1.14 High harmonics content earth

fault protection
1.15 Thermal overload protection 49

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RMI402 D1

RMI401 D1

RMI421 D1

REA421 D1
RTI402 D1
RFI401 D1

RFI411 D1

RFI421 D1

RLI402 D1
ANSI
Technical data

1 Protection
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1.16 Negative sequence overcurrent 46



protection
1.17 Definite time undercurrent 37

monitoring
1.18 Neutral voltage displacement 59G

protection 3 stages
1.19 ARC protection
1.20 Group Instantaneous overcurrent

protection
1.21 Phase discontinuity detection I2/I1 46PD
1.22 Breaker failure protection 50BF
1.23 Cold load pick-up
1.24 Second harmonic blocking

(Inrush restraint)
1.25 Undervoltage protection 3(2*) 27

stages
1.26 Overvoltage protection 3(2**) 59

stages
1.27 Negative sequence overvoltage 47O

2 stages
1.28 Positive sequence undervoltage 47U+

2 stages
1.29 Voltage Vector shift protection
1.30 Underfrequency protection 4 81U

stages.
1.31 Overfrequency protection 4 81O

stages.
1.32 Rate of change of frequency 81R

(RoCoF) protection 4 stages
1.33 Starting time supervision 48

protection
1.34 Loss of load protection 2 stages
1.35 Number of starts limitation 66

protection
1.36 Stalled rotor protection 51LR
1.37 Cooling system failure protection
1.38 Directional overpower protection
32O

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ROCON plc DRAGON 1
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RMI402 D1

RMI401 D1

RMI421 D1

REA421 D1
RTI402 D1
RFI401 D1

RFI411 D1

RFI421 D1

RLI402 D1
ANSI
Technical data

1 Protection 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1.39 Directional underpower 32U

protection
1.40 Motor differential protection*** 87M
1.41 Transformer differential 87T

protection***
1.42 Low Impedance restricted Earth 87N
fault protection
1.43 Line differential protection 87L
1.44 User defined logical functions
1.45 Setting groups 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
2 Monitoring and control
2.1 Circuit-breaker life time
monitoring
2.2 Current circuit symmetry 87

monitoring
2.3 Fuse failure monitoring 60
2.4 Voltage circuit supervision
2.5 Trip circuit supervision TC74
2.6 Minimum and maximum values

monitoring
2.7 local/remote control
2.8 Interlocking
2.9 Lockout logic 86
2.10 Clockwise and anticlockwise

phase rotation
2.11 Synchronism/energizing check 25
2.12 Signalization
3 Measurement and
calculation
3.1 Phase current true RMS
st
3.2 Fundamental (1 harmonic)

current
3.3 Residual current 3Io
3.4 Current in the neutral
3.5 Positive sequence current I1
3.6 Negative sequence current I2
nd
3.7 2 harmonic current
th
3.8 THD up to 19 harmonic - 2kHz

sampling rate
3.9 Phase voltage true RMS

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RMI 402 D1

RMI 401 D1

RMI 421 D1

REA421 D1
RTI 402 D1
RFI 401 D1

RFI 411 D1

RFI 421 D1

RLI 402 D1
ANSI
Technical data

Measurement and
calculation
3.10 Phase to phase voltage true RMS
st
3.11 Fundamental (1 harmonic)

voltage
3.12 Positive sequence voltage U1
3.13 Neutral Voltage displacement 3Uo
3.14 Negative sequence voltage U2
3.15 Frequency f
3.16 Rate of change of frequency df/dt
3.17 P, Q, S and Ep, Eq
3.18 Current - voltage angle

4 Recorders
4.1 Event and fault recorder
4.2 Disturbance recorder
5 Additional functions
5.1 PC-based configuration & settings
Man Machine interface (MMI)
program
5.3 Time Synchronization data

channel
5.4 Self-supervision with internal

event list
6 Hardware **
6.1 Power supply 24 220VDC
-20% +10%
48 240VAC -20% + 10%
6.2 Phase Current inputs 1A, 5 A
3/2 2 3/2 3 3 3 3 3
0.1 40 In
6.3 Residual/neutral current input
Range 1()0.140 Ion - 5A, 1A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Range 2() 0.01 1.6 Ion 5A, 1A
6.4 Voltage inputs - 57.7/63.5 V , 3 3 3
100/110 V (ph-ph)
6.5 Residual Voltage input 3Uo/Ubus,
1 1
100/110 V
6.6 Binary inputs 5 5 10 10 10 5 5
24 - 220 - 30% +20% VDC 2mA 21 21
21 21 21 21 21 21
and VAC (optional)
6.7 Binary outputs (electromechanical 4 4 8 8 8 4 4
12 12
relays) 16 16 16 16 16 16

