Engineering Rules For Frequency Hopping

Reference : Version : Date : Ext. ref. : Type : Product : Cat : Status : Author : Documentalist : Approved by :
PE/IRC/DD/0012 01.03 / EN 20/07/98 .... TYP PRD I A S. Le Graët A.M. Le Berre C. Moreau

Quality manager : J.C. Hamani Abstract / Comments :

Distribution lists : ND, AE, RF Projects, RF Solution, RF Measurement, System Design, PENG, WGAl, NMO, RSV

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DOCUMENT AMENDMENTS VERSION 01.01/EN 01.02/EN 01.03/EN DATE 25/05/98 12/06/98 17/07/98 COMMENTS Creation of document Update after review Modifications AUTHOR S. Le Graët S. Le Graët S. Le Graët

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Engineering Rules For Frequency Hopping PE/IRC/DD/0012 01.03 / EN 20/07/98

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Reference : Version : Date :

PE/IRC/DD/0012 01.03 / EN 20/07/98

ENGINEERING RULES FOR FREQUENCY HOPPING

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 3 1.1. OBJECT................................................................................................................... 3 1.2. SCOPE .................................................................................................................... 3 2. RELATED DOCUMENTS ................................................................................................... 4 2.1. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS................................................................................... 4 2.2. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS................................................................................... 4 3. ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS.................................................................................... 5 3.1. ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................... 5 3.2. DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................... 5 4. ENGINEERING RULES FOR FREQUENCY HOPPING..................................................... 6 4.1. FREQUENCY HOPPING PRINCIPLES AND BENEFITS........................................ 6
4.1.1. FREQUENCY HOPPING PRINCIPLE ................................................................................................................ 6 4.1.2. FREQUENCY HOPPING BENEFITS .................................................................................................................. 8 4.1.3. BASEBAND FREQUENCY HOPPING ............................................................................................................. 11 4.1.4. SYNTHESISED FREQUENCY HOPPING........................................................................................................ 14 4.1.5. NORTEL CHOICE BETWEEN BASEBAND AND SYNTHESISED FREQUENCY HOPPING.................... 14

4.2. ENGINEERING RULES FOR SYNTHESISED FREQUENCY HOPPING ............. 18
4.2.1. SYNTHESISED FREQUENCY HOPPING PARAMETERS............................................................................. 18 4.2.2. FRACTIONAL FREQUENCY LOAD................................................................................................................ 20 4.2.3. MAXIMUM TRX CONFIGURATION............................................................................................................... 22 4.2.4. SFH PARAMETER SETTING FOR 1:1 PATTERN : STRATEGY 1 ............................................................... 25 4.2.5. SFH PARAMETER SETTING FOR 1:3 PATTERN : STRATEGY 2 ............................................................... 29 4.2.6. SUM-UP OF THE DIFFERENT STRATEGY RESULTS ................................................................................. 35

CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 36

Z END OF DOCUMENT Y ................................................................................................. 37

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1.
1.1.

INTRODUCTION
OBJECT
This document aims at describing the engineering rules for frequency hopping. It has been written in the context of studies lead by WGAl. The purpose of this document is to describe and compare baseband frequency hopping and synthesised frequency hopping. It argues Nortel choice for synthesised frequency hopping. Then, according to the network (frequency pattern, interference, environment,...) engineering rules for Synthesised Frequency Hopping are developed. The given engineering rules come from field experience and study results.

1.2.

SCOPE
This document is compliant with BSS releases until V10. First this document explains frequency hopping principle and benefits. The two (2) types of frequency hopping (baseband and synthesised) are described and compared. Then, engineering rules are given for synthesised frequency hopping.

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2.
2.1.

RELATED DOCUMENTS
APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS
[A1] [A2] PE/DCL/DD/0007 PE/IRC/APP/0037 V10.02/EN V02.03/EN Dictionary of parameters BSS parameters user guide

2.2.

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
[R1] MOBRO-02-Q-496-98 [R2] Synthesised frequency hopping versus Baseband frequency hopping GDC/BYT97/KH/DIV/1377 Revue du cahier de test Saut de Frequence et reponses aux questions pour l’IWG Frequency Hopping PE/IRC/APP/00068 V10 Engineering Changes PE/BTS/DD/0421 SFS of the BTS : Measurement Processing PE/IRC/INF/0014 1/3 Reuse Pattern Engineering Information

[R3] [R4] [R5]

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3.
3.1.

ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS
ABBREVIATIONS
BER BCCH BCF BSC BTS DTX FER FH FN FP HSN MA MAI MAIO MTBF OMC PWC SFH TDMA TEI TRX TX TS Bit Error Rate Broadcast Control Channel Base Common Function Base Station Controller Base Station Discontinuous transmission Frame Erasure Rate Frequency Hopping Frame Number Frame Processor Hopping Sequence Number Mobile Allocation Mobile Allocation Index Mobile Allocation Index Offset Minimum Time Between Failure Operation and Maintenance Centre for the radio subsystem Power Control Slow Frequency Hopping Time Division Multiple Access Terminal equipment identifier (lapd protocol related) Transmission/Reception subsystem of the BTS BTS Transmitter Time Slot

3.2.

DEFINITIONS
MTBF It is a mathematical time expectancy between two successive parts of equipment or unit failure

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4.

ENGINEERING HOPPING

RULES

FOR

FREQUENCY

4.1.
4.1.1.

FREQUENCY HOPPING PRINCIPLES AND BENEFITS
FREQUENCY HOPPING PRINCIPLE

Basically, Frequency Hopping aim is to spread the spectrum of the signal to minimise the impact of potential interferers. Frequency Hopping consists in changing the frequency used by a channel at regular intervals. In GSM, the transmission frequency remains the same during the transmission of a whole burst. Thus, it is possible to have different frequencies on each burst of a frame. The radio interface of GSM uses then slow Frequency Hopping. According to the type of coupler used in the BTS, two (2) main types of Frequency Hopping mechanism can be used : • Synthesised mode for Hybrid couplers with duplexers (hopping time slots can hop on a large band of frequencies) • Baseband mode using Cavity couplers with duplexers (hopping time slots can hop on a set of frequencies limited by the number of TRXs) - Only available with S4000 BTS. Remark: It is also possible to use baseband frequency hopping for hybrid couplers with duplexers, when not using hopping BCCH (pseudo Baseband Frequency Hopping). However the interest of having hybrid couplers is lost (possibility to have more frequencies than TRX with hybrid couplers though baseband needs exactly the same number of frequencies than TRX).