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RMI 402 D1

RMI 401 D1

RMI 421 D1

REA421 D1
RTI 402 D1
RFI 411 D1
RFI 401 D1

RFI 421 D1

RLI 402 D1
ANSI
Technical data

6 Hardware **
6.8 Real time clock
6.9 LAN communication interface -
via Optical Ethernet 100BASE-FX
FX ST FO MM1300 nm
6.10 LAN communication interface -
via Optical Ethernet 100BASE-FX +

100BASE-FX 2xST FO MM1300nm,
suitable for PRP redundancy
6.11 LAN communication interface
with internal switch - via Optical
Ethernet 100BASE-FX + 100BASE-

FX 2xST FO MM1300 nm,
intended for HSR/RSTP
redundancy
6.12 LAN communication interface via

electrical RS485
6.13 Optical interface for RTBs MM 820

nm
6.14 Optical front interface for portable

PC connection
6.15 Keypad and 2x16 digits LCD

display
6.16 LED indication 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
6.17 Dimensions 170/218/59,2 mm
6.18 Weight 0.8 kg
7 LAN Communication
protocols
7.1 IEC 61850
7.2 IEC 60870-5-103
7.3 MODBUS
8 Remote Terminal RTB RTB RTB RTB RTB RTB RTB
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Blocks RTB ****
standard function
optional function
** RFI 401_D1 and RMI 401_D1 over/undervoltage protection are with 2 stages
***Every set of Transformer and Motor differential protection includes two separate
devices DRAGON1. The slave allows to be completed (optionally) with RTB1.
**** RTB1 provides additionally 16 BI and 12 BO
RTB1 21, 17 - the device and the number of DI/DO in a blue color are optional

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5. Main functions (RCA). The basic conditions for the


directional mode are:
Phase/residual voltage
DRAGON 1 comprised a lot of different
Uph/3Uo is above the threshold;
functions that enlarge its application
Phase/residual current Iph/3Io is
and flexibility.
above the threshold;
Protection and protection
The direction of the calculated
related functions
phase/residual power is in
Monitoring, control and
forward direction (in case of
annunciation
forward settings).
Measurement and calculation
Recording
5.1.3 Three phase multi-shot
Communication
Autoreclose (AR) ANSI 79
Redundancy protocols
DRAGON 1 includes up to 6-shots
three phase AR. There are two main
5.1 Protection functions conditions for AR function starting
internal/external protection activation
5.1.1. Non-directional three phase or status discrepancy between Circuit
overcurrent/earth fault protection ANSI breaker and its Control switch. Each of
50/50N/51/51N the preliminary set protection functions
Three independent stages are available can be used as a start condition of the
either for phase and earth fault AR.
protection. For each of them the user
can independently select definite time 5.1.4 Directional sensitive (Wattmetric /
delay (DT). Varmetric) power earth fault protection
The third stage can be configured as (PEFP) ANSI 67Ns
an instantaneous protection with peak The function is operating as an active
values detection. power relay for compensated or a
There is a separate possibility for capacitive power relay for isolated
inverse time delay (IDMT) with 12 networks.
different types of curves (IEC, PGFP evaluates the direction by using
IEEE/ANSI and user defined). the analogue values for 3Uo and 3Io.
The PEFP function can be set according
5.1.2 Directional three phase to the type of the network earthing
overcurrent / earth fault protection (isolated or compensated network).
ANSI 67/67N The options are:
Each of the three-phase overcurrent/ Active power relay for
earth fault stages can be independently compensated networks and
configured as directional protection options: (180) or (0) max
and with specific characteristic angle sensitivity angle;

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Reactive power relay for isolated healthy phases increase and the related
networks and options: (90) or (- capacityes are charged.
90) max sensitivity angle; If the fault is permanent (non-transient)
in nature, only the initial fault transient
5.1.5 Conductance / Susceptance earth in the current and voltage is important
fault protection ANSI 21YN for measuring.
Earth faults in isolated and The initial transient in the faulted
compensated networks are often feeder is characterized with very short
occurs and are complicated for and high peak values spikes of residual
identification especially in case of high current (3Io) and voltage (3Uo). The
resistance earth faults. transient earth fault protection is
The conductance and susceptance realized through the the residual
algorithms are intended respectively current and voltage measurement and
for compensated and isolated the transients of 3Io and 3Uo analyzing
networks and are more efficient in case with predefined criteria. The
of high-resistance earth faults. measurement is realized with a very
The applied in DRAGON 1 adaptive high sampling rate of 4kHz.
algorithm is especially suitable for the
systems with considerable unbalance 5.1.7 Intermittent Earth fault protection
(for 3I0, 3Uo) during normal operation. (IGFP) ANSI 67NIEF
This function is intended to detect
5.1.6 Transient earth fault protection faults which are provoked by the
(TGFP) ANSI 67NIEF deterioration of HV cable insulation
TFGP function is dedicated to operate either due to mechanical stress or to
in case of transient earth faults insulation material aging where water
occurring in distribution networks. It is or moisture penetrates into the cable
suitable mainly for isolated and insulation. This can lead to the
compensated networks. insulation voltage withstand reduction
Earth faults generate transients in and to series of cable insulation
currents and voltages. There are breakdowns. ITGF is suitable
several factors that affect the compensated network. The
magnitude and frequency of these intermittent phenomena are
transients, such as the fault moment characterized with very short transients
regarding the voltage wave, fault of rapid changes in form of spikes in
location, fault resistance and the residual current (3Io) and in residual
parameters of the feeders and the voltage (3Uo).
supplying transformers. The voltage of The function uses measured values of
the faulty phase decreases and the 3Io and 3Uo and detects repeatedly
corresponding capacity is discharged transients through the predefined
into the earth. The voltages of the criteria.

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The measurement is realized with a The function detects unbalance load or


very high sampling rate of 4 kHz. fault conditions unprotect from
overheating caused by the negative
5.1.8 High harmonics content earth sequence current at asymmetrical
fault protection (HHGF) mode of operation, due to
The function is intended in particular asymmetrical power supply, internal
for earth fault detection in faults or faults close to the neutral
compensated and isolated networks. point. The function operates with
It can be applied for a protection of the definite time delay characteristics.
overhead lines as well as for
underground cables. 5.1.11 Definite time undercurrent
The main feature is that starting the monitoring (DTUC) ANSI 37
faulty feeder and blocking the DTUC is mainly designed to detect
remaining feeders are provoked by the abnormal difference between
dominant THD criteria. measured phase currents. The
The function has two modes of protection function is suitable for
operation: detection of CB failure and line
Single mode conductor disconnection which reflects
Group mode in a great difference of phase currents.
The activation of the function is The protection function is organized
depending on two start conditions - with logical current elements,
3Uo above the set value or dedicated operating as a conventional phase
binary input in ON position. current relays.
The trip delay timer is with inverse time
characteristics (IDMT). The 5.1.12 Neutral voltage displacement
measurement is realized with a high protection (NVD) ANSI 59G
sampling rate of 2 kHz. The Neutral voltage displacement
function is designed mainly for earth
5.1.9 Thermal overload protection fault identification in isolated and
(TOL) ANSI 49 compensated medium voltage
The function protects from overheating networks. The function is realized with
in overload condition. It creates a three completely separate and
thermal model of the object (motor, independent stages, i. e. each stage is
cable), based on its heating and separate functional module with its
cooling thermal time constants and own settings, configuration
uses an exponential low of thermal parameters, internal variables and
status changing. process points.

5.1.10 Negative sequence overcurrent 5.1.13 ARC protection


protection (NSOC) ANSI 46 The arc protection detects arc/light in
the air insulated switchgears which are

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caused by human errors during overhead lines and underground


maintenance or insulation breakdown cables.
during operation.
The function detects arc/light through 5.1.16 Breaker failure protection (BFP)
dedicated binary input which is ANSI 50BF
energized from the output of the The breaker failure protection function
external arc/light detector. The arc monitors the reaction of a circuit
protection also monitors breaker to a trip signal. The trip
simultaneously phase and neutral command can be issued by an external
currents. The user can select either protection device or by an internal
"Binary Input +current" or "Binary input protection function. The breaker failure
only" mode of operation. protection function can be initiated by
a trip command. If the circuit breaker is
5.1.14 Group Instantaneous not in open status after a
overcurrent protection (GIOC) programmable delay time, breaker
The function is mainly intended for failure protection issues a second trip
application in isolated and command.
compensated networks where it is not
necessary to trip the feeder in case of 5.1.17 Cold load pick-up (CLP)
single earth fault detection. With the CLP function pick-up and
This protection function is additional to delay settings of the directional/non-
the standard IOC and is intended for directional overcurrent/earth fault
the special cases, when a single earth protection can be temporary changed.
fault is growing to double in the It may be necessary dynamically to
different feeders. In this situation it is increase the pick-up values if during
not necessary to trip the both feeders starting and for a short time thereafter,
and is more effective to switch off only the system have an increased power
the feeder with the second earth fault. consumption after a long period of
zero voltage. Thus a raise of pick-up
5.1.15 Phase discontinuity detection thresholds can be avoided by taking
I2/I1 ANSI 46PD into consideration such starting
The function is mainly designed for conditions. It is possible to change
detection of phase discontinuity temporary pick-up thresholds and
(broken conductor) in the primary delay times only for preliminary
circuits and can gives better sensitivity defined internal protection functions.
and stability compared to the negative
phase sequence overcurrent protection 5.1.18 Second harmonic blocking
because it uses the ratio of negative to (Inrush restraint
positive sequence currents which is The protection function is organized
relatively constant in case of load with logical current elements,
changes. The function is suitable for operating as a conventional phase