Using frequency hopping allows to adapt and maximise the frequency re-use pattern efficiency by maximising the capacity in term of offered Erlang/Mhz/km². The pattern to use will depend on the available frequency band and the traffic requirement. With frequency hopping, instead of having determined frequencies for TCH, TCH TRXs can hop on several frequency groups. It is possible (and recommended) to mix different frequency re-use technique, as 4:12 for BCCH and 1:3 or 1:1 for TCH. Indeed, a traditional 4:12 reuse pattern is appropriate to a wide spectrum allocation as for BCCH frequency (only one frequency per cell is needed). However, in order to increase the number of TRX per cell with a given frequency band, in keeping a low interference level, the only solution is to use more restricting reuse pattern, as 1:1 or 1:3.

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BCCH 4*12 Re-use Pattern Basis

TCH 1x3 Re-use Pattern Basis

TCH 1*1 Re-use Pattern Basis

Example Here below is an example of spectrum efficiency, according to the type of frequency re-use pattern. This application is supposing 30 RF carriers in a 6 MHz allocation for trisectorial cells, using a 4:12 reuse pattern for BCCH.
4*12 pat ern t Fract 1*3 . 30 Carriers - 12 for BCCH 18 for TCH Fract 1*1 . 30 Carriers - 12 for BCCH 18 for TCH

30 /12 = 2 or 3

18 /3 = 6

Each cell contains 2 or 3 frequencies

Each cell contains 7 frequencies (1 + 6)

Each cell contains 19 frequencies (1 + 18)

1 TRX for BCCH non hopping 1 TRX for BCCH non hopping 1 or 2 TRX on 1 frequency (no FH) 1 or 2 TRX on 1 frequency (no FH)

1 TRX for BCCH non hopping 1 TRX for BCCH non hopping up to 3 TRX hopping on 6 up to 3 TRX hopping on 6 frequencies frequencies

1 TRX for BCCH non hopping 1 TRX for BCCH non hopping up to 4 TRX hopping on 18 up to 4 TRX hopping on 18 frequencies frequencies

It is obvious with this example that frequency hopping associated to fractional re-use patterns leads to a subsequent gain in terms of offered Erlangs per cell.

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4.1.2.

FREQUENCY HOPPING BENEFITS

The two main advantages of Frequency Hopping are interferer and frequency diversity.

The first-one (interferer diversity) is minimising the standard deviation of the C/I distribution law

• The second-one (frequency diversity) allows to lower the impact of Rayleigh Fading for slow mobiles.

4.1.2.1.

Benefits for RxLev

The Rayleigh fading is a high attenuation of the signal at a given point, due to multiple path. The area with fading or fading hole has a very small size which is directly dependant on the frequency of the signal. Negative effects of deep Rayleigh fading holes can therefore be counter-balanced. Such a robust behaviour is especially useful for slow-moving mobiles, which are more likely to experiment low field levels due to fast fading. When moving, the mobile is obviously less sensitive to these fading holes and looses few information which does not decrease the voice quality. But when not moving or in case of slow moving (e.g. pedestrian) a mobile may stay during a long time under the same Rayleigh fading effect and loose a significant amount of information. For two different frequencies the Rayleigh fading is not at the same place (the distance between two fading holes is λ/2). So with Frequency Hopping, during the same time the mobile can be considered like if it was under different fast fading effects : the frequency hopping simulates the movement for a fixed mobile.
dB
10

5

0 1 -5

-10

F requency 1 ( or T ime 1) F requency 2 ( or T ime 2 )

-15

-20

-25

T ime ( or F requency )

-30

-A S L OW MS CAN S T AY HE R E DUR ING S E VE R AL S P E E CH F R AME S - AT HIGH S P E E D OR WIT H S P ACE OR DIVE R S IT Y T E CHNIQUE S IT CAN S T AY ONL Y ONE T IME S L OT

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Warning : It is common to find a 6dB for the C/I gain in the GSM documents ; however a significant deviation can be observed according to the type of mobile, type of interferers, number of frequencies in the hopping list, physical environment,... 4.1.2.2. Benefits for RxQual

GSM Channel coding and frame interleaving allow to spread interference across the time and frequency axes, thanks to frequency hopping activation between consecutive time slots. As shown on the next diagram, the RxQual parameter is computed as the average over all the burst of a SACCH period (104 consecutive bursts in case of TCH channel without DTX) of the bit error rate (BER) before decoding. The frame erasure rate (FER) is evaluated once the 8 bursts which constitute a full speech frame (456 coded bits interleaved in 8 half-bursts of 57 bits each) is decoded.

c(f1) c(f2) c(f3) c(f4) c(f5) c(f6)

c(f7) c(f8) .... RXQUAL

I(f1)

I(f2)

I(f3)

I(f4)

I(f5)

I(f6)

I(f7) I(f8)

c(fi): wanted signal, on carrier i I(fi) : jammer signal, on carrier i

Decoding De-interleaving

Speech frame erasure criterion

FER

In the case of networks with small spectrum allocation, high instantaneous interference levels can be expected. However, frequency hopping allows to take advantage of jammer diversity, spreading interference across the network, which can therefore result in improvements of high RxQual values but also in degradation of low RxQual values (tighter RxQual distribution). Therefore, RxQual thresholds should be increased by one (1) or two (2) units when using frequency hopping, in order to avoid an increase of handover on quality criteria.

4.1.2.3.

Benefit on FER

As frequency hopping spreads over space and time the effects of fading and interferers, FER decreases when frequency hopping is enabled.

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At Air Interface :
measure in BER

After Forward Error Correction :
measure in FER

It is remained that each voice frame of 20 ms is spread over 4 frames of 5 ms each. The BER Bite Error Rate) is computed on each 5 ms frame and the FER (Frame Erasure Rate) on each 20 ms frame after the decoding/interleaving. Hence the FER is the best way to estimate the subjective voice quality. For handset mobiles, frequency hopping brings a high improvement. This gain is particularly interesting since four (4) frequencies are used for frequency hopping. Furthermore, the following curve highlights that for a given frequency hopping configuration, the gain is particularly high when the speed of mobiles is low (less than 20 km/h).
FRAME ERASURE RATE versus SFH at -104 dBm
12,00

10,00

1 km/h 3 km/h 5 km/h

8,00

10 km/h 50 km/h

FER(%)

6,00

4,00

2,00

0,00

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

NUMBER OF FREQUENCIES FOR HOPPING

4.1.2.4.

Sum-up of the main benefits of frequency hopping

• up to 8 frequencies, the higher the number of frequencies in the hopping law, the smaller the Fading margin taken into account in the link budget (due to Rayleigh fading). • the smaller the mobile speed and the higher the number of frequencies, the higher the benefit of the frequency hopping. • the higher the number of frequencies in the hopping law, the narrower the Rxqual distribution. However Rxqual mean remains the same (see figure below). Hence the Frequency Hopping eliminates the number of bad Rxqual samples but it also reduces the number of good Rxqual ones.
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RXQUAL cdf versus SFH (1km/h, -104 dBm) cdf = cumulative distribution function 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 BER % 6 8 10 NO FH 4 freq 8 freq 16 freq

• Increase resistance to Rayleigh fading: - re-centred RxQual distribution for slow moving mobiles - better stability of the received signal level (smoothing effect ) Completion of diversity task on uplink and full benefit on downlink - high improvement for areas of weaker signal strength (inside buildings and on street level) • Resistance to interference - spread of interference over all RF spectrum - spread of interference over time - highly loaded sites benefit from lower load on adjacent sites - more efficient error correction gain from digital processing

4.1.3. 4.1.3.1.