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current relays. The pick-up logic, The negative sequence overvoltage


checks for the presence of Isec/Ifirst protection is designed for detection of
current ratio above the permissible voltage values Uneg over predefined
threshold (Level detector). limits.
Current element picking-up causes the The function is used to detect
activation of the logical output Block abnormal unbalance conditions. NSOV
which is intended to block temporary is suitable mainly for protection of
the respective internal protection electrical machines.
tripping output. The voltage unbalance often occurs
due to broken conductors or
5.1.19 Undervoltage protection asymmetrical loads and is
ANSI 27 characterized by the appearance of a
The undervoltage protection is suitable negative-sequence component of the
for the detection of voltage collapses voltage. In rotating machines, the
mainly in the transmission lines and in voltage unbalance provokes a current
the electrical machines. This function is unbalance, which heats the rotor of the
basic for DRAGON 1 and is realized machine. If the machine has its own
with three completely separate and current unbalance protection, the
independent stages, i. e. each stage is NSOV can be applied as a backup
separate functional module with its protection or it can be used as an
own settings, configuration parameters alarm.
and internal variables. The function is realized with two
completely separate and independent
5.1.20 Overvoltage protection ANSI 59 stages, i. e. each stage is separate
The overvoltage protection is mainly functional module with its own
designed for detection of high voltage settings, configuration parameters,
levels which are over predefined limits. internal variables and process points.
The overvoltage protection is suitable
for the detection of high voltage levels 5.1.22 Positive sequence undervoltage
which are dangerous for the isolation (PSUV) ANSI 47U+
of the primary equipment. The function The PSUV is used to detect positive
is realized with three completely sequence undervoltage conditions
separate and independent stages, i. e. mainly in the lines connecting power
each stage is separate functional plant with the power system at the
module with its own settings, respectively voltage level.
configuration parameters and internal PSUV is mainly used to protect small
variables. power generation plants through its
isolation from a fault line when the
5.1.21 Negative sequence overvoltage fault current fed by the plant is too low
(NSOV) ANSI 47O to start an overcurrent function but
high enough to maintain the arc. Fast

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isolation of all the fault current sources quartz stable reference time and from
is necessary for a successful this the deviation of the cycle duration
autoreclose with the network-end of the voltage signal is ascertained.
circuit breaker. In case of a vector shift the zero
The positive-sequence undervoltage is passage occurs either earlier or later.
also available during asymmetrical The established deviation of the cycle
faults. It is more appropriate criterion duration is in compliance with the
for detecting the risk of loss of vector shift angle.
synchronism than, for example, the
lowest phase to phase voltage. 5.1.24 Underfrequency protection
Motor stalling and failure to start can (DTUF) ANSI 81U
also lead to a continuous undervoltage. DTUF is mainly designed to protect
For that reason the positive sequence network against the abnormal low
undervoltage can be applied as a frequency condition. DTUF is applicable
backup protection against the motor in all situations where a reliable
stall condition. detection of a low fundamental voltage
PSUV is realized with two separate and frequency is needed. The low
independent stages, i. e. each stage is fundamental frequency in the power
separate functional module with its system indicates that the generated
own settings, configuration power is too low to meet the demands
parameters, internal variables and of the load connected to the power
process points. grid. As a result, the system can be split
into two parts and one of them can
5.1.23 Voltage Vector shift protection have an excess load and the other -
(VVS) deficit. DTUF uses the positive
The voltage vector shift protection is sequence voltage to measure the
designed to detect rapid changes in frequency reliably and accurately.
the vector of the phase voltages during DTUF is realized with four separate and
system failure. independent stages, i. e. each stage is
This function provides anti-islanding separate functional module with its
grid connection protection. It is own settings, configuration parameters
suitable in cases of genset (wind farm, and internal variables.
solar park etc.) disconnection from the
power system. 5.1.25 Over frequency protection
When an island occurs the sudden load (DTOF) ANSI 81O
change is observed and the waveform The overfrequency function is mainly
of the voltage is changed. The function designed to protect network against
measures the cycle duration. A new the abnormal high frequency
measuring is started at each voltage conditions. DTOF is applicable in all
zero passage. The measured cycle situations where a detection of a high
duration is internally compared with a fundamental voltage frequency is

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needed. The deviation of the frequency actions to secure the power system
from the rated system frequency integrity.
indicates unbalance between the RoCoF is realized with four separate
generated power and the load and independent stages, i. e. each
demand. If the available generation is stage is separate functional module
too much compared to the with its own settings, configuration
consumption by the load connected to parameters and internal variables.
the power system, then the system
frequency is above the rated value. The 5.1.27 Starting time supervision
over-frequency protection function is protection (STS) ANSI48
usually applied to decrease generation. Starting time supervision function is
Another possible application is the intended to protect the motor from
detection of unintended island too long starting process. The function
operation of distributed generation supervises the motor status and
and some consumers. In the island, detects the current at the time of
there is low probability that the movement, the beginning of the
generated power is the same as starting process and monitors its
consumption and the detection of high duration.
frequency can be an indication for High voltage motors can quickly be
island mode of operation. heated above their thermal limits if the
DTOF is realized with four separate and duration of the starting attempt is too
independent stages, i. e. each stage is long due to excessive voltage dips
separate functional module with its during motor starting, excessive load
own settings, configuration parameters torques, or blocked rotor conditions.
and internal variables. STS can be used to supplement the
overload protection.
5.1.26 Rate of change of frequency
protection (RoCoF) ANSI 81R 5.1.28 Loss of load protection (LLP)
RoCoF protection is intended in case The protection is suitable for detection
when the rapid change of the of sudden loss of load due to the
fundamental power system voltage disconnection or the coupling
frequency should be detected. The mechanism failure. This situation has to
frequency gradient can be used for be stoped becauce of the possibility to
both increasing and decreasing damage the coupling mechanism or to
phenomena. create the problems in the
This function often in combination with technological process.
underfrequency protection provides
load shedding, generator shedding and 5.1.29 Number of starts limitation
generator boosting, especially in protection (NSL) ANSI66
smaller power systems where the loss NSL is mainly designed to detect
of a large generator requires quick abnormal conditions connected with

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the motor overtemperature process. the status of a dedicated binary input.


The temperature is the main variable The input activation means that the
for the functional algorithm. The cooling system is failed. After that the
function controls if there is a trip trip delay timer is started.
command from any of preliminary set
internal protection functions and when 5.1.32 Directional over/under power
some of them is sending a trip protection (DOP/DUP) ANSI32/37
command the algorithm checks if the The function is operating as an
temperature is above the set Pick-up apparent, active or reactive directional
level. The function protects the motor power relay. The directional overpower
against the overtemperature above the protection DOP can be used for
limit after several consecutive start generator protection against delivering
attempts. an excessive power beyond the
generator's capacity to the grid,
5.1.30 Stalled rotor protection (SLP) against the generator running like a
ANSI51LR motor, against the motor running like a
The function protects the motor generator and protecting the motor
against the overtemperature above the which consumes more reactive power
limits after successful starting and due to loss of field. DOP can also be
consecutive stalling. used in case of Distribution Generation
High-voltage motors can quickly be to indicate an islanding condition.
heated above their thermal limits if the
rotor is stalled due to the excessive 5.1.33 Motor differential protection
load torques, or mechanical blocking (MDP) ANSI 87M
conditions. The operation principle includes a
In case of stalling the stator windings differential protection with bias
draw large currents which cause the characteristics as a setting.
rise of its temperature. The stalling also The MDP is design to protect
causes the increasing of the rotor generators and motors. The function is
temperature due to the reduced speed. normaly used as a main protection
against all types of short circuits and is
5.1.31 Cool system failure protection independent from the type of the
(CFP) neutral earthing.
CFP is mainly designed for detection of There are separate differential relays
abnormal conditions connected with for each side of the motor and
the motor cooling system. The function separate logical differential relays for
protects the motor against the each of the three phases.
overtemperature above the limits after The protection function calculates
cooling system failure. differential currents as a vector sum of
The algorithm is active only in case of the instant values by respective phase
Motor running. The algorithm controls current values measured by the