BASEBAND FREQUENCY HOPPING Principle

Using baseband frequency hopping, each TX is dedicated to one frequency and is connected to all the Frame Processor (TDMA) via the FH bus. It is used with cavity coupling system. It uses exactly the same number of frequencies as TRXs. The filling is done by the FP according to the configuration of the TDMA (all the parameters for the frequency hopping are static and not per call basis ; so even if there is no call the FP knows if it has to transmit on the BCCH frequency).

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Moreover the TX can have a carrier filling functionality which is not useful for the BCCH frequency (Carrier filling is already done by the FP) but which can be used in case of other frequencies carrier filling with the use of a specific BCF load.

FP1 FP2 FP3 FP4

TX1 TX2 TX3 TX4

BCCH Freq

Filling burst when there is no information to transmit on the BCCH frequency
For a given cell with the previous configuration (4 TRX), two Mobiles Allocations would be defined : - MA1 is used with the complete set of frequencies available to hop on (including the BCCH frequency), then four (4) frequencies. - MA0 does not contain the BCCH to be able to hop on three (3) frequencies (MA1-BCCH frequency) with the TS in the TDMA0. There are two possibilities for baseband frequency hopping configuration: - hopping on TCH and BCCH TS TDMA 0 TDMA 1 TDMA 2 TDMA 3 0 F1 MA0 MA0 MA0 1 MA1 MA1 MA1 MA1 2 MA1 MA1 MA1 MA1 3 MA1 MA1 MA1 MA1 4 MA1 MA1 MA1 MA1 5 MA1 MA1 MA1 MA1 6 MA1 MA1 MA1 MA1 7 MA1 MA1 MA1 MA1

MAIO = 0 MAIO = 1 MAIO = 2 MAIO = 3

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- hopping on TCH, no hopping on BCCH TS TDMA 0 TDMA 1 TDMA 2 TDMA 3 0 F1 MA0 MA0 MA0 1 F1 MA0 MA0 MA0 2 F1 MA0 MA0 MA0 3 F1 MA0 MA0 MA0 4 F1 MA0 MA0 MA0 5 F1 MA0 MA0 MA0 6 F1 MA0 MA0 MA0 7 F1 MA0 MA0 MA0

MAIO = 0 MAIO = 1 MAIO = 2 MAIO = 3

with :

MA : Mobile Allocation (list of hopping frequencies for a TRX) MAIO : Mobile Allocation Index Offset between 0 and (Nb of Freq in MA - 1). F1 : BCCH frequency

Caution : it is not recommended to hop on BCCH frequency when using baseband frequency hopping, because it can lead to some troubles when downlink DTX or downlink power control are enabled.

4.1.3.2.

Reconfiguration procedure

With the baseband frequency hopping mechanism, it is possible to reconfigure the frequencies in certain cases. The process is started by BSC in case of equipment failure/recovery within a TRX, for a Radio Cell which supports frequency hopping and uses the Frequency Management GSM function. This function is supported by the TRX and allows the BSC to configure or to reset a frequency on a TX which is identified by the TEI of the corresponding TRX. The loss of one TX implies the loss of one frequency (which is not the BCCH) and of one TDMA (the one defined with the lowest priority) if no redundant TRX. Two symmetric mechanisms are managed by the BSC to handle the automatic frequency reconfiguration in the case of frequency hopping cavity coupling BTS: - loss of a frequency: the cell is stopped and restarted with new set of frequencies. This may lead to release the calls. - recovery of all frequencies: an automatic reconfiguration is triggered by the BSC when all the frequencies are recovered. This may lead to release the calls. There will be a reconfiguration if the flag bscHopReconfUse = True (defined at BSC level) and if there are more frequencies than the threshold btsThresholdHopReconf (defined at BTS level). Otherwise the cell is badly configured. When a end of fault occurs if the flag btsHopReconfRestart = True and if there are more frequencies than the threshold (btsThresholdHopReconf), there is a complete cell reconfiguration.

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4.1.4.

SYNTHESISED FREQUENCY HOPPING

Using synthesised frequency hopping, each TX is associated to one FP (TDMA) and can transmit on all the frequencies. It is used with hybrid coupling systems and can use more frequencies than TRXs. The main issue is to ensure that the frequency BCCH is transmitted all the time (on all the TS of the TDMA) at a constant power even if there is no call to transmit (no voice or data burst). This is done by a specific configuration which consists in dedicating a TRX to the BCCH frequency (so the TDMA called BCCH does not hop) Generally, the number of frequencies is greater than the number of TRX in order to have the smallest Fading margin in the link budget.

FH bus

FP1 FP2 FP3

TX1

TX2

TX3

The TDMA configurations in case of synthesised frequency hopping are defined as follows : • F1 is the BCCH frequency. • the other two TDMA of the cell have the same MA. HSN and MAIO can be different (see Engineering Rules in chapter 4.2).

4.1.5.

NORTEL CHOICE BETWEEN FREQUENCY HOPPING

BASEBAND

AND

SYNTHESISED

In case of cavity (or filter) coupling system, the only way to perform frequency hopping is to use baseband frequency hopping. The wideband coupling system (duplexer or hybrid-2ways and duplexer) allows the use of both types of frequency hopping ; however, it is more appropriated with synthesised frequency hopping. Here below are listed the main comparison points between baseband and synthesised frequency hopping. It allows to decide the most appropriated frequency hopping mechanism.
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4.1.5.1.

Use of downlink DTX and downlink power control

Tests have shown that if DTX downlink and Power Control downlink are activated simultaneously when using baseband frequency hopping, it could lead to quality degradation and eventually to call drops for some mobile brands. With synthesised frequency hopping, this behaviour has never been encountered whatever the mobile brand is. So with simultaneous activation of these two features, interference are significantly reduced. Synthesized Frequency Hopping is then the only frequency hopping mechanism possible when using downlink DTX and downlink power control.

4.1.5.2.

Parameter settings

The parameter setting for the synthesised frequency hopping with a fractional re-use pattern is easily performed due to the fact that the set of frequencies is the same for each cell (1*1 pattern) or a group of cells (for example 1*3 pattern). Implementation of new sites does not imply a new frequency planning for the existing sites. On the contrary, two different MA per cell (one including BCCH frequency) are needed when using baseband frequency hopping.