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protection devices mounted on each end of the power transformer. Bias


end of the motor. currents are calculated as a modul sum
Bias currents are calculated as a modul of the measured phase currents.
sum of the measured phase currents. One of the devices is defined as a
One of the devices is defined as a Master. This device compares
Master. This device compares measured and received values at the
measured and received values at the both ends of the transformer. If the
both ends of the motor. If the difference is bigger than the set value -
difference is bigger than the set value - protection will start to operate. All
protection will start to operate. All calculations of the transformer
calculations of the motor differential differential function are phase
function are phase selective. selective.
The instantaneous stage differential Inrush stabilization by second and fifth
protection serves as a differential harmonic blocking is implemented.
protection without bias characteristic - The instantaneous stage differential
a very fast clearance of severe faults protection serves as a differential
with a high differential current protection without bias characteristic -
regardless of their harmonics. The a very fast clearance of severe faults
algorithm includes current transformer with a high differential current
saturation detector. regardless of their harmonics.
Differential and instantaneous
5.1.34 Transformer differential differential protection stages are phase
protection (TDP) ANSI 87T selective. Differential and
The Transformer differential protection instantaneous differential protection
is design to protect two winding functions operate with equalized input
transformers and generator- currents dependent of the power
transformer blocks. The function is transformer connection group, as well
normaly used as a main protection as those of the current measuring
against all types of short circuits and is transformers. Current transformers
independent from the type of the saturation detector function is
neutral earthing. provided as a part of protection
There are separate differential relays operation. This function is dedicated to
DRAGON 1 for each side of the discover and to neutralize big
transformer and separate logical differential currents which can by
differential relays for each of the three measured due to current transformers
phases. saturation caused by extremely big
The protection function calculates transfer currents in case of external
differential currents as a vector sum of faults.
the instant values by respective phase
current values measured by the 5.1.35 Low impedance restricted earth
protection devices mounted on each fault protection (LIR) ANSI 87N

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The function is intended to protect the differential function are phase


power transformer against earth faults selective.
in the protected area - between the During operation the relay performs
phase current transformers (CT) and permanent time synchronization. One
the CT in the neutral. In case of the of the relays has to be set as Master.
external earth faults the protection is The master takes care to transmit
very sensitive and remains stable. LIR synchronization time marks to the
compares the calculated earth fault other devices. This time marks indicate
current and measured current in the at which point in time the transmitted
neutral. The calculated current is a current data were valid. The receiving
result of the three phase currents device can carry out the current
summation Iph while the neutral comparisons based on the received
current IN is measured through the CT time marks i.e. it can compare the
mounted in the circuit between the star currents which were actually measured
point and the earth. at exactly the same time.

5.1.36 Line differential protection (LDP) 5.1.37 User defined logical functions
87L This is a special feature which provides
LDP operation principle is a differential the customer with the possibility to
protection with bias characteristics as a create mathematic-logic equations for
setting. LDP is mainly designed for the development of new functions
double sourced medium voltage based on the available hardware.
feeders but also is suitable for short HV
lines. The function is normaly used as a 5.1.38 Setting groups
main protection against all types of DRAGON 1 includes up 4 selectable
short circuits and is independent from setting groups. One of them is into
the type of the neutral earthing. operation. Transition from one setting
The protection function calculates group to another can be done during
differential currents as a vector sum of the operation of the device. Changing
the instant values by respective phase the groups can be achieved locally
current values measured by the trough the front device panel),
protection devices mounted on each remotely through PC running Man
end of the protected line. Bias currents Machine Interface (MMI) service
are calculated as a module sum of the program, by a command from
measured phase currents. Substation Automation System
Each device on the both ends of the Workstation or via dedicated binary
line compares measured and received inputs.
values. If the difference is bigger than Function parameters of each setting
the set value - protection will start to group can be edited during the normal
operate. All calculations of the line operation of the device, even the
running setting group.

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Each setting group has its own current transformer circuits can cause
number. This number is used for unwanted operation of differential,
identification of the group while it has earth fault and negative sequence
to be uploaded for editing or for overcurrent protection. The function
activation. calculates the instant value of ratio
Imin/Imax and if the measured value
5.2 Monitoring and control becomes smaller than the settings the
output signal will be issued.