4.1.5.3.

Capacity and Quality impact in case of TRX loss

In case of baseband frequency hopping, the number of used frequencies is equal to the number of TRX. As a result, in case of TRX loss, the capacity of the site will be reduced, and the number of frequencies in the hopping sequence is also reduced by one. Therefore, the overall benefit of the frequency hopping (i.e. voice quality) is reduced. In case of synthesised frequency hopping, the capacity of the site is also reduced, but the overall load of the fractional pattern is reduced (the number of frequency in the hopping sequence is still the same, but the number of in-service TRX is reduced by one) ; so the overall voice quality is improved.

4.1.5.4.

MTBF impact of the coupling system

Cavity combiners, which are mechanical equipment, have smaller MTBF than hybrid coupler combiners which are passive equipment. Therefore, the synthesised solution with wideband coupling system shall be more reliable than the baseband solution with cavity coupling system.

4.1.5.5.

Coupling loss impact

On one hand, cavity coupling systems have an insertion loss around 4,5 dB ; on the other hand, duplexer and hybrid 2-ways coupling systems have a respective insertion loss of 1,3 dB and 4,8 dB. Therefore, when using duplexers, a lower loss in the uplink budget allows to have a lower downlink

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budget (3.2 dB) to balance the path loss. Otherwise, the use of hybrid 2-ways coupling systems does not badly impact the link budget, in comparison with cavity coupling systems.

4.1.5.6.

Frequency hopping efficiency

For limited frequency spectrum networks, the maximum configuration of BTS is limited to few TRX in case of baseband frequency hopping. This means that every timeslot is hopping on a few frequencies (often less than 4). When using synthesised frequency hopping, every timeslot (except those of the BCCH TRX) is hopping on more frequencies (not limited by the number of TRX). Now, from Nortel experience, to get the full benefit of frequency hopping, a minimum of four (4) different frequencies shall be used. This benefit is increased up to 8 frequencies available within the hopping sequence concerning fading effects. Moreover, beyond 8 frequencies, the additional interferer benefits are still increasing.

RXLEV cdf versus SFH
100 NOHOP 2freq 4 freq 8 freq

%

10

1 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

FADING MARGIN (dB)
Simulation for a MS with a 1 km/h speed cdf : cumulative distribution function

Then the use of Synthesised Frequency Hopping is more efficient than the use of baseband frequency hopping.

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4.1.5.7.

TRX addition in a given cell

In case of synthesised frequency hopping, it is not always mandatory to stop a sector when adding a TRX in this sector (it only requires that this additional TRX was previously declared within the OMC database). On the contrary, in case of baseband frequency hopping, this is not possible due to the fact that every time a TRX is added, the quantities of frequencies used in the cell has to be increased. Then it is more convenient to use Synthesised Frequency Hopping when adding TRX in a cell.

4.1.5.8.

Conclusion

Thus, the use of synthesised frequency hopping really outperforms the use of baseband frequency hopping. It implies less interference than the use of baseband frequency hopping and it is easier to use for parameter setting. Moreover, Synthesised Frequency Hopping is fully compliant with the use of downlink DTX and DTX power control. The following chapter is then describing the recommended engineering rules to follow wor synthesised frequency hopping.

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4.2.

ENGINEERING HOPPING

RULES

FOR

SYNTHESISED

FREQUENCY

4.2.1.

SYNTHESISED FREQUENCY HOPPING PARAMETERS

The parameters used to set the Frequency Hopping are the following one : HSN : Hopping Sequence Number [0, 63] MAI : Mobile Allocation Index Nf : Number of hopping frequencies MAIO : Mobile Allocation Index Offset between 0 and Nf - 1. Each hopping TRX has a MAIO FN : Frame Number (GSM time) MA : Mobile Allocation The hopping sequence generation algorithm uses the hopping sequence number (HSN) parameter to distinguish between the 64 possible pseudo-random sequences, and produces for each frame, a Mobile Allocation Index (MAI). This parameter is therefore GSM time and HSN dependent. The number of frequencies in the Mobile Allocation is also used as an input in order to produce a MAI value within the range of the frequency allocation. This value (MAI) is increased by the MAIO assigned to each time slot, prior to selecting in the Mobile Allocation (MA) the appropriate frequency to be used on this particular time slot.

Example: FN
MA

HSN Nf

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8

+
MAIO

MAI

Nf = 8 HSN : 10 MAI MAIO : 0 MAI MAIO : 2 MAI

1

2

7

8

2

4

5

1

F1 F2 F7 F8 F2 F4 F5 F1 F3 F4 F1 F2 F4 F6 F7 F3

The sequence number indicates the frequency used in a TRX with MAIO equal to 0, according to the frequency order in the Mobile Allocation. In the upper example, the sequence number 1 corresponds to the frequency F1, because it is the first one in the MA list. The MAIO indicates the offset of the MAI in the MA list. Thus, keeping the sequence number 1 for MAIO 0 (F1 is selected) a MAIO equal to 2 corresponds to the frequency F3 because it is the third-one in the MA list.
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MAI = 1 Î F MAIO=0 = F MAI = F1 Then: F MAIO=2 = F (MAI + MAIO) = F3 As a general rule, the frequency for a TRX using a MAIO equal to i is the following: F MAIO=i = F (MAI + i)

HSN and MAIO properties : • Sequences bearing different HSN will statistically collide 1/Nf of time (whatever the MAIO). • Sequences bearing the same HSN but different MAIO are orthogonal (no collision). • HSN = 0 correspond to cyclic frequency hopping. Thus, on a same site an identical value of HSN for each cell provides the same MAI. A different MAIO for each TRX ensure the hopping sequence laws are orthogonal. The generation algorithm in GSM has been specified so that two sequences bearing two different HSN will statistically collide 1/Nfth of the time, where Nf is the number of hopping frequencies. However, perfect orthogonality is ensured by assigning the same HSN but a different MAIO value to two synchronised TDMAs. In the example above, channels 1, 2 and 3 will never collide.

HSN and MAIO rules : Two HSN and MAIO allocation strategies are possible depending on : • the implemented reuse pattern • the frequency grouping • the number of hopping TRXs per site On one hand, to avoid a collision between two sequences, it is better to use the same HSN and different MAIO (sequences are then orthogonal). On the other hand the maximum number of MAIO in a cell is equal to the number of hopping frequencies. So this solution can not be used if the number of hopping frequencies is too low.

Network HSN plan : Once a strategy for HSN and MAIO plans within a site has been defined, an HSN plan must be elaborated for the network. The MAIO plan will be the same for all sites. But for the HSN plan, usually a minimum distance between two (2) sites using the same HSN is defined. Furthermore, the use of the same HSN in a cell and in its jammers is also not recommended.

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Example (set of frequencies is F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7) : HSN =1 MAIO = 0 HSN = 1 MAIO = 1 F1 F2 F2 F3 F6 F7 F7 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F5 F6 F1 F2

4.2.2.

FRACTIONAL FREQUENCY LOAD

The fractional reuse pattern which can be implemented on a network depends on the fractional frequency load. FrequencyLoad = NbHopTRXCell Nhfcell

With: - NbHopTRXCell : number of hopping TRX in a cell - Nhfcell : number of hopping frequencies in a cell (= number of frequencies in the MA) For a 1:1 pattern, as all cells within a site have the same MA list, the number of hopping frequencies in a cell is the same than the number of hopping frequencies in the corresponding site. Nhfsite = Nhfcell in a 1:1 pattern With: - Nhfsite : number of hopping frequencies in a site For a 1:3 pattern, as each cell within a site has a specific MA list, there are three (3) times more hopping frequencies in a site (trisectorial site) than hopping frequencies in its cells. Nhfsite = 3* Nhfcell in a 1:3 pattern Assuming a network with trisectorial sites with an homogeneous distribution of TRX, whatever the pattern is, there are always three (3) times more hopping TRX in a site than hopping TRX in its cells. NbHopTRXSite = 3* NbHopTRXCell for trisectorial sites with homogeneous distribution of TRX With: - NbHopTRXSite : number of hopping TRX in a site Thus, it is obvious that the defined frequency load is not comparable in a 1:1 pattern and a 1:3 pattern. In order to study the capacity (number of TRX per cell) according to the type of

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pattern, with a given frequency band and a minimum if interference, a new function must be defined: FreqLoadSite = NbHopTRXCell Nhfsite

With: - NbHopTRXCell : number of hopping TRX in a cell - Nhfsite : number of hopping frequencies in a site According to the previous equations for 1:1 and 1:3 patterns, the new function FreqLoadSite can be related to the usual frequency load: FrequencyLoad = FreqLoadSite FrequencyLoad = 3* FreqLoadSite for a 1:1 pattern for a 1:3 pattern

The table below shows the fractional re-use pattern that can be implemented according to the maximum fractional frequency load. The results in this table come from simulations and field experience. Then they have to be understood as maximum values for a good RF quality in the network. They are available only in case of using power control and DTX, both uplink and downlink. Otherwise, the maximum fractional frequency load would be smaller. Fractional re-use pattern FrequencyLoad max 1:1 20 % 1:3 50 % FreqLoadSite max 20 % 16 %

16%

20%

FreqLoadSite
1/1 fractional re-use pattern 1/3 fractional re-use pattern

The maximum frequency load is the basis of the following study for engineering rules concerning HSN and MAIO. Indeed, as the frequency load is a limitation, the aim of HSN and MAIO plans is to be as close as possible to this limitation, and to have as less interference as possible (no adjacent frequency).

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4.2.3.

MAXIMUM TRX CONFIGURATION

With the previous results, it is possible to determine the maximum site configuration according to the number of frequencies and the re-use pattern (considering a 4:12 re-use pattern for the BCCH), and taking into account the results of maximum frequency load. Here below some examples show how to find the maximum site configuration from the number of available frequencies, or the contrary, the minimum number of frequencies needed for a given site configuration. Example 1: What is the minimum number of needed frequencies for a S333 site configuration, considering one (1) no hopping TRX (BCCH) and two (2) hopping TRX (TCH) in a 1:3 pattern for TCH ? As seen before, with a 1:3 pattern: FrequencyLoad = 50 % Then: NbHopTRXCell = FrequencyLoad * Nfhcell = 4 There are 3 cells, then: NbHopTRXSite = 12 TCH As there is a 4:12 reuse pattern for BCCH, 12 frequencies are reserved for BCCH. Finally, at least 24 frequencies are needed for using Synthesised Frequency Hopping in respecting the maximal frequency load authorised. Example 2: What is the maximum site configuration with 28 available frequencies in the site, considering a trisectorial site, a 1:1 pattern for TCH and a 4:12 pattern for BCCH ? As there is a 4:12 reuse pattern for BCCH, 12 frequencies are reserved for BCCH. Then, 14 frequencies are available for TCH: Nhfsite = 14 As seen before, with a 1:1 pattern: Nhfcell = Nhfsite = 14 Frequency load for a 1:1 pattern: FrequencyLoad = FreqLoadSite = 20 % Then: NbHopTRXCell ‰ FrequencyLoad * Nfhcell = 2.8 There are 3 cells, then: Nb of TRX / Cell = BCCH + NbHopTRXCell = 3 Thus, the maximum configuration is: S333

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Example 3: What is the maximum site configuration with 28 available frequencies in the site, considering a trisectorial site, a 1:3 pattern for TCH and a 4:12 pattern for BCCH ? Frequency load for a 1:3 pattern: FrequencyLoad = 50 % As there is a 4:12 reuse pattern for BCCH, 12 frequencies are reserved for BCCH. Then, 14 frequencies are available for TCH: Nhfsite = 16 As seen before, with a 1:3 pattern: Nhfcell = Nhfsite / 3 = 5.3 The number of hopping frequencies in a cell is of course a whole number, and because the frequency load is 0.5, it is better to have even numbers to optimize the number of TRX in the site. In order to have whole and even numbers: cell1: Nhfcell = 6 cell2: Nhfcell = 6 cell3: Nhfcell = 4 Then: NbHopTRXCell = FrequencyLoad * Nfhcell Thus, for each cell: cell1 & cell2: NbHopTRXCell = 3 cell3: NbHopTRXCell = 2 Then, to determine the total number of TRX: Nb of TRX / Cell = BCCH + NbHopTRXCell Thus, the maximum configuration is: S443

The following tables show the maximum site configuration according to the number of frequencies and the re-use pattern (considering a 4:12 re-use pattern for the BCCH), and taking into account the results of maximum frequency load. number of frequencies 1:3 fractional re-use pattern 1:1 fractional re-use pattern 4 :12 re-use pattern 96 84 72 60 54 S888 48 S777 S444 47 S888 S888 S777 S666 S555

number of frequencies 1:3 fractional re-use pattern 1:1 fractional re-use pattern 4 :12 re-use pattern

42 S666 S777

37 S666

36 S555 S333

32 S555

30 S444

27 S444

24 S333 S222

number of frequencies 1:3 fractional re-use pattern 1:1 fractional re-use pattern 4 :12 re-use pattern

22 S333

18 S222

17 S222

12 S111 S111 S111

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Maximum TRX configuration
60 50 frequency number 40 30 20 10 0 1:1 fractional re-use pattern 1:3 fractional re-use pattern re-use pattern 4:12 re-use pattern S888 S777 S666 S555 S444 S333 S222 S111

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4.2.4.