5.2.1 Circuit-breaker life time 5.2.3 Fuse failure monitoring (FFM)


monitoring (CBLT) The function is mainly designed to
The function can be used for signalling monitor the secondary circuits of the
in case of the circuit breaker life time voltage transformers. Abnormal
expiring. The recording function of the conditions are discriminated by the
RMS values for measuring phase detection of asymmetry in the voltage
currents is included in the device. The circuits. The function can be used for
function calculates every millisecond signaling and blocking purposes.
the RMS values of measured currents - The function monitors the instant
Ia, Ib and Ic (based on the last 20 values of the phase voltage sum (UL1+
instantaneous values) and stored them UL2 +UL3) and the zero sequence
in a buffer memory. voltage 3Uo from the broken delta.
CB life time function needs a dedicated The algorithm calculates the average
binary input for indication of CB value of the phase voltages sum for a
position. The three values (Ia, Ib and Ic) half period and compares it to the
are registered at the moment of the average measured value of the 3Uo for
fault. CB electrical and mechanical life the same half period. If the difference
time characteristics are manufacturing is bigger than the set value the
data. It is a function of permissible function activates an alarm signal
operating cycles and breaking current. (Fuse failure).
CB life time function needs this
characteristic to be configured as a 5.2.4 Voltage circuit supervision (VCS)
table. The function is mainly designed to
monitor the secondary circuits of the
5.2.2 Current circuit supervision (CCS) voltage transformers. Abnormal
The function is mainly designed for the conditions are discriminated by the
monitoring of secondary circuits of the detection of asymmetry in the voltage
current transformers. Interruptions, circuits. The function calculates the
short circuits and fault connections instant value of asymmetry and if the
during the commissioning are measured value becomes smaller then
discriminated by the detection of the set then output signal will be
asymmetry. Open or short-circuited issued.

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Symmetrical conditions are checked by currents and voltages for forward and
means of comparison between the reverse direction of the active power
smallest and the biggest phase voltage for the last elapsed period (with a time
values. stamp) and for the active period are
calculated and recorded in the device.
5.2.5 Trip circuit supervision (TCS) Current and voltage thresholds are
The function is intended to give a monitored under/over which the
warning signal in case of failure in the min/max values will not be registered.
tripping circuits irrespective of the
circuit breaker position open or close. 5.2.7 CB local/remote control
The function is applicable for all type of CB control function (CB local/remote
circuit breakers. For the operation of closing and opening by the operational
the function a single binary input and staff can be performed from the device
an external resistor have to be used. only by a command received remotely
The current in the circuit consisting of from SAS/SCADA or locally from the
IED optical input, external resistor and push buttons "I" and "O" on the device
trip coil has to be enough for activating front panel. To enable a command the
the binary input. relay checks the correctness of the
During the binary output operation conditions (the CB status and
(trip command) a special software task local/remote control switch, blocking
will block the activation of the warning conditions etc.). If the necessary
signal. If the output contact remains conditions are not fulfilled the
continuously in close position the operation is cancelled and an
corresponding massage will be explanatory text will be displayed.
activated.
5.2.8 Interlocking
5.2.6 Minimum Maximum values The function allows only commands
monitoring verified by the interlocking logic.
The minimum and maximum primary
values for each of the phase currents Ix, 5.2.9 Lockout logic (ANSI 86)
each of phase-phase voltages (for the This function provides different type of
types with voltage inputs) for a period trip command algorithms with
of 24 hours, 1 mount and 1 year are definite time delay and with
monitored. It means that in the device latching/locking of the trip command.
there are min/max values for the last All binary outputs could be set to use
elapsed period with a time stamp and the Lockout logic.
the min/max values for the active There are two different modes of
period. tripping signal operation:
The max values for forward/reverse Impulse type with the
active/reactive power (for the types minimum tripping time duration
with voltage inputs) and min/max

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Lock-out mode with locked 5.2.11 Synchronism/energizing check


tripping command (SC)
The locked-out command can be reset: The synchrocheck function measures
remotely using a binary input the conditions across the circuit
configured for that purpose; breaker and compares them to the set
remotely by the control limits. The output is activated only
command by the SAS received when all measured quantities are
via local network; simultaneously within their set limits.
locally through the HMI display For single circuit breaker arrangement,
menu; the selection of the correct voltage is
The minimum trip command duration made by using auxiliary contacts of the
function is not active when using the bus disconnectors. For 1 circuit
"Lockout" mode. breaker arrangement, correct voltage
Impulse type trip commands will be selection is made by using auxiliary
terminated when the last protection contacts of the bus disconnectors as
function is dropped-off and the well as of the circuit breakers.
minimum trip command delay time has The phase to phase voltage, frequency
elapsed. and phase angle differences are
measured by the IED and have to be
5.2.10 Clockwise and anticlockwise available for the synchrocheck function.
phase rotation The busbar and the line voltage values
The actual phase rotation is very are used. The frequencies on the both
important for the correct operation of sides of the circuit breaker are also
the protection, monitoring and measured. The frequency difference
measuring functions. The function between the bus frequency and the
checks if the actual phase rotation line frequency has not to exceed the
corresponds to the current settings. For set value.
this purpose the algorithm calculates
and compares angles between phase 5.2.12 Signalization function
to phase currents or voltages that are The results of the device operation (for
in-feed the appropriate terminals of all parts relay protection,
the device. During the device operation measurement and control) including
the phase rotation is permanently primary equipment statuses are stored
established. and visualized by the IED and
If the difference between the real and transferred to the SAS.
the set phase rotation is determined All the device binary inputs are
the alarm signal and the appropriate monitored continuously and any
massage is immediately generated. The change in their status (1 or 0 for
signal will be active until the rotation process point which response for the
starts to respond to the settings. status of the configured primary
equipment) or failure arising is