SFH PARAMETER SETTING FOR 1:1 PATTERN : STRATEGY 1

As defined in chapter 4.1.1., this strategy means the use of the same frequency group of TCH (Mobile Allocation) for all cells in the network. The values of maximum frequency load in a cell (function FreqLoadSite, 20 % for 1:1, 16 % for 1:3) indicated in chapter 4.2.2. show that for a given frequency band, this strategy (1:1 pattern) leads to a capacity increase (more TRX per cell). However, this maximum frequency load must be obtained without an increase of interference. Then, the aim of the following study is to show what are the best HSN and MAIO plans to reach the maximum frequency load without increasing the interference.

HSN and MAIO general rules • In case of 1:1 fractional re-use pattern it is obviously forbidden to re-use the same value of HSN and MAIO on two different cells of a same site. As they are synchronised, it would systematically lead to frequency collision. • For a 1:1 re-use pattern, it is forbidden to use different HSN in cells of a same site. It would always lead to frequency collision. • Moreover, if some frequencies inside the group are adjacent (general case), the use of two adjacent MAIO in a same site is also extremely inadvisable because it would lead to interference (minimum frequency spacing of 400 kHz).

Supposing the following abbreviations, calculations can be made to show the maximum frequency load associated to different engineering rules, according to the MA content. NbHopTRXSite : total number of hopping TRX (non-BCCH TRX) in the site. NbHopTRXCell : total number of hopping TRX (non-BCCH TRX) in a cell. Nhfsite : Number of Hopping Frequencies per site (MAIO step 2 leads to twice more frequencies). NbMAIO : Number of MAIO used in the site

4.2.4.1.

Strategy 1A: adjacent frequencies

Frequency band for hopping TRX: F1, F1+200, F1+400, F1+600,... Rule : The use of a unique HSN and different MAIO for each TRX within a site (with a step of 2 for the MAIO because all frequencies inside the group are adjacent) ensure the orthogonality and the non-adjacency of the frequencies. Example: for a S444 with a MAIO step 2, there are 3 hopping TRX per cell, then 9 hopping TRX within the site.
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HSN = 1 MAIO 0,6,12 HSN = 1 MAIO 4,10,16 HSN = 1 MAIO 2,8,14

MAIO max = 16 NbMAIO = 9

then

Nb hopping frequencies in the site Š 17

In this example, to avoid any frequency adjacency, the minimum number of hopping frequencies in the site must be 18, as shown in the tables below. With 17 frequencies, the adjacency appears when the frequency of the first TRX of the first cell is not the first frequency of the band (F1). Cell1- TRX1 F1 F5 = F1 + 800 kHz MAIO = 0 Cell3- TRX3 F17 = F1 + 3200 kHz F4 = F1 + 600 kHz MAIO = 16 With one more frequency (18), the adjacency disappears Cell1- TRX1 F1 F5 = F1 + 800 kHz MAIO = 0 Cell3- TRX3 F17 = F1 + 3200 kHz F3 = F1 + 400 kHz MAIO = 16 Then, in this example: Nb hopping frequencies in the site Š 18 = 2*NbMAIO

Remark: In the above example, another solution for the MAIO rule would have been to give MAIO 0, 2, 4 to TRX in the first cell, MAIO 6, 8, 10 to TRX in the second cell and MAIO 12, 14, 16 to TRX in the third cell. However, the disadvantage of this solution appears when adding new TRX in a cell. For instance, a new TRX in the first cell would have MAIO 18 assigned, then the logic aspect of the MAIO assignment is lost.

For a trisectorial site with an homogeneous repartition of TRX in the cells, the frequency load due to the previous constraints on HSN and MAIO is the following :

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- even number of frequencies in the group : As there are 3 cells per site: NbHopTRXSite = 3* NbHopTRXCell And MAIO step 2 is used, then: Nhfsite ≥ 2 * NbMAIO There are as many MAIO as TRX: NbHopTRXSite = NbMAIO Then NbHopTRXCell ≤ Nhfsite 6 thus FreqLoadSite ≤ 16%

- odd number of frequencies in the group : As there are 3 cells per site: NbHopTRXSite = 3* NbHopTRXCell And MAIO step 2 is used, then: Nhfsite ≥ 2 * NbMAIO + 1 There are as many MAIO as TRX: NbHopTRXSite = NbMAIO Then NbHopTRXCell ≤ Nhfsite − 1 6 thus FreqLoadSite ≤ 16%

4.2.4.2.

Strategy 1B: no adjacent frequency

Frequency band for hopping TRX: F1, F1+400, F1+800, F1+1200,... for instance This strategy is not representative of operator strategy, because it also means that sometimes, there will be adjacencies between BCCH and TCH frequencies. However, it is interesting to know if the previous result can be enhanced with this strategy. Rule : The use of a unique HSN and different MAIO for each TRX within a site (with a step of 1 for the MAIO because no frequency inside the group are adjacent) ensure the orthogonality and the non-adjacency of the frequencies. Example: for a S444 with a MAIO step 1, there are 3 hopping TRX per cell, then 9 hopping TRX within the site.
HSN = 1 MAIO 0,3,6 HSN = 1 MAIO 2,5,8 HSN = 1 MAIO 1,4,7

Ex : Nb hopping frequencies in the site Š 9 NbMAIO = 9

For a trisectorial site with an homogeneous repartition of TRX in the cells, the frequency load due to the previous constraints on HSN and MAIO is the following :

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As there are 3 cells per site: And MAIO step 1 is used, then: There are as many MAIO as TRX: Then NbHopTRXCell ≤ Nhfsite 3

NbHopTRXSite = 3* NbHopTRXCell Nhfsite ≥ NbMAIO NbHopTRXSite = NbMAIO thus FreqLoadSite ≤ 33%

As the maximum frequency load for having few interference with 1:1 pattern is 20 %, the previous result will lead to many interference. The same HSN and MAIO plans can be kept, however the number of hopping frequencies per site must be higher. Thus, with this configuration (no adjacent frequency), it is possible to reach the maximum frequency load (20 %). Then: NbHopTRXCell ≤ Nhfsite 5

Thus, in a 1:1 pattern, for a trisectorial site with an homogeneous repartition of TRX in the cells, the engineering rules to follow are the following : NbHopTRXcell/Nhfsite Nhfsite (even ) 6 Nhfsite + 1 NbHopTRXcell ≤ (odd) 6 Nhfsite NbHopTRXcell ≤ 5 NbHopTRXcell ≤ FreqLoadSite Adjacent HSN and max frequencies in MA MAIO rule 16 % yes Identical HSN MAIO step 2 16 % yes Identical HSN MAIO step 2 20 % (max) no Identical HSN MAIO step 1

Caution : the only way to have a 20 % frequency load (maximum) with a 1:1 pattern is to use an unique HSN with adjacent MAIO. However, this engineering rule is only applicable if there are no adjacent frequencies in the MA (what is not generally the case). Otherwise it leads to an increase of interference and it is not recommended to use MAIO step 1. In the same way, the use of different HSN in each cell leads to an increase of interference whatever the HSN and MAIO rules are.