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displayed and send to the SAS as a commissioning of the IED protection


remote annunciation message. and control functions. Another basic
There are different types of application of the function is to inform
signalization depending on its purpose: the Dispatch center for the parameters
LEDs with blinking, steady state of the technological process in the
lighting and acknowledgement substation. The high sampling rate of
through the front panel 2 kHz allows to calculate and monitor
keyboard THD of up to 19th harmonic, which is
Display information especially oriented to the MV networks
Information intended for the power analyzing.
SAS Workstation
The messages can be categorized as 5.4 Records
follows: The extended memory for the records
Operational messages - of DRAGON 1 series allows storing a
messages generated while the high number of events and disturbance
device is operating with records in its non-volatile memory and
information for the status of the makes the device suitable for
device functions, measured application in unmanned substations.
data, power system data, control DRAGON 1 also provides less than 1ms
command logs etc. precision NTP time synchronization
Fault messages - messages for and transparent file access via MMS or
the last faults File-Transfer-Protocol (FTP).
Spontaneous messages
General Interrogation 5.4.1 Event/fault recorder
Statistic messages - include a The Event recorder function is
counter for opening commands designed for massages storing,
initiated by the device and AR managing and visualizing. This function
commands. is basic and provide the operational
staff with the necessary information for
5.3 Measurement and the fast identification of the current
calculation situation in the object.
This function is used for power system Each massage comprises information
electric parameters measurement, about the event type, time of the event
monitoring and visualization on a local activation with 1ms accuracy and if
display and its sending to the SAS and necessary - numerical information
through it to the upper level of SCADA (fault recorder), which is typical for the
systems. This information provides a process pick-up current value,
fast and easy overview of the elapsed time etc.
substation present status. At the same The information recorded by the
time it can be used to verify the proper Event/fault recorder is stored in non-
operation during the testing and volatile memory and can be shown at

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the unit display, memorized in the SAS DRAGON 1 series gives the possibility
or uploaded in the PC with running for redundancy with application of the
MMI program. latest types of IEC 61850 Redundancy
Communication Protocols PRP, HSR
5.4.2 Disturbance recorder and RSTP for star and ring topology.
If changes in the normal operating
conditions appeared they can be 5.6.1 Rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP)
memorized by the Disturbance In the case when network offers
recorder function, implemented in the redundant links the application of the
device. The recorded values are Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) is
measured with sampling frequency of suitable.
1kHz.
The records from the Disturbance 5.6.2 High availability seamless
redundancy (HSR)- IEC 62439-3 Clause 5
recorder function can be transferred to
IEC 62439-3 Clause 5 defines another
the device with running MMI service
redundancy in the nodes solution with
program local SAS, portable PC,
HSR, in which a switch element is
Dispatch centre etc.
integrated in each device.
HSR applies parallel operation principal
5.5 Communication to a single ring, treating the two
DRAGON 1 IEDs are intended to be directions as two virtual LANs. This
used practically with all standard allows a significant reduction in
communication protocols, which are in hardware costs because no switches
use by SCADA including IEC 61850 and are used and only one link is added. All
GOOSE. nodes of the ring must be switching
nodes, i.e. they have two ports and
5.6 Redundancy protocols integrate a switch element.
Redundancy was a major hurdle, since
the lack of a commonly accepted 5.6.3 Parallel redundancy protocol (PRP)
redundancy protocol prompted PRP (IEC 62439-3 Clause 4) specifies
manufacturers to market incompatible that each device is connected in
proprietary solutions. parallel to two local area networks of a
similar topology.

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CONTACT US
ROCON PLC
56A 21Vek str. 1700 Sofia, Bulgaria
tel. 359 2 962 2394, 962 22 74
Fax 359 2 962 86 40
E-mail rocon@roconbg.com
web: www.roconbg.com

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