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4.2.5.

SFH PARAMETER SETTING FOR 1:3 PATTERN : STRATEGY 2

This strategy is studied here below in the case of a trisectorial site with an homogeneous repartition of TRX in the cells.

4.2.5.1.

Strategy 2A : 3 non-continuous frequency bands

Cell1 : F1, F1+600, F1+1200,... Cell2 : F1+200, F1+800, F1+1400,... Cell3 : F1+400, F1+1000, F1+1600,... HSN and MAIO general rules • If both HSN and MAIO are the same for each cell of a same site, there will be systematical frequency adjacencies. Then, this configuration is not recommended. • In order to systematically ensure a non-adjacency, the only way is to use a unique HSN but different MAIO for consecutive cells within a site. • The MAIO can be adjacent within a cell, because two (2) consecutive frequencies in a cell are not adjacent (non-continuous frequency bands). • The use of different HSN and MAIO in each cell of a site is not recommended because it would lead to frequency adjacencies, then to an increase of interference. Example: for a S444 with a MAIO step 1, there are 3 hopping TRX per cell, then 9 hopping TRX within the site.
HSN = 1 MAIO 0,1,2 HSN = 1 MAIO 6,7,8 HSN = 1 MAIO 3,4,5

MAIO max = 8 then Nb hopping frequencies in each cell Š 9 NbMAIOSite = 9

In this example, to avoid any frequency adjacency, the minimum number of hopping frequencies in each cell must be 10, as shown in the tables below. With 9 frequencies, the adjacency appears when the frequency of the first TRX of the first cell is not the first frequency of the band (F1). Cell1- TRX1 F11 F15 = F11 + 2400 kHz MAIO = 0 Cell3- TRX3 F39 = F11 + 5200 kHz F34 = F11 + 2200 kHz MAIO = 16

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With one more frequency (18), the adjacency disappears Cell1- TRX1 F11 F15 = F11 + 2400 kHz MAIO = 0 Cell3- TRX3 F39 = F11 + 5200 kHz F33 = F11 + 1600 kHz MAIO = 16 Then, in this example: Nb hopping frequencies in each cell Š 18

Then, for a trisectorial site with an homogeneous repartition of TRX in the cells, the frequency load due to the previous constraints on HSN and MAIO is the following : The reuse pattern is 1:3, then: As there are 3 cells per site : And MAIO step 1 is used, then: Then NbHopTRXCell ≤ Nhfsite 3 NbMAIOSite = 3* NbMAIOCell NbMAIOCell = NbHopTRXCell NbMAIOSite + 1 ≤ thus FreqLoadSite ≤ 11%

Nhfsite − 1 9

Where : NbHopTRXSite : the total number of non-BCCH TRX in the site. NbHopTRXCell : the total number of non-BCCH TRX in a cell. Nhfsite : Number of Hopping Frequencies per site NbMAIOSite : number of MAIO in the site NbMAIOCell : number of MAIO in the Cell

The maximum value for FreqLoadSite was defined at 16 %, then this strategy is not optimised. Keeping three (3) non continuous frequency bands, a better MAIO plan can be chosen, in order to reach the maximum defined frequency load (FreqLoadSite = 16 %). An indexed frequency Fi in the MA of the first cell is not adjacent with an indexed frequency Fi in the MA of the third cell frequency (spacing of 400 kHz). However, an indexed frequency Fi in the MA of the first cell frequency is adjacent with an indexed frequency Fi+1 in the MA of the third cell frequency. Thus, using the same MAIO step 2 rule for both first and third cells will not lead to frequency adjacencies between these cells. Moreover, using different MAIO with a step 2 rule for the second cell will also ensure a non frequency adjacency with this cell. Example: for a S444 with a MAIO step 2 in all cells, same MAIO in first and third cells, there are 3 hopping TRX per cell, then 9 hopping TRX within the site.

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HSN = 1 MAIO 0,2,4 HSN = 1 MAIO 0,2,4 HSN = 1 MAIO 1,3,5

MAIO max = 5 then

Nb hopping frequencies in each cell Š 6

NbMAIOSite = 6

Then the following frequency groups can be defined: Cell1 Cell2 Cell3 F1 F1+200 kHz F1+400 kHz F1+600 kHz F1+1200 kHz F1+1800 kHz F1+2400 kHz F1+3000 kHz F1+800 kHz F1+1400 kHz F1+2000 kHz F1+2600 kHz F1+3200 kHz F1+1000 kHz F1+1600 kHz F1+2200 kHz F1+2800 kHz F1+3400 kHz

According to the MAI, the following frequencies will be allocated to each TRX. Then, for : MAI = 0 TRX 1 F1 F1 + 800 kHz F1 + 400 kHz TRX 2 F1 + 1200 kHz F1 + 2000 kHz F1 + 1600 kHz TRX 3 F1 + 2400 kHz F1 + 3200 kHz F1 + 2800 kHz

Cell 1 (MAIO : 0, 2, 4) Cell 2 (MAIO : 1, 3, 5) Cell 3 (MAIO : 0, 2, 4) For MAI = 1 Cell 1 (MAIO : 0, 2, 4) Cell 2 (MAIO : 1, 3, 5) Cell 3 (MAIO : 0, 2, 4)

TRX 1 F1+ 600 kHz F1 + 1400 kHz F1 + 1000 kHz

TRX 2 F1 + 1800 kHz F1 + 2600 kHz F1 + 2200 kHz

TRX 3 F1 + 3000 kHz F1 + 200 kHz F1 + 3400 kHz

Whatever the MAI is, all frequencies are spaced of at least 400 kHz, then there is no frequency adjacencies. Then, for a trisectorial site with an homogeneous distribution of TRX in the cells, the frequency load due to the previous constraints on HSN and MAIO is the following : Nhfsite 3 As there are 3 cells but 2 with same MAIO: NbMAIOSite = 2 * NbMAIOCell And: NbMAIOCell = NbHopTRXCell The reuse pattern is 1:3, then: NbMAIOSite ≤ Then NbHopTRXCell ≤ Nhfsite 6 thus FreqLoadSite ≤ 16%

Where : NbHopTRXSite : the total number of non-BCCH TRX in the site. NbHopTRXCell : the total number of non-BCCH TRX in a cell. Nhfsite : Number of Hopping Frequencies per site
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NbMAIOSite : number of MAIO in the site NbMAIOCell : number of MAIO in the Cell Thus this solution leads to a non adjacency with a 16 % frequency load. As it is the maximum frequency load determined in the limitation, it is the right solution to choose when using non continuous frequency bands. Caution An other way to reach the maximum frequency load is to use different HSN and different MAIO for each cell. This configuration leads to a 16 % frequency load (ideal case) but it also leads to frequency adjacencies, then to interference increase.

4.2.5.2.

Strategy 2B : 3 continuous frequency bands

Example with 4 frequencies per cell : Cell1 : F1, F1+200, F1+400, F1+600 Cell2 : F1+800, F1+1000, F1+1200, F1+1400 Cell3 : F1+1600, F1+1800, F1+2000, F1+2200 HSN and MAIO general rules • As in strategy 2A, if both HSN and MAIO are unique in a site, there will be systematical frequency adjacencies. Then, this configuration is not recommended. • Moreover, as in case A, the use of different HSN and MAIO within a site also leads to adjacencies. Then, this configuration is not recommended. • In order to ensure a systematical non-adjacency, the only way is to use a unique HSN but different MAIO in each cell of a same site. • The MAIO can not be adjacent within a cell, because two (2) consecutive frequencies in a cell are adjacent in this case (continuous frequency bands). Example: for a S444 with a MAIO step 2 per cell, there are 3 hopping TRX per cell, then 9 hopping TRX within the site.
HSN = 1 MAIO 0,2,4 HSN = 1 MAIO 0,2,4 HSN = 1 MAIO 0,2,4

MAIO max = 4 Nb hopping frequencies in each cell Š 5 NbMAIOSite = 3

However, in this example, in order to avoid frequency adjacencies, the number of hopping frequencies in each cell must be greater than 6.

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With 5 frequencies per cell: Cell1- TRX1 F11 MAIO = 0 Cell1- TRX3 F15 = F11 + 1000 kHz MAIO = 4 Cell2- TRX1 F31 = F11 + 1200 kHz MAIO = 0 With one more frequency (6), the adjacency disappears: Cell1- TRX1 F11 MAIO = 0 Cell1- TRX3 F15 = F11 + 1000 kHz MAIO = 4 Cell3- TRX1 F31 = F11 + 1400 kHz MAIO = 0 Then, in this example: Nb hopping frequencies in each cell Š 6

Remark The use of different MAIO in each cell would not lead to less interference, because in the proposed solution, the non-adjacency is already ensured. Then, for a trisectorial site with an homogeneous repartition of TRX in the cells, the frequency load due to the previous constraints on HSN and MAIO is the following : MAIO step 2 is used: As the same MAIO plan is used in all cells : The reuse pattern is 1:3: Then: As the same MAIO plan is used in all cells : And: Then NbHopTRXCell ≤ Nhfsite 6 thus Nhfcell = 2 * NbMAIOCell NbMAIOSite = NbMAIOCell Nhfsite = 3* Nhfcell Nhfsite NbMAIOSite ≤ 2*3 NbMAIOSite = NbMAIOCell NbMAIOCell = NbHopTRXCell

FreqLoadSite ≤ 16%

Where : NbHopTRXSite : the total number of non-BCCH TRX in the site. NbHopTRXCell : the total number of non-BCCH TRX in a cell. Nhfsite : Number of Hopping Frequencies per site NbMAIOSite : number of MAIO in the site NbMAIOCell : number of MAIO in the Cell

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Thus this solution leads to a non adjacency with a 16 % frequency load. As it is the maximum frequency load determined in the limitation, it is the right solution to choose when using continuous frequency bands. It would be useless to have different HSN and MAIO, because the maximum frequency load limitation is already reached. Then it would only lead to an increase of interference without any frequency load benefit.

Then, in a 1:3 pattern, for a trisectorial site with an homogeneous distribution of TRX in the cells, the engineering rules to follow are the following : TRXcell/Nfcell NbTRXcell ≤ Nhfsite 6 FreqLoadSite 16 % (max) Adjacent frequencies in MA no (3 non continuous frequency bands) HSN and MAIO rule Identical HSN Same MAIO step 2 in two cells Other MAIO step 2 in the third cell Identical HSN MAIO step 2 in a cell, same MAIO in all cells

NbTRXcell ≤

Nhfsite 6

16 % (max)

yes (3 continuous frequency bands)

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4.2.6.

SUM-UP OF THE DIFFERENT STRATEGY RESULTS

11%

16%

20%

FreqLoadSite
Max in 1/1 fractional re-use pattern Strategy 1A (adj. freq) Strategy 1B (no adj. freq)

Max in 1/3 fractional re-use pattern Strategy 2A (no adj freq) Strategy 2B (adj. Freq)

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CONCLUSION
Synthesised frequency hopping is highly recommended by Nortel, in comparison with baseband frequency hopping. In particular, experiments have shown that the activation of SFH lead to a decrease of call drops and an increase of successful hand over and TCH allocation. Moreover, the maximum efficiency of Synthesised Frequency Hopping is obtained when using power control and DTX, both uplink and downlink. Otherwise, the maximum fractional frequency load would be smaller. Additionally, the introduction of SFH means an increase of hand over on the quality criteria, however they happen instead of hand over on RxLev or power budget. This increase is particularly important when frequency load is superior than the defined maximum frequency loads. Then, it is advised to adapt the quality thresholds to the fractional reuse pattern. Thus, a value of 6 in a 1:1 pattern and a value of 5 in a 1:3 pattern is highly recommended, in order to control hand over on quality criteria. The main benefits are found in the following areas : • Increase of both the capacity and the quality of the network • Easier frequency planning • Easier roll out (specifically in the more complex multiple vendor environment) • Easier frequency parameters settings • Increase of the flexibility for the capacity planning The recommended strategies for 1:3 reuse pattern systematically leads to a non-adjacency of frequencies, and the maximum possible frequency load (50 %, or 16 % with the defined frequency load in site). Furthermore, this results are obtained in using either non continuous frequency band or continuous frequency band (what is generally the case) in the MA. For 1:1 pattern, the strategy to follow depends on the frequency bands constraints. In the case of adjacent frequencies in the MA (general case), the maximum frequency load is not reached without interference (16 % instead of 20 % at a maximum). However, if there is no adjacent frequency in the MA, it is possible to reach the limitation in frequency load (20 %). But this case is rarely used by operators, because it leads to some frequency adjacencies between TCH and BCCH. Though both strategies generally lead to the same capacity (TRX number per cell) for a given frequency band, the 1:1 pattern is recommended because the frequency plan for TCH group is easier to do than for the 1:3 pattern. It is particularly the case when adding cells, TRX or frequencies in a network, because for a 1:1 pattern, the MA (TCH group) will be the same in all cells. Then, the 1:1 reuse pattern with adjacent frequency group for the Mobile Allocation is the strategy an operator must favour. It leads to a 16 % maximum frequency load.

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Z END OF DOCUMENT Y

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